# Signals and Systems

Fall 2003 Lecture #14
23 October 2003
1. 2. Review/Examples of Sampling/Aliasing DT Processing of CT Signals

Sampling Review

Demo: Effect of aliasing on music.

Strobe Demo

∆ > 0, strobed image moves forward, but at a slower pace ∆ = 0, strobed image still ∆ < 0, strobed image moves backward. Applications of the strobe effect (aliasing can be useful sometimes): — E.g., Sampling oscilloscope

DT Processing of Band-Limited CT Signals

Why do this? — Inexpensive, versatile, and higher noise margin. How do we analyze this system? — We will need to do it in the frequency domain in both CT and DT — In order to avoid confusion about notations, specify ω — CT frequency variable Ω — DT frequency variable (Ω = ωΤ) Step 1: Find the relation between xc(t) and xd[n], or Xc(jω) and Xd(ejΩ)

Time-Domain Interpretation of C/D Conversion

Note: Not full analog/digital (A/D) conversion – not quantizing the x[n] values

Frequency-Domain Interpretation of C/D Conversion

Note: ωs ⇔ 2π CT DT

Illustration of C/D Conversion in the Frequency-Domain

X d (e )

jΩ

X d (e jΩ )

Ω = ωT1

Ω = ωT2

Reverse of the process of C/D conversion

D/C Conversion yd[n] → yc(t)

Now the whole picture

• •

Overall system is time-varying if sampling theorem is not satisfied It is LTI if the sampling theorem is satisfied, i.e. for bandlimited ω inputs xc(t), with ωM < s 2 When the input xc(t) is band-limited (X(jω) = 0 at |ω| > ωΜ) and the sampling theorem is satisfied (ωs > 2ωM), then

DT omege needs to changed

Frequency-Domain Illustration of DT Processing of CT Signals
DT filter

Sampling

DT freq → CT freq

CT freq → DT freq

Interpolate (LPF) ⇓ equivalent CT filter

Assuming No Aliasing

In practice, first specify the desired Hc(jω), then design Hd(ejΩ).

Example:

Digital Differentiator

Applications: Edge Enhancement

Courtesy of Jason Oppenheim. Used with permission.

Courtesy of Jason Oppenheim. Used with permission.

Construction of Digital Differentiator
Bandlimited Differentiator

Band-Limited Digital Differentiator (continued)

CT

DT