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**Fall 2003 Lecture #18
**

6 November 2003

• • • • Inverse Laplace Transforms Laplace Transform Properties The System Function of an LTI System Geometric Evaluation of Laplace Transforms and Frequency Responses

Inverse Laplace Transform

Fix σ ∈ ROC and apply the inverse Fourier transform

But s = σ + jω (σ fixed) ⇒ ds = jdω

**Inverse Laplace Transforms Via Partial Fraction Expansion and Properties
**

Example:

Three possible ROC’s — corresponding to three different signals

Recall

ROC I:

— Left-sided signal.

ROC II:

— Two-sided signal, has Fourier Transform.

ROC III:— Right-sided signal.

**Properties of Laplace Transforms
**

• Many parallel properties of the CTFT, but for Laplace transforms we need to determine implications for the ROC For example:

•

Linearity

ROC at least the intersection of ROCs of X1(s) and X2(s) ROC can be bigger (due to pole-zero cancellation)

⇒ ROC entire s-plane

Time Shift

Time-Domain Differentiation

ROC could be bigger than the ROC of X(s), if there is pole-zero cancellation. E.g.,

s-Domain Differentiation

Convolution Property

For Then

• • ROC of Y(s) = H(s)X(s): at least the overlap of the ROCs of H(s) & X(s) ROC could be empty if there is no overlap between the two ROCs E.g.

x( t ) = et u( t ), and

•

h( t ) = −e − t u( −t )

ROC could be larger than the overlap of the two. E.g.

The System Function of an LTI System

The system function characterizes the system ⇓ System properties correspond to properties of H(s) and its ROC A first example:

**Geometric Evaluation of Rational Laplace Transforms
**

Example #1: A first-order zero

**Graphic evaluation of Can reason about
**

- vector length - angle w/ real axis

Example #2:

A first-order pole

Still reason with vector, but remember to "invert" for poles

Example #3:

A higher-order rational Laplace transform

First-Order System

Graphical evaluation of H(jω):

Bode Plot of the First-Order System

-20 dB/decade

changes by -π/2

Second-Order System

0 < ζ <1

⇒

complex poles — Underdamped double pole at s = −ω n — Critically damped 2 poles on negative real axis — Overdamped

ζ =1

⇒

ζ >1

⇒

Demo Pole-zero diagrams, frequency response, and step response of first-order and second-order CT causal systems

Bode Plot of a Second-Order System

-40 dB/decade

Top is flat when ζ= 1/√2 = 0.707 ⇒ a LPF for ω < ωn

changes by -π

**Unit-Impulse and Unit-Step Response of a SecondOrder System
**

No oscillations when ζ≥1 ⇒ Critically (=) and over (>) damped.

First-Order All-Pass System

1. Two vectors have the same lengths 2.

a a

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