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**Fall 2003 Lecture #16
**

30 October 2003

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. AM with an Arbitrary Periodic Carrier Pulse Train Carrier and Time-Division Multiplexing Sinusoidal Frequency Modulation DT Sinusoidal AM DT Sampling, Decimation, and Interpolation

AM with an Arbitrary Periodic Carrier

Modulating a (Periodic) Rectangular Pulse Train

Modulating a Rectangular Pulse Train Carrier, cont’d

for rectangular pulse

Observations

1) We get a similar picture with any c(t) that is periodic with period T 2) As long as ωc = 2π/T > 2ωM, there is no overlap in the shifted and scaled replicas of X(jω). Consequently, assuming ao ≠ 0:

x(t) can be recovered by passing y(t) through a LPF 3) Pulse Train Modulation is the basis for Time-Division Multiplexing — Assign time slots instead of frequency slots to different channels, e.g. AT&T wireless phones 4) Really only need samples {x(nT)} when ωc > 2 ωM ⇒ Pulse Amplitude Modulation

Sinusoidal Frequency Modulation (FM)

x(t) is signal to be transmitted

FM

Sinusoidal FM (continued)

• • • Transmitted power does not depend on x(t): average power = A2/2 Bandwidth of y(t) can depend on amplitude of x(t) Demodulation a) Direct tracking of the phase θ(t) (by using phase-locked loop) b) Use of an LTI system that acts like a differentiator

H(jω) — Tunable band-limited differentiator, over the bandwidth of y(t)

… looks like AM envelope detection

DT Sinusoidal AM

Multiplication ↔ Periodic convolution

Example #1:

Example #2: Sinusoidal AM

No overlap of shifted spectra

Example #2 (continued): Possible as long as there is no overlap of shifted replicas of X(ejω):

Demodulation

Misleading drawing – shown for a very special case of ωc = π/2

Example #3: An arbitrary periodic DT carrier

Example #3 (continued):

2πa3 = 2πa0

No overlap when: ωc > 2ωM (Nyquist rate) ⇒ ωM < π/N

DT Sampling

Motivation: Reducing the number of data points to be stored or transmitted, e.g. in CD music recording.

DT Sampling (continued)

**DT Sampling Theorem
**

We can reconstruct x[n] if ωs = 2π/N > 2ωM

Drawn assuming ωs > 2ωM Nyquist rate is met ⇒ ωM < π/N Drawn assuming ωs < 2ωM Aliasing!

Decimation — Downsampling

xp[n] has (n - 1) zero values between nonzero values: Why keep them around?

Useful to think of this as sampling followed by discarding the zero values

compressed in time by N

Illustration of Decimation in the Time-Domain (for N = 3)

Decimation in the Frequency Domain

Squeeze in time Expand in frequency

Illustration of Decimation in the Frequency Domain

After sampling

After discarding zeros

**The Reverse Operation: Upsampling (e.g. CD playback)
**

N

s

x[n]

s

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