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**Fall 2003 Lecture #7
**

25 September 2003

1. 2. 3. Fourier Series and LTI Systems Frequency Response and Filtering Examples and Demos

The Eigenfunction Property of Complex Exponentials

CT:

CT "System Function"

DT:

DT "System Function"

Fourier Series: Periodic Signals and LTI Systems

The Frequency Response of an LTI System

CT notation

**Frequency Shaping and Filtering
**

• By choice of H(jω) (or H(ejω)) as a function of ω, we can shape the frequency composition of the output - Preferential amplification - Selective filtering of some frequencies

Example #1: Audio System

Adjustable Filter

Equalizer

Speaker

Bass, Mid-range, Treble controls

For audio signals, the amplitude is much more important than the phase.

Example #2:

Frequency Selective Filters

— Filter out signals outside of the frequency range of interest Lowpass Filters: Only show amplitude here.

low frequency

low frequency

Highpass Filters

Remember:

high frequency

high frequency

Bandpass Filters

Demo: Filtering effects on audio signals

Idealized Filters

CT

ωc — cutoff frequency

DT

Note:

|H| = 1 and ∠H = 0 for the ideal filters in the passbands, no need for the phase plot.

Highpass

CT

DT

Bandpass

CT

lower cut-off

upper cut-off

DT

Example #3:

DT Averager/Smoother

FIR (Finite Impulse Response) filters

LPF

Example #4:

Nonrecursive DT (FIR) filters

Rolls off at lower ω as M+N+1 increases

Example #5:

Simple DT “Edge” Detector — DT 2-point “differentiator”

Passes high-frequency components

Demo:

DT filters, LP, HP, and BP applied to DJ Industrial average

Example #6: Edge enhancement using DT differentiator

Courtesy of Jason Oppenheim. Used with permission.

Courtesy of Jason Oppenheim. Used with permission.

Example #7:

A Filter Bank

Demo:

Apply different filters to two-dimensional image signals.

Face of a monkey. Image removed do to copyright considerations

HP LP

LP HP BP

BP

Note: To really understand these examples, we need to understand frequency contents of aperiodic signals ⇒ the Fourier Transform

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