CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER
Computer is an electronic device for the storage and processing of information or an
electronic device that stores, retrieves, and processes data, and can be programmed
with instructions.
A computer is composed of hardware and software, and can exist in a variety of sizes
and configurations.
EARLY HISTORY
Many years ago, a man called Abacus invented a counting He did a significant
apparatus, which enabled the people of the Stone Age to do their counting then. This
counting apparatus was made of wooden frame with strings on it. The counting
apparatus consist of rods upon which beads can be moved up and down. This was
dated to a man called Abacus about 3,000 years ago.

There are also other founding fathers of computer like, John Napier, Edmund
Gunter, Blaise Pascal, Charles Babbage, and Hermann Hollerith; all these people
contributed a great deal in the development of computer today.
John Napier: - invention of a calculating machine after the abacus in 1617.
Edmund Gunter: - This man invented the first slide rule in 1620. The slide rule is
still in use by some professionals and students for the performing of multiplication,
division and other operations. The use of this slide rule cannot be overemphasized
particularly in the calculation of raising number to a given power, e.g. 2
2
,3
2
,4
2
etc.
Charles Babbage: - In 1820, a man called Charles Babbage was regarded as the
father of computer.
Because of the ideas of introducing what he invented, he propounded the difference
engines. This was later developed to a complex engine known as the analytical equation and more
complicated calculation; this helps in the development of computers today.
Braise Pascal: - He invented a hand-working calculator in 1642. This was operated by
turning dials.
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Hermann Hollerith: - This was the man that propounded the punched cards, in 1890;
he used the punched cards and tabulation machine to compare and examined the
census data of USA. The machine was powered by electricity and was more efficient
than any known machine at that time.
HISTORY OF VARIOUS COMPUTER INVENTIONS
TYPES OF COMPUTER
INVENTOR DATE
Abacus Abacus Over 1000 BC
Napier’s Bores John Napier 1614
Slide Rule Edmund Gunter 1620
Pascaline
Blaise Pascal
1642
Leibnizis calculating machine Gottfried Leiniz 1671
Mechanical Computer Charles Babbage 1822
Recording devices (Valves) Valdeniar pauson 1900
Hardvark Mark Howard Atiken 1937
Colossus special purpose electric
machine
Alan Turin 1943
ENIAC electronic numeric integrated
and computer
Presper Ekert and
John mouchly 1946
EDSAC MV Wilking 1949
EDVAC University of
Pennsylvania, USA 1950
ACE National Physics
laboratory
1951
Transistor Base computer William Shokey and
team
1958
Integrated circuit computer (IBM 360) IBM and Intel
corporation
1964
Micro computer Intel corporation 1972
COMPUTER GENERATION
The term computer generation can be simply placed as the sizes and power of
computer, that is, (speed, memory and capacity productivity of computers).
However, there are generations of computer, which are as follows.
The first generation of Computers: - The first generation of computers were
developed between 1945 to 1955. They were made of vacuum tubes and relays. These
set of computers were very large and often hard to be replaced. The vacuum tubes get
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hot often because of the size of computers; and as such it stored very small amount of
data. Examples of this are, EDSAC, UNIVAC, ACE and EDAVC.
The Second generation of Computers: - This was between 1958-1963. These set of
computers were made of transistors. These transistors replaced the use of Vacuum
tubes by increasing the speed of computers and as well as increasing the storage
capacity. In this generation, it reduces the heat temperature of computer. This also
brought about the introduction of some programming language like, COBOL and
FORTRAN.
The third generation of computers: - The third generation computer was made of
integrated circuits, which replaced the use of transistors computers. This integrated
circuit contains thousands of switches around the circular board, which is called
printed circuits board (PCB).
These third generation PCs have less consumption of power, that is, electric current
compared to the first and second generation computers.
The sizes of the PCs was drastically reduced, the speed, storage capacity were really
improved. It also carry large amount of storage data as compared to the previous
generation computers, an example of this IBM 360.
The fourth generation computers: - This was between 1974 to 1985, they were
made of chips. These sets of generation of PCs were made of chips, which replaced
the use of transistors. They were large-scale integrated circuits (LSIC) they later
improved to small-scale integrated circuit.
These set of PCs, were very powerful and could hold a very big amount of data.
This set of generation has the following varieties: -
1. It has less heat; i.e. heat generation is low.
2. It consumes less power.
3. The speed is faster and better than the previous computers.
4. It is less heavy.
5. They use interface friendly facilities.
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The fifth generation computers: - 1985 till date these set of computer were made of
microchip processors, that is, smaller chips were used to produce these set of
computers. There are set of computers we are using in this present generation of ours.
Here are some of the improved facilities/features: -
1. Less consumption of power.
2. The speed has drastically improved, that is, in terms processing of data and
storage.
3. The size of computer has also drastically reduced.
4. Storage capacity has also increased, as to store more data in computer.
5. Finally, they use interface friendly features.
TYPES OF COMPUTERS.
There are three types of computer namely:
MAINFRAME COMPUTERS: A mainframe is simply a very large computer. And
totally different from what you have on your desk. Mainframe is an industry term for a
large computer. The name comes from the way the machine is build up: all units
(processing, communication etc.) were hung into a frame. Thus the mainframe computer
is build into a frame, therefore: Mainframe And because of the sheer development costs,
mainframes are typically manufactured by large companies such as IBM, Amdahl, and
Hitachi.
What classifies a computer as a mainframe
× A mainframe has 1 to 16 CPU's (modern machines more)
× Memory ranges from 128 Mb over 8 Gigabyte on line RAM
× Its processing power ranges from 80 over 550 MIPS
× It has often different cabinets for
• Storage
• I/O
• RAM
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Separate processes (program) for
• Task Management
• Program Management
• Job Management
• Serialization
• Catalogs
• Inter Address Space
• Communication
SUPER COMPUTERS: These are at the top of the computer range; they are the fastest
and the most expensive computers capable of performing billions of calculation per second.
They are also considered a national resource.
Super computers are used in the following industries:
× Oil and gas exploration
× Consumer products, aircraft and automotive design.
× Stress and structural design of engineered components.
× Weather analysis.
MINICOMPUTERS: These are larger in size , better in performance and costlier than
PCs.they are designed to support more than one user at a time, usually up to 2000.they
they have larger storage capacities and operate at a higher speeds, they also support faster
output devices like high speed printers which can print up to hundreds lines per minute.
MICROCOMUTERS: This computer is designed to meet the computing needs of an
individual. These computers are sometime referred to as PERSONAL COMPUTERS OR
MICROS .Personal computer provide access to a wide variety of computing applications,
such as word processing, photo editing, e mail, and internet acess.personal computers are
available as desktop, laptop and notebook/palm top.
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COMPUTER DATA STRUCTURE.
To understand computer it is best to first learn about computer data. Computer data is
information required by the computer to be able to operate.
DATA STRUCTURE.
omputer data appears in binary format. This means that it is always a 0 or 1.it can
only occur in these two states and must be in one of them. C
There are several fundamental data units which include:

BITS: This is the smallest data unit that exists. 8bits of data which has a possible value
from 0 to 255
BYTES: Bytes are used to measure the amount of information a device can store.
One bytes is a character, A character can be a number letter or symbol One
byte consists of eight bits (binary digits) A byte is the smallest unit of information a
computer can process.
KILOBYTES: One kilobyte is 1,024 characters. = One page of double-spaced text.
MEGABYTES: (MB)! One megabyte is 1,048,576 characters. This is approximately equal to a
shelf of books.
GIGABYTES (GB): One gigabyte is 1,073,741,824 characters. This is approximately equal to a
shelf of books in a library.
TERABYTE (TB): One terabyte is 1,099,511,627,776 characters. This is ~ an entire library of
books.
WORD: two bytes or 16bits of data with a possible unsigned value from 0 to 16535.
Therefore,
+ 8 bits = 1 byte
+ 1024byte = 1 kilobyte (1kb)
+ 1024
2
byte = 1 megabyte (1mb)
+ 1024
3
byte = 1 gigabyte (1 GB)
1024
4
byte = 1 terabyte (1tb)
COMPONENTS OF A TYPICAL COMPUTER:
A typical computer system consists of several parts;
COMPUTER CASE: A computer case contains all the major components of a computer system
MONITOR: A monitor is a device that displays text and images generated by the computer.
MODEM: A modem is a device that lets computers communicate through telephone lines.
PRINTER: A printer is a device that produces a paper copy of documents you create on the
computer.
KEYBOARD: Lets you type information and instructions into a computer.
MOUSE: a handheld device that let’s you select and move item on the screen
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THE IPO CYCLE (INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT)

INPUT DEVICES
This is the process through which data and instruction enter the computer, it can also be
referred to as tools that enable the computer user to send signal to the CPU for processing
thereby producing output. The basic input devices are explained below:
KEYBOARD: A keyboard is an instrument similar to a typewriter, which is used to data
or command into a computer. Although computer keys resemble that of a typewriter they
have additional keys.
The keys on the computer keyboard are categorized as follows:
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INPUT
CPU
OUTPUT
ARITHMETIC LOGIC
UNIT (ALU)
CONTROL UNIT
MAIN STORAGE
RAM/ROM/HDD
SECONDARY
MEMORY
+ FUNCTIONAL KEYS: This ranges from F1- F12; this is for quick functions and
manipulation.
+ OPERATIONAL KEYS: These are used to type letters and numbers (0-9), (A-Z).
+ CONTROL/ALTERNATE KEY: Ctrl/Alt, these are for quick control and
alternate decision.
+ NAVIGATIONAL KEYS: Arrows- home- end etc.
+ SPECIAL KEYS: These are reserved for special functions, these include print
screen, scroll lock, pause, etc
MOUSE: This is used to point at object on the screen by moving it on a small, hard
surface.
A mouse can be classified into the following categories:
+ MECHANICAL MOUSE: This uses the movement of a rubber ball that projects
through the lower surface to record direction. As the mouse moves, the ball rotates
and the direction of rotation is detected and relayed to the computer by the switches
inside the mouse.
+ OPTOMECHANICAL MOUSE: This uses the same principle as a mechanical
mouse except that optical sensor is used to detect the motion of the ball.
+ OPTICAL MOUSE: This uses a light beam instead of a rotating ball to detect the
movement across a special mat. The mat has a grid to provide the optical
mechanism a frame reference.
LIGHT PEN: A light pen is an input device used to draw figures directly on the screen
or select an option by just clicking on it. The light pen can be used to select an option by
just pointing at it instead of using the keyboard or moving the mouse around.
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SCANNERS: A scanner is simply an input device used to scan a picture or a
document and store them into a computer; a scanner scans an image and transforms the
image / text to a form that can be used on a computer. You can save the scan image/ text
in the form of a file, edit it and print it.
Scanners are of two types
+ Roller- feed scanner: This type of scanner the paper bearing the image is
passed over a roller where it is captured.
+ Flatbed scanner: this works like a photocopier. it can scan and store images
from books without having to remove the page ,which is difficult in the case of the
roller- feed scanner.
OUTPUT DEVICES
These are devices that allow the processor to communicate to the user of the computer it
could be a hard copy or a soft copy.
PRINTER
hese are output devices that print the result of an instruction on paper (hard copy).
Printers are classified based on the mechanism used for printing, speed of printing,
quality of output and interface. T
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Printers are classified based on the mechanism used for printing, speed of printing, quality
of output and interface.
PLOTTERS
Plotter is an output device that is used to create presentation visuals, charts, graphs,
tables and diagrams. A
VISUAL DISPLAY UNIT (VDU)
This is a device resembling a television, which displays the result of the instruction given to
the computer through the keyboard. They have the capability of displaying both text and
data.
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They can be:
+ Monochrome: this displays two colors, one for the background and one for the
fore ground. These colors can be white on black background or green on black
background.
+ Color monitors: this displays the image in color, depending on the quality, they
can display anywhere from 16 to 1 million colors.
COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE
HARDWARE
This comprises of all the electrical, electronic and mechanical part of the computer .any part
of the computer that we can see or touch is called computer hardware. Computer hardware
includes the system unit, the input, the output and the storage devices. This makes up the
physical aspect of the computer visa-visa other peripherals and accessories like the
monitor, system unit, keyboard etc.
SOFTWARE
This refers to programs that are used to operate the hardware. Without the software, the
hard ware is irrelevant .it can also be said to be a set of programs designed to perform
various tasks, it is stored on a compact disk or a tape.
Software can be classified as follows:
Application software: These are software packages that are designed for particular
application. Example of application software are accounting package, MS word, MS excel,
games, Corel draw, PageMaker etc
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Standard software: This is the type of software that is available in the market.
Customized software: this is application software that is specially designed to suit a
specific users needs. Or it can also be said to be a software package created to cater for
the specific needs of a particular organization. These package are more comprehensive,
highly priced and have limited accessibility.
Compiler software: This is software that converts the computer language into machine
language. eg VIPs express their views; talk their own languages to the interpreter who
interprets what they say to their US counterparts successfully using the compiler software.
Operating system software: This manages the various input and output device of the
computer and enables the user to interact with it. eg MS-DOS, Window
95,Window98,Window 2000 professional, Window Me, Window NT, Linux, etc
CPU (CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT)
The CPU is the brain of the computer, A central processing unit (CPU), or sometimes
simply processor, is the component in a digital computer that interprets instructions and
processes data contained in computer programs.
FUNCTION OF THE CPU
The functions of the central processing unit of a computer are:
+ To carry out data processing on the input data according to instructions.
+ To hold program instruction.
+ To produce output information by transmitting the output to an output device.
The CPU is made up of the control unit and arithmetic – logic unit.
CONTROL UNIT
This coordinate the various operations specified by the program instructions, these
operation includes receiving data, which enters the computer and deciding how and when
the data should be processed. the control unit directs the operation of the ALU.
ARITHMETIC LOGIC UNIT (ALU)
This is the part where the arithmetic and logical operations are carried out. it has special
store location which holds the results and some other temporary data during processing,
and this store location is sometimes referred to as the arithmetic register. it is not easy to
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distinguish the ALU from the control unit because they are effectively the same overall unit.
This part basically fetch program instructions such as arithmetic (e.g. add, subtract,
multiply, divide): comparison, movement of data that is read/write.
INTERNAL MEMORY
READ ONLY MEMORY (ROM)
This is a memory into which fixed data is written at the time of its manufacture, new data
cannot be written into the memory, and they store the data the CPU needs when it is first
turned on .the start up program known as bootstrap program is usually held in form of Rom.
PROGRAMMABLE READ ONLY MEMORY (PROM)
T his type of memory the program data can be changed.
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (RAM)
This is made available directly to the CPU. Data can be written on or read from RAM.RAM
chips store information temporarily, and the computer can write, read and erase information
on them. RAM chips are erased each time the computer is turned off. Both RAM and ROM
are found on the mother board in the form of chi ps.
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EXTERNAL MEMORY
These are devices that are used to store data when the computer is turned off. it is meant
for external use with the same system or other systems.
FLOPPY DISK (AUXILLIARY MEMORY)
A soft magnetic disk, floppy disks (often called floppies or diskettes) are portable, because
you can remove them from a disk drive. Disk drives for floppy disks are called floppy drives.
Floppy disks are slower to access than hard disks and have less storage capacity, but they
are much less expensive. And most importantly, they are portable.
Floppies come in three basic sizes:
● 8-inch: The first floppy disk design, invented by IBM in the late 1960s and used in the
early 1970s as first a read-only format and then as a read-write format. The typical
desktop/laptop computer does not use the 8-inch floppy disk.
● 5-inch: The common size for PCs made before 1987 and the predecessor to the 8-inch
floppy disk. This type of floppy is generally capable of storing between 100K and 1.2MB
(megabytes) of data. The most common sizes are 360K and 1.2MB.

● 3-inch: Floppy is something of a misnomer for these disks, as they are encased in a rigid
envelope. Despite their small size, microfloppies have a larger storage capacity than their
cousins -- from 400K to 1.4MB of data. The most common sizes for PCs are 720K (double-
density) and 1.44MB (high-density). Macintoshes support disks of 400K, 800K, and 1.2MB.
HARD DISK
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The hard disk is the most popular data storage .medium. it is the storage that is built along
with the computer the hard disk that are available nowadays generally have storage
capacity of 500 megabyte onwards to allow better performance.
COMPACT DISK
A compact disc (or CD) Is an optical disk used to store digital data, originally developed for
storing digital audio. It is a standard playback format for commercial audio recording.
USB FLASH DRIVE
A USB flash drive is a removable storage device that generally works with window
98/ME/2000/XP. Window 98 requires a driver to be installed .USB flash drives are also
known as pen drives, thumb drives, flash drives, USB keys and a wide variety of other
names.
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POWER SUPPLY UNIT (POWER PACK)
A power supply unit (sometimes abbreviated power supply or PSU) is a device or system that
supplies electrical or other types of energy to an output load or group of loads.
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CHAPTER TWO
INTRODUCTION TO MICROSOFT WORD
Microsoft Office is a software package that offers new features for sharing data and documents, it
includes several programs to help you accomplish many tasks such as word,excel,powerpoint,
access, . Each Office program has features that make it easy to you to take advantage of the World
Wide Web
(WWW).
2. THE ROLE OF MS WORD AS A WORD PROCESSOR
Word lets you produce professional documents quickly and effectively. You can use Word to create
letters, manuals, newsletters and brochures.
2.1 FEATURES OF MICROSOFT WORD
Editing
Word offers many features that help you work with text in a document. You can easily edit text,
rearrange paragraphs and check for spelling mistakes.
Formatting
Word offers features that help you change the appearance of a document. You can add page
numbers, center text and use various fonts in a document.
Printing
You can produce a paper copy of a Word document. Word lets you see on the screen exactly what
the printed document will look like.
2.3 START MICROSOFT WORD
When you start Word, a blank document appears. You can type text into this document.
1. Move the mouse pointer over Start on the taskbar and then press the left mouse
button.
2. Move the mouse pointer over Programs.
3. Move the mouse pointer over Microsoft Word and then press the left mouse
button.
• The Microsoft Word window appears, displaying a blank document.
• If you are starting Word for the first time, the Office Assistant welcome
appears.
4. To start using Word, move the mouse pointer over the “Start using Microsoft
Word” option and then press the left mouse button.
• To hide the Office Assistance, move the mouse over the Close Button and then
press the left mouse button.
2.4 ENTERING TEXT AT THE INSERTION POINT
Word lets you type text into your document quickly and easily. The flashing line on your screen,
called the insertion point. Indicates where the text you type will appear. Type the text. When you
reach the end of a line, Word automatically wraps the text to the next line. You only need to press
Enter when you want to start a new line or paragraph. This is called Word Wrap.
Word underlines misspelled words in red and grammar mistakes in green.
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THE WORD SCREEN
The Word Screen displays several bars to help you perform task efficiently. But you may be
surprised by what you see when you first start Office Word 2007 because the menus and toolbars
have been replaced with the Ribbon. The Ribbon is designed to help you quickly find commands that
you need to complete a task. Commands are organized in logical groups which are collected together
under Tabs.
UNDERSTANDING WORD 2007 SCREEN ELEMENTS
Description of some important elements
+ Office Button: Opens the Office menu, from which you can open, save, print, and start
new document.
+ Quick Access Toolbar: Contains buttons to help you quickly select commonly used
commands, such as save, undo and redo.
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The Title Bar: Next to the Quick Access toolbar is the Title bar. The Title bar displays the
title of the document on which you are currently working. Word names the first new document you
open Document1. When you save your document, you assign the document a new name.
The Ribbon: In Microsoft Word 2007, you use the Ribbon to issue commands. The Ribbon is
located near the top of the screen, below the Quick Access toolbar. At the top of the Ribbon are
several tabs; clicking a tab displays several related command groups. Within each group are related
command buttons. You click buttons to issue commands or to access menus and dialog boxes. You
may also find a dialog box launcher in the bottom-right corner of a group. Clicking the dialog box
launcher gives you access to additional commands via a dialog box
+ Ruler: Allows you to change margin and tab settings for your document. You can use the
ruler to change the format of your document quickly.
The Text Area: Just below the ruler is a large area called the text area. You type your
document in the text area. The blinking vertical line in the upper-left corner of the text area is the
cursor. It marks the insertion point. As you type, your text displays at the cursor location.
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+ Status Bar: Displays information about the area of the document displayed on your
screen and the position of the insertion point.
Page 1of 1
The page displayed on the screen and total number of pages in the document.
I. Words
Total number of words the document contained
II. Views
Status bar contains all the types of views in word and the active view is selected. It equally displays
the zoom button.
2.5 SELECTING VARIOUS LEVELS OF TEXT
Before performing most tasks in Word, you must select the text you want to work with. Selected text
appears highlighted on your screen.
Select A Word: Move the mouse cursor anywhere over the word you want to select and then
quickly press the left mouse button twice. To deselect text, move the mouse cursor outside the
selected area and then press the left mouse button.
Select A Sentence: Press and hold down the CTRL key on your keyboard. Still holding down
the CTRL key, move the mouse cursor anywhere over the sentence you want to select and then
press the left mouse button. Then release the CTRL key.
Select A Paragraph: Move the mouse anywhere in the paragraph you want to select and then
quickly press the left mouse button three times.
Select Any Amount of Text: Move the mouse cursor over the first word you want to select.
Press and hold down the left mouse button as you move the mouse cursor over the text you
want to select. Then release the mouse button.
Select All The Text In A Document: To quickly select all the text in your document, press
and hold down the CTRL key and then press A on your keyboard. Then release both keys.
2.6 MOVING THROUGH A DOCUMENT
You can easily move to another location in your document. If you create a long document your
computer screen cannot display all the text at the same time. You must scroll up or down to view and
edit other parts of the document.
The flashing line on the screen called the insertion point indicates where the text you type will
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appear.
Move the mouse cursor where you want to place the insertion point and then press the left mouse
button. The insertion point appears in the new location. You can also use the arrow keys on your
keyboard to move the insertion point one line or character in any direction. You cannot move the
insertion point below the horizontal line displayed on the screen. To move this line, position the
insertion point after the last character in the document and then press ENTER several times.
 To scroll up one line, move the mouse pointer over the Scroll Up arrow and then
press the left mouse button.
 To scroll down one line, move the mouse pointer over the Scroll Down arrow and
then press the left mouse button.
 To quickly scroll through your document, move the mouse pointer over the Scroll
Box, press and hold down the left mouse button and then move the mouse pointer up
or down the scroll bar. Then release the mouse button.
The location of the scroll box indicates which part of the document you are viewing. To view the
middle of the document, move the scroll box halfway done the scroll bar.
2.7 SAVING A DOCUMENT
You should save your document to store it for future use. This lets you later retrieve the document
for reviewing or editing.
To save documents follow these steps:
1. Move the mouse over the Save button on the quick access tool bar and then press the left
mouse button. The Save As dialog box appears. Note: If you previously saved the document,
the Save As dialog box will not appear since you have already named the document.
2. Type a name for the document.
3. Move the mouse pointer over save button and then press the left mouse button. Word saves
the document and displays the name at the top ‘of the screen. To avoid loosing your work,
you should regularly save changes you make to the document by clicking the Save button on
the quick access tool bar.
SAVE A DOCUMENT WITH A NEW NAME
1. Move the mouse pointer over Office Button and then press the left mouse button.
2. Move the mouse pointer to point over Save As and then move the mouse pointer to select
appropriate option, and then press the left mouse button. E.g. Word Document or Word 97-
2003 Document if you are saving the file for lower version of window.
3. Perform steps 2 and 3 above.
2.8 PREVIEW A DOCUMENT
You can use the Print Preview feature to see how your document will look when printed.
Move the mouse pointer over the Office Button and then press the left mouse button. Move the
mouse pointer to point over print and then move the mouse pointer over print preview and then press
the left mouse button. The Print Preview window appears. If your document contains more than one
page, use the scroll bar to view the other pages.
To close the Print Preview window, move the mouse pointer over Close Print Preview and then press
the left mouse button.
2.9 PRINTING A DOCUMENT
You can produce a paper copy of the document displayed on your screen.
Move the mouse anywhere over the document or page you want to print and then press the left
mouse button. To print part of the document, select the text you want to print.
1. Move the mouse pointer over Office Button and then press the left mouse button.
2. Move the mouse pointer over Print and then press the left mouse button, The Print dialog box
appears.
3. Move the mouse over the print option you want to use and then press the left mouse button.
ALL - Prints every page in the document.
Current page — Prints the page containing the insertion point.
Pages — Prints the pages you specified.
Selection — Prints the text you selected.
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If you selected Pages, type the pages you want to print (example: 1, 3, 5 or 2-4).
4. Move the mouse pointer over OK and then press the left mouse button.
QUICKLY PRINT ENTIRE DOCUMENT
Ψ To quickly print an entire document, move the mouse pointer over the Office Button
and then press the left mouse button.
Ψ Move the mouse pointer to point over print and then move the mouse point over quick
print and then press the left mouse button.
Ψ Type in the file name
Ψ Move the mouse pointer over save and then press the left mouse button.
2.10 CREATE A NEW DOCUMENT
You can create a new document to start writing a letter, report or memo.
1. Move the mouse pointer over the Office Button and then press the left mouse button.
2. Move the mouse pointer over new and then press the left mouse button.
3. Move the mouse pointer over blank document and then press the left mouse button.
4. Move the mouse pointer over create and then press the left mouse button.
A new document appears. The previous document is now hidden behind the new document. Think of
each document as a separate piece of paper. When you create a document, you are placing a new
piece of paper on the screen.
2.11 SWITCH BETWEEN DOCUMENTS
Word lets you have many documents open at once. You can easily switch from one open document
to another.
1. To display a list of all open documents, move the mouse pointer over View Tab and then
press the left mouse button.
2. Move the mouse pointer over switch windows dropdown arrow on the window group and
then press the left mouse button.
3. Move the mouse pointer over the document you want to display and then press the left mouse
button. The document appears. Word displays the name of the document at the top of your
screen.
2.12 CLOSING A DOCUMENT
When you finish working with a document, you can close the document to remove it from your
screen. When you close a document, you do not exit the Word program. You can continue to work
on other Word documents.
1. To close a document, move the mouse pointer over Office Button and then press the left
mouse button.
2. Move the mouse pointer over Close and then press the left mouse button. Word removes the
document from the screen. If you had more than one document open, the second last
document you worked on appears on the screen.
2.13 EXITING WORD
When you finish using Word, you can exit the program. Save all open documents before exiting
Word. You should always exit all programs before turning off your computer.
1. Move the mouse pointer over Office Button and then press the left mouse button.
2. Move the mouse pointer over Exit Word and then press the left mouse button. The Word
window disappears from the screen.
2.14 OPENING A DOCUMENT
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You can open a saved document and display it on your screen. This allows you to review and make
changes to your document.
1. Move the mouse pointer over the Office Button and then press the left mouse button. The
open dialog box appears.
2. Move the mouse pointer over the name of the document you want to open and then press the
left mouse button.
3. To see the contents of the document, move the mouse pointer over Preview button in the
open dialog box and then press the left mouse button.
4. To open the document, move the mouse pointer over Open button and then press the left
mouse button. Word opens the document and displays it on the screen. You can now review
and make changes to the document.
Ψ Word remembers the names of the last four documents you worked with. You can
quickly open any of these documents.
1. Move the mouse pointer over File and then press the left mouse button.
2. Move the mouse pointer over the name of the document you want to open and then press
the left mouse button.
2.15 CHANGING THE VIEW
Word offers four different ways to display your document. You can choose the view that best suits
your needs. When you first start Word, the document appears in the Normal view.
1. To change the view, move the mouse pointer over View Tab and then press then mouse
button.
2. Move the mouse over the view you want to use on the Document View group and then press
the left mouse button. The document appears in the new view. To quickly change the view,
move the mouse pointer over one of the view options at the bottom right corner of the screen
and then press the left mouse button.
THE FOUR VIEWS
Draft View: This view simplifies the document so you can quickly enter, edit and format
text. The Draft view does not display top or bottom margins, headers, footers or page numbers.
Web Layout View: This view displays documents so they are easy to read on the screen. The
web layout view displays a document map, which lets you move quickly to specific locations in your
document.
Print Layout View: This view displays the document exactly as it will appear on a printed
page. The Print Layout view displays top and bottom margins, headers, footers and page numbers.
Outline View: This view helps you review and work with the structure of a document. You
can focus on the main headings by hiding the remaining text.
2.16 ZOOMING IN OR OUT
Word lets you enlarge or reduce the display of text on your screen. Changing the zoom setting will
not affect the way the document appears on a printed page
Ψ When you first start Word, the document appears in the 100% zoom setting.
1. To display a list of zoom settings: move the mouse pointer over the Zoom on the Zoom
group and then press the left mouse button.
2. Move the mouse over the setting you want to use and then press the left mouse button.
The document appears in the new zoom setting.
Ψ You can edit your document as usual. To return to the normal zoom setting, repeat the
above procedure.
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2.17 DISPLAYING THE RULER:
You can use the ruler to position text on a page. You can display or hide the ruler at anytime. When
you first start Word, the ruler is displayed on your screen. Hiding the ruler provides a larger and less
cluttered working area.
1. To display or hide the ruler, move the mouse pointer over View Tab and then press the
left mouse button.
2. Move the mouse pointer over Ruler on the Show/Hide group and then press the left
mouse button. A check mark (-) beside Ruler tells you the ruler is currently displayed.
Word displays or hides the ruler.
2.18 DISPLAYING BUTTONS ON THE QUICK ACCESSS TOOLBAR
Word offers several buttons that you can hide or display at any time. Each buttons help you quickly
perform common tasks. When you first start WORD, the Quick Access Toolbars appear on the
screen.
1. To display or hide a button, move the mouse pointer over Quick Access Toolbar more
buttons drop down and then press the left mouse button.
2. A list of buttons appears. A check mark (-) beside a toolbar name tells you the toolbar is
currently displayed.
3. Move the mouse pointer over the name of the button you want to display or hide and then
press the left mouse button. Word displays or hides the button you selected.
2.19 INSERTING TEXT
You can add new text to your document. The existing text will move to make room for the text you
add.
1. Move the mouse cursor to where you want to insert the new text and then press the
left mouse button.
2. Type the text you want to insert. To insert a blank space, press the Spacebar.
The words to the right of the new text move forward.
INSERTING A BLANK LINE
1. Move the mouse cursor to where you want to insert a blank line and then press the left
mouse button.
2. Press ENTER on your keyboard to insert the blank line. The text following the blank line
moves down one line.
SPLIT A PARAGRAPH
1. Move the mouse cursor to where you want to split a paragraph in two and then press
the left mouse button.
2. Press ENTER on your keyboard twice.
2.20 DELETE TEXT
You can easily move text you no longer need. The remaining text moves to fill any empty spaces.
Move the mouse cursor to the right of the first character you want to delete and then press the left
mouse button.
Press ÷ Backspace on your keyboard once for each character or space you want to delete. You can
also use Delete on your keyboard to remove characters. Move the mouse cursor to the left of the first
character you want to remove and then press the left mouse button.
Press Delete once for each character or space you want to remove.
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DELETE A BLANK LINE
1. Move the mouse cursor to the beginning of the blank line you want to delete and then
press the left button.
2. Press ÷ Backspace on your keyboard to remove the blank line. The text following the
blank line moves up one line.
JOIN TWO PARAGRAPHS
1. Move the mouse cursor to the left of the first character in the second paragraph and
then press the left mouse button.
2. Press ÷ Backspace on your keyboard until the paragraphs are joined.
DELETE SELECTED TEXT
You can delete a section of text you have selected.
1. Select the text you want to delete.
2. Press Delete on your keyboard to remove the text.
2.21 UNDO LAST CHANGE
Word remembers the last changes you made to your document. If you regret these changes, you can
cancel them by using the Undo feature. The Undo feature can cancel your last editing and formatting
changes.
To undo your last change, move the mouse pointer over Undo button on the Quick Access Toolbar
and then press the left mouse button.
Word cancels the last change you made to your document. You can repeat undo to cancel previous
changes you made.
To reverse the results of using the Undo feature, move the mouse pointer over Redo button on the
Quick Access Toolbar and then press the left mouse button.
2.22 MOVE TEXT
You can reorganize your document by moving text from on location to another.
1. Select the text you want to move.
2. Move the mouse cursor anywhere over the selected text.
3. Press and hold down the left mouse button as your move the mouse pointer with a small
rectangle attached to it to where you want to place the text. The text will appear where
you position the dotted insertion point on your screen.
4. Release the left mouse button and the text moves to the new location.
UNDO MOVE
To immediately move the text back, move the mouse pointer over Undo and then press the left
mouse button.
MOVING TEXT USING CLIPBOARD
1. Select the text you want to move.
2. Move the mouse pointer over Cut button on the Clipboard group and then press the left
mouse button. The text you selected disappears from the screen.
3. Move the mouse cursor to where you want to place the text and then press the left mouse
button.
4. Move the mouse pointer over Paste button on the Clipboard group and press the left
mouse button. The text appears in the new location.
COPY TEXT
You can place a copy of text in a different location in your document. This will save you time since
you do not have to retype the text.
1. Select the text you want to copy.
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2. Move the mouse cursor anywhere over the selected text.
3. Press and hold down CTRL on your keyboard.
4. Still holding down CTRL, press and hold down the loft mouse button as you move me
mouse to where you want to place the copy. The text will appear where you position the
dotted insertion point on your screen.
5. Release the left mouse button and then release CTRL. A copy of the text appears in the
new location.
UNDO COPY
To immediately remove the copy, move the mouse pointer over Undo button on the Quick Access
Toolbar and then press the left mouse button.
COPY TEXT USING CLIPBOARD
1. Select the text you want to copy.
2. Move the mouse pointer over Copy button on the Clipboard group and then press the left
mouse button. The text selected remains on the same screen.
3. Move the mouse cursor to where you want to place the copy and then press the left
mouse button.
4. Move the mouse pointer over Paste button on Clipboard group and then press the left
mouse button. A copy on the text appears in the new location.
2.23 FIND TEXT
You can use the Find feature to locate a word or phrase in your document.
1. Move the mouse pointer over Find on the Editing group and then press the left mouse
button. The Find And Replace dialog box appears.
2. Type the text you want to find.
3. To start the search, move the mouse pointer over Find Next and then press the left mouse
button. Word highlights the first matching word it finds.
4. To find the next matching word, move the mouse pointer over Find Next and then press
the left mouse button. You can end the search at any time. To end the search, move the
mouse pointer over Cancel and then press the left mouse button.
5. Repeat Find next until a dialog box appears; telling you the search is complete.
6. To close the dialog box, move the mouse pointer over OK and then press the left mouse
button.
7. To chose the Find and Replace dialog box, move the mouse pointer over Cancel and then
press the loft mouse button.
2.24 REPLACE TEXT
The replace feature can locate and replace every occurrence of a word or phrase in your document.
This is ideal if you have frequently misspelled a name.
1. Move the mouse pointer over Replace on the Editing group and then press the left mouse
button. The Find and Replace dialog box appears. -
2. Type the text you want to replace with new text.
3. Press Tab on your keyboard to move to the replace with box. Then type the new text.
4. To start the search, move the mouse pointer over Find Next and then press the left mouse
button.
5. Word highlights the first matching word it finds.
6. Move the mouse pointer over one of these options and then press the left mouse button.
Find Next — Ignore the word.
Replace — Replace the word.
Replace All — Replace the word and all other matching words in the Document.
Ψ You can end the search at anytime. To end the search, move the mouse pointer over Cancel or
Close and then press the left mouse button.
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Ψ Repeat Find Next, Replace or Replace All until a dialog box appears, telling you the search is
complete.
Ψ To close the dialog box, move the mouse pointer over OK and then press the left mouse
button.
2.25 CHECK SPELLING AND GRAMMAR
Word offers a Spelling and Grammar feature to help you find and correct errors in your document.
Word automatically underlines misspelled words in red and grammar mistakes in green. The red and
green underlines will not appear when you print your document. Word automatically corrects
common spelling errors as you type.
1. Move the mouse pointer over Review Tab and the press the left mouse button.
2. Move the mouse pointer over Spelling and Grammar on the Proofing group and then press
the left mouse button. The Spelling and Grammar dialog box appears.
3. To select one of the suggestions, move the mouse pointer over the suggestion and then press
the left mouse button.
4. Move the mouse pointer over Change and then press the left mouse button.
5. To skip the error and continue checking the document, move the mouse pointer over Ignore
and then press the left mouse button.
6. To skip the error and all occurrences of the error, move the mouse pointer over Ignore All
and then press the left mouse button.
Correct or ignore misspelled words and grammar mistakes until a dialog box appears, telling you the
spelling and grammar check is complete.
Ψ To close the dialog box, move the mouse pointer over OK and then press the left mouse
button.
2.26 USING THE THESAURUS
You can use the Thesaurus to replace a word in your document with one that is more suitable.
1. Move the mouse cursor anywhere over the word you want to replace and then press the left
mouse button.
2. Move the mouse pointer over Review Tab and then press the left mouse button.
3. Move the mouse pointer over Thesaurus and then press the left mouse button. The Thesaurus
dialog box appears on the Task pane.
4. Move the mouse pointer over the correct meaning of the word and then press the left mouse
button.
5. To select the word you want to use, move the mouse pointer over the word and then press the
left mouse button.
6. To replace the word in the document, move the mouse pointer over Replace and then press
the left mouse button. Your selection replaces the word in the document.
If the Thesaurus does not offer a suitable replacement for the word, move the mouse pointer over
Cancel and then press the left mouse button to close the dialog box.
2.27 BOLD, ITALIC AND UNDERLINE
You can use the Bold. Italic and Underline features to emphasize information in your document.
1. Select the text you want to change.
2. Move the mouse pointer over one of the following options on the Font group and then press
the left mouse button.
B--Bold
I -- Italic
U--Underline
The text you selected appears in the new style. To deselect text, move the mouse cursor outside the
selected area and then press the left mouse button. To remove a bold, italic or underline style, repeat
steps I and 2.
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2.28 CHANGE ALIGNMENT OF TEXT
You can enhance the appearance of your document by aligning text in different ways.
1. Select the text you want to align differently.
2. Move the mouse pointer over one of the options for changing text alignment on the Paragraph
group and then press the left mouse button.
The text displays the new alignment. To deselect text, move the mouse cursor outside the selected
text area and then press the left mouse button.
2.29 CHANGE FONT OF TEXT
You can enhance the appearance of your document by changing the design of the text.
1. Select the text you want to change.
2. To display a list of the available fonts, move the mouse pointer over the font drop list arrow
on the Font group and press the left mouse button.
3. Move the mouse pointer over the font you want to use and then press the mouse button.
The text you selected changes to the new font. To deselect text, move the mouse cursor outside the
selected text area and then press the left mouse button.
2.30 CHANGE SIZE OF TEXT
You can increase or decrease the size of text in your document. Smaller text lets you fit more
information on a page, but larger text is easier to read. Word measures the size of text in points.
1. Select the text you want to change.
2. To display a list of the available sizes, move the mouse pointer over the font size drop-list
arrow on the Font group and then press the left mouse button.
3. Move the mouse pointer over the size you want to use and, then press the left mouse button.
2.31 CHANGE APPEARANCE OF TEXT
You can increase or decrease the size of text in your document. Smaller text lets you fit more
information in a page, but larger text is easier to read. Word measures the size of text in points
1. Select the text you want to change.
2. To display a list of the available sizes, move the mouse pointer over the font size drop-list
arrow on the Font group and then press the left mouse button.
3. Move the mouse pointer over the size you want to use and then’ press the left mouse button.
2.32 CHANGE APPEARANCE OF TEXT
You can make text in your document look attractive by using various fonts. sizes, styles, underlines
and special effects.
1. Select the text you want to change.
2. Move the mouse pointer over Font group Dialog box Launcher and then press the left mouse
button. The Font dialog box appears.
3. Move the mouse pointer over the Font tab and then press the left mouse button.
4. To change the design of the text, move the mouse pointer over the font you want to use and
then press the left mouse button.
5. To change the style of the text, move the mouse pointer over the style you want to use and
then press the left mouse button.
6. To change the size of the text, move the mouse pointer over the size.
7. To select an underline style, drop the underline list, move the mouse pointer over the
underline style you want to use and then press the left mouse button.
8. To select a text effect, move the mouse pointer over the effect you want to use and then press
the left mouse button.
9. To change the selected text, move the mouse pointer over OK and then press the left mouse
button.
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Underline Style Effects
Single Strikethrough
Double Shadow Shadow
Dash
Wave
2.33 CHANGE TEXT COLOR
You can change the color of text to draw attention to headings or important information in your
document.
1. Select the text you want to color.
2. To select a color, move the mouse pointer over the font color drop-list arrow on the Font
group and then press the left mouse button.
3. Move the mouse pointer over the color you want to use and then press the left mouse button.
REMOVING TEXT COLOR
To remove a color from text, repeat steps 1 to 3 selecting Automatic in step 3.
2.34 HIGHLIGHT TEXT
You can highlight important text in your document. Highlighting text is useful for marking text you
want to verify later.
1. Select the text you want to highlight
2. To select a color, move the mouse pointer over the highlight drop-list arrow on the Font
group and then press the left mouse button.
3. Move the mouse pointer over the color you want to use and then press the left mouse button.
REMOVING HIGHLIGHT
To remove a highlight, repeat steps 1 to 3, selecting None in step 3.
3.35 COPY FORMATTING
You can easily make one area of text look exactly like another.
1. Select the text that displays the format you want to copy.
2. Move the mouse pointer over Format Painter button on the Clipboard group and then press
the left mouse button.
3. Select the text you want to display the copied format.
2.36 ADD A BORDER
You can add a border to emphasize an area of text in your document.
1. Select the paragraph(s) you want to display a border.
2. Move the mouse pointer over borders drop-list arrow on the Paragraph group and then press
the left mouse button.
3. Move the mouse pointer over the type of border you want to add and then press the left
mouse button.
REMOVE A BORDER
Select the paragraph(s) you no longer want to display a border. Then perform step 2 and 3.
Selecting No Border in step 3.
2.37 INSERT A SYMBOL
You can insert symbols that do not appear on your keyboard into your document.
1. Position the insertion point where you want the symbol to appear in the document and then
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press the left mouse button.
2. Move the mouse pointer over Insert Tab and then press the left mouse button.
3. Move the mouse pointer over Symbols drop list arrow on the Symbol group and then press
the left mouse button.
4. Move the mouse pointer over symbol drop list arrow and then press the left mouse button.
The current sets of symbols are displayed. To display more symbols move the mouse pointer
over more symbols and then press the left mouse button. Symbol dialog box appears.
5. To display another set of symbols, move the mouse over Font drop—list arrow and then press
the left mouse button.
6. Move the mouse pointer over the set of symbols you want to view and then press the left
mouse button.
7. Move the mouse pointer over the symbol you want to place in the document and then press
the left mouse button.
8. To insert the symbol into the document, move the mouse pointer over Insert button and then
press the left mouse button.
9. To close the Symbol dialog box, move the mouse pointer over Close and then press the left
mouse button.
2.38 ADD BULLETS OR NUMBERS
You can separate items in a list by beginning each item with a bullet or number.
1. Select the text you want to display bullets or numbers.
2. Move the mouse pointer over Home Tab and then press the left mouse button.
3. Move the mouse pointer over Bullets or Numbering drop list arrow on the Paragraph group
and then press the left mouse button.
4. Move the mouse pointer over the style you want to use and then press the left mouse button.
REMOVING BULLETS OR NUMBERS
To remove bullets or numbers from the document, perform steps 1 to 4, selecting None in step 4.
ADD BULLETS OR NUMBERS AS YOU TYPE
1. Move the mouse cursor to where you want the first number or bullet to appear and then press
the left mouse button.
2. Type 1. Or * followed by a space. Then type the first item in the list.
3. Press ENTER on your keyboard and Word automatically starts the next item with a number or
bullet.
To end the numbered or bulleted list, press ENTER on your keyboard twice.
2.39 CHANGE LINE SPACING
You can change the amount of space between the lines of text in your document to make your
document easier to review and edit.
1. Select the paragraph(s) you want to change to new line spacing.
2. Move the mouse pointer over Home Tab and then press the left mouse button.
3. Move the mouse pointer over Paragraph Dialog Launcher on the Paragraph group and then
press the left mouse button. The Paragraph dialog box appears.
4. Move the mouse pointer over the Indents and Spacing tab and then press the left mouse
button.
5. To display a list of the available line spacing options, move the mouse pointer over line
spacing box and then press the left mouse button.
6. Move the mouse pointer over the line spacing option you want to use and then press the left
mouse button.
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7. Move the mouse pointer over OK and then press the left mouse button.
• Word automatically increases the spacing of lines that contain large characters.
2.4O INDENT PARACRAI’HS
You can use the Indent feature to set off paragraphs in your document. The symbol on the left and
right end of the horizontal Ruler lets you indent paragraphs.
Left end of the ruler
Indent first line
Indent all but first line
 Indent all lines
Right end of the ruler
() Indent the right edge of all lines.
1. Select the paragraph(s) you want to indent.
2. Move the mouse pointer over an indent symbol and then press and hold down the left
mouse button as you move the symbol to a new position on the ruler. A line shows
the new indent position.
3. Release the left mouse button and Word indents the paragraph(s) you selected
QUICKLY INDENT ALL LINES IN A PARAGRAPH
1. Select the paragraph(s) you want to indent.
2. Move the mouse pointer over one of the following indent option button on the
Paragraph group and then press the left mouse button.
Decrease Indent (Move paragraph to the left)
Increase indent (Move paragraph to the right)
CHANGE TAB SETTINGS
You can use tabs to line up columns of information on your document. Word offers four types of
tabs. Word automatically places a tab every 0.5 inches across each page.
I. To add a tab, select the text you want to contain the new tab. To add a tab to text you are
about to type, move the position the insertion point where you want to type the text.
2. Move the mouse pointer over the Tab section and then press the left mouse button until
the type of tab you want to add appears.
3. Move the mouse pointer over the bottom half to the ruler to where you want to add the tab
and then press the left mouse button.
USING TABS
1. To use a tab, position the insertion point at the beginning of the line you want to move across
and then press the left mouse button.
2. Press TAB key on your keyboard and the insertion point moves to the first tab.
2.41 CHANGE TAB SETTINGS
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You can easily move a tab to a different position on the ruler.
1. Select the text containing the tab you want to move.
2. Move the mouse pointer over the tab and then press and hold down the left mouse button as
you move the tab along the ruler to a new location. A line shows the new position.
3. Release the left mouse button and the test containing the tab moves to the new position.
REMOVING A TAB
When you no longer need a tab, you can remove it from the ruler.
1. Select the text containing the tab you want to remove.
2. Move the mouse pointer over the tab and then press and hold down the left mouse button as
you move the tab downward off the ruler.
3. Release the left mouse button and tab disappears from the ruler.
To move text back to the left margin, position the insertion point to the left of the first character in
the paragraph(s) and then press Backspace key on your keyboard.
ADD PAGE NUMBERS
You can have Word number the pages in your document.
1. Display the document in the Print Layout view. Word does not display page numbers in Draft
view.
2. Move the mouse pointer over Insert Tab and then press the left mouse button.
3. Move the mouse pointer over Page Number Drop list arrow on the Header and Footer group
and then press the left mouse button.
4. Point to either top of the page or bottom of the page
5. Move the mouse pointer over the page style of choice and then press the left mouse button.
6. To hide page numbers on the first page of the document, move the mouse pointer over Option
drop list arrow on the Option group and then press the left mouse button
7. Move the mouse pointer over different page and press the left mouse button to check mark it
8. When you are through move the mouse pointer over close Header and Footer and then press
the left mouse button.
Ψ If you add, remove or rearrange text in your document, Word will automatically
adjust the page numbers for you.
ADD COVER PAGE
1. Move the mouse pointer over Insert Tab and then press the left mouse button
2. Move the mouse pointer over Cover Page drop list arrow on the Pages group and then press
the left mouse button. The cover page list is displayed
3. Move the mouse pointer over cover page of choice and then press the left mouse button.

2.42 ADD FOOTNOTES
A footnote appears at the bottom of a page to provide additional information about text in your
document. Word insures that the footnote text always appear on the same page as the footnote
number.
1. Display the document in the Print Layout view.
2. Position the insertion point where you want the number of the footnote to appear.
3. Move the mouse pointer over References Tab and then pres the left mouse button.
4. Move the mouse pointer over Insert Footnote on the Footnotes group and then press the left
mouse button. The number of the footnote appears in the document.
5. Type the text for the footnote. You can format the text as you would format any text in a
document.
Ψ If you add or remove footnotes in your document, word will automatically renumber
the footnotes for you.
Ψ To redisplay the footnote text so you can edit the footnote, double-click the footnote
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number.
DELETING A FOOTNOTE
1. Select the number of the footnote in the document.
2. Press Delete key on your keyboard.
2.43 ADD A HEADER AND FOOTER
You can add a header and footer to each page of your document. A header appears at the top of each
page while footer appears at the bottom of each page.
1. Display the document in the Print Layout view. Word does not display headers and footer in
the Draft view.
2. Move the mouse pointer over Insert Tab and then press the left mouse button
3. Move the mouse pointer over Header or Footer drop list arrow on the Header and Footer group
and then press the left mouse button.
4. Header or Footer list appears, move the mouse pointer over the Header or Footer of choice and
then press the left mouse button.
5. To create a header, type the header text. You can format the text as you would format any text
in a document.
Ψ To return to the header area at anytime, repeat step 5.
6. When you have finished creating the header and footer, move the mouse pointer over Close
and then press the left mouse button.
EDIT A HEADER OR FOOTER
1. To edit a header or footer, repeat steps 1 to 6 above.
2.44 INSERT A PAGE BREAK
If you want to start a new page at a specific place in your document, you can insert a page break. A
page break shows where one page ends and another begins.
1. Move the mouse cursor to where you want to start a new page and then press the left mouse
button.
2. Move the mouse pointer over Page Layout Tab and then press the left mouse button.
3. Move the mouse pointer over Insert Page and Section Breaks drop list arrow on the Page Setup
group and then press the left mouse button.
4. Move the mouse pointer over Page and then press the left mouse button.
Ψ If the document is displayed in the Draft View, a line with the words Page Break
appears across the screen. The Page Break line shows where one page end and
another begins. The line will not appear when you print the document.
Ψ When you fill a page with text, word automatically starts a new page by inserting a
page break for you.
REMOVING A PAGE BREAK
Display the document in the Draft view.
Move the mouse cursor over the Page Break line and then press the left mouse button.
Press Delete key on your keyboard.
2.45 INSERT A SECTION BREAK
You can divide your document into sections so you can format each section separately. You need to
divide a document into sections to change margins, create columns or vertically center text for only
part of your document.
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1. Move the mouse cursor to where you want to start a new section and then press the left mouse
button.
2. Move the mouse pointer over Page Layout Tab and then press the left mouse button.
3. Move the mouse pointer over Insert Page and Section Breaks drop list arrow and then press the
left mouse button.
4. Move the mouse pointer over one of the following options under section break and then press
the left mouse button.
Next page — Creates a new section on a new page.
Continuous — Creates a new section on the current page.
Ψ If the document is displayed in the Draft view, a double line with the words Section
Break appears across the screen. The Section Break line shows where one section
ends and another begins. The line will not appear when you print the document print.
REMOVING A SECTION BREAK
When you remove a section break, the text above the break assumes the appearance of the following
section.
1. Display the document in the Draft view.
2. Move the mouse cursor over the Section Break line and then press the left mouse button.
3. Press Delete key on your keyboard.
REMOVING A SECTION BREAK
When you remove a section break, the text above the break assumes the appearance of the following
section.
1. Display the document in the Draft view.
2. Move the mouse cursor over the Section Break line and then press the left mouse button.
3. Press Delete key on your keyboard.
2.46 CENTER TEXT ON A PAGE
You can vertically center text on a page of a document. This is useful for creating title pages of short
memos.
1. Move the mouse cursor anywhere over the document or section you want to vertically center
and then press the left mouse button.
2. Move the mouse pointer over Page Layout Tab and then press the left mouse button.
3. Move the mouse pointer over Page Setup Dialog Box Launcher and then press the left mouse
button. The Page Setup dialog box appears.
4. Move the mouse pointer over the Layout tab and then press the left mouse button.
5. Move the mouse pointer over the Vertical Alignment text box and then press the left mouse
button.
6. Move the mouse pointer over Center and then press the left mouse button.
7. Move the mouse pointer over OK and then press the left mouse button.
REMOVING CENTERING
Perform steps 1 to 7, selecting Top in step 6
A margin is the amount of space between text and an edge of your paper. You can easily change the
margins to suite your document.
1. To change the margins for the entire document, move the mouse pointer over Office Button
and then press the left mouse button.
2. Move the mouse pointer over Print, then Print Preview and then press the left mouse button.
The document appears in the Print Preview window. You will see the horizontal and vertical
ruler. If the ruler is not displayed, move the mouse pointer over the View Ruler button and
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then press the left mouse button.
3. Move the mouse pointer over the margins you want to move and then press and hold down the
left mouse button as you move the margin to a new location. A line shows the new location. To
view the exact measurement of a margin from the edge of the page, press and hold down ALT
on your keyboard as you perform step 2.
4. Release the left mouse button and the margin moves to the new location.
5. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for each margin you want to move.
6. To close the Print Preview window, move the mouse pointer over Close and then pres the left
mouse button.
2.47 CREATE NEWSPAPER COLUMNS
You can display your text in columns like those found in a newspaper. This is useful for creating
documents such as newsletters and brochures.
1. Display the document in the Print Layout view. Word does not display newspaper columns
side-by-side in the Draft view.
2. Move the mouse cursor anywhere over the document or section you want to display in
newspaper columns and then press the left mouse button. To create newspaper columns for
only part of the document, you must divide the document into sections.
3. Move the mouse pointer over Page Layout Tab and the press the left mouse button.
4. Move the mouse pointer over Columns Drop list arrow on the Page Setup group and then
press the left mouse button.
5. Move the mouse pointer over the number of columns you want to display and then press the
left mouse button. The text in the document appears in newspaper columns. Word fills one
column with text before starting a new column.
REMOVING NEWSPAPER COLUMNS
Repeat steps 2 to 4, selecting 1 Column in step 5.
2.48 CREATE A TABLE
You can create a table to neatly display information in your document. Word lets you draw a table
on the screen as you would draw a table with a pen and paper.
1. Display the document in Print Layout view.
2. To create a table, move the mouse pointer over Insert Tab and then press the left mouse
button.
3. Move the mouse pointer over Table drop list arrow on the Table group.
4. Move the mouse pointer over draw table and then press the left mouse button.
5. Move the mouse Pencil to where you want the top left corner of the table to appear.
6. Press and hold down the left mouse button as you move the mouse until the outline of the table
displays the size you want. Then release the mouse button.
7. To add a line to the table, move the mouse pencil to where you want the line to begin.
8. Press and hold down the left mouse button as you move the mouse pencil to where you want
the line to end. Then release the mouse button.
9. Repeat steps 5 and 6 until you have added all the lines you want.
10. When you finish adding lines, Repeat Steps 2-4, then move the mouse pointer over Draw
Table and then press the left mouse button.
2.49 CHANGE ROW HEIGHT OR COLUMN WIDTH
After you have created a table, you can change the height of rows or the width of columns. A column
is a vertical line of boxes. A row is a horizontal line of boxes. A cell is one box.
CHANGING ROW HEIGHT
1. Move the mouse cursor over the bottom edge of the row you want to change.
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2. Press and hold down the left mouse button as you move the column edge to a new position. A
line shows the new position.
3. Release the mouse button and the column displays the new width.
CHANGING COLUMN WIDTH
Move the mouse cursor over the right edge of the column you want to change.
Press and hold down the left mouse button as you move the column edge to a new position. A line
shows the new position.
Release the mouse button and the column displays the new width.
2.50 ERASE LINES
You can erase lines you do not need in your table.
1. Move the mouse pointer over Design Tab and then press the left mouse button.
2. Move the mouse pointer over Draw Border drop list arrow and then press the left mouse button
3. Move the mouse pointer over Eraser and then press the left mouse button
4. Move the mouse Eraser over the line you want to erase and then press and hold down the left
mouse button as you move the mouse Eraser along the line.
5. Release the left mouse button and the line disappears
6. Repeat steps 3 and 5 to all the lines you want to erase.
7. When you finish erasing lines, repeat steps 2-3 and then move the mouse pointer over Eraser
and then press the left mouse button.
2.51 ENTER TEXT INTO CELLS
You can easily enter text into the cells of a table. To quickly move through the cells in a table, press
the arrow keys on your keyboard.
1. Move the mouse cursor over the cell where you want to type text and then press the left mouse
button. Then type the text.
2. Repeat step 1 until you have typed all the text. You can edit and format the text in a table as
you would edit and format any text in a document.
2.52 ADD A ROW OR COLUMN
You can add a row or column to your table if you want to insert additional information.
ADDING A ROW
Word will insert a row above the row you select.
1. To select a row, move the mouse cursor to the left of the row and then press the left mouse
button.
2. Move the mouse pointer over Layout Tab and then press the left mouse button.
3. Move the mouse pointer over any of the options under Rows and Columns group and then
press the left mouse button. A new row appears.
ADDING A ROW TO THE BOTTOM OF A TABLE
1. Move the mouse cursor over the bottom right cell in the table and then press the left mouse
button
2. Press Tab on your keyboard.
ADDING A COLUMN
Word will insert a column to the left of the column you select.
1. To select a column, move the mouse cursor to the top of the column and then press the left
mouse button.
2. Move the mouse pointer over Layout Tab and then press the left mouse button.
3. Move the mouse pointer over any of the options under Rows and Columns group and then
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press the left mouse button. A new Column appears.
Ψ You can add a row or column by drawing a line for the new row or column.
2.53 DELETE A ROW OR COLUMN
You can delete a row or column you no longer need.
1. To select the row you want to delete, move the mouse cursor to the left of the row and then
press the left mouse button. To select the column you want to delete, move the mouse cursor to
the top of the column and then press the left mouse button.
2. Move the mouse pointer over Layout Tab and then press the left mouse button.
3. Move the mouse pointer over Delete drop list arrow on the Rows and Columns group and then
press the left mouse button.
4. Move the mouse pointer over Delete Rows or Delete Columns and then press the left mouse
button. The row or column disappears.
2.54 DELETING A TABLE
You can quickly remove an entire table from your document.
1. To select all the cells in the table, move the mouse cursor to the left of the first row in the table.
2. Press and hold down the left mouse button as you move the mouse pointer until you highlight
all the cells in the table. Then release the mouse button.
3. Move the mouse pointer over Layout Tab and then press the left mouse button.
4. Move the mouse pointer over Delete drop list arrow on the Rows and Columns group and then
press the left mouse button.
5. Move the mouse pointer over Delete Table and then press the left mouse button. The table
disappears.
2.55 FORMAT A TABLE
Word offers many ready-to-use designs that you can choose from to give your table a new
appearance.
1. Move the mouse cursor anywhere over the table you want to change and then press the left
mouse button.
2. Move the mouse pointer over Design Tab and then press the left mouse button.
3. Move the mouse pointer over the More Button drop list arrow on the Table Styles group and
then press the left mouse button
4. Move the mouse pointer over the style of choice and then press the left mouse button. The table
displays the design you selected.
REMOVING AUTOFORMAT
Perform steps 1 to 4 above, selecting Table Grid in step 4.
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CHAPTER THREE
INTRODUCTION TO EXCEL
Getting started with MS EXCEL
3.0 Definition of Excel as a Spreadsheet
A Spreadsheet package is a collection of cells arranged in rows and columns into which you enter
labels, values and formula. The labels are in form of alphanumeric data. Values are numbers and
formulas are in form of functions e.g. Sum, Max, Count, Round, Mean etc.
3.1 Starting MS EXCEL
When you start Excel, a blank worksheet appears. You can enter data into this worksheet.
1. Click on the Start button on the task bar.
2. Click on Program Menu.
3. Click on Microsoft Excel Menu
4. To start using Excel, click on start using Microsoft Excel.
3.2 Explanation of the Screen Elements of MS EXCEL 2007
The Excel Screen displays several items to help you perform tasks efficiently. This can be seen in
the diagram below.
Office button: Opens the Office menu, from which you can open, save, print, and start new
worksheets.
Quick Access Toolbar: A small toolbar next to the Office button contains shortcuts for some of the
most common commands.
Ribbon: A combination of menu bar and toolbar, offering tabbed "pages" of buttons, lists, and
commands.
Name box: Displays the address of the current active cell where you work in the worksheet.
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Formula bar: Displays the address of the active cell on the left edge, and it also shows you the
current cell's contents.
Sheet tabs: Excel 2007 contains 3 blank worksheet tabs by default. Click on the intended tab will go
to the particular worksheet. Excel file is called Workbook. Each file has several worksheets. A
Workbook is similar to a three-ring binder that contains several sheet of paper.
Status bar: Reports information about the worksheet and provides shortcuts for changing the view
and the zoom.
Zoom control: Use to zoom the Excel screen in or out by dragging the slider.
3.3 Features/Things Excel Can Help You Do As A Spreadsheet Program
Formulas and Function: It provides powerful tools to calculate and analyze data in your worksheet.
Edit and Format Data: Excel lets you efficiently enter, edit and change the appearance of data in
your worksheets.
Charts: It helps you create colorful charts using your worksheet data.
3.4 Worksheets Basics
A worksheet consists of rows, columns and cells
Row: A horizontal line of boxes. A number identifies each row.
Column: A vertical line of boxes. A letter identifies each column.
Cell: one box in a worksheet
Cell Reference: A cell reference defines the location of each cell in a worksheet. A cell reference
consist of a column letter followed by a row number e.g. a4, b8, cc5, ac5 etc.
Active Cell: You enter information into the active cell. The active cell displays a thick border.
3.5 Entering Data into the Worksheet
You can enter data into your worksheet quickly and easily.
1. Click on the cell you want to enter data and type the data.
2. To enter the data and move down one cell, press Enter on your keyboard. If you want to move
one cell in any direction after you entered one data, press left, right, up or down arrow key on
the keyboard.
3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 until you finish entering all the data.
Auto Complete
If the first few letters you type match another cell in the column, Excel will complete the text for
you.
To keep the text Excel provides, press Enter on the keyboard
To enter different text, continue typing.
Long words
If text is too long to fit in a cell, the text will spill into the neighboring cell. If the neighboring cell
contains a data, Excel will display as much of the text as the column width will allow. If such a
situation arises, increase the column width.
Long Number
If a number is too long to fit in a cell, Excel will display the number in scientific form or as number
signs (#). If this situation arises, increase the column width.
3.6 Completing a Series of Number/Text Automatically
Excel can save you time by completing a text or number series for you.
Text Series
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Excel completes a text series based on the text in the first cell. E.g. Mon, Tue, Wed... etc.
Number Series
Excel completes number series based on the numbers in the first two cells. These numbers tell
Excel how much to add to each number to complete the series.
1. Enter the text or the first two numbers you want to start the series
2. Select the cells containing the text or numbers you entered..
3. Move the mouse over the bottom right corner of the cell(s) (change to +).
4. Press and hold down the left mouse button as you move the mouse + over the cells you want to
include in the series, then release the mouse button. The cell displays the series.
3.7 Selecting Cells/Group of Cells/Rows/Columns
Before performing any task in Excel, you must select the cells you want to work with. Selected cells
appear highlighted on your screen.
Selecting Cells/Group of Cells/Rows/Columns
Before performing any task in Excel, you must select the cells you want to work with. Selected cells
appear highlighted on your screen.
Select One Cell
Click the cell you want to select. The cell becomes the active cell and displays a thick border.
Select Groups of Cells
1. Click on first cell you want to select
2. Press and hold down the left mouse button as you move the mouse to highlight all the cells you
want to select. Then release the mouse button.
Ψ To select multiple groups of cell, press and hold down the Ctrl on your keyboard as
you repeat steps 1 and 2 for each group.
Ψ Click on any cell to deselect the cell.
To Select a Row, Click on the Row number
To Select a Column, click on the Column letter
3.8 Scrolling Through a Worksheet
If your worksheet contains a lot of data, your computer screen cannot display all the data at once.
You must scroll through the worksheet to view other areas.
Scroll Up or Down
To Scroll Up one row, move the mouse over  and click
To Scroll Down one row, click on 
Scroll Left or Right
To Scroll left one column, Click on 
To Scroll right one column, Click on 
3.9 Zooming in and out and Displaying Toolbars
Excel lets you enlarge or reduce the display of data on your screen. It will not affect the way data
appears on a printed page. The setting is 100%.
1. To display a list of zooms settings Click on View tab
2. Click on zoom drop list arrow
3. Click on Zoom. Zoom dialog box appears.
4. Click on the Zoom Setting you want to use.
5. Click on OK.
To return to the normal Zoom Setting, repeat steps 1-4. Click on Zoom Setting 100% in step 4
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and click on OK.
Display Buttons on the Quick Access Toolbars
1. Click on the More Buttons drop list arrow on the Quick Access Toolbar
2. Click on a Button you want to display or hide.
A check Mark (-) beside a button name tells you the toolbar is currently displayed.
3. To Display or Hide a Button, Click on the name of the Button.
3.10 Saving an Excel File — Explanation of a Workbook.
You should save your Workbook to store it for future use. This lets you later review and make
changes to the Workbook.
1. Click on (save button) on the Quick Access Toolbar.
OR
2. Click on the Office Button
3. Point to Save As
4. Click on Excel Workbook
5. The Save As dialog box appears, type a name for the Workbook.
6. Click on Save.
To avoid losing your work, you should regularly Save changes you make to a Workbook by
Clicking (save button) on the Quick Access Toolbar.
3.11 Creating a New Workbook and Switching between Workbooks
You can easily create another Workbook to store new data.
1. Click on the Office Button.
2. Click on New
3. Click on create. A new workbook appears.
Switching Between Workbooks
Excel allows you open many workbooks at once. You can switch between all of your open
Workbooks.
1. Click on View Tab.
2. Click on Switch Window drop list arrow on the Window group.
3. Click on the Workbook name you want to display.
3.12 Closing a Workbook, Exiting Excel and Opening an Existing Workbook
When you finish using a Workbook, you can close the Workbook to remove it from your screen.
When you close your Workbook, you do not exit the Excel program. You can continue to work on
other Workbooks.
1. Click on Office Button.
2. Click on Close.
Exit Excel
1. Click on Office Button.
2. Click on Exit Excel.
Open a Workbook
1. Click on Office Button.
2. Click on Open. Dialog box appears
3. Click on the name of the Workbook you want to open.
4. Click on Open.
3.13 Editing Worksheets Using Formulas and Functions.
3.13.1 Making Changes to Data in cell (Editing Data)
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After you enter data into your Worksheet, you can change the data to correct a mistake or update the
data.
Click on the cell containing the data you want to edit by double clicking. A Flashing insertion point
appears in the cell.
Press ÷ or¬ on your keyboard to move the insertion point to where you want to add or remove
characters.
To remove the character to the left of the Insertion point, press Backspace on your keyboard. To
insert data where the Insertion Point flashes on the screen, type the data.
When you finish making changes to the data, press Enter on your keyboard.
3.13.2 Replacing All Data in a Cell
1. Click on the cell you want to replace with new data.
2. Type the new data and press Enter on your keyboard.
3.13.3 Deleting Data and Undoing your Last Change
You can easily remove data you no longer need from cells in your Worksheet.
1. Select the cell(s) containing the data you want to delete.
2. Press Delete key on your keyboard.
Undo Last Change
Excel remembers the last changes you made to your Worksheet. If you regret these changes, you can
undo them.
1. Click on (undo button) on the Quick Access Toolbar once.
2. To reverse the results of using the undo feature, click on  (redo button) on the Quick Access
Toolbar.
3.13.4 Reorganizing Data by Moving Data with Drag and Drop Editing
You can easily reorganize the data in your Worksheet by moving data from one location to another.
1. Select the cells containing the data you want to move.
2. Move the mouse over a boarder of the selected cells (+ change to R)
3. Press and hold down the left mouse button and the data moves to the new location.
3.13.5 Reorganize Data by Moving Data.
1. Select the cells containing the data you want to move
2. Click on Home Tab
3. Click on > (cut button) on the Clipboard group.
4. Move the mouse pointer over the cell where you want to place the data and click. This will
become the top left cell of the new location.
5. Click on (paste button) on the Clipboard group.
3.13.6 Coping Data
You can place a copy of data in a different location in your Worksheet. This will save you time since
you do not have to retype the data.
1. Select the cell containing the data you want to copy.
2. Click on Home Tab
3. Click on (Copy button) on the Clipboard group
4. Move the mouse over the cell where you want to place the data and click.
5. Click on (paste button) on the Clipboard group.
3.13.7 Inserting Rows and Columns
You can delete a row or column from your worksheet when you want to insert additional data.
1. Select the row you want the new row to appear.
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2. Click on Home Tab.
3. Click on Insert drop list arrow on the Cells group
4. Click Insert Sheet Rows or Sheet Columns.
3.13.8 Deleting Row and Columns
You can delete a row or column from your worksheet to remove cells you no longer need.
1. Select the row(s) you want to delete.
2. Click on Home Tab
3. Click on Delete drop list arrow on the Cells group.
4. Click on Delete Sheet Rows or Delete Sheet Columns
3.13.9 Introduction to and Examples of Formulas that can be used in Excel
A Formula helps you calculate and analyze data in your worksheet. A Formula always begins with
an equal sign (=). Excel performs calculations in the following order.
1. Exponents (^)
2. Multiplication (*) and Division (/)
3. Addition (+) and Subtraction (-)
You can use parentheses () to change the order that Excels perform calculations. Excel will calculate
the data inside the parentheses first. When entering formulas, use Cell References e.g. = Al + A2
instead of actual data e.g. 510 +730 whenever possible. When you use cell references and you
change a number used in a formula. Excel will automatically redo the calculation for you.
E.g = Al+A2+A3*A4 = 10+20+30*40 = 1230
= Al+(A2+A3) * A4 = 1O+(20+30) * 40 = 2010
= Al *A3 —A2 +A4 = 10 * 30-20+40 = 320
= A1 * (A3-A2) +A4= 10 * (30 —20) + 40 = 140
= A3/Al +A2A4 = 30/10+20+40 = 63
= A3/(Al +A2)+A4 = 30/(l0+20)+40 = 41
3.13.10 Steps to Enter Formula into the Worksheet
You can enter a formula into any cell in your worksheet.
1. Click on the cell where you want to enter a formula.
2. Type an equal sign (=) to begin the Formula.
3. Type the Formula and Press Enter key.
4. To view the Formula you entered. Click over the cell containing the Formula.
The Formula for the cell appears in the Formula Bar.
3.13.11 Edit a Formula
1. Click on the cell containing the Formula you want to change by double clicking twice.
2. Edit the Formula.
3. When you finish making changes to the Formula, press Enter on your keyboard.
3.14 Using Excel Numerous Functions
3.14.1 Introduction to and Examples of Excel Functions
A function is ready-to-use formula that performs a specialized calculation on your Worksheet data. A
function always begins with an equal sign (=).
The data Excel will use to calculate a function is enclosed in parentheses ().
Specify Individual Cells.
When there is a comma (,) between cell references in a function, Excel uses each cell to perform the
calculation. E.g., = Sum (Al +A2 +A3) is the same as the formula =A1 +A2 + A3.
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Specify Group of Cells
When there is a colon (:) between cell references in a function, Excel uses each cell to perform the
calculation e.g. = Sum (Al, A2, A3) is the same as the Formula Al +A2 +A3.
E.g. To calculate the average value of a list of numbers, Use AVERAGE. E.g. AVERAGE (Al: A4)
= 25 where Al = 10, A2 = 20, A3 = 30 and A4 = 40.
COUNT — Use to calculates the number of values in a list. E.g. COUNT (Al: A4) = 4
MAX — Finds the largest value in a list of numbers e.g. MAX (Al: A4) = 40.
MIN. -- Finds the smallest value in a list of numbers. E.g. MIN (Al: A4) =10.
SUM — Adds a list of numbers e.g. SUM (A1:A4) = 100.
ROUND — Round a value to a specific number of digits. E.g. If Al = 42.3617, Round (al, 2) =
42.36.
3.14.2 Entering a Function into the worksheet and mentioning some of Excel’s function
Groups.
Excel helps you enter Functions in your Worksheet. This lets you perform calculations without
typing long, complex formulas.
1. Click on the cell where you want to enter a function.
2. Click on fx on the Formula bar.
3. Click on the Category that contains the Function you want to use.
4. Click on the function of interest.
5. Click on ok.
6. A dialog box appears, if the dialog box covers data you want to use in the calculation, you
can move it to a new location. Position the mouse over a blank area in the dialog box.
7. Press and hold down the left mouse button as you move the dialog box to a new location.
Then release the mouse button.
8. To enter a number, move the mouse over the cell in the worksheet that contains the number
and then press the left mouse button.
9. To enter the next number, click on the next area.
10. Click on ok.
3.14.3 Using the Autocalculation Feature and Type of Calculation the Autocalculate Feature
can perform
You can quickly view the results of common calculation without entering a formula into your
worksheet.
1. Select the cells you want to include in the calculation.
2. To display the result for a different calculation, Click on the area SUM = on the status line
and click the right mouse button.
3. Click on the calculation you want to perform.
3.14.4 Adding Numbers and Calculating Grand Totals
You can add a list of numbers in your Worksheet
Add Number
1. Click on the cell below or to the right of the cells you want to add.
2. Click on the Home Tab
3. Click on Σ on the Editing group.
4. If Excel does not outline the correct cells, select the cells containing the numbers.
5. Press Enter on your keyboard to perform the Calculation.
Calculate A Grand Total
If your Worksheet contains several subtotals, you can quickly calculate a grand total.
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1. Click over the cell below or to the right of the cells that contain the Subtotals.
2. Click on Home Tab
3. Click on Σ (auto sum button) on the Editing group.
4. Press Enter on your Keyboard.
3.14.5 Various Errors Messages in Formulas and ways to correct the Errors.
An error messages appears when Excel cannot properly calculate a formula. Errors in formulas are
often the result of typing mistakes. You can correct an error by editing the cell containing the error.
1. # # # #: This results because the columns are too narrow to display the result of the
calculation. To correct this, change the column width.
2. # Div /0: This is because it cannot divide a number by zero. Excel considers a blank cell to
contain a value of zero.
3. #Narne? : This formula contains a function name or cell reference Excel does not recognize.
4. #REFI The Formula refers to a cell that is not valid. E.g. a row containing a cell in the
formula was deleted.
5. #Value! : The Formula refers to a cell that Excel cannot use in a calculation. E.g. If Al 10, A2
=20 and A3 = June, ∴ = A1+A2+A3 is invalid.
6. Circular reference: A warning message appears when a formula referees to the cell that
contains the Formula. This is called a Circular Reference. E.g. If the active cell is on A4 and
the Formula on this is = Al+A2+A3+A4.
3.14.6 Copying A Formula — Using relative References
If you want to use the same Formula several times in your Worksheet, you can save time by copying
the Formula. It changes when you copy a Formula.
1. Enter the formula you want to copy to other Cells.
2. Click on the Cell containing the formula you want to copy.
3. Move the mouse over the bottom right corner of the cell (+ changes to )
4. Press and hold down the left mouse button as you move the mouse over the cells you want to
receive a copy of the Formula.
Ψ To see the new Formulas, Click over a cell that received a copy of the formula.
3.14.7 Copying a Formula — Using Absolute References
If you don’t want Excel to change a cell reference when you copy a formula, you can use an
Absolute Reference.
1. Enter the data you want to remain the same in all the Formula.
2. Enter the Formula you want to copy to other cells. In this example, enter the Formula, = B11
* $A$14 in the cell.
3. Move the mouse over the cell containing the Formula you want to copy and press the left
mouse button.
4. Move the mouse over the bottom right corner of the cell (+ changes to ).
5. Pres and hold down the left mouse bottom as you move the mouse over the cells you want to
receive a copy of the Formula.
6. To see the new Formulas, move the mouse over a cell that received a copy of the Formula
and then press the left mouse button.
3.15 Changing Column Width and Row Height
You can improve the appearance of your Worksheet and display hidden data by changing the width
of columns.
1. Move the mouse over the right edge of the column heading to change.
2. Press and hold down the left mouse button as you move the column edge until the dotted line
displays the column width you want.
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Row Height
1. Move the mouse over the bottom edge of the row heading (+ changes to÷¬).
2. Repeat step 2 above.
3.16 Formatting and Printing a Worksheet.
3.16.1 Change the appearance of numbers.
You can quickly change the appearance of numbers in your worksheet without retyping the numbers.
When you change the appearance of numbers, you do not change the value of the numbers.
Option e.g.
$ Change to dollar value 10= $ 10.00
% Change to percentage 0.15 = 15%
Add comma and display two decimal places 100 = 1,000.00
÷ 0 Add decimal places 10.19 = 10.190
¬ 00 Remove decimal 10.19 = 10.2
1. Select the cells containing the numbers you want to display differently.
2. Click on Home Tab
3. Click on either the option above on the Number group.
3.17 Bold, Italic and Underline Rows! Columns or Worksheet Title
You can use the bold, italic and underline styles to emphasize data in your worksheet.
1. Select the cells containing the data you want to emphasize.
2. Click on Home Tab
3. Click on either of the following on the Font group.
B = Bold, I = Italic and = Underline
3.18 Changing the Font type and Size Text.
You can enhance the appearance of your worksheet by changing the font of data.
1. Select the cells containing the data you want to change to a new font.
2. To display a list of the available fonts, click on Home Tab
3. Click on Calibri drop list arrow on the Font group.
4. Click on the Font you want.
Text Size
You can increase or decrease the size of data in worksheet.
1. Select the cells containing the data you want to change to a new size.
2. To display a list of the available sizes, click on 10 on the Font group.
3. Click on the size you want to use.
3.19 Change the Alignment and Indent of Data
You can change the position of data in each cell of your worksheet.
1. Select the cells containing the data you want to align differently.
2. Click on Home Tab
3. Click on either of the following on the Alignment group.
º Top align
º Middle align
º Bottom align
º Align text left
º Center
º Align text right.
Indent Data
You can use the Indent feature to move data away from the left edge of a cell.
Select the cells containing the data you want to Indent.
1. Click on Home Tab
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2. Click on either the following option on the Alignment group.
 Decrease Indent
 Increase Indent
3.20 Adding and Removing Border.
You can add borders to enhance the appearance of your worksheet.
1. Select the cells you want to display borders.
2. Click on Home Tab
3. Click on the Borders drop list arrow on the Font group.
4. Click over the type of border you want to add.
Remove Borders
Repeat step 1 to 4 by clicking the No border option in step 4.
3.21 Changing Cell and Data Color
You can make your Worksheet more attractive by adding color.
1. Select the cells that you want to change to a different color.
2. Click on Home Tab
3. Click on Fill color drop list arrow on the Font group.
4. Click on the Color you want.
Remove Cell Color
Perform steps 1 to 4, selecting No Fill in step 4.
Change Data Color
1. Select the cells containing the data that you want to change to a different color.
2. Click on Home Tab
3. Click on A Font color drop list arrow on the Font group.
4. Click on the color you want to use.
Remove data Color
Perform steps 1 to 4, selecting Automatic in step 4.
3.22 Copy Formatting and Centering Data Across Columns
If you like the appearance of a cell in your Worksheet, you can make other cells look exactly the
same.
1. Click on the cell displaying the formats you like.
2. Click on Home Tab
3. Click on format painter button on the Clipboard group.
4. Select the cells you want to display the same formats.
Center data across Columns.
1. Select the cells you want to center the data across. The first cell you select should contain the
data you want to center.
2. Click on Home a Tab
3. Click on ÷ a ¬ Merge and Center on the Alignment group.
Adding Designs to Cells
Excel offers many ready-to-use designs that you can choose from to give your worksheet a new
appearance.
1. Select the cells you want to apply a design to.
2. Click on Home Tab.
3. Click on Styles drop list arrow
4. Click on More list drop list arrow
5. Click on style of choice.
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Remove Designs
Perform steps 1 to 5 selecting Normal in step 5.
3.23 Previewing a Document before Printing
You can see on screen how your worksheet will look when printed.
1. Click on Office Button
2. Move the mouse pointer over Print
3. Click on Print Preview
4. To magnify an area of the page, click on the area (´ changes to ).
5. To display the entire page again, click anywhere over the page.
6. If the Worksheet contains more than one page, click on Next for next page and previous for
the previous page.
7. Click on close to close the Print Preview window.
3.24 Changing the Margin in the Print Preview
A margin is the amount of space between the data and edge of your paper. You can easily change the
margins.
1. Click on Office Button.
2. Move the mouse pointer over Print.
3. Click on Print Preview.
4. Click on Margin.
5. Click on margin, move the mouse over the margin ( changes to )
6. Press and hold down the left mouse button as you move the margin to a new location. A line
shows the new location.
7. Release the mouse button.
8. Repeat steps 5 to7 for each margin you want to change.
9. To close the print preview windows, click on Close.
3.25 Print a Worksheet by using the print Dialog Box
You can produce a paper copy of the Worksheet displayed on your screen.
1. Click on any cell in the Worksheet.
2. Click on Office Button.
3. Click on Print.
4. Click over what you want to print.
5. Click Ok.
3.26 Quickly Print a Worksheet.
To quickly print the worksheet displayed on your screen.
1. Click on Office Button.
2. Move the mouse pointer over Print
3. Click on Quick Print
4. Click on OK
3.27 Centering Data on a Page and Changing Page Orientation.
You can center data horizontally and vertically between the margins on a page.
1. Click on Page Layout Tab.
2. Click on Page Setup Dialog box launcher on the Page Setup group.
3. Click Margins Tab.
4. Click on the way you want to center the data E changesE. You can select both - center
options if you wish.
5. Click Ok
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Page Orientation
You can change the orientation of your printed Worksheet. The landscape orientation is ideal if you
want a wide Worksheet to fit on one page.
1. Click on Page Layout Tab.
2. Click on Orientation drop list arrow on the Page Setup group.
3. Click on the Orientation you want.
3.28 Change Print Option and Inserting and Removing Page Break
You can change the way you Worksheet appears on a printed page.
1. Click on Page Layout Tab.
2. Click on Print Title on the Page Setup group
3. Click on the Sheet Tap.
4. Click on the Print Option you want to select.
Gridlines — Means print lines around each cell in your Worksheet.
Black and White — means prints the Worksheet in black and white.
Draft quality — means do not print gridlines or most graphics to reduce print time.
Row and Column — Print the row numbers and column letters.
5. Repeat step 4 for each print option you want to select.
6. Click Ok.
The Print Options do not affect the way the worksheets appear on your screen.
Insert a Page Break Preview.
When you fill a page with data, Excel automatically starts a new page by inserting page break for
you. If you want to start a new page at a specific place in your worksheet, a page break defines where
one page ends and another begins. To display the page breaks in the worksheet
1. Click on View Tab
2. Click on Page Break Preview on the Workbook Views group.
3. Click Ok.
Insert a Page Break
To insert a Page Break, Select the row or columns you want to appear at the beginning of the new
page.
1. Click on Page Layout Tab.
2. Click on Breaks drop list arrow on the Page Setup group
3. Click on Insert Page Break
Delete a Page Break
1. Select the row directly below or the column directly to the right of the page breaks line.
2. Perform steps 2 and 3, selecting remove Page Break in step 3.
Using Multiple Worksheet and Creating Charts
3.29 Switches Between Worksheets
The Worksheet displayed on the screen is one of the several Worksheets in a Wordbook. You can
easily switch between the Worksheets.
1. To display the content of a Worksheet, click on the tab (at the bottom of the screen where you
have sheet 1, sheet 2....)
3.30 Browsing through the Sheet Tabs
If you have many worksheets in your workbook, you may not be able to see all the tabs. To browse
through the tabs, click on any of the following at the bottom of screen.
Display first tab Display tab to the right
Display tab to the left Display last tab
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3.31 Inserting and Deleting Worksheet
You can easily delete and insert a new or old Worksheet to add related information to a Workbook.
Insert Worksheets
1. Click the tab you want to appear the new Worksheet.
2. Click Home Tab.
3. Click on Insert drop list arrow on the Cells group
4. Click on Insert Sheet
Delete Worksheet
1. Click the tab you want to delete
2. Click Home Tab
3. Click on Delete drop list arrow on the Cells group
4. Click Delete Sheet.
3.32 Renaming and Moving Worksheets
You can give each Worksheet in a Workbook a descriptive name. This helps you remember where
you stored your data.
1. Double click on the tab of the Worksheet you want to rename.
2. Type a new name and press Enter on your keyboard.
Move A Worksheet
You can reorganize information by moving a worksheet to a new location in a Workbook.
1. Click on the tab of the Worksheet you want to move
2. Press and hold down the left mouse button as you move the Worksheet to new location.
3. Release the mouse button and the Worksheet appears in the new location.
3.33 Steps to Create a Chart
You can graphically display you Worksheet data in a Chart.
1. Select the cells containing the data you want to display in Chart, including the row and
column labels.
2. Click on the Insert Tab
3. Click on any type of Chart drop list arrow on the Charts group, you want to create.
4. Click on any chart sub-type you want.
Add Chart Title
1. To add a title to the Chart, click on Chart
2. Click on Layout Tab
3. Click on Chart Title drop list arrow on the Labels Group
4. Click on Above Chart
5. Click inside the box for the title you want to add, and then type the title.
Move Chart Location
1. Click on the Chart
2. Click on Design Tab
3. Click on Move Chart on the Location group
4. Click on any of the following option.
Ψ New Sheet: Display Chart on its own Sheet called a Chart Sheet.
Ψ Object In: Display Chart on the same Worksheet as the data.
5. Click on OK
Deleting a Chart
1. Click on the chart
2. If you inserted the chart as an object, press Delete Key from the Keyboard.
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3. If you inserted the chart as a sheet, click on Home Tab
4. Click on Delete drop list arrow on the Cells group
5. Click on Delete Sheet.
3.34 Designing a Chart
After you create a Chart, you can select a different type of’ Chart that better suit your data.
1. To change a Chart on a Worksheet, Click over a blank area in the Chart Handles () appear
around the Chart.
2. Click Insert Tab.
3. Click over any of the Chart type drop list arrow, you want to use.
4. Click on any chart sub-type you want.
5. Click on Design Tab
6. Click on Quick Styles drop list arrow on the Chart Styles group.
7. Click on the Chart style you want to use.
3.35 Moving and Resizing Chart
After you create a Chart, you can change the location and size of the Chart.
1. Click on a blank area in the Chart.
2. Press and hold down the left mouse button as you move the chart to a new location. A dotted
line shows the new location.
3. Release the mouse button and the Chart appears in the new location.
Resize A Chart
1. Click over a blank area in the Chart.
2. Move the mouse over one of the handles.
3. Press and hold down the left mouse button, as you move the edge of thee Chart until the
Chart is the size you want.
4. Release the mouse button and the Chart appears in the new size
3.36 Printing a Chart with Worksheet Data on its Own page
You can Print your Chart with the Worksheet data on its own page
1. Click the mouse over the cell outside the Chart
2. Click on Office Button.
3. Click on Print
4. Click on OK
Print a Chart on its own page.
1. Click the mouse over the blank area in the Chart.
2. Click on Office Button.
3. Click on Print
4. Click on OK
CHAPTER FOUR
POWERPOINT
LESSON ONE
INTRODUCTION TO POWERPOINT
PowerPoint helps you organize and design professional presentations.
WAYS TO USE POWERPOINT
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I. ON-SCREEN PRESENTATIONS
You can deliver a color, professional on your computer screen.
II. HANDOUTS
You can print handouts to help the audience follow your presentation. of your slides.
III. 35MM SLIDES OR OVERHEADS
You can create 35mm slides or overhead transparencies for presenting audience.
IV SPEAKER NOTES
You can create speaker notes to help you deliver your presentation. Speaker notes contain copies of
your slides along with all the ideas you want to discuss.
STARTING AND QUITTING POWERPOINT
You can start PowerPoint to create a professional presentation.
Steps:
1. Move the mouse over START and then press the left mouse button.
2. Move the mouse over PROGRAMS.
3. Move the mouse over MICROSOFT POWERPOINT and then press the left mouse button.
The PowerPoint Program opens.
4. To start using PowerPoint, move the mouse START USING POWERPOINT option in the
OFFICE ASSISTANT that opens and then press the left mouse button. To hide the OFFICE
ASSISTANT, move the mouse over the close (x) button of the OFFICE ASSISTANT small
window and press the left mouse button.
PowerPoint 2007 Screen Elements
Office button: Opens the Office menu, from which you can open, save, print, and start new
presentations.
Quick Access Toolbar: A small toolbar next to the Office button contains shortcuts for some of the
most common commands.
Title bar: Identifies the PowerPoint program running and the name of the active presentation.
Minimize button: Shrinks the application window to a bar on the taskbar; you click its button on the
taskbar to reopen it.
Maximize/Restore button: If the window is maximized (full screen), click will changes it to
windowed (not full screen) and vice versa.
Close button: Closes the application.
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Ribbon: Functions as a combination of menu bar and toolbar, offering tabbed "pages" of buttons,
lists, and commands.
Presentation window: Where active PowerPoint slide(s) appear where you work on the slide.
Current slide: Your current slide appears in the middle of the screen.
Slides tab and Outline tab: To the left of the slide are the Outline and Slides tabs. The Slides tab
shows thumbnails of your slides, and the Outline tab shows your presentation arranged as an outline.
You can switch between the two by clicking the tab you want to view.
Notes pane: Beneath the slide is the Notes pane, which you can use to add notes to your slides.
Task pane: To the right of the slide is the task pane you use to complete common tasks. When you
first start PowerPoint, the task pane isn’t visible.
Status bar: Reports information about the presentation and provides shortcuts for changing the view
and the zoom.
CREATE A PRESENTATION
You can use the AutoContent wizard to quickly create a presentation in 2003 Window XP. The
wizard will ask you a series of questions and then set up a presentation based on your answers. The
PowerPoint dialog box appears each time you start PowerPoint. But the AutoContent Wizard is not
available in Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2007; instead you can create your presentation quickly and
easily by using Installed Templates. Office PowerPoint 2007 templates include different themes
and layouts, including those that existed in the AutoContent Wizard. Templates give you a starting
point and make it easier to complete your presentation quickly. You can modify a template’s text and
design, add company logo, add your own images, or delete text or other content from the template.
Steps:
1. To create a new presentation, click on Office Button.
2. Click on New. The Templates dialog box appears.
3. Move the mouse pointer over the category that best describes the type of presentation you
want to create and then click.
4. Click on create.
PowerPoint provides a basic outline for the presentation to help you quickly get started. You may use
your presentation in one of these ways:
PRESENTATION: You will deliver the presentation to an audience;
INTERNET: People will view the presentation on their own. Also there are four ways you
can output your presentation: ON-SCREEN PRESENTATION, BLACK AND
WHITE OVERHEADS, COLOR OVERHEADS and 35MM SLIDES.
CHANGE THE VIEW
PowerPoint offers four different ways that you can view a presentation on your screen. When you
first create a presentation, PowerPoint displays the presentation in the Outline View. To display the
presentation in another view, click one of the view options on the Status Bar. All views display the
same presentation. If you make changes to a slide in one view, the other views will also change.
THE FOUR VIEWS
I. SLIDE VIEW
The Slide view displays one slide at a time. This view is useful for changing the layout or design of
your slides.
11. SLIDE SORTER
The Slide Sorter view displays a miniature version of each slide. This view lets you see a general
overview of your presentation.
III. OUTLINE
The Outline view displays the text on all the slides. This view lets you develop the content and
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organization of your presentation.
IV. NOTES PAGE
The Notes Page view displays one slide at a time, with space to type comments. You can use these
comments as a guide when delivering your presentation.
LESSON TWO
BROWSE THROUGH A PRESENTATION
Your computer screen cannot display your entire presentation at once.
You must browse through the presentation to view slides or text not displayed on your screen.
NOTE: The Slide and Notes Page views enable display one slide at a time while the Outline and the
Slide Sorter views enable you display more than one slide a time.
SLIDE OR NOTES PAGE VIEW
To display the presentation in the slide or Notes Page view, click the appropriate option in the views
section of the horizontal scroll bar.
The Status Bar area of the PowerPoint Screen shows which slide is displayed on the screen. To
browse through the slides, click one of the scroll option arrows (Display previous slide arrow and
Display next slide arrow) at the bottom of the vertical scroll bar.
To Quickly Browse through the Slides:
Steps:
1. Move the mouse over the scroll box. Then press and hol4 down the left mouse button as you
move the mouse up or down the scroll bar.
2. When this box displays the number of the slide you want to view, release the mouse button.
OUTLINE OR SLIDE SORTER VIEW
To display the presentation in the Outline or Slide Sorter View, click the appropriate view option in
the views section of the horizontal scroll bar.
To browse through the slides, click either the Scroll Up button () or the Scroll Down button
() in the vertical scroll bar continuously.
To Quickly Browse through the Slides
Steps:
1. Move the mouse over the scroll box. Then press and hold down the left mouse button as you
move the mouse up or down the scroll bar.
2. Release the mouse button.
SAVE AND EXIT
You should save your presentation to store it for future use. This lets you later review and make
changes to the presentation.
Steps:
1. Move the mouse over to SAVE button on the Quick Access Toolbar and then click. The Save
Dialog Box appears. However, if you have previously saved the presentation, the Save dialog
box will not appear.
2. Type a name for your presentation. You can use up to 255 characters, but it is good practice
to be brief in naming presentations.
3. Move the mouse over SAVE and then press the left mouse button. To avoid loosing your
work, you should regularly save changes to your presentation by clicking the Save button on
the Quick Access Toolbar.
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EXIT POWERPOINT
When you finish using PowerPoint, you can exit the program.
Steps:
1. Move the mouse over Home Tab and then click.
2. Move the mouse over Exit PowerPoint and then click.
OPEN A PRESENTATION
You can open a saved presentation and display it on your screen. This lets you review and make
changes to the presentation.
Steps:
1. Move the mouse over Home Tab
2. Move the mouse over OPEN and then click. The open dialog box appears.
3. Move the mouse over the name of the presentation you want to open and then press the left
mouse button. The preview area of the open dialog box displays the first slide in the
presentation if the preview button is selected.
4. To open the presentation, move the mouse over OPEN and then click. The name of the
presentation appears at the top of the screen. You can now make changes to the presentation.
EDITING A PRESENTATION
SELECT TEXT
Before changing text in a presentation, you must select the text you want to work with. Selected text
appears highlighted on your screen.
SELECT A WORD
Move the mouse over the word you want to select and then quickly press the left mouse button twice
(double click).
SELECT A POINT
Move the mouse over the bullet (Þ) beside the point you want to select and then press the left mouse
button.
SELECT ALL THE TEXT IN YOUR PRESENTATION AT THE SAME TIME
To quickly select all the text in your presentation, press CTRL + A.
SELECT A SLIDE
Move the mouse over the number of the slide you want to select and then press the left mouse button.
SELECT ANY AMOUNT OF TEXT
Move the mouse over the first word you want to select, press and hold down the left mouse button
and drag to cover the extent of text you want to select and then release the left mouse button.
REPLACE TEXT
You can easily replace text in your presentation with new text.
1. Select the text you want to replace with new text.
2. Type the new text. The text you type will replace the selected text.
3. If a word in the presentation appears with a red underline, PowerPoint does not recognize it
and therefore considers it misspelled. Use the spell checker.
UNDO LAST CHANGE
PowerPoint remembers the last changes you made to your presentation. If you regret these changes,
you can cancel them by using the Undo feature.
Steps:
1. To undo your last change, move the mouse over UNDO button on the Quick Access Toolbar
and then click.
2. To reverse the results of using the UNDO feature, move the mouse over REDO button on the
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Quick Access Toolbar and then click.
INSERT TEXT
You can easily add new text to your presentation.
INSERT CHARACTERS
Steps:
1. Move the mouse to where you want to insert the new text and then press the left mouse
button. The insertion Point indicates where the text you type will appear.
2. Type the text you want to insert.
3. To insert a blank space, press the SPACEBAR on your keyboard.
INSERT A NEW POINT
1. Move the mouse to the end of the point below which you want to insert the new point and
then press the left mouse button.
2. Press ENTER on your keyboard and a blank line appears for the new point.
3. Type the text for the new point.
DELETE TEXT
You can easily remove text you no longer need from your presentation.
You can delete, insert and change text when viewing your slides in the Slide View. To change to the
Slide View use the views section of the horizontal scroll bar. Also you can delete a word, point or
entire slide from the outline view.
DELETE CHARACTERS
1. Move the mouse to the right of the first character you want to delete and then press the left
mouse button.
2. Press BACKSPACE on your keyboard once for each character or space you want to delete.
DELETE SELECTED TEXT
1. Select the text you want to delete.
2. Press BACKSPACE on your keyboard to remove the text.
MOVE TEXT
You can move the text in your presentation to re-organize your ideas.
Steps:
1. Select the text you want to move.
2. Move the mouse anywhere over the selected text.
3. Press and hold down the left mouse button as you move the mouse to where you want to
place the text. The text will appear where you position the solid line or dotted insertion point
on the screen.
4. Release the mouse button and the text appears in the new location. To immediately move the
text back, click the undo button.
CHANGE IMPORTANCE OF TEXT
You can increase or decrease the importance of text in your presentation (from mouse important to
least important).
1. Select the text you want to change.
2. Move the mouse over the following options and then press the left mouse button.
i) Increase importance
ii) Decrease importance
CHECK SPELLING
You can quickly find and correct spelling errors in your presentation. PowerPoint compares every
word in your presentation to words in its dictionary. If a word does not exist in the dictionary,
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PowerPoint considers it misspelled and underlines it with wavy red line.
1. To start the spell check, move the mouse over Review Tab and the click
2. Click on SPELLING AND GRAMMAR on the Proofing group.
3. To select the correct spelling, move the mouse over the correct word and then click.
4. Move the mouse over CHANGE and then click.
5. To skip the word and continue checking the presentation, move the mouse over IGNORE
and then click.
6. Correct or ignore misspelled words until a small dialog box appears, telling you the spell
check is complete.
7. To close the dialog box, move the mouse over OK and then click.
CHANGE THE SLIDE LAYOUT
You can have PowerPoint arrange text and objects on a slide for you.
PowerPoint offers different slide layouts to enable you easily add objects such as a bulleted list,
a chart or a clip art to your slides.
Steps:
1. To change to the Slide Layout, move the mouse over Home Tab, and then click.
2. Display the slide you want to change.
3. Move the mouse over Layout drop list arrow on the Slide group and then click.
4. Move the mouse over the layout you want to apply to the slide and then click. The slide
appears in the new layout.
ADD A NEW SLIDE
You can insert a new slide into your presentation to add a new topic you want to discuss.
Steps:
1. To add a new slide, display the slide you want to appear before the new slide.
2. Click on Home Tab
3. Move the mouse over NEW SLIDE drop list arrow on the Slide group and then click.
4. Move the mouse over the layout you want the new slide to display and then click.
If the layout you selected displays an area for a title, move the mouse over the title area and then
click. Then type the title.
If the layout selected displays an area for text, move the mouse over the text area and click. Then
type the text. Press ENTER key each time you want to start a new point.
NOTE: Too many words on a slide can minimize the impact of important ideas. If a slide
contains too much text, place the text on two or three slides.
LESSON THREE
ADDING OBJECTS TO THE SLIDES IN YOUR PRESENTATION
ADD CLIP ART OR PICTURES
You can add images to slides to make your presentation more interesting and entertaining.
Steps:
1. Display the slide you want to add an image to.
2. Change the layout of the slide to one that includes space for a clip art image.
3. To add an image, move the mouse over the clip art/picture area and then quickly click. A
dialog box appears if additional images are available on the CD-ROM disc identified in this
area.
4. To view the additional images, insert the CD-ROM disc into your CD-ROM DRIVE.
5. Move the mouse over OK and then click. The Microsoft clip gallery dialog box appears.
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6. Move the mouse over the CLIP ART or PICTURE tab and then click.
7. Move the mouse over the category of images you want to display and click.
8. Move the mouse over the image you want to add to the slide and then click.
9. To add the image to the slide, move the mouse over INSERT and then click. The image
appears on the slide. The handles (E) around the image let you change the size of the image.
Ψ To delete an image from a slide in your presentation, move the mouse over the image
and then click. Then press DELETE on your keyboard.
ADD A CHART
You can add a chart to a slide to show trends and compare data.
A chart is usually more appealing and easier to understand than a list of numbers. It equally conveys
a comparative message more vividly.
Steps:
1. Display the slide you want to add a chart to.
2. Change the layout of the slide to one that includes space for a chart.
3. To add a chart, move the mouse over the chart area and then quickly click. A chart dialog box
appears
4. Click on Chart type and then click on the chart sub-type you want.
5. Click on OK
6. Excel window appears displaying sample data to show you where to enter your information.
7. To change the data in a cell, move the mouse over the cell and then click. A thick border
appears around the cell.
8. Type your data and then press ENTER on your keyboard.
9. Repeat step 7 and 8 until you finish entering all your data.
10. To hide the datasheet, move the mouse over the Close Button on the Excel screen and then
click.
WHAT TYPE OF CHART SHOULD I USE?
The type of chart you should choose depends on data. For example, area column and line charts are
ideal for showing changes to values over time, whereas pie charts are ideal for showing percentages.
EDIT A CHART
Steps:
1. Move the mouse over the chart and then click.
2. Click on Design Tab
3. To make changes to the chart, perform steps 6 to 10 above on how to add charts.
ADD A SMART ART GRAPHICS
You can add simple graphics such as arrows and star to the slides in your presentation.
You use Auto shapes to emphasize important information on your slide.
Steps:
1. Display the slide you want to add a shape to.
2. Change the layout of the slide to one that includes space for a Smart Art Graphic
3. Move the mouse over Smart Art Graphic area and then click.
4. Move the mouse over the type of graphic you want to add and then click.
5. Click on OK
6. To delete a Smart Art Graphic move the mouse over the graphic and click to select it. Then
press the DELETE KEY.
MOVE OR RESIZE AN OBJECT
You can easily change the location or size of any object on a slide.
Steps:
1. Move the mouse over the object you want to move and then press the left mouse button.
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2. Move the mouse over an edge of the object.
3. Press and hold down the left mouse button as you move the object to a new location. Then
release the mouse button.
RESIZE AN OBJECT
1. Move the mouse over the object you want to resize and then press the left mouse button.
Handles appear around the object.
2. Move the mouse over one of the handles.
3. Press and hold down the left mouse button as you move the handle until the object is the size
you want. Then release the mouse button.
4. To change the width of the object, use the middle vertical handles To change the height of the
object, use the middle horizontal handles To change the height and width of an object at the
same time, use the diagonal handles.
ENHANCING YOUR PRESENTATION
PowerPoint offers many ready-to-use designs that you can choose from to give the slides in your
presentation a new appearance.
CHANGE SLIDE DESIGNS
WHAT SLIDE DESIGNS DOES POWERPOINT OFFER?
PowerPoint offers CONTEMPORARY, FANS, PROFESSIONAL AND WHIRLPOOL DESIGNS.
Steps:
1. To change to the slide view, move the mouse over SLIDE VIEW and then click.
2. Move the mouse over DESIGN Tab and then click.
3. Move the mouse pointer over more drop list arrow on the Themes group
4. Move the mouse over a design of choice and then click
5. Repeat step 3 until the design you want to use appears. The design you selected changes the
appearance of the slides. The content of the slides does not change.
CHANGE COLOR SCHEME
You can select a different color scheme for your entire presentation.
Steps:
1. To change to the Slide view, move the mouse over SLIDE VIEW and then click.
2. Move the mouse over FORMAT and then press the left mouse button.
3. Move the mouse over Design Tab and then click.
4. Move the mouse pointer over Colors drop list arrow and then click. A color scheme list
displays samples of the color schemes that PowerPoint offers for a presentation. Note that the
color schemes offered depend on the slide design.
5. Move the mouse over the color scheme you want to use and then click.
EMPHASIZE TEXT
PowerPoint offers several styles that you can use to emphasize information on your slides.
(BOLD, ITALIC, UNDERLINE, SHADOW SHADOW)
EMPHASIZE TEXT:
Steps:
1. Display the slide containing the text you want to change.
2. Select the text you want to change.
3. Move the mouse pointer over Home Tab and then click.
4. Move the mouse over one of the following options under Font group and then click.
i) BOLD button
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ii) UNDERLINE button
iii) ITALIC button
iv) SHADOW button
To remove the style, repeat steps 2 and 3.
CHANGE ALIGNMENT OF TEXT
You can enhance the appearance of your slides by aligning text in different ways.
Steps:
1. To change to the slide view, move the mouse over SLIDE VIEW and then press the left
mouse button.
2. Display the slide containing the text you want to align differently.
3. Select the text you want to align differently.
4. Move the mouse pointer over Home Tab and then click.
5. Move the mouse over one of the following options under Paragraph group and then click.
i) LEFT ALIGN button.
ii) CENTER ALIGN button.
iii) RIGHT ALIGN button.
CHANGE FONT OF TEXT
You can enhance the appearance of slide in your presentation by changing the design of the text.
Steps:
1. Select the text you want to change.
2. Move the mouse pointer over Home Tab and then click.
3. To display a list of the available fonts, move the mouse over Font drop list arrow on the Font
group and then click.
4. Move the mouse over the font you want to use and then click.
CHANGE SIZE OF TEXT
You can increase or decrease the size of text in your presentation.
1. Select the text you want to change.
2. Move the mouse pointer over Home Tab and then click.
3. Move the mouse over one of the following options under Font group and then click until the
text is the size you want.
i) Grow Font button
ii) Shrink Font button.
CHANGE TEXT COLOR
You can change the color of text on a slide.
Steps:
1. Select the text you want to change.
2. Move the mouse pointer over Home Tab and then click.
3. Move the mouse over Font drop list arrow on the Font group and then click.
4. Move the mouse over the color you want to use and then click. To deselect text, move outside
the text area and then click.
CHANGE OBJECT COLOR
You can change the color of an object on a slide.
Steps:
1. Move the mouse over the object you want to change and then click.
2. Move the mouse pointer over Format Tab and then click.
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3. Move the mouse over Shape Fill drop list arrow on the Shape Style group and then click.
4. Move the mouse over the color you want to use and then click. To deselect the object, move
outside the object area and click the left mouse button.
ADD HEADER AND FOOTER
You can add information to every slide or page in your presentation.
Slides can include a date, footer and slide number while Notes and handouts can include a header,
date, footer and page number.
1. Move the mouse over Insert Tab and then click.
2. Move the mouse over HEADER AND FOOTER under Text group and then click. The
header and footer dialog box appears. Each option that displays a check mark will appear on
all the slides in the presentation.
3. To add or remove a check mark for an option, move the mouse over the check box beside the
option and then click.
4. To type the footer text you want to appear at the bottom of each slide, move the mouse over
the area and then click. Then type the footer text.
5. To select the date you want each slide to display, move the mouse over one of these options
and then click.
6. If you selected FIXED in step 5, type the date. To specify the information you want to appear
on the notes and handout pages, move the mouse over the appropriate tab and click. Then
repeat steps 3 to 6 to specify the information.
7. To apply the changes to all the slides and pages, move the mouse over APPLY TO ALL and
then click.
ANIMATE SLIDES
You can add movement and sound effects to the objects on your slides.
Steps:
1. Move the mouse pointer over the Slide to animate and then click to display it.
2. Move the mouse over the object you want to animate and then click
3. Move the mouse pointer over Animation Tab and then click.
4. Move the mouse pointer over Custom Animation on the Animation group and the click.
5. Move the mouse pointer over Add Effect drop list arrow on the Task Pane and then click.
6. Move the mouse pointer to click on any option of choice that appears on the followings:
 Entrance
 Emphasis
 Exit
 Motion Paths
7. Move the mouse over the type of animation you want to use and then click.
8. To view the animation, move the mouse over SLIDE SHOW and then click.
NOTE: To view the animation again, move the mouse over the Slide Show and then click.
To close the Animation Effects, click on close on the Task Pane.
LESSON FOUR
FINE-TUNE A PRESENTATION
RECORD SLIDES
You can easily change the order of the slides in your presentation.
Steps:
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1. To change to the Slide Sorter view, move the mouse over SLIDE SORTER button on the
Status bar and then click.
2. Move the mouse over the slide you want to move.
3. Press and hold down the left mouse button as you move the slide to a new location.
4. Release the left mouse button and the slide appears in the new location.
DELETE A SLIDE
You can remove a slide you no longer need.
1. To change to the Slide Sorter view, move the mouse over SLIDE SORTER on the Status bar
and then click.
2. Move the mouse over the slide you want to delete and then click.
3. Press DELETE on your keyboard.
CREATE SPEAKER NOTES
You can create speaker notes that contain copies of your slides with all the ideas you want to discuss.
These notes will help you deliver your presentation.
WHAT SHOULD I INCLUDE IN MY SPEAKER NOTES?
When creating speaker notes, include the key points you want to discuss during your presentation.
Speaker notes can also include information that will support your ideas and help you answer
questions from the audience.
1. To change to the Notes Page view, move the mouse over View Tab and then click.
2. Display the slide you want to create speaker notes for.
3. Move the mouse pointer over Notes Page under the Presentation View and the n click.
4. Move the mouse over the text area and then press the left mouse button.
5. To magnify the text area, move the mouse over ZOOM button on Status bar and then click.
6. Type the ideas you want to discuss when you display the slide during the presentation.
7. To move back to normal slide, move the mouse pointer over Normal on the Presentation
View and the click.
VIEW A SLIDE SHOW
You can view a slide show of your presentation on a computer screen.
IS THE SPEED AT WHICH I DELIVER A PRESENTATION IMPORTANT?
Make sure you rehearse the pace of your presentation before delivering to an audience. A fast pace
can overwhelm an audience whereas a slow pace may put the audience to sleep.
Steps:
1. To change to the Slide Sorter view, move the mouse over SLIDE SORTER button on the
status bar and then click.
2. Move the mouse over the first slide in the presentation and then click.
3. To start the slide show, move the mouse over SLIDE SHOW button on the status bar and
then click.
4. To display the next slide, press the SPACEBAR on your keyboard or press the left mouse
button.
5. Repeat step 4 until you finish viewing all the slides in the presentation.
QUICK REFERENCE
You can use the keyboard to help you move through your presentation
To display the next slide Press the Spacebar
To display the previous slide Press the Backspace
To display any slide Press the number of the slide
On your keyboard and then press ENTER
End of presentation Press ESC KEY
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ADD SLIDE TRANSITIONS
You can use special effects, called transitions, to help you move from one slide to the next.
Transitions help to introduce each slide during an on-screen slide show.
PowerPoint offers only three slide transitions, namely: Blinds Vertical, Dissolve and
Checkboard Across
Steps:
1. To change to the Slide Sorter view, move the mouse over SLIDE SORTER VIEW on the
status bar and then click.
NOTE:PowerPoint automatically adds transitions to slides for some types of presentations. A
symbol appears below every slide with a transition.
2. To add or change a transition for a slide, move the mouse over the slide and then click.
3. Move the mouse pointer over Animation Tab and then click.
4. To display the available transitions, move the mouse over TRANSITION SCHEME drop
list arrow on the Transition to Slide group and then click.
5. Move the mouse over the transition you want to use and then click.
6. To view the transition for the slide, move over Slide show button on the status bar and then
click.
PRINT A PRESENTATION
You can produce a paper copy of a presentation for your own use or to hand out to an audience.
Steps:
1. Move the mouse over HOME TAB and then click
2. Move the mouse over PRINT and then click.
3. To select what you want to print, move the mouse over to PRINT WHAT and then press the
left mouse button.
4. Move the mouse over what you want to print and then click.
5. Move the mouse over one of the following options under print range and then click.
6. If you selected SLIDES in step 5, type the slide the slide numbers you want to print
(example: 1, 3, 4 or 2-4).
7. Move the mouse over OK and then click.
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INTERNET
A Brief History of Internet
Tim Berners-Lee developed the World Wide Web at the European center for Nuclear Research
(CERN) in Geneva from a proposal in 1989. It was created to share research information on nuclear
physics. In 1991, the first command line browser was introduced. By the start of 1993, there were 50
Web servers, and the Voila X Window browser provided the graphic capability for the Web. In that
same year, CERN introduced its Macintosh browser, and Chicago introduced the X Window version
of Mosaic. Mosaic was developed by Marc Andreessen who later became world famous as a
principal at Netscape.
By 1994, there were appropriately 500 Web sites, and, by the start of 1995, nearly 10,000. In
1995, more articles were written about the Web than any other subject in the computer field. Today,
they are at an extraordinary rate.
Many believe the Web signifies the beginning of the real information age and envision it as
the business model of the 21
st
century. However, other consider it the “World Wide Web Wait” as
surfing the Net via analog modem using an ISP can often be an exercise in extreme patience
It seems that everyone has some vested interest in the Web. The telephone and cable
companies wanted to give you high-speed access to it, while the existing ISPs want to gain market
share. The publishing industry is perplexed over how to manage its copyrighted materials on medium
that can send it all over the world in few seconds. Hence, vendors make their products more Webs
compatible every day. Hardware vendors are debating whether network computers (NCs) and
handled Internet devices will eventually replace the desktop PC.
WHAT IS INTERNET
Is a large network made up of a number of smaller networks. The internet is made up of more than
65 million computers in more than 100 countries covering commercial, academic and government
endeavors. Originally developed for the U.S. military, the Internet became widely used for academic
and commercial research. Users had access to unpublished data and journals on a huge variety of
subjects. Today, the Internet has become commercialized into a world information highway,
providing information on every subject known to humankind.
Intranet: This is an in-house, private Web site for internal users. It is protected from the Internet
via firewall that lets intranet users gain access to the Internet, but prevents users from gaining access
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E- Mail (Electronic –Mail): This allows computer users locally and worldwide to exchange
messages. Users can send mail to a single recipient or broadcast it to multiple users. The unique
private Internet address to which your email is sent e.g. fredycoms@yahoo.com
Junk mail: These are transmitting e-mail to unsolicited recipients
Spam: These are inappropriate sent message to multiple newsgroups or email address, example Junk
Mail.
Bounced mail: An email returned to sender
Domain Name: Today, this term refers to the address of an Internet site (e.g.
www.fredysgroup.com)
Dot-com: This refers to the period or full-stop (dot) followed by the abbreviation of the commercial
domain (.com) at the end of an e-mail or Web address
Browsers: A Client program (software) that is used to look at various kinds of Internet resources. It
is also known as web browser. This is a program that serves as front end to the World Wide Web on
the Internet. I order to view a site; you type its address (URL) into the browser’s location field; for
example, www.fredysgroup.com and the home page of that site are downloaded to you.
Examples of browsers are Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, and Opera etc.
Internet Explorer: Is a Microsoft’s Web browsers, also known as “IE” Version for Windows, Mac
and UNIX.
Internet Explorer Mozilla Firefox Opera Netscape
URL (Union Resource Locator): The address that defines the route to a file Web or any other
Internet facility. URLs are typed into the browser to access Web pages, and URLs are embedded
within the pages themselves to provide the hypertext links to other pages. The URL contains the
protocol prefix, port number, domain name, subdirectory name and file.
Upload: Transferring data (usually a file) from the computer you are using to another computer.
Upload is the opposite of download.
Download: To receive a file transmitted over a network. In a communications session, download
means receive, upload means transmit
Downloads depend on the file size and network speed. Via a 28800 bps or 28.8Kbps modem, small
Web pages take seconds when everything is running smoothly, but a 10MB video file takes at least
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an hour. LAN downloads are much faster. That same 10MB file can fly across a high- speed LAN in
one second.
World Wide Web (WWW): The Web. Is an Internet facility that links the documents local and
remotely. However the Web document, or the page, contains text, graphics, animations and video as
well as hypertext link. .
Chart Room: An interactive discussion (by keyboard) about a specific topic that is hosted on the
Internet.
Dial Up: A very common type of Internet access provided by an ISP, which requires the user to dial
into a POP using the normal telephone line.
ISP (Internet Service provider): An organization that provides access to the Internet. Small
Internet service providers (ISPs) provide service via modem and ISDN while the larger one also
offers private line hookups (T1, fractional T1, etc.). The largest Internet Services, such as America
Online (AOL) and Microsoft Network (MSN), also provide proprietary databases, forums and other
services in addition to the Internet world.
Bandwidth: This is a transmission process capacity of an electronic line such as a communications
network, computer bus or a computer channel. This bandwidth is measured in bits per second, bytes
per second or Hertz (per second)
Communication Satellite: This is a communication radio relay station in orbit above the earth that
receives, amplifies and redirects analog and digital signals contained within a carrier frequency.
LAN (Local Area Network): Is a set of communications network that serves within a confined
geographical area, example, an office.
MAN (metropolitan Area Network): Is a communications network that generally covers a city or
suburb
LINK: This and hypertext, as in a Web page, a link is reference to another document. This occurs
when you click on link in a browser, that document will be retrieved and displayed.
HTTP (Hyper Text Transport Protocol): This is a communications protocol used to connect to
servers on the www. Its primary function is to establish a connection with a web server and transmit
HTML pages to the client browser. For example, the address is like this, http:// prefix. However,
http://www.fredysgroup.com
HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language): This is a programming language used in the designing of
web page. It also defines the pages layout, fonts and graphic elements as well as the hyper link to the
other documents on the Web.
Host: A computer that offers services to other network node. It also maintains node system and its
applications.
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Password: This is a secret word or code used to serve as security measure against unauthorized
access to a system or data. For example trying to log in into someone mailbox.
Search Engine: software that does the searching of data based on some criteria. Though search
engine have been in around for decades. And there are thousand of search engine. Here are some
search engine; All the Web, Ask jeeves, Google, Hot bot, Lycos, Search msn and Mama.
How to Search for Information on the net using Google
1. Double click or Right click on the Internet Explorer on the Desktop and then click open
2. Type in the Google website address (www.google.com) on the address bar
3 Click on Go towards the end of the address bar or strike Enter from the Keyboard
4. Type in the Information you want search for inside the Search Box
5. Click on google search or strike Enter from the Keyboard
6. Click on any of the Topic of Books displayed on the screen to get the full information.
Surf: This is the process of skipping from page to page around the web by the following hypertext
links.
Online: This is the connection of node to the Internet or other remote service via modem and other
communication gadgets.
VSAT (Very Small Aperture Satellite Terminal): A small earth station for satellite transmission
that handles up to 56 Kilobits/sec of digital transmission.
Online Services: This are organization that provide Internet access as well as proprietary content
Network: A node (system) that transmits any combination of voice, video and/ or groups, they
cascaded lists of messages devoted to a particular topic.
Hypertext: A linkage between related texts. Hypertext is the foundation of the World Wide Web .It
links the Web page embedded within the Web pages are addresses to other Web pages either store
locally or on Web server any where in the world.
Hyperlink: This is a predefine linkage between one object and another. Thou this link are displayed
either as text or as icon on the Web.
Portal: This is a Web “supersite” that provide a variety of services including Web searching, news,
white and yellow pages directories, free E-mail, discussion groups, online shopping and links to
other sites.
Topology: This refers to the types of network communication pattern between nodes; for example,
bus, ring or star configuration.
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