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**Fall 2003 Lecture #11
**

9 October 2003

1. 2. 3. DTFT Properties and Examples Duality in FS & FT Magnitude/Phase of Transforms and Frequency Responses

Convolution Property Example

DT LTI System Described by LCCDE’s

— Rational function of e-jω, use PFE to get h[n]

Example:

First-order recursive system

with the condition of initial rest ⇔ causal

DTFT Multiplication Property

Calculating Periodic Convolutions

Example:

**Duality in Fourier Analysis
**

Fourier Transform is highly symmetric CTFT: Both time and frequency are continuous and in general aperiodic

Same except for these differences

Suppose f(•) and g(•) are two functions related by

Then

**Example of CTFT duality
**

Square pulse in either time or frequency domain

DTFS

Duality in DTFS

Then

**Duality between CTFS and DTFT
**

CTFS

DTFT

CTFS-DTFT Duality

**Magnitude and Phase of FT, and Parseval Relation
**

CT:

Parseval Relation:

Energy density in ω

DT:

Parseval Relation:

Effects of Phase

• • Not on signal energy distribution as a function of frequency Can have dramatic effect on signal shape/character — Constructive/Destructive interference • Is that important? — Depends on the signal and the context

Demo:

1) Effect of phase on Fourier Series 2) Effect of phase on image processing

Log-Magnitude and Phase

Easy to add

**Plotting Log-Magnitude and Phase
**

a) For real-valued signals and systems

Plot for ω ≥ 0, often with a logarithmic scale for frequency in CT

b) In DT, need only plot for 0 ≤ ω ≤ π (with linear scale) c) For historical reasons, log-magnitude is usually plotted in units of decibels (dB):

power magnitude

So… 20 dB or 2 bels: = 10 amplitude gain = 100 power gain

A Typical Bode plot for a second-order CT system 20 log|H(jω)| and ∠ H(jω) vs. log ω

40 dB/decade

Changes by -π

**A typical plot of the magnitude and phase of a secondorder DT frequency response
**

20log|H(ejω)| and ∠ H(ejω) vs. ω

For real signals, 0 to π is enough

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