Quarterly
•• .
'THE OFFICIAL JOURNAL"OF
THE FIBONACCI ASSOCIATION
VOLUME 16
NUMBER 2
CONTENTS
More Fibonacci Functions . .
Pellian Diophantine Sequences.
Some Results for Generalized Bernoulli, Euler, Stirling Numbers
M.W. Bunder 97
A. G. Shannon 99
L. Toscano 103
Expansion
Pamela Graves Smith
A Combinatorial Problem Involving Recursive Sequences
and Tridiagonal Matrices
. G. E. Bergum and V. E. Hoggatt, Jr.
On the Formula IT = 2D arcot fjk+i . .
Peter G. Anderson
Fibonacci Sine Sequences. .
.M. B. Gregory and J. M. Metzger
General Identities for Linear Fibonacci
and Lucas Summations
Rodney T. Hansen
An Inequality for a Class of Polynomials
David Zeitlin
A Primer for the
Fibonacci Numbers XVII. . .'. V. E. Hoggatt, Jr., and Marjorie BicknellJohnson
Generalized Eulerian Numbers and Polynomials. . .L„Carlitz and V. E. Hoggatt, Jr.
Wythoff Pairs
A. F. Horadam
Geometric Sequences and the Initial Digit Problem . . . . . . . Raymond E. Whitney
A Second Variation on a Problem
of Diophantus and Davenport .
Burton W. Jones
On Generalized G ^ Numbers
W. E. Greig
The Fluid Mechanics of Bubbling Beds
F. A. Zenz
Elementary Problems and Solutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Edited by A. P. Hillman
Advanced Problems and Solutions
Edited by Raymond E. Whitney
APRIL
112
113
118
119
121
128
130
138
147
152
155
166
171
184
188
1978
US? Fibonacci
Quarterly
THE OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE FIBONACCI
ASSOCIATION
BE VOTED TO THE STUD Y
OF INTEGERS WITH SPECIAL
PROPERTIES
EDITOR
V. E. Hoggatt, Jr.
COEDITOR
Gerald E. Bergum
EDITORIAL BOARD
H. L. Alder
Gerald E. Bergum
Marjorie Bicknell*Johnson
Paul F . Byrd
L. Carlitz
H. W. Gould
A. P. Hillman
David A. Klarner
Leonard Klosinski
Donald E. Knuth
C. T. Long
M. N. S. Swamy
D. E. Thoro
WITH THE COOPERATION OF
Maxey Brooke
Bro. A. Brousseau
Calvin D. Crabill
T. A. Davis
A. F . Horadam
Dov Jarden
L. H. Lange
James Maxwell
Sister M. DeSales
McNabb
John Mitchem
D. W. Robinson
Lloyd Walker
Charles H. Wall
The California Mathematics Council
All subscription correspondence should be addressed t o Professor Leonard Klosinski,
Mathematics Department, University of Santa Clara, Santa Clara, California 9 5 0 5 3 . All
checks ($15.00 per year) should be made out t o the Fibonacci Association or The F i b onacci Quarterly. Two copies of manuscripts intended for publication in the Quarterly
should be sent t o Verner E. Hoggatt, Jr., Mathematics Department, San Jose State University, San Jose, California 95192. All manuscripts should be typed,
doublespaced,
Drawings should be made the same size as they will appear in the Quarterly, and should
be done in India ink on either vellum or bond paper. Authors should keep a copy of the
manuscript sent to the editors.
The Quarterly is entered as thirdclass mail at the University of Santa Clara Post Office,
California, as an official publication of the Fibonacci Association.
The Quarterly is published in February, April, October, and December, each year.
MORE FIBONACCI FUNCTIONS
M.W. BONDER
Wollongong University College, The University of New South Wales, Wollongong, N. S. W., Australia
Recently there have appeared in this Quarterly a number of generalizations of the Fibonacci number Fn to functions Fix), defined for all real*, and, in general, continuous everywhere.
For such a generalization two properties are particularly desirable:
(A)
Fix) = Fn for x = n a natural number
and
(B)
Fix+2) = F(x) + F(x+1).
Spickerman [6] proved some general properties of functions satisfying (B).
Of the various generalizations Halsey's [1] does not generally satisfy (B) (see [7]) and even if defined for all real*,
is not continuous dXx= 1.
Heimer's function [2] satisfies (A) and (B) but is quasilinear. Elmore's function [3] is not a generalization in the
above sense, it is a function of a natural number variable and a real variable.
Parker's [4] and Scott's [5] functions which are identical are "smooth curves," satisfy both (A) and (B) but can
be generalized further.
Both take
FM
=
Re
(\*(V*\*\
=
\«X«co»7ar
where
It seems, however, that a lot is lost in taking only the real part of
Clearly this complex function itself (we will call it Fx) satisfies (A), and also (B) for any complex number*. Also
as the real part of Fx satisfies (B) so does the imaginary part and any linear combination of these.
If we let
Ft(x) = Re(Fx),
F2(x) = l(Fx) = ^
™ nx
,
f o r x real, then Fi (x) +aF2(x) satisfies (A) and (B) for each real numbers.
Scott gives a number of identities concerning F^ix) and also concerning the corresponding Lucas function which
we will call
Li(x) = He(Lx) = ne(\x + (7)x\~x) = Xx + X~x cos nx .
Of course l(Lx) =
F2(x)s/J.
We now list some easily derivable properties of F2(x) some of which relate it to F± (x):
p2(x + 1)  F2(x 1) = F22(x),
F2M  F2(x) = zmlMf
F2(x + %) • F2(x  %) = F2(2x) ™±?M
2y/(S) '
97
Fix +1/2)• F2(x  %) = F2Jx) cot2nx,
2
2M 5F F2(nx) = s i ™ sin*™ S^^fiM (VnH Another possible generalization of Fn forx = n \s\Fx\. "A General Fibonacci Function/' The Fibonacci Quarterly 4 (1967). pp.F\(x) _ = 7 — sfk2x . Spickerman. 4. 5. "The Fibonacci Number Fu where u is not an Integer/' The Fibonacci Quarterly 3 (1965). 6." The Fibonacci Quarterly 6 (1968). Thus G r X\ = y/F\(x) lM*/ ~ = \\F + FH'x) "* !— sj\2x . R. Francis D. 7. "Continuous Extensions of Fibonacci Identities. "A Fibonacci Function. "A Note on Fibonacci Functions. "On Halsey's Fibonacci Function. ******* . pp. pp. 481483. Heimer. The following are some properties of these functions: G2(x + 1) .2 cos nx + X' 2 * cos lux . 397401." The Fibonacci Quarterly n (1975). W. 371382. A. W." 77?e Fibonacci Quarterly 6 (1968). Scott. 2. 12.98 APRIL 1978 MORE FIBONACCI FUNCTIONS Ft(x) = i ^ + ^Mcotir*." The Fibonacci Quarterly 8 (1970). 3. REFERENCES 1. Bunder. "Fibonacci Functions. 245250. 147152. Elmore. Clearly kGl(x) + (1k)G2M \Nhenx = n for all real k. 209210.2 cosnx + X2* x\ " v r l ' A ' T^IX/  yft5) Another such function is 1 G2(x) = s/F\(x) . M. Parker. pp.G2(x) = G\(x +1/2>. Richard L.2/5 sin irx + 4/5 cos nx G2(2x) = 5G41(X)+4COSTTXG21(X) G2VJx) = '2 2 (1/5)(Ll(2x)2cos7rx) G (x)G2(x) = 2F2(x). M. Eric Halsey. pp. which we will call Gi(x). pp." The Fibonacci Quarterly b (1967). pp.
2. INTRODUCTION The socalled Pellian Diophantine equation is x2 .2) if required. The approach adopted is less general than that of Bernstein [1] but is. 99 (2.G.SHANNON The New South Wales Institute of Technology. whose works on pyramidal Diophantine equations [3] and the JacobiPerron algorithm [2] should be seen for further extensions. SEQUENCES We define sequences { w ' r ) } which satisfy the arbitrary order linear homogeneous recurrence relation (2.1) V/T> = Y s. Broadway.rl r.1) by D(m. .r Xlr mxir xrr mx2r mxf r *2 *3r mx mx r. in a sense.n sl.n where D = [w]. w (r\Dr~iw(r) .?x2 = 1 22 12 which can be generalized to = . i*22 nix12 Vl2 X22 A generalization of this is in turn provided by \xt x (1. \x22~mxi2\ or ahs.xrr) .(1 e Z + . We designate the determinant in Eq. s>2. n+1 r s < n + I s.r2 1.PELLIAN DIOPHANTINE SEQUENCES A.nl The initial values W\\. with boundary conditions determined by s < n+ 1 W(f> = 6. have not been specified because they are not used in this development.1) and (2. Australia 1. ^—' \j) j=l n > r. (2.nj w an r degree irrational: = m = Dr +d.0. For encouragement with an earlier draft of this paper thanks are due to Bernstein. The aim of this paper is to construct a solution for this generalized Pellian Diophantine equation.r s~l. (1. s.1) abs.2) y .xir. 171. . more direct.. rl. They are readily determined from Eqs.n > [l<„<r w(r) = Ds1 W(r) = DWW + W(r\ . s.
0 ••• 7 .100 PELLIAN DIOPHANTINE SEQUENCES The table provides some examples of S Yl S Yl / \ Each of the sequences can be expressed in terms o'f the fundamental sequence [6]. {\Ny } .nj l.. since when n = 7. w(r) 2.. —.) .sl W<* V j=0 Proof.n J a n d W(r) = m(r) 2.. 1 detM = (IT\rl = det/l/i. Proof. The result clearly follows from induction on n. r.r+l w( 2% = N2. det/V n = (1)n(rlJ. ~J~ 3=0 = t j=0 j=0 as required 3. ± L^^oty^ fc=i j=0 £ £ fy*)^^^ k=l j=0 .2.» .. det/i/„ = (rf'iXnVff)''! = (7)n(r^.n l.n = DW(r)+W(r) t. When s = 1.r+2 N3 = MN2 = l\/l2Nly andst) on. we have respectively W(J) = W(r) l. Lemma 2.r+l r.n t1 y ltl\ IpHUr) m + DHlyy(j) n # t.nl Li \ j J L l. 0 7 0 0 M 0 0 7 rD lr2\D2 Lemma 1.2.0 7 0 0 .n l.n +w(r) l. LEMMAS We define matrices M. t. Nn .r+l w(rl 1 0 "0 r. Proof. MNi 0 1 0 7 0 rD °'\\° 1 \° rD 1 \1 r  3f 0 w(.3 W(r) 7 r.nl Suppose the result is true for 5 = 7. W(r) t+l. Lemma3.. 7 rD rl  Nn+1 = MnNt .
n+j+l j=l r2 W l..k .xlr.n+r r~l (rl)DJW(r) + y ^ \ j j j=l r.2.n+l  VV (r) W r.n+2 W(J) k=l (r) W 2.n+j+2 V r.xrr) ^ [ j j=l r. RESULT Theorem. x j=0 are solutions of the Pellian Diophantine equation / = D(m. . Fori.n+r W(r) W l.n+1 ^ f e "Vi. Lemma 3 becomes = detNn V l.n+r V r. .n+k+2 .n+rl / )UVVl. 101 PELLJAN D10PHAE\!TiNE SEQUENCES We consider coefficients of w: rk1 L 3=0 ( rk\ l\njw(r) j ) rk1 y> It ..1) r wkxik = £ E k=l r i/\/( ) l.1978] Proof.n+r W .* \ / 7 % W .n+r l.xir.^ ^ [ j )U'"fr.n+2 W(r) l.xrr).n+r r.k = 1.n+j+k+l 2^ \ j=0 j ) u +W(r) \UVV^n+j+k+1 ) wi)n+j+k> rk1 j=0 j=0 rk j=0 4.n+2 2r l j=l l.n+1 V 2.fe • 2. W(r) y l.n+r *11 X12 X21 X22  \xlr x2r  x rl Xr2 xrr D(m.l\ nj(nW(r) = U VV i+l.n+j+l \.n+2 r.r.n+r—l l.n+l + y [ > .n+l VV (1)n(rl) . Proof.n+2 r. r (4.
x12 = w[2j = 2. Lecture Notes in Mathematics. Math. Bull. which satisfy X 22mX12= when n = 0.n~l s." Trans. x23  tf£+y * « = <fj + i When n = 0. 7689. Leon Bernstein." Canad. Math. G. "The Generalized Pellian Equation. 207. 9 (1971).1). 15 (1972). x23 = WJV = 2.n~l s. CONCLUSION we have and = I = W^. Math. 327. 2. "Pell Identities/' The Fibonacci Quarterly. and x33 2DW(2>+W(2) s. x22 x12 = W^+2.n2 . Vol. Horadam. n > 3.Heidelberg .W^. 5. Band 268/269 (1974)." The Fibonacci Quarterly. REFERENCES 1. 391409. *22 = W(l{ = I 1.. 12 (1974).*/. The relevant recurrence relation is = 3D2W(3> .PELLIAN DIOPHANTINE SEQUENCES 102 APRIL 1978 by equating coefficients of wk in Eq. 6. m =9. x13 = W[3J = /. Amer. reine angew. Vol. The other way of generalizing the Pellian equation. "Explicit Solutions of Pyramidal Diophantine Equations. 5.n~2 s.New York. 4. +3DW(3) 0+w(3) . The relevant recurrence relation is W(2) = s. 177184. we have D = IKJ91=2. which satisfy x 3+mx23+m x13~3mxi3X23X33 = 1. (4. namely. 3. Vol. s. "Some Properties of a Fundamental Recursive Sequence of Arbitrary Order.n When r = 3. 245252. xrmyr = 1. "Fundamental Units from the Preperiod of a Generalized JacobiPerron Algorithm. 263. (1) Vol.m=2. F. 1971. Leon Bernstein. *33 = W(/J = 4.n3 There is scope for further research in generalizing the properties of the secondorder Pellian sequence discussed by Horadam [ 5 ] . as examples: When r = 2. Soc. A.". The use of the JacobiPerron Algorithm in this context should be studied first [ 2 ] . *12 = W^ = I which satisfy x2 22mx2i2 = ~. 127 (1967). Shannon. The JacobiPerron Algorithm: Its Theory and Application. SpringerVerlag. Consider. Leon Bernstein. D = U2] When n = 1. Ch. W(3) is still an open and challenging question as Bernstein [4] remarked. Leon Bernstein. 6. Berlin . A. . *22 = W(22J = 3.n s.
t.h. Stirling numbers. STIRLING NUMBERS L.KJx) C.t. will be considered in the neighborhood of the origin.wM = %x(xh)(2xh3w)1/4w(hz B4.w) = (1.19w2) +5w)x2 + 1.Kw L.h.h.3) = £ f ht (1 + wt)hlw1 2h 1+Wtllw — (1+wt)2hlw <S>(x. GENERALIZED BERNOULLI. B2.I ip(t.2) (1. StaSy SUMMARY The present_paper is a continuation of researches begun by the author in previous publications [3.wM = x(xh)(x Bsh WM = x(x . i  /.!.TOSCANO Messina.—.w) IM\ (1.h.wM = B3.SOME RESULTS FOR GENERALIZED BERNOULLI. And these can be deduced by the recurrent relation [4] 103 5 §..w2)(h2 .2i .ht(1+wt)*l» (l+wt)hlwl (1.4) Bn.5 are B0. 5] on three classes of generalized Bernoulli. EULER NUMBERS AND POLYNOMIALS The generalized Bernoulli.. of course. 7.h.w) ..wM = %(2xh+w).(h2 +45hw + 110w2)x + ^ h3  Z O 0 .h)[x3 %lh ' ' 2w)(xh2w) ^ 2_„. 1.15w3] +1w(h2 . t» n ! En.w(x) = h Bl. (h2 . „= 0 j ' B = £ (x) j.1) //A .hw2 0 . x(xh)+1(h2W2). Euler numbers in question. and the related polynomials. The explicit expressions of Bn. where h and w are real parameters.wz). for a correct treatment.w) = +1 *" n! n=0 __ £ ^o 2h 1+wt X W ( n! ST F = ^ En^w F(x.h..h.w2)(h2 . .h. Euler. will be proved some additional interesting results. are defined by the series f(t.9w2).h.hfW(x) for n = 0. And here. EULER. These series.4.
Moreover.2h)w2 + 6h(h .h. h(h + 4w)x4 + 5hw(4h + 7w)x3 +  h(h3 . 1.h. .h .h)W(x).h.w = * En. L.h. Euler.h)w4. Tanzi Cattabianchi [ 2 ] .w = "n.h.4w2).w/2''2' El. generally defined by the generating expansions d. n > 0.1)w3 +24M1 . . n > 0. 7 • * .w = M2h.wM = hx4 2h(h+3w)x3 +hw(9h + 1lw)x2+h(h3 3~h2w(h2 E5.h)w2 .h. For relations with generalized Bernoulli.w = 0. the numbers Bn.h. 1 = 2 /2h(2xh).h. polynomials.1) „rlB'*>»M = [APR. it is easy to see that generalized Bernoulli.l)(4h2+2hEs.12w3)x j h2(h4  3 j h2w2 20w3)x2 +24w4).4h2 + l)w + 35h(h .6w3)x 2w2). reduce to the ordinary Bernoulli.ilw(x)/ En. The explicit expressions of En.^)W are given by E().1)w + 11h(l .h.1)(2h2 + 2h . of course.w M = hx h(h+ w)x + M w.(a+r.h.h.104 SOME RESULTS FOR GENERALIZED E (:)(~Wr [1 .^fW(x) for/7 =0.hfW = ~h3.w = h. (a)r = a(a + 1) . —. F5. —. and the polynomials Bn.I h(h +2w)x2 E3.w.l)w3 .1)(2h2 +2hE4.w = h. = hx5 .h.hfW = h3(5h2llw2). F4.h. F3. it will be useful to estimate also the expression Fn. "(xMnl.w = 3h3w. Lagrange [ 1 ] . 1)+3h(2h . And these can be deduced by the recurrent relation [4] nl 2En. E2.w("'t ^n.h.h. 1) + 6h(1 ./ n=0 "• f<*ir. where (a)0 = 1.wM Ei.wM +hw(3h +2w)x + 1.w = E3. we introduce the particular expressions for n = 0.L * » .w M + Yl ( r) f . • The first six values of En. Euler.h.wl2(h/2).h)(2h2 +2h . 1.^tWi Enfa. 5are Eo. and later extensively in the author's paper [ 4 ] . Euler.h.w = h(h . = hx3 . h2 .21 hw2 2hw(5h3 ..h.w = 2nEn. Fi. If h = 1.u> = h(1 h). numbers and polynomials.5: F 0.h.1). Euler. numbers can be derived by the formulas "n.h.w = 4h(1h)(4h4+4h3 h(12h)th(h1)w.^ ^ M ^ r / M r=0 * ! 'X> = 2h(w)n(xMn .wM = h.wM E4. And here.5) 7 .D  10(8h4 . The theory of generalized Bernoulli.25hw2 .h2(h2 .1)w2 + 50h(2h .11hw2 .hfW = 0. E2. 2 E2. numbers and polynomials was first investigated by R.Kw = 50h3w(h2w2).l)w+2h(1 .h.
afy = 1.r> 1 < r < n.1)sni>r. with a$ = 0. .1) r! ui Provided x = 0. and the recurrences 5 = s n. a$ = JOu. with s n. Sn}T = 0.= E En £ . aty = /. Sn)T.f(x). f—tx = J ] f n W £7.0 sn.rl +r 1 < r < fl. "' n=0 IfI <2ir. a$ = (11)3. they have been generalized with the coefficients a(u) satisfying the recurrence »($ = a^l. e2t+„ n=0 (17) f^el1 r < n/2.r = = = Of Sn. aty = u(7u+4). In our paper [ 3 ] . GENERALIZED STIRLING NUMBERS The ordinary Stirling numbers of the first and second kind snr.r nl.£ . Snl. (2.r $n. ^nl.rl ~ I" + r<u V 'J«£ir> J <r<n. a$ = 6u. 2.1978] BERNOULLI. 0. a$ = 1.2. provided r > n. r= 1. and it is interesting to note here that (2.8) 10S f  < 7T. a<$uj = 5u(u+1)(3u+2). sn>n = 1. a$ = 0 provided r > n .STIRLING NUMBERS 0® .5.2) aW = (1)n £ (1)k(rk)(kuk)n nr r {k ' (u1) r! & ' . are defined by the initial values sn. .i = (Ip^nD!. And the particular expressions of a$ for/? = 1. aty = 5u(5u+2). a£} = _U/ B(u} = h aty = 3u. .0 0. where A x is the descending difference defined by the relation Axf(x) = f(x + v) .(n .2. EULER. = E A„W J . e *7 n=0 (1.1) »W = ( 1>nT A x(x) ~ n r (u . a(?J = (u)4. 5.rl = . are a(uj = h aft = (u)2. Our paper [3] presents an extensive treatment of the coefficients a^y.
106
SOME RESULTS FOR GENERALIZED
[APR.
(2.3)
X
r=l
'
r
(2.4)
r=0
(2.5)
snMSk}r(1u)k\
aM = . £
k=r
from which
*(1)=snr,
(2.6)
n T
n,r
(2.7)
> '
J i m ^ [<1ut™a<»>l
(2.8)
g(0)
n,r
J2)
n,r
(2.9)
9(V„
(2.10)
n,r
(2.11)
=
L.G!f
g(y2) =
n,r
Jo,r<n,
l,r  n ,
iivnr
' "
pnr
=Sn>r:
n±[nl\
rj [r ij '
r \
r > n / 2
r! \n  r/
tlJ^r(2n_r_V/,n_y
22n2r
_
(f]
J}/
\ r1}
For references and applications of the coefficients a^/ to the operators satisfying the condition of permutableness
of the second order, see the more recent our paper [5].
3. PARTICULAR EXPANSIONS. nth DERIVATIVE OF
y(t)=
(f+wtjU»Ht
(1 + wt)hlwi
where
72 =
_7
From (1.5), placing to the left member the term 1, t/2 under the summation sign of the right member, we find,
as it is well known, the expansion
°°
2n+l
tanr = £ (~1)n22n+2(22n+2
 l)B2n+2 —
,
\t\ < TT/2.
n=0
(2n+2)!
Now, an expansion analogous to (3.1) will be derived from (1.1), proceeding similarly. First of all we have
(3.1)
J£(1 + wt)hlw1
1
1 + 1/2(hw)t =
~ (2ht + [(hw)t2][(l
2[(l + wt)hlw
1]
+ wt)hlw  1])
oo
 V R ,
l^t
r=2
D
t'
r;h,w ~f 
At once, changing at first t with 4t, w with w/4, and after t with 2t, w with w/2, we obtain the expansions
1
2[(1+wt)
(8ht + [4htwt2][(1+wt)4hlw
—
4hlw
1]
=
JL* 2 rBr;h)W/4 f ,.
r=2
1])
1978]
BERNOULLI, EULER,STIRLING NUMBERS
7
2[(1 + wt)
2hlw
2][(1 + wt)2hlw
(4ht + [2ht wt
1])
107
2YB
=YJ
r=2
 1]
r;h,wl2
j, ,
from which it follows that
tr
.
] T (2 rBr;k}Wi42rBr;h,wl2)
r=2
r!
1
4hlw
(8ht + [4ht wt2][(1 + wt)4h,w
i]
\2hlw + 1]  [2htwt2][(1
+ wt)zniw
+ wt)4hlw
2[(1+wt)
4htf(1
_ht[(l+wt)
2hlw
2
2hlw
1]
_ht[(1+wt)
(1 + wt)2hlw
,4h/w_1
i2h/w
(3.2)
h[(1 + WtrHIW
(l+wt)2hlw
 1] _
+1
v
.
0n+2nn+2n
 1]

1])
1]
+1
n
+n+l
t"
.
(
£b
2}
'
Moreover by (1.4), replacing x by h/2, w by w/2, t by 2t, we obtain the other expansion
2h(1 + wt)
' ^ —
2hlw , (1 + wt)
^ I
(3.3)
and since
h_ . (1 + wt)2hlw
1
2hlw
' a+wt)
+
+i
2nEn.M2(h/2)
= Z
"
*,
' ' '
n!
n=0
2h(l+wt)hlw
d+wt)
2hlw
=
+i
_h
h[(1 + wt)hlw
+i]2
2hlw + J]
<+wt)
i[a+wt)
+ 1]
2hlw
wt)hlw+i
(1 +
hlw
a+wt) i'
we deduce thus the interesting expansion
(3.4) h (1+wt)hl"+i=
1
(1 + wt)h/wi
£ 2^i(2n+2Bn+2;Kwl4Bn+2;h>wl2)
„=0
'
J^r(n+2)l
+
£ 2nEn;h}Wl2(h/2)
„=o
f
"
"'
After this expansion and for the following, it will be to estimate t h e n * derivative of
y(t)
(1+wt)hlw+i
(1+wt)hlw
i
Now we consider two continuous and derivable functions y = f(uj, u = <p(t), and the formula for derivatives of a composite function
&.= £ till . &. £ (1)k[
dtn
r=l
r!
dur
k=l
dtn
With the assumption
y = M
= —.+1.
u1
u = <p(f) = (1 +
wt)hlw,
we arrive at
fVT
dtn
r=l
L
r!
2UW)n y
(1+wt)n ~i
2i(1)rr!
(ui)
i
kr k
k nw/h
n
(v ( ky (wr(d£)nu 
(1+Wt)rhlw
hlw
r+1
[(1 + wt) i]
y* /_ ;fc/r\/z*A\
tl
\kl\w I
108
SOME RESULTS FOR GENERALIZED
[APR.
Whence, by (2.2), we deduce, for n > Q,
(3.5)
dn
(l + wt)hlw+i
dtn
(1+wt)hlw1
_ 2iwn
n
(1 + Wt)
n
(1)rr!hr
r=l
(l+wt)rhlw
3(lhM
r
Hr
W
'
[(1 + Wt)
hlw
 //
r+1
Successively, putting t = 0, we have
' dn
(1+wt)h/w
n
dt
(1+wt)
+j
2iwn T
hlw
i
( 1)rr!hT

~
r=l
t=0
...r
W
.
a(iu*>)
n
>r
L
l,(1i); r+1
Moreover it is
~^ = l±l = J (cos TT/4+I slnn/4),
//
2
^
1
r+l
/cos (r + 1h/4 +i$\n(r+
(r+1 2
(1i)
2
)'
1
1h/4]
/cos (r  1)TT/4 + i sin (r  1h/4]
2(f+l)l2
,
and, however, it follows that (n > 0)
(3.6)
' dn
(1+wt)hlw
+ j~
n
(1+wt)hlw
i
dt
t=o
\rl„iur
= wnT
£
LdllMhl.
2(r~1)l2wr
a(*U»)fm
nj
(r  1h/4 +i sin (r  1h/4] .
4. FORMULAS FOR THE GENERALIZED BERNOULLI, EULER, STIRLING NUMBERS
We now, by (3.6), deduce the expansion of the function y(t) into a series of powers of t,
dnv(t)
vM = £
dtn
n=0
J
n!
t=0
(M
fE
n!
'" * E
£i
(V
' r 1 l2 r9hT
r
7^1 2(  ) w
atn 1r*1**/cos (r  Vn/4 + isin (r'
lh/4].
Hence, comparing with (3.4), we obtain the expansion
oo
E
nn+1 /0n+l „
*
[Z
Bn+i;h,w/4
tn
j
D
 0n+l;h,w/2/
/^
+
jjf
n=l
oo
n=l
+
S
~
n=l
^
n!
£
*J
r=l
/.'fr
H
o(rl) 2 r
*
W
 ni ^
r / c o i (r  th/4 + i sin (r  1fn/4j.
>
separating real and imaginary parts.Bn+1.2) n n. . we deduce the formulas 2n+1 o2n+ll02n+2 fJ {2 ^ ~1j B2n+2 n+ 1 n +1 (5. They"realize the principal objective of the present paper.w = 0.1) 2n+l Y. Euler. En. Stirling numbers.h)U).1) 2n (2n Bn+i. while lim [wn*J1llw>] =Snr.h>w. (4.r COS fr. (a) If h = l.r < n. PARTICULAR FORMULAS In this section we shall indicate some special cases of (4.1).h. (5. n > 0.2) __ £ M / .1978] BERNOULLI.W + V . E ' ) (5. Equations (5. (5. (4.h/2 from which nh D ~J °nl.h.  l. Euler. reduce to the ordinary Bernoulli.1h/4 = 0.r u> .r = fo.r™s(rr 1 12 2( ~ ) Vir/4. l S2n.h. EULER.2) = (n + 1 !( ! ^+1 2(n~lJ/2 Moreover.r sin (r . it follows that o ®n. we have (2.h>w/2(h/2) (4.a(M) r £ 2( ^ sjn (r _ 1h/ 12 both for n > 0. Consequently.4) are two additional formulas concerning ordinary Bernoulli.ilfil/2. we establish the interesting formulas W. (b) \\w = h. 2(rV12 n > 0. S 2n. and equating the coefficients of tn on both sides. numbers.1) reduces to (5.M4 .w/2) _.2).w/4Bn+l. therefore.h.(n + 1) f (irhih^w™ a(ihi»)C0S(r_Vn/4f r 1 12 fr\ 2(  > 2nEn.» oo Moreover.r^(r1fr/4 = 0.1) and (5. y ~ r . it isB 2n +i = 0 for/7 >®. the generalized numbers Bn. by (4.4) E2n = £ % >' = 0.STIRLING NUMBERS 109 from which.5) 2n+1(2n+1Bn+1.8) (lhlw) n.h/2 > cos (n  1h/4.1h/4. 5. by the recurrent relation for Bn. (4.r = n .2).E2n+i / { = E ^ 7 jri r / y ' l $2n+i.1).hih. 1 t r_t r j l { 1"$2n+l.3) 2n .
~w = i '/ "n . by (5.h.1) reduces to (58) 2n+ (2n+ Bn+1.'r).1)h D Bn.2*to(rr=2 VI Dn/4 = m{n1h/4.plh/4Bn+1. we have (2.h.9) ^ n n > Q.hl4 .2) at first w = h and after w = ~h.9) £ '(Vr1(?z})2(n~r). (d) \\w = h/2.r = / f 7)nr " n[(n.5) with (5. it follows cos (r .hihi8 ~ Bn+1.u> (h/2) = (.1 j ' and (4.l)(n2)h3 _n D Jjtf " Bn3.h.1\ rf \r .2n*(r 1 >«/4 = cos^~ ^/* r=l Putting into (4. for A? > 0.1D 2n+1(2n+1Bn+1.h}hi4) (n + l)!hn+l E (I?1 {„ I r ) 2(Jr+1)'2 M 2?2n r~l2 Consequently.7) This formula can be derived by the recurrent relation 2 P . 3nh n .h. returning to (5.8) we have the identity.h.VnEn.h>w(h/2) .1h/4.7). . we have (2. n(n.1) becomes (5.10) n J^ (1)rfrz})2(n. easily transformable in other forms to constant coefficients.hfh/2 [APR. and remembering that [4] En. n!(h)n n2n Consequently.10) a(lhlw) nyr = J. (5.Bnl.h/4 + JQ1— Bn2.h.h)h/2) n (_ijrl(nl\ = (n + 1)!hn+l Y cos (r .hl4 = 0. n(n . 2 (5. Moreover.nJt r \ r! \nrj > r > n / 2 2n_r and (4.110 SOME RESULTS FOR GENERALIZED (56) Bn. (c) \\w = h. we prove the identity (5. n + Jlh/w) n.h>hi4=!±!t!>}l[1+2(n+2)l2%\n(nT</4)]. / Vn n > 0.1h/4.w > and comparing (5.5) we deduce Bn. 1 .h/4 + J. for/7 > 1.h. it is [4] "n.
reduces to the identity.h.h.wPnr. w e h a v e (2. the special formulas feci (6 5) 2 n ^ I L.l)f ' [ r .l j ' Then (4.h. EULER.l. for n > 0. n > 0.STIRLING NUMBERS 22»+2Bn+uh>m (5.h = 0 for n > 0. n (6.2) 2Jl+wtL.h)w/4Bn+l.6) and the relation Bn.0 ^ f'E2n> P2n+l. by (5.r (2nr1)! 22n~2r ' (nl\ (n . ' If h = 1.h. A DERIVATIVE FORMULA Putting P P n. r=0 V n > 0.w/2)h j2n y ~ Enfrtwl2(h/2). the expansion (3.7)(22"2r 1) n (r+t)(nr) B o v 2r+2B2n2rL r=0 j2n+2 + Z /n2n+2 2 n' +J = ^ B2n+2 = 0. in conclusion. Euler numbers (6.h.12) = (n+J''h?n+1 ((Vn+ln+2W2vn(n+1h/4] n2n+2 + 111 \ £ <~irl VL . (2n\F F (2r)E2rE2n2r .3) we obtain.'('" z})2(r+1).r) 2(3r+5)'2 C0S (r ~ 7. n (5.w 0. n > 0.Kw+2nwPn.Kw+h £ (")Pr.w = 0.11) _ (1)n~r 3(lhlw) n.2n* r!(2nr r=l \ r <r ~ *>«/* = 2n(n~1)!n!. I 6.l.1978] BERNOULLI.7t/4 ) • r>n/2 (e) lfiv = ^ .0 = n2n+l /p2n+2 J^pj _ *i &2n+2 > and from (6. r=0 \2r + l) \ 22n(22r+2 . w = Of we have the interesting connections with the ordinary Bernoulli.3) 2Pn+1.v> ='/ 2n+l +i = fn + jjh ' (2n Bn+l.4) can be written in the form (1+Wt)hlwi n=0 "' Moreover.dm=1F2(t)i h at from which the recurrent relation follows.h.4) P2n.13) £ 1).1). it is not difficult to show that the function Fit) satisfies the functional equation (6.
201309. APRIL 1978 n>0. 492518. "Polinomi e numeri di Bernoulli e di Eulero parametrizzati. 2. Univ. kkkkkkk EXPANSION PAMILLA GRAVES SMITH 1609 Main Street. 6891. "Numeri e polinomi di Bernoulli parametrizzati. you sift My drifting days and sort the prime. 3(1939). 3. backwardforward go." Matematiche.. Happily. As solid as geometry. you bring a rate of change Which grows in my heart proportionate to you. "Numeri di Stirling generalizzati e operatori permutabili di secondo ordine. R. Wyoming 82930 As every science. 51 (1928). while my regard for you goes On. 721757. L. Toscano. my worthiness a proof shows. As comingnow as spring. 4. r=0 REFERENCES 1. Tanzi Cattabianchi. While mathematics only is built upon and grows. 281291. 24(1969) pp. exponent of grace. Like the Sieve of Eratosthenes. pp. STIRLING NUMBERS E2n+2 = £ ( £ . (2)4(1963). as crystalline as snows. By you. pp. Parma. L. Sci." Commentat. a proper fraction of civility Is mine. Evanston. save one. Toscano. As determinants reflect a change. By power of example. Your range Is my domain. L. ] ) 2 [\2 ' B2n+2E2n2r. L. Toscano. Instead. palindromic. 5." Riv. . You multiply and lace my life with life. The race Is mine! Cantorlike you lift Me to infinity sublime And grant me a number prime. that foolish enterprise of sensibility.. pp. "Me'moire sur les Suites de Polynomes/'/lcteMcrt/?. So. "Numeri di Stirling generalizzati. I mirrorimage you And." Mathematiche.6) SOME RESULTS FOR GENERALIZED BERNOULLI. operatori differenziali e polinomi ipergeometrici. pp.112 (6. Approaching the limit of joy. my life's whole whims and whimsies pied See their demise. Mat. is modified and cast aside. Pontificia Ac. with you no negative numbers can deride My existence. 22(1967). I am subset of you. from autumn into spring. Lagrange. too. EULER.
South Dakota 57007 and VERIER E.HOGGATT. it is easy to show that the generating function for {(Jn}n=o >s m H) + . shows that the total number of /rcombinations of the first n natural numbers such that no two elements / and / + 2 appear together in the same selection is F^+2 if n = 2m and Fm+2Fm+3 \tn=2m+l. Brookings. C.. Using the well known fact that nn nn fnM . . fn+1M = XfnM + fnifXJ. and then start the summation from m = 0.2 + 1)x2x4 [1(X2+2)x2+x4](1+x2) 113 . we have U0 = h Ut = 2.A COMBINATORIAL PROBLEM INVOLVING RECURSIVE SEQUENCES AND TRIDIAGONAL MATRICES GERALD E. fi(\) = 1. together with the techniques found in part VI of [ 6 ] .. U3 = 6. n > 1. A. Church.x . multiply by x2. where a=X*Vy+* and p=X~f2+4 .then the number of /rcombinationsof the first n matural numbers is L2\\n = 2m and LmLm+i if n = 2m + 1. U6 = 25. Jr. Letting \Un) ™=o be t n e sequence of /rcombinations of the first n natural numbers such that no two elements / and i + 2 appear together in the same selection. San Jose. if the ^combinations are arranged in a circle.^ f f .x 12x22x4+X6 m=0 5 . we have (4) £ f2m+2Mx2m to = *2 + 0. By applying standard techniques. Furthermore he shows.1. JR. U4 = 9.r V u//n*„« = V v^•(Ftc2 r 2# m+2 Fm+2Fm+3x)x n=0 vi„2m 2 3 4 = 7 +2x+2x +2x . U2 = 4. California 95192 In [ 2 ] . Although this rational function may be very interesting in its own right. Doing this we have (2) £ (F2m+1 + Fm+1 Fm+2x)x2m m=0 1+ X x2 ? ' 4 2 4 = 6 6 = 12x 2x +x L 9 2 J • (1xx )(l+x2) Incidentally. U5 = 15. BERGUM South Dakota State University. (1XX2)(1+X2) m=0 The results of (2) and (3) can be generalized in a very natural way to the sequence of Fibonacci polynomials defined recursively by f0Ck) = 0. San Jose State University. so that / and n are consecutive with no two elements / and / + 2 appearing together in the same selection. it can be shown that oo (3) E (F2m+1x + FmFm+1)x2m = \ . it is also surprising to observe what happens if we replace m by m .
and then starting the summation from m = 0. we have (7) E tfLiM+fm+i00fm+2Mx]x2m 1+ x 7 \" \ = 2 m=0 v 2 4 2 [1 ~ (X +2)X +X ](1 +X ) = h (1 .(*L±Vx + 2 [1Ck +2)X2+X4](l+X2) m=0 Adding (4) and (5).6. Pi (X) = I Pn+i (X) = (1. n} andP(Sn) be the power s e t o f f . 12.• +X2) Minor manipulations of (4) and (5) will also yield E Via MX + fm Mfm+1 Ml*2™ = (8) m=0 —. —. Let Tn be the number of elements of P(Sn) with no two elements congruent modulo two.2. Hence.3 + \)x3x4^5 H~(k2+2)X2+X4](1+X2) m=0 2 Replacing m b y m . Furthermore there is one element of order zero and there are n elements of order one. Another generalization of (2) and (3) occurs when we examine the sequence of Pellian Polynomials defined recursively by P0(X) = 0. Our final generalization of (2) and (3) is obtained by returning to subsets of a given set. any even integer with any odd integer. and • £ fm+2(Ufm+3Mx2m+1 (5) l\3+Vx3te5 . (7) and (8) are (2) and (3) when A = 1.XX2) When X = . The first nine terms of {Tn)n=o with To = 1 are 1. (1\XX2)(1+X2) As should be the case.•.2. 3. LetS„ = {1. 16. The number of elements of order two is mm if n is odd and /?" /4 if /? is even.25. To develop a formula for {Tn}n=o we first note that any element of P(Sn) of order three or more is rejected. multiplying by x .X)Pn(X) ./ . we obtain (6) £ lf2m+2M + fn+2Mfm+3(KMx2m = ^2+K3+Ux + Ck2+1)x2 + 0.Xx~X2)(l .4. .20.\Pn_i (XI n > 2 Since nn on where a = <1X) + ^/X2 6X + 1 and £ = (770 xA 2 6X + 1 we can use the techniques found in part VI of [6] together with arguments used to develop (7) and (8) in order to show that oo (9) £ [P2m+i (X) + Pm+i (X)Pm+2(X)x]x2m m=0 1 = [1(1 — X)X + Xx2[(1  \X2) and <10> E m=0 lp2m+i(X)x+Pm(X)Pm+1(X)]x 2m _ X [1(1 X)X + Xx2](1 .1 we obtain the sequence of Pellian numbers.114 A COMBINATORIAL PROBLEM INVOLVING RECURSIVE [APR. .9.
c) = 1 Pt (a. au = c if i = j+2. we have fi/n (14) 1 2 n i 2X)X~\„2m _ 1+3x + 7x2+6x3 4x42x5 (Lm+1+ +iLm+iLm+ 12x22x4+x6 m=0 V^ 2 which does not simplify and is therefore not as appealing as the result in (2).2abe)2 and ax = 0 otherwise. and (13) V n=l V xn  T (L2+l m=l L ^x)x2m  = (1 + 7x24x4)x2 12x22x4+x6 (3 + 6x2 2x4)x3 12x22x4+x6 (1 + 3x + 7x2 + 6x3 . V4 = 12. V3 = 9. so that 1 and n are consecutive. The first eleven values of Pn(a.c) defined to be one are P0(a. 12x22x4+x6 (1xx2)(1+x2) m=0 which does not simplify further and is not as appealing as equation (2). However.b.c) =•(a1 be)2 (a. they were not successful. The generating function for {Tn}n=o is OO OO  2* (1D E Tnxn = m=0 E [(m + I)2 +(m + 1)(m +2)x]x2m = / 2)*3 / .b. V5 = 16.c) = (a^).c) = a 2 P2(a. V± = 1. we see that V2 = 3.c) = a Pi(a.t+LmlLmX)* " 7 " — . .c) = a5 3a.b .b.b. (11) and a sequence of determinants of tridiagonal matrices defined by the rule Pn(a. We now turn to the major result of this article which is the establishment of a relationship between (2).c) = (aJ.b. in order to obtain the same form as (2).4x4 . multiply b\] x2. and then sum from/?? = 0 we have MR* H5) V (i2 +i i vW2m . If we replace m by m . where au = a if i = j. (1~x)2(1X2) m=0 The authors also found the generating function for the sequence of /rcombinations of the first n natural numbers arranged in a circle.c) with Po(a.b.1 in (13).3bc+2ab2c2 P6(a. (7). V6 = 28.b. (9).1 ~2x+2x2 +6x3 9x4 +3x5 _ 13x + 6x23x3 2^ (Lm.1178] SEQUENCES AND TRIDIAGOiyAl MATRICES Tn = »±=Ji+n + 1 = <n + 1)<n+3)0 US odd n and =(lL±lf> Tn = j+n+1 n even. * (1X2)3 (1X (1X)2(1X2) while (12) E [<m + 1)2x + m(m + 1)]x2m = * . The authors tried several other substitutions and manipulations of (13) in order to obtain a rational function whose numerator is a one or an x. . V7 = 49. with no two elements / and / + 2 appearing together in the same selection. a^ = b if i = j2.2x5)x2 12x22x4+x6 Replacing m by m + 1 and summing from m = 0.c) = a>abc P4(a.b. Letting {Vn}^=1 be the stated sequence.b.
c) = (a^ 4a3bc + 3ab2c2)2 . U3 = 8. Hence.c) = a7 5a5bc + 7a3b2c2 2ab3c3 PH(a. the generating function for {Un}n=o oo (19) if . (17) becomes (7).However if one were to actually evaluate the determinants he would see a nice pattern developing in the way he finds those values. When be = 1 and a = X.2x3 .  By applying the results of [ 3 ] . It would seem at first that there is no order. The authors were unsuccessful in trying to find a sequence of determinants whose generating function was related to (15). When be = Xand a = (1 . V3 = 8. to the sequence \Pn(a.c)}n=o.3a2bc +b2c2)2 P9(a.V + F F2 ~2u. . In fact it can be shown by induction that Pn(a. s The generating function for {Pn(a. U6 = 27.13a3b3c3 +3ab4c4 Pio(a. V7 = 36. V4 = 12. U9 = 125.X4 + X5 .b. it can be shown that 3 fF h k+2 (18) Un F F k+2 k+3> F k+2Fk+3> th where F^ is the k n = if ru = 3k+2 3k+1 . U5 = 18.abcPn_3(a. Church which can be found in [ 1 ] . Denoting the sequence by { l / n } ~ = o . we wish to determine the number of subsets of Sn for which 3n. / +X + X2 . it is easy to illustrate that U0 = 1.3m m+1 Fm+2X + Fm+1 Fm+2X Jx + F 3x8x9 3 .1)(x +4x 3 V fF3 2 ^ lhm+l m=0 Fm+1F2m+2x2]x3m3 + 1+2x + 4x2+5x3+6x4+6x5 6 f?m UU) n = 3k if Fibonacci number.c) = aPn_i (aAc) . it is easy to illustrate that V0 = 1.bcx2)(1 ax + bcx2) n=0 When be = 1 and a = 1. (17) becomes (9). Whence = 7 and a =2.b.c) +b2c2Pn4 (16) .1) we have +F2 F .3n + 5 are not in the same subset.X6 (X6X3 = 1)(X6+4X3 1) (1x2)(1+x+2x2 x3 +x4) (x6 x3 1)(x6+4x3 1) Ourfinal example deals with counting the number of elements of P(Sn) which have no two members of the same subset congruent modulo three. Using Sn and P(Sn) as previously defined. V2 =4. (17) becomes (2). U8 = 75. 3n + 3 or 3n + 1. U2 = 4.b.c)x (1 .c))n=o " found to be (17) E Pn(a. Ui = 2. V9 = 64. P7(a.116 A COMBINATORIAL PROBLEM INVOLVING RECURSIVE [APR.b.b. U7 = 45.\ ) . V8 = 48.b. 3n + 4 or 3n +2.b. except for the perfect squares. V6 = 27. Similarly we had no success in trying to find such a sequence of determinants for the last two examples which we shall now discuss. Letting Un be the number of acceptable subsets for a given n. (17) becomes (11). In order to determine a formula for Vn.c) = (a4 . U4 = 12. we first note that all elements of P(Sn) with four or more members are . V5 = 18. Vt = 2. Our first example deals with a generalization of the problem of C.b. A. IS oo £ Unxn = £ n=0 m=l = [F3m+1+F2m+1Fm+2x (x x 3 3x63x7 6 Summing (19) from m = 0 and multiplying both sides by x x10 x11 .b.c) = a97a ^bc + 16a5b2c2 .
No. Church. 3435. 1967). the number of valid sets of order three is (3k3+2)2(k+21)f2k+1)2(k+7)(k)2(k+31)(k) = k(k+1)2. "Advanced Problems and Solutions. When n = 3k. 5. Vol.1)2k(k+21)(2k+7)(k2)(2k+t)(k2){k+3i)2[k3) = k3 +k2 . pp. "Advanced Problems and Solutions.if it contains two elements of one column and one element from either of the two remaining columns or if it contains three elements from the same column. 299. [k3 +5k2 +8k + 4 = (k+l)(k+2)2. L Brown. we conclude that f k3 +3k2 +3k+1 = (k+1)3. When n = 3k+ 2. 1 (Feb. Church. Vol. C. 6.A. 3.. Hence the number of valid sets of order three if n = 3k + 1 is (3k. (21) Hence." H70. The Fibonacci Quarterly.2 3k+1 2 3 5 8 6 9 3k .. Vn =\ k3 +4k2 +3k+2 = (k+l)2(k+2). C. No. The number of subsets of Sn of order three is provided n =3k + 1. Jr." The Fibonacci Quarterly." H70. is [(m + 1)3+(m + l)2(m+2)x + (rn+1)(m+2)2x2]x3m m=0 (x2+x+1)2(x I)4 REFERENCES 1. No.A. pp. The Fibonacci Quarterly. 1968).7 3k An acceptable element of P(Sn) of order two is found by taking any element of the first column with any element in columns two or three and any element of the second column with any element of the third column. Jr. A subset of Sn of order three is not counted . " A Combinatorial Problem Involving Fibonacci Numbers. Hence. 4 (Dec. Let us now assume n = 3k + 1 and arrange the numbers from 1 to n as follows 1 4 7 3k . p. Jr.. When n = 3k +2 there are 3k2+ 4k + 1 allowable sets of order two while the nu mber of such sets if n =3k\s3k2. the number of valid sets of order three is (?)«GM5)*\ Combining the results above. 253255. J . 1965). the number of valid elements of P(Sn) of order two is 2k(k+1) + k2 = 3k2 +2k provided n = 3k + 1. . the generating function for \Vn)^=Q (22) YL n=0 v n*n = E n = 3k n = 3k+1 n = 3k + 2. 3. Furthermore there is always one element ofP(Sn) with no members and there are n elements of P(Sn) with one member. 3 (Oct. 2.SEQUENCES AND TR1D1A00NAL MATRICES 1978] 117 rejected in the counting process. Vol.
1 (Feb. Note: 1 is the first and the second old friend. They lighten our labors and open our eyes. O N T H E F O R M U L A n = 2 2 arcot f2k+l PETER G. Old friends are a joy and. "Now. Ho. While old Leonardo de Pisa did call. Now start back with TT. Hoggatt. So rewrite: n equals twice this plus twice that. We don't know the digit halfmillion and one.. Guiness. and keep your eyes keen It makes 4 arcotan the unit sublime. 1968).. 1973. Jr.ANDERSON New Jersey Institute of Technology. a surprise When they serependiciously drop by to chat. 6.L. Brown. "This" is the arcot of the first term of Len. 250. The even term's areotangent's easily seen to equal the sum of the next pair in line. The Fibonacci Quarterly. J." The Fibonacci Association. p. 7576. pp. et al. With series by Taylor. keep stout! There'll be other tries. is from the second old hat. Well worth the labor to open my eyes. at times. Newar.L Brown. Intermix't with the spurious inverse contans. Forming convergent series: sum twice arcot f Sub 2k + 1 which is n. Vol. New Jersey 07102 While questing the n + 1st digit of rr. The evens keep splitting. 4 (Oct. and Marjorie Bicknell." which we'll split. Jr. I tried the arcotan of integers high. 5. "Eureka!" quoth I.. Were eight Fibonacci terms standing right here. the odds hang behind. Waiting and patiently holding their hands. Jr. B." H137. "Advanced Problems and Solutions/' H137. 5 and 6. 6.4. I've got half my friends in a pretty new sum. 5264.118 A COMBINATORIAL PROBLEM INVOLVING RECURSIVE SEQUENCES AND TRIDIAGONAL MATRICES APRIL 1978 4. "Advanced Problems and Solutions. how about that!" For what to my wondering eyes should appear. No. V. From 2 we get 3. The Fibonacci Quarterly. from 4. J. I remind. "That. 1970). . pp. MacLauren. "A Primer for the Fibonacci Numbers. Vol. E.
B is the set of all numbers of the form a +b<j>.(1 . Using Binet's formula for un. Since (1 .(p)n > 0 as n > * f the cosine in the first term tends to one. SO that 1/2(a + j3) = un nx. a contradiction. We will show that the sequence {%\nunnx) con verges only to zero and thjs happens precisely when* is in an appropriate homothet of the set of integers in the quadratic number field Q(sj5). not both zero).s i n 3= 2 cos /2<a + j3) sin 1 /2(a/3) to show that if the limit lim sin unnx = p n exists. n Theorem 1.sin unn_2^x — J— 2 sin un_i nx shows that lim cos unnx = 0. M. while the sine in the second term tends to zero.h are integers. The identity gives sin un+i nx . where un is any sequence of integers satisfying the recurrence un = un± + un_2 (uo> ul a r e integers. we have s\nunnx = sin ^x. II Theorem 1 makes it plain that we must find the set B of all real x for which lim sin (j>nnx = 0. then p = 0. if lim sin unnx = pt 0.FIBONACCI SINE SEQUENCES M. lie .</>)]} nM. lim sin unnx = 0 iff n lim Sin 0 n ™L (uQ+utfy) Proof. j3 = un2 nx. n sin un+i nx = sin (un + un^\)nx = sin unnx cos un„\ nx + cos unnx sin un_inx implies lim sin unnx = 0.(1<l>)n~l[uo+ul(1<t>)] . for any*.{ ^"HUQ +Ui<t>) . where 0 = 1 A^ . Grand Forks. Let a = un+i nx.(fr)"'1 [u0 +ut(1 . However. MAIN RESULTS 1 We will use the identity sin a .j3) = un_i nx. B. and Vz(a . The theorem follows. GREGORY and J.s i n ™L acpr^fuo+uid^Jcos^ ^HUQ+U^). where a. 4>n1(u0+u1(S>)^'^.then n cos unnx = sin un+i nx . n Theorem 2. METZGER University of North Dakota.sin un_2Ttx = 2 sin un_inx cos unnx. North Dakota 58202 INTRODUCTION The purpose of this note is to find all real numbers* such that lim sin unnx exists. = 0. Therefore.
Since sn is an integer.(p)n°. Thus. Metzger. for/7 >no.0 .rn+2) . p.rn +i 6rn . Cambridge University Press. it is shown that lim sin 2n7T." Delta.6)rn N/5 ^5 In particular.is a member of the homothet n u +u ( o iP I uo+ui<p J It is well known [3.rn+1  rj. where pn is an integer and lim rn = 0. Cassels. This implies rn = 0.(rn+2 . Thus rn+2 = n n n+l + rn forn >rig. "Sequences of Sines. rn +i = (1 .<f))rn . W. and therefore (f>n°x = PHQ . In [ 2 ] . Since \\m rn = 0. 201] that B is the set of all integers in the quadratic number field Q(sJ5) and this suggests comparison with other sine sequences. so that * = PnJIft}"* • Using the facts that 1/0= 0 . 2. we see that x = a +h(j)for suitable integers a and b. B. It follows that B contains every number of the form a + / j 0 .y is in B if both x and y are in B. S.. then <pnx = pn + rn.(<pn+1x . we suggest it would be of interest to consider the same problem for the sine sequences sin un nx when the un satisfies a recurrence un = sun_i + tun_2. J. Zuckerman. we see that lim sn = 0.1) . n Then sn = (<Pn+2x . I. Now taking UQ = 1.0 ) n . pp. n In closing.1 and <p2 = 0 + 1.(1 . 8493. FIBONACCI SINE SEQUENCES APRIL 1978 We first observe that B is an additive subgroup of the real numbers. 136].the coefficient of 0 n must be zero.rn+1 rn) = (rn+2 . If lim sin c/)nnx = n 0.cos (j)n7rx sin (pnny showsjhat x . we find rn = rnJl' . M. To prove that every member of B has this form. in other words. New York. . it is apparent that 1 is in B and hence the definition of B shows that 0 is also in B. lim sin unnx exists iff A. p.+ °° and (1 . An Introduction to Diophantine Approximation. M. Letsn = pn+2 . Vol. Using Binet's formula. J./!/? introduction to the Theory of Numbers. where s and t are positive integers. 1972. 3.r exists iff 2n°x is an integer for some n no^Z Here we have shown that lim sin (f)nitx exists iff (pn°x is an integer for some no^Z. r Because 0 n . Third Ed. 1957. Niven and H. we must have sn = 0 for all n > HQ > 1. for sin (pnn(x .rn+1) . 5 (1975). <brn .pn+l ~Pn> s o thats w is an integer.120 Proof.rn) = (pnx((p2 . REFERENCES 1.(<j>nx . choosing n =no. Wiley & Sons. II CONCLUDING REMARKS Combining Theorems 1 and 2. u\ =2'\n Theorem 1 and observing that 2(j>1 = yj5. we have forn >no.* 0 as/? ^ °°. we adapt an argument from Cassels [ 1 . Gregory and J.y) = sin $nnx cos (pn7ry .
. A variety of techniques are used in deriving many of these summations. ntik+r n2k+r % .We have (0) and Fjk+r = ^zf^ where Ljk+r = Jk+r + Vh+r.HANSEN Montana State University. the following results are obtained: t nr JL (D % Fjk+r=Fr Rr \ f nnk+r + + 1_ i rM+r ok+r. Montana 59717 Many well known identities involving the first n terms of the Fibonacci sequence {Fj)™=o and the Lucas sequence U/I/So have extensions to the sequences {Fj+^JLo. „2k+r + Fk+r + F2k+r + .. ar d hence it is with these latter sequences that we are principally concerned. Using the summation formula for the first n terms of a geometric progression. . J^ + (DrFkr Lki+(n Fr k+1 Similarly. and hencea + j3= 1 a n d a ] 3 = .GENERAL IDENTITIES FOR LINEAR FIBONACCI AND LUCAS SUMMATIONS RODNEY T. {Lj+r^o._ _ a=l±£ and 0 = ^ . We begin by considering several basic results which are quickly deduced from the Binet definition of the terms of the given sequences. Since the subscripts are linear functions of j.x . Bozeman. Note that a and j3 are the roots of the equation x2 . This approach is introduced in [1] and [ 2 ] . these identities are called linear Fibonacci and Lucas summations. + Fn^^^)+(<L^^y{a Snr(a(n+1)k ap I" v v ' . one may find n (2) L H L(n+l)k+r + (U jk+r = n (3) £ (J)jFjk+r = Lk1 (VnFfn+l n (VnLfn+1)k+r Lr (1)k+l + + (D'Fkr + Fr + (1)rLkr + lr 1+(1)h Lk + X (V'Lfr+r = + (1)rLkr Lnk+r )k+r + (1)n+kFnk+r j=0 (4) +l + (Vn+kLnk+r h Lk + 1 + (1) These identities are used to simplify any summation expression that may be represented as a linear combination of Fibonacci and/or Lucas numbers.1 = 0. with extensions via a difference equation route given in [3] . One direction to take is to observe by (0) that Fjk+rFju+v = ^ lLj(k+u)+(r+v) ~ (" ^JU Fjk+r Lju+v = L = L jk+rLju+v Fj(k+u)+(r+v) + j(k+u)+(r+v) + 121 V Lj(ku)+(rv)l (D]U+VFj(ku)+(r~v) 3U (D "Lj(ku)+(rv) • . {Fjk)Y=o> and {Ljk}po> w n e r e r and k are f«*ed integers./\ ____.M l F(n+l)k+r + <1)k+lFnk+r 1] ?i ) x a7 ) ( »rltfn+1)k . Any such result may be considered as a special case of an identity related to sequences {F^+r}^ and {Ljk+r}f=o.1 ..
122
GENERAL IDENTITIES FOR LINEAR FIBONACCI AND LUCAS SUMMATIONS
[APR.
Identities (1) to (4) yield an expression for the sum of the firsts + 1 terms (0 <j <n) of each product given above.
Let us explicitly consider only the second such product.
n
n
n
(5)
J2
jo
F
jk+rLju+v
F
= J2
j=0
+
j(k+u)+(r+v)
= F(n+l)(k+u)+(r+v)
+
(~1)V YJ
3=0
(1)
(~^JUFj(ku)h(rv)
\k+u+l
U
V
F(k+u)(r+v) ~ Fr+v
lk+U+1
Fn(k+u)+(r+v) / " ^
ik+u+1
w l
Lk+ui + h i r
(VV[F(n+i)(k~u)+frv)
Lk+ui
+
~U+ Fn(ku)+(rv)
(D
+
+ (u"
(l)r~VF(ku)(rv)
~
F
ryJ
if u is even,
+<
hVV[(DnF(n+1
)fku)+frv)
+
m+kur
UF
(~I)"
n(h~u)+(r~v) + (1)'
V
F(hu)(rv)
+ FryJ
Lk„u + 1 + (1)k~u
iff/is odd.
Specifying k, u, r, and v as particular integers leads the reader to a countable number of interesting special cases.
The known (see [3] and [4]) generating functions for sequences [FJ^+^^Q
and {LJ^+^ZQ are now used to find
several additional classes of general linear Fibonacci and Lucas summation identities. We now list these generating
functions for referencewith the first be derived from (0) to show a general approach to such calculations.
(6)
f^.f*^,._,
/
__£_
/
a/3
k
7 a x
£
+ (1) x
(1)jF.k
xl
Fr +
+ (1)kx2
1Lkx
=
h 2
Lr + (1)r+lLkrx
jr
(1)1 L%+ xj =
j=0
'
+r
_ Lr +
k 2
1Lkx
j=0
Fr +
+ (1) x
(Lk+rLrLk)x
1Lkx
L
(FrLkFk+r)x
1 + Lkx + (1)hx2
1 + Lkx + (1) x
(8)
(ar&r) + (ar8k+akBr)x
I 7(ak+Pk)x + akpkx2 J
(Fk+rFrLk)x
= Fr+(1)r+lFkrx
J0
(9)
=
k 2
1Lhx
(7)
1 p x
Fr + (1)rFk_rx
=
aB
k
r + <1>rLkrX
=
1 + Lkx + (1)kx2
Lr +
+
(1)kx2
(LrLkLk+r)x
1 + Lkx +
(1)kx2
The derivative of these generating functions leads to identities which are of interest in themselves, and these in turn
yield additional summation results. We begin by differentiating both sides of (6) with respect to x.
d_
dx
so
H,
j=0
Fjk+rx>
d_
dx
Fr + (1)rFk_rx
1Lkx
+
(1)kx2
\
1978]
GENERAL IDENTITIES FOR LINEAR FIBONACCI AND LUCAS SUMMATIONS
E (J+1)FQ+l)h+rxJ
j=0
=
(VrFk,rx
d_
dx
k„2
+ (1)*x
1Lkx
+ (1)kx2
1Lkx
(1)kx2
+
1(l)kx2
(~DrFkr
1Lhx
+ (1)kx2
1Lkx
+
(1)kx2
L(j+1)kxJ
t k
£
1Lkx
+ (1)kx2
1Lkx
E ^i&xJ.i
j=0
dx
U+2(1)k+lx
Fr
+
123
j=0
(^rFkrF(j+l)k
xj
j=o
2  Ly,x
1 +
Fk
1~Lkx
+
(1)kx2
by special cases of (6) and (8),
= E EZ
j=0
s=0
tr+li
E ('1>FFk~rF(i+1,k*j
^ L(H+1)kxn
k
k
j=0
j=0
Fk
j=0
by convolution of the series and by (8),
(1)r+
E
FkrF(j+i)k
F
j=0
Y* FyFfs+DkL^s+py,
k
F
n
&
k
*
S=Q
(1)rFkrF(s+i)kLfjs)k
M
^
Fk
s=()
«
By equating the corresponding coefficients of the above series, the identity
(10)
ti+DF(j+l)k+r
=
fy~^r+lFkrF(j+i)k
+ Yi
F
+(DrFkrL(js)k]\
(s+l)k[FrL(js+l)k
is found, which in turn yields
£ ti+VF(j+l)k+r
j=0
(11)
= 4 E 1 (1>r+lFh~rF(j+i)k+Y,
k
j=0 I
s=0
F(s+1)k[FrL(H+1)k+hl)rF^rL(H)kl
J
Performing the same operations as above on identities (7), (8), and (9) yields results similar to (10) and (11). These
results related to (8) are as follows:
(12)
(i+DL(j+1)k+r
= ^<(VrLk„rF(j+1)k
+£
•F(s+l)h[LrL(H+l)h
+
(1)^hk.rL(hs)k]\
and
n
(13) E
j=0
J
1 n f
r+l
(i+1)L(j+l)k+r= r E l (1>rLkrF(j+l)k + Y* F(s+l)k[LrL(js+l)k+(1)r ^kr^(js)kJ
k
j=0 I
s=0
Taking higher order derivatives of (6), (7), (8), and (9) leads the reader to additional summation identities that are
similar in form to those listed above. Further, numerous special cases of each identity given may be quickly deduced.
The relationships between binomial coefficients and terms of sequences {Fjk+r}l=o a r  d {^jk+r}j==o t a ^ e t n e f ° r m
of rather simple but elegant summation identities. To begin we return to definition (0).
(14)
Fjk+r
gJkar3ikBr
a0
. (a2
fPkar
(B2  f)jk6r
ap
_
124
GENERAL IDENTITIES FOR LINEAR FIBONACCI AND LUCAS SUMMATIONS
2 {j})(a)2t+r(7Pkf  2 {^)m2t+r(~Vjt
f=0
jk
f=0
ap
a2t+r_p2t+r
a0
*=0
t=0
[APR.
t=0
\\j = 2j', then an even more elementary summation results.
(15)
F2fk+r  r a V V  t f V V __ (a+vfijW+V*? „ g
(
^
t=0
For the Lucas numbers, the corresponding results are
(16)
Ljk+r = E ( f y  / ^ 2 f + r = E ( f ) r  / ^ E Q k
•5+f
£=0
5=0
*=0
and
(17)
t=0
Taking the view that a summation identity is "improved" by reducing the number of addends (even if the addends
become more complicated), we now consider several methods of approach in an attempt to find additional "improved" results Sinking binomial coefficients and Fibonacci and Lucas numbers.
The column generators of the columns in the leftjustified Pascal Triangle shown below are most useful in this endeavor, as was first shown by V. E. Hoggatt, Jr., in [5]
(l)
(")
( 3 ) (3)
2
1x
x
(1x)2
"...
'3
x
Column Generators
x
(1x)3
(1x)4
That is, defining the binomial coefficient (n) = 0 for/7 < / w e observe
00
00
00
00
.
0
0
7^  £ *" = E UK, f2  E «*"  E (>" ^¥l  E (,>". i>*
n=0
Hence,
n=0
°°
2
y=0
By identity (6),
(1xr
/
F
n=0
°°
n=0
°°
(1 ~ x)^1
n=0
3
°° n
Mr — J ^ = E Fjk+r E (,>" = E E ( " ) ^ ^ " .
(1X)
j=Q
n=0
n=0 j=0
for k odd.l) L k)n~2s+1Lt1 • s=l Using the column generators in the leftjustified Pascal Triangle with generating functions (7). for /r ei/e/7. j=0 < <r=0 i=i Now let m =s +j. (19) £ ( 7 ) ^ = /> z (vs(ns)(2+Lkr2sLsk j=0 s=0 l(n+l)l2] + [Fr + (1)rFk_r] ( 1)S 1 n S (2+ £ ~ ' i s.)^= E j=0 s=0 M'V^IJ).{ . « F (n/27 s n M)Z{f) jk+r=Fr j:(2+Lkr { ~.{{)(2 j=0 s=0 + hFr+h1)rFkr] ^ j=0 + tk)js(Lkx)s(VsxJ= E K ' m=0 (ir'^ifiu+Lu^'+hi1 s=l E ^ ( ™~sS)<2 + Lkr2s I Lsk J?=0 \x™ J and thus. Then M  ^ . Then we have [m/2] F + s m s s r [(m+l)/2] = E r E (2 Lkr. (8). jr^v^}. Letting r = 0 and k = 2\n (18) gives n l(n+l)l2] E(. Several special cases of (18) and (19) are given which show the inherent simplicity of these identities. (ii) /r odd. Then (1x)l+l j=0 1U2 + Lk)Lkx]x = {FrHFr + H)rFk„rJx}ZT. .i^fFrHV^lx) (1)klx2' ± t2+Lh>>(1X>V = £ \FT E u+Lkp pyi^+[Fr+(DrFk_r] ^ ^ ^ ( / .1978] GENERAL IDENTITIES FOR LINEAR FIBONACCI AND LUCAS SUMMATIONS E W  125 'r+ttrF^ j=0 7Lkx + (1)kx2 and thus.ri m=0 s=0 s=l f \ms / m — s \/_iisl[ £ <2+Lkrs{^zs1)(^s m Hence.Fr^2^>«r^X ^ (1)rFk_r]x 1[2 + Lk]x + [1 + Lk + . and (9) leads to three pairs of summation identities which are similar in form to (18) and (19).)(i) +[Fr+(D Fk. we also have y. xi F Mr Fr + (1)rFkr(x/1x) _J_ = Fr + [Fr + = 1 x (1x)i+l ~ 1Lk(x/1x) + (1)k(x/lx)2 There are two cases of the above identity to consider: (i) k even. equating like coefficients of x in the above two series yields.)(i) j=0 l(n+l)l2] r HFr+(i) Fk_r] s s=0 ^ s=l (2+Lhr{ns:i)(ir1.
I. This identity is actually a special case of the next result. 1=0 The companion results for Lucas numbers are deduced by either using the identity Lm = Fm+i + Fm_i or the matrix result Lm+i Km~l . Fn.{"Yi3=2 [(n+l)l2] £ j=0 hl.126 GENERAL IDENTITIES FOR LINEAR FIBONACCI AND LUCAS SUMMATIONS [APR.nsZSi) I(n+l)l2] j=0 >for k even > MrHi+Lhr2s+\nsz\)Ls^Mk odd Fk z s=l I One of the nicest results linking binoimial coefficients and Fibonacci numbers is given in [6]. k E (k\Qtk+r+JFJ r \j I nt Fkj nt1 ' j=0 By equating the upper right elements in this matrix equation we obtain. using the fact that QW = (i I f = F { FT F^X for any integer/7. and Qnk^ = tij)Qi+rFiFti > j=0 the identity Fnk+r = £ (20) j=0 / qy^Hl is deduced by equating upper right elements in the previous matrix equation. for any integer m. it follows that Qnk+r = Q'lF^Q = Qtk+rZ(j)QJFLtF*~{ + F^DQ*^ v for ttn. we deduce from (18) and (19) that l(n+l)l2] Fk Z s=l lU*H2 + Lkl n~s. !fA. Since for any integer t. L m1 They are (15) ( J D . for any integer t^n.U (22) j=0 .sl{n^6n2s+l4s x=l More generally.= /=7in(19). Here.then s(n — s\an2s+l s=0 s=l Taking r = 0 and k = 3 in (19) yields n T.t^l)Q\ Qn = QntQt = (Fn_ta + where I = [iQ J ) .
the following results are deduced: n (29) 52 {ni)Fik+rF(n~j)k+r = J &"lLnk+2r +2(1)r+ L^l j=0 n (30) E {")Ljk+rL(nj)k+r = 2nLnk+2r+2(VrL^ . j=0 We invite the reader to explore the special cases of the results given and also to use the procedures introduced to discover additional identities.1978] GENERAL IDENTITIES FOR LINEAR FIBONACCI AND LUCAS SUMMATIONS and 127 k L nk+r = E ( f H t f W ^ tFn~Jt V f ° P f * "' The final approach we take to find additional linear Fibonacci and Lucas identities is via exponential generating functions. (26)./ +^ +^ + «+. a n d ^ . (28) n E {^Fjk+rLfnjJk+r j=0 = 2nFnk+2r Many additional identities may be deduced using the generating functions (24). We proceed as follows: H Fnh+r JJ £ n=0 ' n=0 L nk+r JJ ~ £ £ ( :)Fjk+rL(nj)k+r ' n=0 j=0 Jj and (a r k ea x Rk x ^ h )(ar^K h + 9 9k 2r 2a x or/xj = a e 7r 9Rk 2r 2 x P eP a2r £ (2ak)n _ n=0 n=0 K ~$2r nl I (2pk)nx^ n! n=p n=0 Hence. .+. . and (27).. By convoluting each of (24) and (25) with itself.. It follows that the basic Fibonacci and Lucas generating functions are xn _eaxe?x " n! a0 y ~ _ nd and F h n=0 f ^ L Ln x^ nf e ooc + jx e ' n=0 The exponential generating functions of the sequences of interest in this paper are found to be (24) T F u (25) f *" ..*reax8re& x i^^aV^+p'/* n=0 (26) e aZl Z h^n^'^ n=0 (27) P ' (irLnk+rx=are'ax+^e E n=0 Convolutingseries (24) and (25) and equating like coefficients yields an interesting identity. .*=/ + ^ + i%*. This productive technique stems from the Maclaurin series expansion f o r e * . (25)...andhencee«=/ +^ + ^ +^ + . .
N. A POLYNOMIAL INEQUALITY Our first general result is given by Theorem 1. proved that nD E *{ <(£ k=l \k=l *fcY t" = it. 6 (1972). 6.." The Fibonacci Quarterly.1) for polynomials in a single variable* gives (1. 2. V. Vol... 1969. pp.. 1961. 6165. V. pp.2. Assuming (2. 5. Hansen.128 GENERAL IDENTITIES FOR LINEAR FIBONACCI AND LUCAS SUMMATIONS APR.1) f o r * = /. Leonard. 4 (1967)...2.2) £ k3 = (' Z kV < /. 5. Vol. 105107. where B is a constant. 1. 2 (1968). 7. I Proof. A.BC^1 < 1. 3. for Ak = k." 77?e Fibonacci Quarterly. Vol. "Generating Functions for Powers of Fibonacci Numbers.1) Z C'lxh <(JT k=t \k=i Ckx k ) (n = 1./?.. and I. "Generating Identities for Fibonacci and Lucas Triples. No. Blaisdell Publishing Company. Jr. Fibonacci and Lucas Identities and Generating Functions. Fibonacci Numbers. Vorob'ev. 8. Jr. Then..). No. "Fibonacci Summations/' The Fibonacci Quarterly. Hoggatt.x) < O. since Ci < f and x > 1. 10. V.1) is true for k= 1. Ken Siler.). "Some Fibonacci and Lucas Identities. 6. 2. Minnesota 55411 1. Ruggles. ******* AN INEQUALITY FOR A CLASS OF POLYNOMIALS DAVID ZEITLIN Minneapolis. O <B < 1. I where Ay. 4. 445460. Let C^ be a nondecreasing sequence with Co = O and £% .2. 1 (1963). 1 (1964). John Riordan." The Fibonacci Quarterly. "A Primer for the Fibonacci Numbers. 10. or C2x(Ci . No. Vol. New York. San Jose State College Master's Thesis. (1. "A New Angle on Pascal's Triangle. Jr. Part VI. "A Primer for the Fibonacci Sequence: Part III. pp. David Zeitlin." The Fibonacci Quarterly. we have the inequality (2. No. is a nondecreasing sequence with AQ = 0 and Ay. using double induction. T. "On Summation Formulas for Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers. Klamkin and Newman [1]. E. R. H. We will use double induction.)." The Fibonacci Quarterly. 1 (1970).2. ••. pp. pp. 1. 6769. J. and D. pp. H. —. INTRODUCTION Recently. Ferns. Hoggatt. forx > 1. 221234. which is true. 8. Jr. (29) (1962) ppw5r~T2. No. No. Lind. T. 1978 REFERENCES 1. (1963)." Duke Math. VoJ. No. For/7 = 1.1) gives the well known (n = 1.. A^i elementary identity (1.k= 1. Hoggatt. (2. 2. Vol.1) requires that C3x < C^x2. we must now show that .. D. pp." The Fibonacci Quarterly. Our inequality (2. Carlitz and H.. L.. E. Vol. E. 571578. 6173. 9. N.
then p(x .1) gives (1. . B11 and Cfe = k for B = 1.0 <B < 1. I Assuming (2.p>2.k= 1. Hence C n+2 " C n+1 ** °n+2 + °n+1 < xYl (xCn+2 + Cn+l).yHx?'1 + y?"1) > 2(xp .A k=l For/7 = /. [Continued on page 146. Then. the following. k=l which requires that n+1 xv n+1t„r (xCn+2 ~ ++ C r n+1 . BCn+i > Cn+i. . p. and so &n+2 ~ Cn+1 ^ Cn+2 ~ B^n+1 < 1. and so < C1BC2 < CiB(1+BCi) c\C2 which is true since B(1+B)<2iorO<B< 2 £ < CtB(1 + B) < ^ < 2^*. 1 <x.p.2. (2.# £ i < /.BC^i < 1. (2. ••>.. We note that when Ck .. i. For B= 1 mdx= 1. . n.1) (see [ 1 . The proof of Theorem 2. Forp=2. was used to generalize (1. 2.1).3) gives (18) of [ 1 .2.y >0.. Using the above lemma and double induction. we must show that Ckxk > 2Cn+1xn+1 + (C2n+1 . where B is a constant. but C2 . I Remarks.) J > > Ct2C2 n+2 n= n+l 1. 2 9 ] .2. If x. < ^ * ' c22c2x2 < c£ 2 . Let Ck be a nondecreasing sequence with CQ = 0 and Cy.3) gives (2.yp). p. which requires the truth of (2.1978 AN INEQUALITY FOR A CLASS OF POLYNOMIALS n+l E #*C**" +i + n £ •'<Ci* B+i+ / n \ 2 128 / n+ l \ 2 (2: vM < ( E <**'). . forx > 1 and p = 2.then Ck = (1Bk)/(1B).1) gives n i < £ xk k=i so that for/7 = 1. •••). 29]).2) completes the proof of Theorem 1.BCki = 1fork=1. (2. 2 9 ] . 3. we now obtain a generalization of Theorem 1. In [1. similar to the proof of Theorem 1. • •.2. Since B <1.^ w e have tl}€ polynomial inequality (23) 2 E k=l c2P*xk <p(E \k=l CP'XA (n = 1. (18). the truth of (2.Cn+1xn+1) > C2+2 . as required.1).Cn+2x«+2 . Lemma..k= 1.2) gives ^2 " C2x2 Sincex> 1fx2C2 >C2.2) is true for k= 1. For B = 0 and Ck= 1. is omitted.] .2) Ckxk > C2n+1Cn+1xn+1 * f (n = 1. Thus.2. Theorem 2. . since x > 1.2. (2.e. and (2.
A PRIMER FOR THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS XVII: GENERALIZED FIBONACCI NUMBERS SATISFYING un+iunl u2n = ±l V. JR. ur Un Un+lUnlUn+l+Ul .(a2 ±4)x = ±4 and show that all of our generalized Fibonacci polynomials are special cases of Chebyshev polynomials ofthe first and second kinds. 2. Corollary «2n+l+(1>n+1 The sequence {un} has starting values u0 = Q.Thus. 1. fn(1) = Fn. HOGGATT. 1 . •••.1. San Jose.12. we examine some properties of integral sequences {un} satisfying (1) (Vn. 29. Here. Of course. the Fibonacci numbers 0 . 1. —. un+1untu*= where necessarily UQ . = (1)1 U\ ~'u* * = 7 ~ UQU2 by definition of {un} . 130 +un +UQ . evaluated at x = b provide special sequences {un}.. In the course of events. .u2+1 = (1)n+l . we will completely solve the Diophantine equations/ 2 . E. ft (x) = 1. Let [un} be a sequence of integers such that un+iun„i there exists an integers such that (3) Proof. The Fibonacci polynomials fn(x) given by (2) fn+1 (x) = xfn (x) + fn. 5. Then = Un+1 ~ Un ~l Un and a But.. f0 (x) = Q. uj = aii2+bui for some real numbers a and/?. and MARJORIE BIC KNELLJOHNSON San Jose State University. 2. 3. 1 .U2=aui U3 ~ "I a= "2 . ul=+1. Then un+2 = aun+i + un . In Uct. By Cramer's rule. California 95192 There are many ways to generalize the Fibonacci sequence. Un Un by definition of the • he sequence. SOLUTIONS TO y2 (a2+4)x2 = ±4 Theorem 1. Divisibility properties of the Fibonacci polynomials [1] and properties of the Pell numbers and the general sequences {fn(b)\ [2] have been examined in earlier Primer articles. 5. so that Un+2 = lu2n+1 +(1)n+l]/un. b = Mi «2 since U1113 u=(1) and U3 = au2 +ui yield M W 2 ^ K 3 UlU «o = ' \U2 UX J and U0U2 ~ u.i (x). a is an integer.u = (1)n for all integers n. un+2un un+i + un  .u un and un+2 = aun+1 for an integers by the Axiom of Mathematical Induction. Set U2 = aui +buo. and fn(2) = Pn. the Pell numbers 0 .uo u2 ut Assume that un+i = aun + un_i. 1.0 and ui = ± 1 .
ax yielding "n+l = (yax)/2. and again u\ = ±1. the generalized Lucas and Fibonacci numbers give solutions to the Diophantine equation (4). (2): (5) £n = fn+l(a) + fnl(a) '%n = *n *a' • Since [2] (6) fn+iMfniMffc) 2 (7) 2 2 i (a +4)f = (~Vn. The generalized Lucas and Fibonacci numbers in and^ w are the only solutions to the Diophantine equation y2(a2+4)x2 (4) 2 2 = ±4. and from U2UQ ut = 1. then = aun +un„i. "n+lUnl = (~Vn ~Un y+axyax 2 2 _ 2= X (y2 a2x2)4x2 . Then u nl = Y .u2) Now. Theorem 2. but no solution for x = 7 when a > 7. clearly impossible for integers. From Theorem \.2aui "2 + a2u21). y . Thus.(a2 + 4)x2 = 4 has solutionx = 1. If u2 = aui. y = 3 if a = 7.(a + 4)x = +4 has solution x = 0. Since also UQ = U2. u2 = uo. then u2 = aui = aut + uo forces uo = 0. Now.APR.un+1 . The other equation y2 . (4) where also un+\ = aun + un_i. or u2=aui.u = (~1)n for all n. let the generalized Lucas and Fibonacci numbers in and fn be defined in terms of Fibonacci polynomials as in Eq.x> 1. t y '/ = ±4. The casea=1 was solved by Ferguson [ 3 ] . and take a > 1. By definition of the sequence {un} . Thus. or u± =0. 2 Proof. u 2 = a2u +2au l tuo+u21 = aui(aut + uo) + u2 = au1u2 + u2Q. 1978 Proof. Proof.un+i If y = un+i + un^i and x = un. y = 2. either a = 0. We use a method of infinite descent which is an extension of the method of Ferguson [3]. y2 ~(a2 +4)x2 = ±4. Thus. If a = Q. as well as a solution x = 7. y = a. substituting above for u2. Theorem 3. Let \un) be a sequence of integers such that un+i un+i . = ±4 by Theorem 2. then u2 = uo leads to u22 =1. If u± = 0. Then x = un and y = un+i + un„i are solutions for the Diophantine equation y2 (a2 +4)x2 = ±4. 0 = aut (aui . Un+1 = y ~ "ni = y~ (fJn+l ~ aun) = y .u2 = au1 +u0. y2(a2 + 4)x2 = ±4 implies that ax < y < (a + 2)x since .Un+l = y~ (y ~ ax)/2 = (y + ax)/2. we have u22 = aui u2 + (u22 . Now.uo = 0and ui =±1 give the only possible solutions. A PRIMER FOR THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS 131 By Theorem \.au^ .
and there is no first nonFibonacci solution.n = fn(a) • 2. then x cannot be the next larger Fibonacci solution after t This is a contradiction. 1 . SPECIAL SEQUENCES {un } AND THE EQUATION y2 . Since y and ax must have the same parity. 2 . . 1 ..132 A PRIMER FOR THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS y2 = (a2 +4)x2±4 = a2x2 +4x2±4 < a2x2 +4ax2 [APR. 0 . and "n+lUn1 U2 = (IT. let 1 < t < x. Notice that the sequence • • • . But. It is interesting to note some special cases. 3 . Since x > 0. if A. u^ = 1. 1 . Replace / with ax +2t in (4). where the lefthand part of the sequence has u n+2 = u n = = 1'Un+l + Un. (5). 0 . 2x is an integer.u2' = (1)n occur from [2] (8) T„_ f c £„ + f c *f = (i)n+k+1r2k for the generalized Fibonacci numbers given in Eq. 0 . Solve the quadratic for 2x. +4x2 forces (ax)2 < y2 < (a+2)2x2. 1 . due to Bergum [4] satisfies uo = 0. yielding 2x = at± sj(a2 + 4)t2~±T~ But. and therefore (a2+4)t2 ±4 = s2 for an integer s so that t = un and s = un+i + un_i are solutions by Theorem 2. y = ax + 2t.(a2 .is the smallest nonFibonacci solution. Let **nkk*nk+k**k be rewritten = (Vnk+k+h2k . 5 .4)x2 = ±4 Now. 0'Un+i +Un while the righthand part has Un+2 It is interesting to note that special cases of the sequences {un} satisfying un+i un_i . Assume thatx is the smallest nonFibonacci solution. 2x = at+s/(a2 +4)t2 ±4 = at+s = aun+(un+l +Unl) = (aun +un„i) + un_i = 2un+t $Q\\\dXx = un+i. 0 . yielding <ax+2t)2 (a2+4)x2 4x 2 4axt4t 2 ±4 = 0 +4 = 0 . Thus. 1 . the Diophantine equation y2 (a2 +4)x2 = ±4 has solutions in integers if and only if y = ±ln = fn+l(a) + fn~l<3) and x = ±r. all of these sequences {un} have starting values UQ = 0 and m = ±1. 1 .
1878] A PRIMER FOR THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS T(ni)k T(n+l)k 2 Tnk = 133 /jj(n+l)k+l k Now. 13. Since y and ax must have the same parity. we are led to the Diophantine equation y .is the first solution greater than 1.2t. and* > t.u = +1? Considering Fibonacci numbers with odd subscripts. which is solved .2t in (9). Notice that. = 0 + 4t 2 +4 = 0. 8. we must have (a2 4)t2 4 = s2 for some integers. •••} . { 1 .4)x = 4. { 0. proceeding in the manner of the proof of Theorem (a2)x < y < ax. and that un+i = 3unun„u Using u n+iuni ~un = 1 and solving un+i = aun +bun_i as in Theorem 1 yields un+± = aun . Since2x is integral. The oddsubscripted Fibonacci and Lucas numbers give the only solutions to the Diophantine = 4.r be the first solution greater than one* Replace/ with ax . By Theorem 4.4 .4)t2 . We show that (9) has no integral solutions if \a\ £ 3. since A. Solving the quadratic for 2x gives 2x = at ± yj(a2 . t = un is a solution where t > 1. Another solution \$un= n. 2. 34. 5. y2 . 21. .(a2 4) = 4 becomes a 2 y2 = 8. * = F 2n+1.n2 = 1 for all n. if x= 1. 1.u2 = 1. In particular. if k = 2. y = ax . let 1 < t < x. since'T n k/ r k "s known to be an integer [1 ] . 3. •••} . Here.(a2 .y= Let. 5.un_i and x = un are solutions of the Diophantine equation y2(a24)x2 (9) Theorem equation y2 (a2 4)x2 (9) Proof. we have a contradiction.u^i. the sequence of Fibonacci numbers with even subscripts. = 4. When a = 3f the equation becomes y only by V = L2n+1. If {un} is a sequence of integers such that for all n. then there exists an integer a such that un+2 = aun+i . 3. proceeding as in Theorem 2.un and y = un+i . oddsubscripted Lucas and Fibonacci numbers [ 5 ] . we observe that un = F2n+i is a solution. We summarize as Theorem 4. and the equation above becomes where (i)(n+1)k+1 j s (1)n if £ is odd but (7) if /r is even. Is there a sequence {un} of positive terms for which un+± un„± .1) . let £/„ = r^lr^. gives a solution to un+iun„i . yielding (ax~2t)2(a24)x2+4 2 4x 4axt 1. But.5x2 = 4. and y2(a24)x2 = 4 is not solvable in positive integers unless a = 3. since (n + Din . If we \ety = un+i un_i and x = un. which is solved only bya=3.
Theorem 6. 4)x2 = +4.t (x). Set a = 3 and refer to Lind [5]. Let (11) and h0(x) = 0. GENERALIZED FIBONACCI POLYNOMIALS Next. From this it readily follows that / = ant(x)an2(x) = [g2(x)(x24)h2(x)]/4 or g2(x)(x24)h2(x) = +4. (By way of comparison. Theorem 7.hn.[at (x) .a2 (x)Jhn (x) 2a2 = gn (x) . Now. 3.134 A PRIMER FOR THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS [APR. in order to write solutions for the Diophantine equation (10). and hn+2(x) = g0M = 2.un and and y = un+i . we consider a type of generalized Fibonacci polynomial. Then h (x} hn<x) .aVx) a1(x)a2M' n x^2 h (2) = n hnUi * ^ ' "' n gn (x) = a t (x) + a 2 (x) = hn+1 (x) . we are interested in the sequences of integers formed by evaluating hn(x) an6gn(x) aXx = a. . where ffn+2 M = xgn+i (x) +gn~i M We note that{/?nfo/} is a special sequence [un] since hn+i (a)hni (a) h2(a) = 1. where a± (x) and a2(x) are roots of X2 . the Fibonacci polynomials fn (x) have the analogous relationship to the roots of \2\x1 = 0. The Fibonacci and Lucas numbers with even subscripts give solutions to the Diophantine equation y2(a2 Proof. If {un} is a sequence of integers such that 2 Un+lUn1 ~Un = 1 for all n.un„i x = un are solutions of the Diophantine equation y2 (a24)x2 (10) Proof. then there exists an integer a such that un+2 = aun+i . hi(x) = 7.\x + 1 = 0. Thus (12) g2(a)(a24)h2(a) = +4.i f f l * ) . Also note that hn (3) = F2nJ It is easy to establish from ai (x)a2(xj = 1 that 2ant = gn (x) + [at (x) .4.a2(x) = V* .a2 (x)]hn (x) 2 with a^ (x) . and we do have solutions to y2 (a2 4)x2 = +4. = +4. xhn+1(x)hn(x) gt(x) = x. Proceed as in Theorem 4.
This concludes the proof of Theroem 8. as before. For a > 7. we consider the case of Eq.hn_t (a)) = ahn (a) . Thus. . then Thus. we find x = hn+i(a).4)t2 +4 . (13) taken with the plus sign gives 2x = ahn(a) +hn+i (a) . replace y with ax .2t in (10). if we choose the minus sign in Eq„ (13). The casesa= / ora = 0are not very interesting.(a2 . yielding (ax2t)2 2 . hn+2(a) = ahn+1(a)hn(a). Note that if x = 1. (13) Since2x is an integer. Then. 1 < t < x. 4)x2 135 and generalized Lucas numbers {gn(a)} provide the = +4. h1(a) = I h2(a) = a. This shows that there is no first positive integer which solves Eq. (12). 4x Solving the quadratic for?*. h0(a) = 0. then we have 2x = ahn (a) .4 = 0. a contradiction.hn_i (a) = 2hn+i (a) andx = hn+i(a). then y = a. (10) which is not of the form x = hm(a). The generalized Fibonacci numbers {hn(a)} only solutions to the Diophantine equation y2 (a2 (10) Proof. So. Now one can proceed as follows.1 (a) or x = hn_1(a) which contradicts the restriction that t <x.4)x2 4 = 0 . Next.2)x < y < ax. We need a lemma: Lemma. where x is the first positive integer which is greater than 1. the sequence {hn(a)} is a strictly increasing sequence. with a solution given by t = hn(a) and s = gn(a) = hn+1(a) hn_i(a) by Eq. and if x = 0. (13) taken with the minus sign. 2x = at ±sj(a2 . then y = 2. even if x is the first integer greater than one for which we have a solution for y2(a24)x2 = +4 and where x $ hm(a). Then.(hn+i (a) . sincex was defined as not having the form hm(a). y and ax must have the same parity. so that we can let y = ax2t. we must choose the plus sign in (13). which yielded x = hn+i (a). and a solution.hn+i (a) + hn_i (a) = 2hn.4axt + 4t2 .1978] A PRIMER FOR THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS Theorem 8. not equal to hm(a). Clearly. as (a . there exists an integers such that (a24)t2 +4 = s2. We can write. hn+i(a) > hn(a). before. Proof of the Lemma. Since hn+1(a) = ahn(a) hn_j[(a) > (a  1)hn(a) if hn_i(a) < hn(a).
We can then state Theorem 9.y = 2. {fn(a)}.(a2 . This then becomes / . leads to fn (a). of course. [APR. Every solution is given by terms of a sequence of Fibonacci polynomials evaluated at a. {hn(a)}. leads to bn+i (a) bn_i(a) for the generalized Fibonacci polynomials hn(x).(a2 4)x2 = +4 allows x = 0. where x = 0. and x = Of 1. / 2 . and UQ(X) = 1 and U\ (x) =2x. the only solutions arise from sequences of Fibonacci polynomials fn(x) evaluated dXx = a. y = a. — .y= 1 when \a \ = 3. for alia. •••. a. which satisfy the recurrence un+i = 3un . The Diophantine equations y2 (a2 2 2 y (a 4)x2 = ±4 +4)x2 = ±4 have solutions in positive integers if and only if y2(a24)x2 = 4 has a solution x = 1 or y2 (a2 +4)x2 = 4 has a solution x= 1. has solution* = 0.(a2 4)x2 = ±4. we have set down the complete solutions to the Diophantine equations y2 (a2 ±4)x2 y 2 2 2 . where fn(x) are the Fibonacci polynomials.Un(x) Tn+2<x) = 2xTn+1(x) Tn(x) with TQ(X) = 1 and T^ (x)=x. There are also related polynomials Sn(x) = Un(x/2) which are tabulated in [ 8 ] . However.136 A PRIMER FOR THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS We note that the case a = 2 yields y = ±2mdx any integer. F i n a l l y .u2 = (~1)n lead to j / 2 — (a2 + 4)x2 = ±4 v\aun+2 = aun+i +un. f 2 n + i hn+ld)' a" cases. we get x = 1. or generalized Fibonacci p o l y n o m i a l s ^ ^ evaluated atx = a. But either Un+lUnl ~un = 1 or ^n+l^n1 ~ U2 = +1 lead to the recurrenceun+2 = aun+i . The recurrence u n+2 " 2un+i — Un is satisfied by any arithmetic progression b. so that F 2n+l = = hn+i(3)  hn(3).b + 2d. In summary. 4. The Tn(x) are the Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind. b+d. and the Un(x) are the Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind [ 8 ] .un> and lead toy2 . the restriction = Un+lUnlUn ~1 limits these to the integers/? = un . For y2 (a2 +4)x2 = 4. but no solution if \a \ ? 3. un+iun_i . a n d / = 2. Both solutions are starting pairs for the recurrence Un+2 = aUn+1 + Un> and y = 2.5x2 = 4 which is satisfied only by the oddly subscripted Fibonacci and Lucas numbers. — .y=2andx = 7. Our hn(x) mdgn(x) and Cnfx) = 2Tn(x/2) are related to Sn(x) and Cn(x) as follows: .un„i. B + nd. or generalized Fibonacci polynomials evaluated atx = a.4)x2 =4 has solution x= 1.af — leads to fn+i (a) + fn^ (a). y = a as starting solutions. leads to bn(a).(a +4)x = ±4. Here. —. N o w / . •••. n and. 1. CHEBYSHEV POLYNOMIALS There are Chebyshev polynomials of two kinds: Un+2M = 2xUn+i (x) .
4 (Dec. 91. pp. p. 334335. 1. pp. 8. 88. " A Primer for the Fibonacci Numbers: Part V I I . No.1978] A PRilVIER FOR THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS hn(x) and = Sn+i(x) gn(x) = 137 Cn(x). 1967). Vol. 1977). S. 1975)." The Fibonacci Quarterly. 5. Math. pp. 8. pp. 3. 9. ^t/2 so that y(a) = 2k >2. Nat. Note that 1 . V. Peter L. Marjorie Bicknell. Vol. Chebyshev Polynomials. pp. where $(n) denotes the number of integers less than n and prime to n. n > 5. 4 (Oct. 11. Jr. 4 (Nov. REFERENCES 1. 383400. 13. 488. 7. Ferguson. 1965). 10. and r2t = Tttt. David E.. 407420. Bergum. proposed by Douglas A. Byrd." 77?e Fibonacci Quarterly. The Fibonacci Quarterly. "Fibonacci Numbers and Generalized Binomial Coefficients. 5. 4 (Dec. and since the order of subgroup divides the order of a group. Problem H54. . p. R. S\ncQ(rtfLt)= 1 or 2. Bureau of Standards.un„i) = 1. 17. See also Hoggatt [ 9 ] . •2^n ~ *n$n^2n^4n> '" > where ip(Tn)ip(lnl2n£4n~) = 4 '2mr for some integer r> 7. We can generalize to 2m+2\^t2mn). Lind. p. 1963). The same problem also appeared in a slightly different form in the Fibonacci Quarterly [ 7 ] . Buschman. "Letter to the Editor.1 .un+1) = 1. 345349. 6 (JuneJuly.u>5. An Introduction to Fibonacci Polynomials and Their Divisibility Properties." The Fibonacci Quarterly. Byrd [10] explains the close connection between Fibonacci and Lucas polynomials and theUn(x)and Tn(x). Applied Math. 1970). Tables of Chebyshev Polynomials Sn(x) and Cn(x). Montgomery. No. for the generalized Fibonacci numbers rn = fn(a) by virtue of $(s) =2k >2ior positive integerss >2. "Expansion of Analytic Functions in Terms Involving Lucas Numbers of Similar Number Sequences. 6. Introduction by Cornellius Lanczos. Vol. 5. "Fibonacci Numbers. Vol. (un. Vol. 101114. 4. Jr. Since the order of the multiplicative group of integers mod un is $(un). No. solution to E 2581. Vol. un„i are incongruent modulo un. Generalizations." The Fibonacci Quarterly. Amer. 1966). Marjorie Bicknell. Series 9. and Buschman [11]. Thus. No. No. G. 2 (April. No. Hoggatt. " A Primer on the Pell Sequence and Related Sequences. Dept. This method of proof was given by Montgomery [6] as solution to the problem of showing that ip(Fn) is divisible by 4 if n > 5." The Fibonacci Quarterly. p. Brown. 84. and Difference Equations. and form a multiplicative subgroup of the multiplicative group of integers modulo un. E. No. 1 (Feb. 4. Vol. ANOTHER CONSEQUENCE OF un+1un^ u% = (1)n Finally. 3. Paul F. Solution by John L. 4 (Dec. then <p(T2t) or where a = it = VfttHlo>). . D. un_i. A\y(un). v. No. 1970). private communication. An early article by Paul F. 8. 1968). U. A. 3 (June. Monthly. Lind. Vol. No." The Fibonacci Quarterly. Vol. pp. we examine another consequence of Un+lUnlUn = ("^ We note that (un." The Fibonacci Quarterly.. Gerald E. "The Quadratic Field Q(yJJ) and a Certain Diophantine Equation. of Commerce. 2. 6.
)V _£0 K 2 nM {n>0) (1X)2n+1 ' We shall show that.JR.4) An+1>k Anfk = (nk+2)An)k_1+kAn>k ~ ^n.2) (1. for n > 1.6) suggest the following generalization.5) An>k = X.1) AnM = £ An>kxk. San Jose State University. + 1) .E. There is also the explicit formula k (1. Gn(x) = £ k=0 The Gnfk are positive integers that satisfy the recurrence (18) Gn+lfk = y2k(k + 1)Gn}k~k(2n~k+2)Gn>k__l and the symmetry relation + (1. j=0 The definitions (1.6) G £ (^_±i. San Jose.7) GnMxk .9) GnM . Durham. (VJ^I^fkjr (1 < n < k). They are positive integers that satisfy the recurrence (1. k=0 (1x)n+l It is well known (see for example [1].GENERALIZED EULERIAN NUMBERS AND POLYNOMIALS L. [2. Gntk = £ (i)>^ + i){<l<mi+1))n (7<k<2n1). North Carolina 27706 and V.1) and (1.nk+l (1 < k < n). k=l the coefficients An^ are called Eulerian numbers.7. Ch.3) and the symmetry relation (1. 2] that. INTRODUCTION Put T knxk = AnM (n>0). for n > 7. 2nl (1. Gn(x) is a polynomial of degree 2n .CARLITZ Duke University. California 95192 1. Letp > 7 and put (110) (1.An(x) is a polynomial of degree n: (1.HOGGATT.Gn>2nk There is also the explicit formula 1 /2(2nk+2)(2nk + 3)Gnfk_2 (1<k<2n (1 <k <2n7).11) £ TV xk = b " where 138 W (n > 0). 3=0 Consider next d.
m (k+pl\.16) n. a2. A conventional rise to the left of ai is counted.. a level is a pair a{. Clearly G^(x) = An(x).Ch„8] asks for the number of sequences fromZ n of length N. ••. let/ occur in a exactly^ times. a{+i such that a. e2.p = ( * * ..e2..k r + 1)t ' k >m~p and the symmetry relation There is also the explicit formula k G(pl = 12 (Vj{pn (1. —. It is proved in [3] that (1. .en\r) is an extended Eulerian number [2] defined in the following way. ~. Dillon and Roselle [4] have proved that A(ei. k=l where the G^ are positive integers that satisfy the recurrence m (1. Ch. Consider sequences o=\(a\. en\r.e2.18) £ £ ei.14) G(Pj1m= £ n+l.2. fe^r) denote this number.. The Simon Newcomb problem [5. . Let o have r rises. ~. in addition a conventional rise to the left of at is included. The Eulerian numbers have the following combinatorial interpretation.4]. a{+i such that a{ < a{+i.s). Moreover (1.13) G<P>(x) = G^hk Y (n > 1).A7}*and let 7r=(ai.e2. > a{+\. G&M = Gn(x). specification [ei. y « „ +fr _ ^ _^ « „ +(y _ ^ .' ) • We shall show that G^(x) is a polynomial of degree pn .k +1 )K. en) is called the specification of a.pnk + *—* \ m — 1 I \ l\G(p) m —k (1<m<pn I n. — . a2. so that r + s + t = N + 1.. LetAfei.e2. Ch. s falls and t levels.i2) 139 r*. —. pnp+l (1. 8] Antk is equal to the number of permutations of Zn with exactly k rises... Then [6./nxy^J1^y^^^^ » However explicit formulas were not obtained fcMfe.p + 1. e2. A rise of IT is a pair of consecutive elements^.. a[+i such that a\ < a{+i. For 1 <i <n.~. —. an) denote a permutation of Zn. a[+i such that a{ = a{+i. fa^)\^ length /V wiffia. let A(ei. the ordered set iei..r). [6.. also a conventional falI to the right of a^..s) denote this enumerant. en\r. Put m=l r=l where £(s) is the Riemann zetaf unction and m = p^2 then ~'Pn > N A(ei. PutZ n = {1.12). a fall is a pair a^.en^.17) A(91. A rise is a pair of consecutive elements a. IV. To get a combinatorial interpretation of G^Y we recall the statement of the Simon Newcomb problem.1978 GENERALIZED EULERIAN NUMBERS AND POLYNOMIALS d.e„\r) = £(1)i[Nt1)n(ei +r j=0 «'~1) • i=l A refined version of the Simon Newcomb problem asks for the number of sequences from zn of length N.er] and with r rises and s falls. en] and having exactly r rises.en=0 r+s<N+l A(ei.. specification [e^. 1 *—* j=0 (1 < k <pnp + 1) r r kup with r ^ p defined by (1.eZ w .en\r) = Bi+82 + " + *n =• A*(m.APR.
n.2n1 it is clear that Gn (x) is of degree 2n .k +2)(2n . by (2. after simplification. Returning to G'p£ . (2.4) Note also that.6) that 2n+l °° j 2n / vi °° 2n+l h onM.4) G ^ = Gnt2nk (f < k GnM Gn. by (1.E (v { .k +2)Grifk_1 +1/2(2n.k+3)GnM_2 (1 < k <2n1). tv^Hkitoi+vii j=0 /<* (k > 2n + 1). 2.20) = E (vi{pnt1)(p ' + k :>1)n j=0 in agreement with (1.5) Since by (2.140 GENERALIZED EULERIAN NUMBERS AND POLYNOMIALS [APR.17) gives G( p n l (1. we have (2.19) "' G^l = A(p^\k). THE CASEp=2 It follows from (1. we shall show that (1. = 0.6) 2Gn+1 (x) = (1 x)2(x2Gn(x) + 2xG'n(x» + 3(3n + 1)(1x)(x2G'n(x) * GnM ~ (1x)2n+3 +xGn(x» + (2n + 1)(2n +2)x2Gn(x) Comparing coefficients of x . For computation of the Gn(x) it may be preferable to use (2.2) Let k<2n. .l = h x2G'n(x)+2xG'n(x) +2(2n (1~x)2n+l + x2G'Jx)+xGnM (1x)2n+2 " + (2n + 1)(2n+2) Hence (2.1. Thus (1.7).V E ( ^ ) V = E * E j=0 Hence. (2.7) Gn+1M = 1/2k(k + l)GnM .6) in the form (2. * (1)i{*f%{kWi+V)n 2n+l Z j=0 (l)i(^+l){(ki)(ki+V)n = Gn$k+ Z J j=k+l j=0 Therefore (2.16). by (1.8) 2Gn+1(x) = (1x)2x(xGn(x))" + 2(2n + 1)(1 x)x(xGn(x))'+ (2n + 1)(2n +2)x2Gn(x) .D j=0 th Since the (2n + l) + (2.3) 0 = £ l )^ki>'ki+1>)n J GHfk = 0 Then 2n+l J difference of a polynomial of degree <2n must vanish identically. Gn+1(x) = x j^_\ xGn(x) 2 (lx)2n+3 l = dx2\(1x)2n+1) = G <2n7).7). we get.k(2n . In the next place. k=0 k=0 2n+l GnM= E <i)\2 (2.3).
1) ' o and so on. k<p <p + 1.2 = 3n .8): GQ(X) = 1.10) It follows that (2. G3(1) = 9Q.11) In particular Gn+l(1) = (n + 1)(2n + 1)Gn(1).p + 1: pnp+l G^(x) = V k=0 G(plxk (pnp + 1 < k < pn).1)*] j=0 Tnkxk = £ °° pn+1 k=0 j=0 £ xk £ (7)J(P" + 1)Tn ' i<h Since = (3. every term in the right member of (3. Gi(x) 141 = x G2U) = x+4x2 +x3 G3(x) = x+20x2 +48x3 +20x4 +x5 ^„7 [G4(x) = x + 72xz + 603xJ + 1168x* + 6Q3x:> +6 72x° +x (2. k pn+1 J j=o JF j=k+i Since.9). Hence (3. so that 7Vy.GENERALIZED EULERIAN NUMBERS AND POLYNOMIALS 1978] The following values were computed using (2. + 1). ^ ( fe+ r') is a polynomial of degree p in k and the (pn + l)th difference of a polynomial of degree <pn vanishes identically.p = 0 (k+1 <j<pn is. (DH^. summing over k. = O J HP j=0 ' is of degree <pn .P j=0 Thus.w have p < k j < Q. k=l 2n M k ( + VGn. we 9et 2nl Gn+1 (V = E .(2n + 1)3n +n(2n + 1) Gn 4 = Wn . (n > 0) .5) It follows that (3. by (2.( n(4n2 . GH}3 = 6n .9) Note that.6) £ n (VHpn + *) 7T .kl + E %<2n ~ k+3)(2n fc=3 2n~l  k+3)GnM_2 2n~l J2 {1Mk + 3)(k + l)(2n k+1) +1M2n.3) gives k (3. (n > 1). we have pn+1 = a (3. Thus. for/7/7 p + 1 <k <pn. G2(V = 6.k  2n+l Z k<2n ~ k=2 k +2>Gn. THE GENERAL CASE It follows from GLP)M (3.7) holds for 1 <k <2n + 1. G4(V = 2520. That . (1x)P that pn+1 (p> I 'P k=0 G(P)(x)=Y.(2n + 1). Gn(1) = 2~n(2n)l Gi(1) = 1.2) n>0).1).k)(2n k + 1)}Gn>h = J^ (n + l)(2n + 1)Gn>k k^i ' k=i so that (2. in agreement with (2.7) we can evaluate Gn(1).(2n + V6n + n(2n + 1)>3n .1) n+l +. for pn p + 1 <k <pn. Note first that (2. 3.4) is equal to zero. Gn. By means of (2.3) £ (1)i(Pn]+l)Tlj.
] n where fr/7 + 1)j = (pn + 1)(pn + 2). it follows from (3.1) and (3.3) and (3.(IF" £ ' . m .£ ^ ' ( P T ) ^ . the sum on the right is equal to mk + k)j(pn + J)j y' . pn+l pnk G(P) = .(i)PnTn J f " ' pnkjp+2.6) in (3.10). = m x^/_7)mkj ^ ' pKpn + DJk+pD! j!(mkj)!(k+pm)!(k+j1)! j=0 m = (D k pHk+p.p pnk = Y* fiiJ(Pn 2.10) PltfJiM = x J2(?)(pn + 1)j(1x)Pi £1 j=0 J dxp i Substituting from (3..9) reduces to (1." ' r / ' K (3.9). P .142 GENERALIZED EULERIAN NUMBERS AND POLYNOMIALS [APR.p(n+D+1 + j " JL ((1x)pnt> dXP ^G^M).7) " < * <p»p+i)' By (3. __ x jv_ xPAjir!M_\ __ x £. we get Q(P) °n.P) JP± . ^ ' ' j!s!{pjs)l ]+s=mk k=0 (x^G^M). we have r.)P ^ __ hJ)PTm_p+lp . s k=l pn+l v dxP* G( p k+H n i(k+j>P~jx m = E *m E m=l • pnp+1 G k=l k>mp = z*m E p pj j=0J s=0 ^n]){v:l){pn+^k+i^G{A k+j+s=m S E ^^(p(p 7y )rp/? * 1W +i>pi • j+s=mk The sum on the extreme right is equal to j (312) V (1? P!<Pn + 1h<k+i>V'i .p' (xPiG(P)(x)h Po^'dxP'1 ^xjPn+l) 1 i' + ».fpn +j). where GM = E (vtr. p = (~mHm + 1)(m+p1)= {_.1)^* (3. We have therefore (3. we get pn+l p m=l j*0 pnp+1 an) .D! (k1)!(mk)!(k+pm)! By Vandermonde's theorem. In the next place. it reduces to (1.(mfm+Ujt ^ j!(k)j .8) • For/# > 0. (3. Substituting In (3.4).X.k pn~k Y" (i)HPn Zu f U \ = (i)Pn l " + 1 j \.2) that G „ ®f (1 dxP x £ {ftpn + qaxr**1 £ dxp J=0 )rn (pnkp+2)j.8).7).' U \ j=o • j=o This evidently proves the symmetry relation G <39> ii = G(nP^kP+2 (K'<P»P For/?= 7. for/7 = 2.
k)! (2pmS! ' .11) and (3. we get Q(P) (J) = pnp+1 k+p V G(p) W n+1 n.14) that (3. (k)m. We have.10) we have plG^(x) = x £ (P)(p + 1)j(1 . the inner sum is equal to (V) v so that (3.2k+ .1)1' T. l i=o 3 ' so that (3.(P)(1x)PLJ!n) j=0  ( P . by (3.1)! (pnm + 1)!(m . ^ \ k ) \ t ) m ! k+t=m U \j>(k + Jh j=0 J (2p .* £ *m s <nwM)2^<2p+h k=0 The inner sum is equal to ( 1> £ ~ j!s!(psj)!\k) m=0 (k+j)!UP k+j+s=m "l L \k)\t) k+t=m = V" / nt(p\?(p\(k+p)l L.15) GM(1) = (p!)'n(pn)! .pJ. Therefore (3. (3. by Vandermonde's theorem or by finite differences.13) GM n+l.14) y ' G(PjJV = (Pn+P)G(P)(1).10) and (3. _ 1 j:(Pk)x P\=xJ2 drt p dx J I k=0 J P _ M V.£ ay z (i)H(%pV) • j=0 s=0 k=0 j=0 The inner sum. n+1 \ p ) n Since G^(x)=xf it follows at once from (3. =x£ j=0 J 3 ' The sum on the right is equal to £ (?xp.k Hence. By (3.x)P~>.v s WW .{k+p~1)(pnk\1)G(pl ** x m — 1 A k=l i k>mp (1<m<pn + 1).17).m = jmk (pnk + 1)!(k .k ZJ k=l k+pl\(pnk + l\ JLd \k + p — m j \ m=k m—k ) By Vandermonde's theorem.(P)Z(VS(P:3)xS (2p + j=0 s=0 •id)2 rn§^ .12).1978] 143 GENERALIZED EULER1AN NUMBERS AND POLYNOMIALS (kpnVm_k _ . is equal to (^ ).17). ' " \k) \t) kl h+t=m ' (k2p)t (k + 1)I t k+j+s=m k! ^ ' ^ (p\2(p\lk+p)! . x>. m — k I n.16) G(P>M {?)(p+j)xjnx)pj. by (3.k ^ Summing over/77.17) Gf(x)=x JtdfxK k=0 An explicit formula for Gy'(x) can be obtained but is a good deal more complicated than (3.. P p!G(P)(x)=xj.
is equal to (^ " *). . ~>. e2. the b nonrises are chosen in n — j + 1 \ _ / pn — j + 1\ b ways. e2.3) fi+f2 + . 4 of (4. Lemma.2) A(n + 1. — . /+/'.3). for fixed k. f2. " havingr rises. that is. Clearly N * ei +e2 + ••• * £ n . •.p\r). r) = £ {P"r~~Jj+ 1 ){P+rL~l1)A(n'P'i> .j. 1 <j <n. so that a = k + j . fore\ =e2 = A(n. j>r~p It is easy to see that the number of rises in sequences enumerated by A(n + 1.a+b = k. On the other hand. p] with / rises.. Therefore Afn + 1.en\r] — = en = p. Now when f elements n + 7 are inserted in a rise of o it is evident that the total number of rises is unchanged. Therefore 2t) (3. 2.2). Let A(ei. r) is indeed not greater than pn + I To prove (4. The additional p elements n + 1 are partitioned into k nonvacuous subsets of cardinality f^. A rise in a is a pair a\.X z m o 771 * E(f) m=0 LlkY^jffL'JI' k=0 4. a fall or level) then the number of rises is increased by one: j +j + 7.p.r. .a2.r)= £ [^rj*1){P''VV)A(n'p'J') (1 < r < pn + V. where the ^ e Z w and the element / occurs ey times in o. The a rises of o are chosen in (W = Ufjr) = ( rfe) ways. The ordered set of nonnegative integers le±.a^).+ fks P* fi>0. a{+i such that a\ < a{+i. p. fk>Oso that (4. f2. Assume that the additional p elements have been inserted in a rises and b nonrises. In particular. It follows that 1 [ rj j The inner sum is equal to k=o by Vandermonde's theorem.18) G<*>M. —. p. Thus we have j + b=r. e2. COMBINATORIAL INTERPRETATION As in the Introduction. we put (4.n} and consider sequences o= (ai. —. ~. if they are inserted in a nonrise (that is. en \r) ana denote the number of sequences a of specification fei. enJ tilled the signature of o.r) = A(p. b = r.p. let o denote a typical sequence from zn of specification [p. The number of solutions f^. ~.1) The following lemma will be used. also a conventional rise to the left of a\ is counted. '—v—' For/7 > 1.p.144 GENERALIZED EULERIAN NUMBERS AND POLYNOMIALS [APR..we have (4.p. putZ n = { / .
To sum up. p] and hav ^ l = (p\rn(pn)l. of specification [p.p. by a familiar combinatorial result. RELATION OF G$M TO An(x) The polynomial G$ can be expressed in terms of \\\s An(x).p. As an immediate corollary we have pnp+l (4.6) and (Llfwehave oo 2n_GnM_= (7~x)2n+1 E oo k W k (k(k + vrx =Xx E{"y k=0 k=0 j=0 For simplicity we take/7 =2and.k <1<nt<2n1) .s) in [ 3 ] .2).5) ("= G^r = 1.1) is equal to on 2nl \~^ Z^J m=l r> n. = £ j=0 The righthand side of (5.6) G(*)(1)= £ G$*k E k=l ~.2) with (3.13) in slightly different notation to facilitate the comparison: r + 1 (44) G(p) = y (Pni \(p+i1\G(p) n+l. 5. . A(n.3.m* u m > it follows that m (5.r). k=l Clearly G^(7) is equal to the total number of sequences of length pn and specification lp.p. It remains to compare (4.j ' Since A< = G( &=1 £l it follows from (4.r LJ \ r—j l\ r—1 I n.1')*1 E *«<**** .a2. k). is equal to (p!)~n(pn)!The previous proof (4.p].2) and (4.GENERALIZED EULER1AN NUMERALS AND POLYNOMIALS 1878] 145 This completes the proof of (4.h • j=0 s=0 k=l Since the lefthand side of (5.9) forA(ei. we state the following Theorem. The coefficient G^} defined by pnp+l G( P) n <*> = is equal to A(n.2) 2nGn>m = £ k=l nm+k (1lmk £ j=0 {nMZZi)An+j.1) is equal to n nj n+j 2n n n+j m=l j=0 k=l k<m E (")E (Df. the number of sequences o= (ai.6) given in § 3 is of an entirely different nature.E *m E E ('>""*{")(nnz{)A«<i.). Gn(x) in place of GQHx).write oo n n+i = E(])Z W / j=0K] J n kn+j k ^ = k=0 A (V\ J:(])~^^ j=0K3l(1x)n+1+l so that 2nGn(x) (5. By (1.4) that (4.en\r.as in § 2.13).p. ing exactly k rises.apn)itomZn. The proof may be compared with the proof of the more general recurrence (2. •>. —..1) (")(1x)niAn+jM. which.2. We rewrite (3.
the Bernoulli numbers. Cambridge. I.Uk [Continued on page 151.n/i.k to A V* / 4ini/n\ h /i ^n+2vx' ^Utx^w Thus we have 6nxG^(x) = Yl (5. L. "Eulerian Numbers and Polynomials. 3 j=Q The righthand side of (5. R Jordan. An Introduction to Combinatorial Analysis. "Extended Bernoulli and Eulerian Numbers.B4k+2 B4k+2(n < B22k+1 (n + 1) (n = 1.k • k=n j=0 In view of the combinatorial interpretation of Antk and Gn>m. pp.2. 4. 267280. "Simon Newcomb's Problem.4) (VnHn)(lx)2n'2>An+2jM. For/7 = 3. Carlitz. University Press." Duke Mathematical Journal. 3.=0 fe=i ZJirH") E (vs{2n. p. M.2 *m k [i) °° n \~"» / *\n\ in\ V* h i. AN INEQUALITY FOR INTEGER SEQUENCES Noting that Uy.2. Vol. Carlitz. J. pp. ******* [Continued from page 129.2iV E *n+2/.n+2i_. F. 1958. 10861093.4) gives the inequality (25) + 1). "Enumeration of Sequences by Rises and Falls: A Refinement of the Simon Newcomb Problem. consider p(3)/ 6nx "*i ' * ' i °° _ V* n dxt™ to i. Roselle. 1915. 203214. 5.146 APR.4) B2p(n + 1) .P. Dillon and D. New York. = . 3.] Recalling [2. and so (2. L. 30 (1958). however the result in question is too complicated to be of much interest.) £ (Vmk(2nmZ2kk) An+2j. 2. (n.k • REFERENCES 1.*** = E *m E ^n"y(?) E f^*""* (*." Mathematics Magazine. L." Duke Mathematical Journal 31 (1964). ~. pp. P. and Ck = k the inequality (2. MacMahon.2) implies a combinatorial result.k = 7. J. Carlitz. 39 (1972). Wiley.Bp)2 F o r p = 2k + 1.5) Ti«GWm n n+2/ j=0 k=l = £ (1)n]{n. 17 (1969). 6.2. Combinatorial Analysis. = k satisfies the difference equation Uk+2 = 2Uk+1 .* • j=0 fe«i s=0 m=i It follows that (5. •••). we obtain from (2.B2k+1 =0. 667690.:£'>««/.] J.B 1. 1978 GENERALIZED EULERIAN NUMERALS AND POLYNOMIALS and 2n <53) kn (*>k E 0= £ (1)(2n„Zi)A«+j.3) with x=1.k= 1. (5. pp. 137] that (j + i) £ k' = Bj+l(n + 1)Bj+l: where Bj(x) are Bernoulli polynomials with Bj(O) = Bj.4) is equal to n 2n2j n+2j 3n n n+2j .B2p < (Bpfn + 1). A." StMM Journal on Applied Mathematics.
HOBADAM University of New England. . N. provided that in this case he must take the same number from each. (11.F. in [ 3 . Wythoff pairs have been analyzed in detail by Carlitz. which may throw a little light on the general problem. A safe pair may also be called a Wythoff pair.13).x . it is desirable to present a description of the nature and strategy of Wythoffs game.. the outcome depends on whether the initial heaps form a safe or unsafe combination. each integer appears exactly once (i. In each draw. 2. For a better understanding of the principles used in our reasoning which follows. They are: (I) Members of the first pair of integers differ by 1.18).. A.. can nearly always win by remembering which pairs of numbers are "safe combinations": safe for him to leave on the table with the knowledge that.618 (so that a2 = (3 + x/5 )/2 = 2.WYTHOFF PAIRS A. * . Scoville and Hoggatt. (12. The player who takes the last counter wins the game. a2 = a+ 1).15). Wythoff [11] in 1907. we will attempt to minimize our reference list. (If both players know the safe combinations. Australia 2301 1. WYTHOFF'SGAIVtE Wythoffs game was first investigated by W. every interval between two consecutive positive integers contains just one multiple of either a or a . Artnidale. (6.. There are several interesting things about the integers occurring in these safe combinations. e.618). i. Note that/? n = an+n. For example. a player may freely choose counters from either (i) one heap. 4 ] . it is probably worthwhile to indicate briefly the author's alternative treatment. It is similar toNim (see Bouton [2]) and may be described thus (Ball [1 ] ) : Unspecified oumbers of counters occur in each of two heaps.2).e.20). (IV) In every pair of a safe combination. 10] came to his attention. (4. playing against a novice. or equal t o . (3. though without specific reference to Wythoffs game. where the symbol [x] denotes the greatest integer which is less than. and a = (1 + V 5 ) / 2 = 1.)" The safe combinations for Wythoffs game are known to be the pairs: /? = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 (1) (1. (\\) The nth pair is (an. bn) = ([no]..e. Both Silber and the author use the fundamental idea of the canonical Fibonacci representation of an integer.7). (9. if he does not make any mistake later on.S. as Ball [1] observes). (8. heaps of 1 and 2 can be reduced to 0 and 2. (III) In the list of integers occurring in the ordered pairs for safe combinations. or 1 and 1. ».5). [na2] = fna] +n. As the two approaches differ somewhat. the smaller number is the smallest integer not already used and the larger number is chosen so that the difference in thenth pair is/?.e. [no?]). 147 . or 1 and 0.. We recognize a as the "golden section" number which is a root of x2 . While much work has been done recently on Fibonacci representation theory and on Nimrelated games. he is sure to win. of t h e / / pair by n.g. of the second pair by 2.10). or (ii) two heaps. of the third by 3.1 = 0 (i. As Coxeter [5] remarks: "An experienced player.W. INTRODUCTION The author had been working on the safe combinations (Wythoff pairs) in Wythoffs game [11] when theresearches of Silber [9.
if desired. by Euclid's algorithm or by congruence methods. of infinitely many Hsequences of which the given //sequence forms a part). 20) = H3 (20. yield our quadratic equation x . 32) = H2 (32.q . 15) = (H3.85) = Hn(35. ahn = Hm+2. r Every positive integer N is obviously also a member of infinitely many nonWythoff pairs belonging to infinitely many different ^sequences. and (b) is. i..2000) is a Wythoff pair (Now make the identification with the notation in [ 9 ] : (6) an = Hm. Some instances of this are 2000 = Hn(75. depends on the occurrence of the equations (Mx) + (1//) = 1.2000) whereas (1236. n = 6 yields the Wythoff pair (a^.1 = 0. (a764.b764)). 4) = H6 (4. 3.g.q when there is no possible ambiguity. by Hoggatt [ 6 ] . is reproduced.148 WYTHOFF PAIRS [APR. the nfh Fibonacci number /v. (See (II) above. WYTHOFF PAIRS AS MEMBERS OF Consider the generalized Fibonacci sequence [Hm(p._j . (Coxeter notes that Wythoff himself obtained his solution "out of a hat" without any mathematical justification). N)}yield all the Wythoff pairs.e.. to allow for negative subscripts. Every positive integer N (a) produces a H^ (= [Na] =p)) which iis the first member of a Wythoff pair.2000) and (1237.e.0).x . 52 = Ht (52.. That the Wythoff pairs are ultimately connected with Fibonacci numbers should not surprise us since. 3. in response to a problem proposed by Beatty (Toronto) a year earlier.q)} Ho q (7) u / Ht p H2 p+q H3 2p+q {Hm(p.) The first forty Wythoff pairs are listed in Silber [ 9 ] .. both Wythoff pairs and Fibonacci numbers involve [x]. e.y = x + 1 which. It is known [7] that (5) Hm = pFm+qFm^. i.q)} of integers (Horadam [7]): H4 3p+2q H5 5p+3q H6 8p+5q H7 13p+8q •"•  where (3) Hm = Hm_t+Hm_2 (m > 2) in which we omit p. q = 3. 0) = •• with infinite extension through negative values of m if the restriction m > 2 in (3) is removed. a member of a Wythoff pair and a member of some //sequence (in fact.93) yielding the nonWythoff pairs (1235. we will assume the results in [9] expressed in our notation: for p = 3. N = 2000 = 20Fn +4F10 (= Hn(20. of the Diophantine equation 89x + 55y = 2000. .e. when / is eliminated. 4) = / / 7 ( 4 . for/7 = 1. 4» = 20x89 + 4 x 55 is a member of all the //sequences resulting from the solution. i. by (IV). It might reasonably be asked: How does the "golden section" number a come into the solution of Wythoff's game? The answer is detailed in Coxeter [5] where the solution given by Hyslop (Glasgow) and Ostrowski (Gottingen) in 1927.q = 0. for some p.. b^) = (9. bn = Hm+1.. 12) = H4 (12. as given by Hyslop and Ostrowski quoted in [ 5 ] . (4) Fm = Hm(1.  a" y j +1 2 . For example. 2.H4) To save space. 8) = H5 (8. the answer to our query. e. From the rules of construction (I)—(IV) it is only a matter of patience for the interested reader to form as long a list of Wythoff pairs as is desired. The restriction m >2\x\ (3) may be removed. The ordinary Fibonacci sequence {Fm} with FQ = Ot F± = F2 = 1 occurs when/7 = l. sequences [Hm([Na].g. Basically.
(2) NonWythoffpair (62. using no two consecutive numbers. . (i) kr = 2 (ii) where n = Fk^z + Fk2~z (10) z = kr1 + *" + Fkrz > (krz = 1) so the last term in n (B (ii)) is F± = 1. ZECKENDORF'S REPRESENTATION AND From (5) and (7) we have.10). fork^ >m >m . Hm+i) are that. D764) 1236 = Fit + Fi3 +F7 + F4 so B(i) is invalid (and so is B(ii)).r7). 175) = 108 = F11+F7 + F5 + F2.A(ii).e. (88.. Examples. + Fkr .B(i) are valid and (175108=167 = F10 + F6 + F4 + F1 so B(ii) holds. Theorem. we have further that B. ZECKENDORF'S CANONICAL REPRESENTATION Zeckendorfs Theorem. in the canonical representation (7).states: (Zeckendorf's Theorem) Every positive integerN can be represented as the sum of distinct Fibonacci numbers. 5. Thus. From [9]. f Hm = Fkl+Fk2 i^m+1 = (ii) + . q. and for some positive integersp. [Hm(p. i.q)} . A primitive Wythoff pair is a Wythoff pair which is not generated by any other Wythoff pairs. and such a representation is unique. A. 4. (6. (a67. ki > k2 > — > kr > 2 (r depending on N) kjkj+i > 2 (j = 1. Hm+1) is primitive if and only if (for Hm =an)n = a^ for some positive integer k. All pairs in an //sequence after a Wythoff pair are Wythoff pairs... 100) B2 = F\Q + FS + F^ so kr = 3 which is not even.7).15). (3) Nonprimitive Wythoff pair (1236. this canonical (Zeckendorf) representation of N is (7) where (8) and (9) N = Fkl+Fk2 + ~.A(ii) are valid.b67) 175 = F12 + F8 + F6 + F3 so A(i). (9. + Fkr+1 For a primitive Wythoff pair. (1. (4) Primitive Wythoff pair (108. (4. and A(ii) is therefore invalid (though A(i) holds).2).. each Wythoff pair generates a sequence of Wythoff pairs.1978] WYTHOFF PAIRS 140 Theorem.2. the criteria for a Wythoff pair (Hm. + Fkf Fkl+1+Fk2+1+kr is even.101) 101 •= F11+ F& + F4 + Fi so A(i) is invalid (and so is A(ii)). with (8) and (9).1 >kr. Symbolically. quoted in Lekkerkerker [8]. 2000) = (a764. (1) NonWythoffpair (62.143) are primitive Wythoff pairs. A Wythoff pair (Hm. WYTHOFF PAIRS. though A(i).
56).2) = H6(90. we have (14) and consequently (15).1) = m . Examples.m'= (z1) + 1=zgiving (13).146) in the examples above are indeed primitive Wythoff pairs is straightforward.150 WYTHOFFPAIRS (11)' N = Hm(p. Thus.e.z + 1 in the//sequence. 1000 is the 6 ^ term in the sequence generated by the primitive Wythoff pair (90.16)} ~" {//(10. 146) = (a$6. by [\\). the sequence {Hm'(p'.q) in which (p't p' + q') is a primitive Wythoff pair. The explanation of (12)—(15) is as follows. in (12). It is now possible to determine. That is.8) by (12)—(15) since m' = z = 4.(z .p' is the first member of a primitive Wythoff pair.0) = 12.q) = Hm>(p'.q = 0) H 4(12. N = 52 \% the 4 ^ term in the H0 Hi 0 4 p' = H 4(4.q'). then by B(i) its canonical representation must end with F2.2)} Example (1) is given by Silber [ 9 ] . = Fkl +Fk2 + '~ + Fkr . i.1 places by (10). = 8. as well as the location of N in that sequence (as is done in [9]). 20) and (90. bse)'H0 Ht H2 H3 H4 H5 2 10 12 22 34 56 H6 90 H7 H8 H9 H10 Hn 146 236 382 618 (lOOO) ' {//(90. p' is located in term position/?? . A little thought reveals that (12) where (13) N = Hm(p./<9y/}generated by the primitive Wythoff pair (12.p=4. Hence. Clearly.. . bg): H3 H4 H5 4 8 12 20 32 (b2) 84 H2 H6 H7 H8 {//(12. That is. m'= z (14) P'= (15) q'=Hmz(P4) Hm_z+1(p. q' = H3(4. (1) ( s o z = 4 b y (10)) N = 52 = F9+F7 + F5 4F7 + 0. we see that ourz is a suggestive symbol as it is also the number of zeros at the righthand end of the zerounit notation for a canonical representation.q')} is generated by a primitive Wythoff pair.0) sequence{///'/i.0) by (11) (som = 7.F6 by repeated use of Fm = Fm_i + Fm_2 H7(4.20) = (a$.0)} (2) N = WOO = F16+F7 = Hn(10..p' precedes N by kr2 = z.8)} l//(4. Checking that (12.q) = pFm+qFm_t [APR.e. exactly which Wythoff pair generates the //sequence in which that N appears. Comparing his zerounit notation with our//notation in relation to canonical representations. i. for any positive integer N. If.
Hoggatt. Monthly. E. 2. 4.1." Simon Stevin. pp. Phyllotaxis.2. Hoggatt." The Fibonacci Quarterly. 199202. A. S.1976. Vol. 1960. Silber. [Continued from page 140. pp. C. and V^. Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers. Vol. Scoville and V. pp. Ui = 1. (3. 3539. Scoville and V. where P and Q are integers with P > 2 and P + Q > 1. Series 2. Let U^. Klamkin and D. with U0 = 0. "Fibonacci Representations.] and that Vn = 2 satisfies Vn+2 = 2Vn+1 . "The Golden Section. W. be two solutions of Wk+2 = PWk+1+QWk. 3. E. 1902. Vol. one can prove the conjecture f o r / 7 * Q >3. Math. pp. which leaves the two cases P * 5 = ^ and P + Q = 1 open. R. we can rewrite (1." Annals of Mathematics. R. E." Nieuw Archief voor WisKunde. 10. M. 195152. 128. 1907. L. 380384. M. R. The Fibonacci Quarterly). R. Coxeter) Macmillan. pp. REFERENCES 1.2) as n / n \2 k=i \ k=i i This suggests the following result for integer sequences. Monthly. W. Using double induction. Vol. 7. S. 1972. L. We then claim that (3D 2 JT U3k< vjf: k=i \k=i Uk) fn = 1. London. a Game with a Complete Mathematical Theory. with V0 = 2. "Mathematical Recreations and Essays" (revised by H."v4/r?er. V. Newman. Houghton Mifflin. F.1953. G." The Fibonacci Quarterly.WYTHOFF PAIRS 1973] 151 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Thanks are due to Professor Robert Silber for sending the author preprints of some of his forthcoming articles on Fibonacci representations. 4 5 5 459. 527530.. L.1) gives (1. 135143. pp.S. 6. pp. " A Modification of the Game of Nim. 14. Jr. M. "Addendum to the Paper 'Fibonacci Representations'. and Wythoff's Game. A. 68 (5)." Scripta Mathematica. H." Preprint (to appear. 2630. 10. 3. Macmillan. 7 (2). k = 0.1 I Remarks. 8. "A Fibonacci Property of Wythoff Pairs. R. 83 (1976). 1969. C. 11. Coxeter. Vol.M. Hoggatt.. L. "Wythoff's Nim and Fibonacci Representations. "Voorstelling van natuurlyke getallen door een som van getallen van Fibonacci. 2. Bouton. 29. Lekkerkerker. 1961. REFERENCES 1. W. The Calculus of Finite Differences. Wythoff. thus making available further information. 5.2). Vol. Carlitz. Vol. pp. MilneThomson. 9. Silber." The Fibonacci Quarterly. For P = 2 and Q = 1. . 10. Horadam. J. 190195. including references. "Nim. "Inequalities and Identities for Sums and Integrals. Ball. Carlitz. pp.Vt = P. Conjecture." American Math.. 1947. Jr.Vn. 19. 1972. Vol.. "A Generalized Fibonacci Sequence. Jr.
J [1]. b(m) = ^ 1= m. The purpose of this note is to show that the relative asymptotic density of A in certain geometric sequences is also log (1 + Ma). But (1) is equivalent to (2) \^Mi tjtMk±t)\ <m< L logs logc / Let L log c logc / and \lt+i  denote the length of lt+i. {zt}?=1 is uniformly distributed mod 1. \/t+i\= 1 iff ^= 1 andc = 2. n > 1. m €E / Definition 3. R. We adopt the following definitions.GEOMETRIC SEQUENCES AND THE INITIAL DIGIT PROBLEM RAYMOND E. 9} is denoted by A = [ay). J Jim (zt+1zt) t^oo = lim —— = r^— and T^— is irrational [2]. The subsequence of positive integers with initial digit a e {1. Definition 2. A(m) = A n B(m). Obviously (3) \lt+1\ = ^(1+1/a) 1 1] log c ^ IOCL^ 7 logs In fact. — . y^B(m) m Clearly c e A' iff a10t < cm < (a+ 1)10* (1) (t > 0). y < cm. Definition 1. Let c denote a positive integer which is not a power of ten. Definition 5. Let zt+i denote the midpoint of it+i. t>«»logc logs logs 152 . Definition 4. m e J) . L. Lock Haven. B' = I J B(m). Proof.WHITNEY Lock Haven State College. Pennsylvania Recently. where logx is the common logarithm of x.2. the logarithmic density of ^S in J is log (1 + Ma). Although the asymptotic density of A in J does not exist. a(m) = YL 1 • yE:A(m) Definition 6. (4) =2t + \o$a(a+1) log c {t > Q) Lemma 1. Duncan discussed the Initial digit problem for the sequence of positive integers. B(m) = [y\y = cn. A' = A n B'.
It is clear that J\i±Mk±Jl]\ (6) d(a)= lim U_]0M_ " J\l±Mja±m\ (7) W)= lim Since \n + Q d(a) = lim ^A'^^l'i! log £7 and . 1978 GEOMETRIC SEQUENCES AND THE INITIAL DIGIT PROBLEM 153 Hence. Obviously .. —. / + 1) for some integer. Proof. and only if where zt+1 e f / . If \lt+i\1 (c = 2.a = 1).(n) and the result follows. d(a) = log (1 + Ma)." respectively.... Proof. and are denoted by d(a) and d(a). it is clear that each interval contains at most one integer. then If \it+11 < 7.. lt+i will not contain an integer if. 12.JiigAiiZ]). J g (a + n 1 „ n + Q gfa* ^ •log c the application of Lemma 2 transforms (6) and (7) into (8) r J log c = \'l  log £r = log f 1 + 1/a) . A/. respectively [ 5 ] ..APR. x is the number of intervals. Let d(a) denote the relative asymptotic density of /TinS'defined as follows: (5) d(a) = lim y 1 /T dy<*x 1. where [x] denotes the greatest integer in x. Using Lemma 1 and the definition of uniform distribution mod 1 [ 4 ] . {zt) ™=1 j s uniformly distributed mod 1 [3]. Since \lt+i\ < 1. _„. Lemma 2. ln which contain an integer and this is /? less the number of intervals which contain no integer. a(Vl±^±l> ]) = /j /i + o(n). n<x dy<EA' n<EB' The upper and lower relative asymptotic densities of A' in B' are obtained by replacing "limit" in (6) by "limit superior" and "limit inferior. We conclude the discussion with our main result. Theorem.„. ^ ./. we have .
(corrected) A.154 APR. India. 4. Hence Squad. 1960.1)/(g2 . . H. 3. M. New York. H. we use the geometric sum formula to obtain (gP"1 . Appling this to (2p) m p get F kQ h=l V Sincep is a prime." The Fibonacci Quarterly. 4th ed. F. Krishman..' <«»«• V ) . REFERENCES 1.g4.g2 To find the sum of the quadratic residues. Show that ( ^ n _ r / ) «S of the form n3k2n2 ( m) n. res. 2.i)/i = 1 (mod p) and so 4 E (fe ) 2 "£ "7 s * quad. 193031 (378). Vol. FORM TO THE RIGHT H211 Proposed by S. I. Vol. 1966. Show that (™ jis of the form 2n 3k+2 when/? is prime and/7 > 3. 1960. 5. An Introduction to the Theory of Numbers.2. G. 7. pp. Wright. Roth. M.. Therefore [Continued on page 165. J. 5. Halberstam and K. = 0 (mod/?). Hardy and E. 390. p. then the quadratic residues are p3 lg2. p i ( ? ) for /r = 1.p .Van der Corput. No.] *>'\X(t)2 and (*} . L.~. Orissa. Oxford. Tracy.1).Sequences. .1. 4/7 Introduction to the Theory of Numbers. mod/?. The Vandermonde convolution identity is P ) = 2 ( n ^ L) ( L_k ).. "Diophantisehe Ungleichungen I: Zur Gleich Verteilung Modulo Ems. R. ±a). res. Now {tfsp2 (using/.1978 GEOMETRIC SEQUENCES AND THE INITIAL DIGIT PROBLEM __ d(a) = (9) lim . —. when/7 is prime. G. Note that/7 > 3 i m p l i e s # 2 . l \/An+o(n) /_Lfl =  0 g (1 + 1/a) logc and the desired conclusion follows. Let# be a primitive root. H. represents the binomial coefficient.. "Note on the Initial Digit Problem. Duncan. B. m' . 46. Our apologies. 474475. A.\NB tplMp2)~tpk+1) 2 (moAp3) Also (p . Hardy and E. pp. Solution by P. . Wright. 5556. (mod/?) (since every quadratic residue mod/7 has exactly two roots. p. ******* ADDENDA TO ADVANCED PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS These problem solutions were inadvertently skipped over for a few years. 4th ed. Liverpool." Acta Math.1^0 (mod/7). =p). G.
we also show that if a <b <c <diorm a /'set. The usual fundamental properties of inequality hold for this extension. b. he has no intention of composing a sonata. a>b means that a . and a. We show that if a and b are two successive evenindexed Fibonacci numbers. and c. Long before. Then there was just one sequence of c^. Davenport and Baker proved. cr(x). The proof of this result is an adaptation of one of B.8. Jour. We want to allow a and b to be in Z. 2 where ab + 1 = w . bck + 1 = z2 y^ and z^ in Z+[x] .b > 0. In a previous paper [Quar. in this case Z+[x] becomes the set of positive integers. namely c2 (a. there are at least two such sequences. where r is a positive integer and the C{ are certain polynomials defined recursively. We call such a set a />set. (1. x+2.b) = (4w2 . b. then d > ab + 1.A SECOND VARIATION ON A PROBLEM OF DIOPHANTUS AND DAVENPORT* BURTON W.] Without loss. When we write "a is in Z[xj" we mean that it is either a polynomial of positive degree or an integer. that if 1. Since much of the theory is the same for integers and polynomials it is convenient to define an extension of the idea of inequality from integers to polynomials in ZfxJ. have positive leading coefficients. Similarly if a and b are in Z[x]. An equivalent pair of equations is (b . cr+i(x). INTRODUCTION in a paper appearing in the Quarterly Journal of Mathematics [Vol.a ) c k = z2ky2k. J. A final section describes some results which seem true but for which we have no proofs. we may assume that a. using the "effective" results of the latter. [We omit the argument* when there is no ambiguity. 129137]. Our most significant result is that when a and b are linear over Z+[xJ. (unless b = a +2). that is. Here we consider a similar problem in a more general setting. First we seek all solutions cj^ = Ck (x) in Z+fxJ of (1.b) reduces to 4b(b2 + 1) and is not a Fibonacci number. Indeed. 9x + 6\s a/'set for. Harold Davenport and Alan Baker dealt with the set of numbers: 1. 349353] the author proved that the only Psets containing x and x + 2 in Z[x] are x. c is a /'set. c = a + b + 2w. 156 . c. In the previous paper we considered the case when b = a +2. C2(a. In the latter case. Let a =a(x) and b = b(x) be two nonzero polynomials in Z[x] such that ab + 1 = w2. Math.2) ba = by2 az2k . and w are in Z+ [x]. then there is exactly one possible d. 3.e= 1/16. d form a Pset of four elements. We assume throughout that *The author promises there will not be a third. that the product of any two increased by one is a square. noted by Fermat. 3.. we call it its own "leading coefficient. Boulder. with a. Diophantus noticed that the s e t * . b. We prove that if a and b are both linear or quadratic there are exactly two sequences. Birch given in the previous paper. b. pp. and c form a Pset and all are of the same positive degree. 120. We prove that if a. 8. forms a Pset.1) ack + 1 = y?. It has the property. If a and b are in Z and a < b < 4a we prove that there are exactly two sequences of cy. 27 (1976). then there is no fourth of thesame degree which. * +2. Vol.2)c + 2(a + h). 20 (1969). then c must be 120. \\bta+2. Definition. where w is in ZfxJ. pp." The symbol a > 0 means that the leading coefficient of a is positive. Colorado 80309 1.JONES University of Colorado. the first three have the same property considered as polynomials i n * . 4x + 4.
2we + 1 = 0 implies e4 (4w2 2)e2 + 1 = 0. from (1. and similarly for/7^. and ct> in terms of a and a'1. To this end.2we + 7.3) 0 < a < b. (2. By induction. Now wyk .sa'1 = (w+a)(aa~1). that is Yk = wYkl + azki (2 2) Zk = byki+wz^i. We show below that the first equation of (1. similarly. Thus (2. Hence y^ = (w+ a)fkfk_i and.a)fk [(2w +a+ b)fk . we have. .2) defines c^.2) imply thatc^ = 2w + a+b. Hence.5) (a±2)k(4w22)(a±2)k1+(a±2)k~2 = Q. Note that y± =w+a andz^ = b * w with (1. Thus we want to determine r and s so that k h Now rs = aa'1 andra. where k zj^ = (w +b)f^~ f^i.3) implies na </?£.1) degcfe = 2kn . We seek y^. Recalling thatc^ = a + b+2w..azk = yki which implies Yk = wYkl +wykl ~Yk2 = Also wzkbyk=zki implies Zk = 2wzki Zk2 2wYklYk2. Define co to be 0 and have as a consequence that yo= ZQ = 1.1) r e p l a c e ^ by sja and multiply corresponding sides of the two equations to get: bylazl^w'abXbyl^azlJ.2fk^J .1) (\/byk + V* zk = (w + sjab My/by^i + V* *fei). and Note that ab ? 0 implies that w £ 1. So (2. (2.and deg z^ = (k + 1)n na.4) ck = fk(cifk2fki).2). To see that (2. FORMULAS FOR ck IN (1. where n = nw.2) In order to find a formula forc^ we first seek a recursion formula for y^ andz^. It is interesting and useful to find a recursion formula for q. from (1.yjab .2).a * f fk .na. if k > 0. for k > 2. Let a and a'1 be the zeroes of e2 . Thus a = w + yjab a'1 = w . 2. rw aa This shows that + acf1 and s= w+aa. write (2. To this end note that e . \\na = dega denotes the degree of a "mx..1) suppose that y ^ .3) Yk~2wYkl +Vk2 = 0 and zk~2wzki +zk2 = 0.yk)(zk + yk) = (b .156 A SECOND VARIATION ON A PROBLEM OF DIOPHANTUS AND DAVENPORT (1. Z£_. In (2. [APR.1) AND (1. k _ or .? is a solution of the second equation of (1.2) defines a sequence of solutions of (1.— aa 1 Thus we have (zk . deg / £ = kn.2). zk. Another way to show this is to use Eqs. Note that A7a and/7^ must be of the same parity and 2n = na + n^..2) directly in the second equation of (1. then (1.
ac+1 = y2. z^. This shows that L = 2ci .a) +y2 = (wy .2) with subscripts suppressed.8) . we have a(ba) = (w2 . ?kl «n (22) by / .1978] A SECOND VARIATION ON A PROBLEM OF DIOPHANTUS AND DAVENPORT Then f'k = a (2. From the second equation of (1.1) ab+ 1 = w2.7) 4w.2).a) = 1 +b(c + ab) > 0 if and only if b < a + c. b.az = y' > 0. Hence wy .2)ci + L.2)cki .4w = 2(a + b).1)y2 a2z2 .1).\NQ have C2 = (4w2 . f2 = 2w.3) y' = wyaz. This transformation is an automorph of by2 . and (2.by = z' > 0 if and only if Second. bc+1 with x. a(b . (1. On the other hand. z'. (2.z in Z+[x].y. z.az2. that is. We now show that \i b <a + c and if c satisfies (3.6) 157 +N.a = 2 and. z' = by + wz. However the c^ are the only solutions \\b .az2.(w2 . b(ba) = b2y2 .azf2 = by2 .2)cki (2.1). Furthermore (fh + fkl> ~ 2w(fkl + + fk2) + (h2 2 fk3> = 0 2 implies that (f^ + fki) satisfies the same recursion formula as f except for a change in N'. UNIQUENESS OF SOLUTIONS We could hope that the c% as developed above would be the only solutions of the Eqs. z = by' + wz' and its inverse.az)(wy + az). Hence we have ck = (4w2 .5) implies +a S f 2k = (4w22)fl1fl2+N'.ck2 + 2(a + b). .4). Since b > a. where /l/'is independent of k. y'. Thus and cu = (4w2 .b(b . respectively. but this is not so in general.2) / = wy' + az'.1) and (1. which shows that (wz . wy +az is positive.1)z2 . where N is independent of k. Let a. To show this we develop a useful algorithm.byHwz + by) = z2 . 3. c be three polynomials in Z+[x] such that a < b and (3. with one exception. that is. This is the basis of our algorithm. yu~i.3) yields ac' <c. the left side is positive and since / and z are positive. = z2. then (3. (3. Replacing y^. when a and b are both linear polynomials. Taking k = 2. Similarly. br and c except those in (3. Also z' is in Z+[x] if and only if b < a + c. This is the recursion formula we sought. where L is in Z[x] and is independent of k. by/2 . and f\ = 1 imply c2 = 4w2a (2. First we show t h a t / ' i s \nZ+[x] without further condition on a. we have the transformation: (3. Thus2f^fki fkfki satisfy the same recursion formula except for the term independent of k. Thus wz .cu2 + L . we show that y' and z' define a c' in Z[x] such that b < a + c.
using (3.1) and. (3. when a. Theorem 3.1) with subscripts suppressed.2w(b . \f4a>b>a. So if b is in Z.4) holds. then (3. Hence (3. The corollary follows since if they form a /*set we may take a < b < c < d and see from Theorem 2 that c = d. and y'and z'defined by (3. let / and z in Z+fxJ be defined by (1. c do not form a />set in Z+fxJ. If a < b < c are polynomials of the same degree overZ+[x] which satisfy Eqs.b).2) shows that y = w + a.1) would imply that ^ and bd would be squares. ail the letters in (3. Corollary 2. If b is in Z and b < a + c.] The results of Theorem 1 provide the mechanism to prove two useful theorems.y2 .2) that Eqs.8) 0 < c' < c/w2.7) y' < y/w. Also y'> 0 without further condition.8) implies c r = £7. Hence the following holds (3. since w> 1. then c = a+b+2w = ci (a.] A closely allied result is the following.az .2n .5) ny* = nyn.az'> 0 which implies (3. From (3. If c'= 0. then a. Theorem 1. In both cases y'=z'= 1 and (3. Theorem 2.d are four distinct poiynomiais of equal positive degree QWXZ*[X] they do not form a /'set. If n = 0. b. Hence (3.4) = 2nz . Since b . then. z and z' interchanged. Proof.c. Then c' = by2 +az2 . c'isa Pset and (3. assume that b is of positive degree and b < a + c.8) hold. z'2. then (3. the additional condition c <w2 = ab + 1 holds. b.3). ac' = y'2 .a = by .b. The conditions of the theorem imply that /?a = n = nc and b < a + c. nc = n and (3. Then w is of positive degree. If n > 0. If a and b are in Z with a < b and \f a < b < c < d form a Pset.6) hold.2wyz +c defines ac'such thata. wy'. which is a contradiction. then d > ab + h [In view of Lemma 4 in Section G.6) imply c' = 0. suppose/? is in Z a n d / .8) is sharpened in Lemma 4 of Section 6. c are in Z. b.1 < ac/w2.4) = y'2 ac'+1 and hc'+l = [APR. (3.7).2). We collect all these results in the following theorem. from (3. To this end we compute 2 z' __ y'2 = [(w . As in the previous paragraph. cheaPset over Z+[x] with a < b. This implies that a and w are i n Z It also implies that c is in Z for if c were of positive degree with leading coefficient tf. we have wy' .2) shows (3. \fa. b. we have from the equivalence of equations (1.158 A SECOND VARIATION ON A PROBLEM OF DIOPHANTUS AND DAVENPORT (3.a)(by2 + az2) + z2 . This completes the proof.ab+1 = w2. (3. then/? <a +c implies y'= z' = 1 and hence ny = n and nz=n\) n n a +c = n ^ y' = n n ?y ~? = na+nc2n from (3. ac + 1 =y and hence c = a+b +2w. If c't 0. . this is impossible if ab + 1 is a square.4) we have. [Inequality (3.4) hold.d>ab + 1 could be replaced byd>4ab.1 < y2/w2 .5) and (3. Let a.mda<c<b. <a+ c.7) and (3. Corollary 1. then nc' = nc 2n and n/ = nz n.b)y + (w + a)z] = (h . if Z? is of positive degree and b < a + c.6) If c' / 0.1 = (ac + 1)/w2 .tj)y + (w c' = by2 + az2 + c  where = (b . Third.a)yz a)z][(w 2wyz. The corresponding result fora and b i n Z is the following. then conditions (3.az' > 0. Finally.1) represent positive integers. As in the first part of our argument with y and y'. and z'> 0 if and only if b < a + c.ak'f .1) and (1.
2w.1978J A SECOWD VARIATION OW A PROBLEM OF DIOPHAiyTUS AMD DAVEWPORT 159 Proof. b.m . c are polynomials of the same degree. We can compute the members of this sequence by going back to Section 2 and starting with yg = 1 = .8). WHEN IS chcr + 1 A SQUARE? To answer this question we first find a formula for c^cr + 1 for k > r. As in the proof of Theorem 3.l:a + 1.1). this impliesc = a +b .b) for some/.b) = a+ b +2w and hence c = nh(a. the last paragraph in the proof of Theorem 1 implies that b'=Q. (3. From these ?. and the degree of c is a multiple of n. where b = a+c+2w\ Then . must be inZ. Then it remains to consider 0 <Z<a<b. c.9) can be written (4. b.fkl> we can write (2. we eventually arrive at a 'c of degree n or in Z according as k is odd or even. First.2w and c = Cj(a. 4. t h e c bef ore ? is Ci (a. the degree of c satisfying (3. c satisfies (3. Wenze'c = a+h . Using an argument similar to that of Section 2 it can be found that (3.3). .b) and c = Ck(a. Now.?<Z? we consider two cases separately. namely z' = / F . Since we need a similar result for C{ we adopt a temporary notation which enables us to derive both results simultaneously. Now since 'cb'+ 1.1) must be even. The second sequence is omitted if b = a +2.4) as (4. Now we assume that a and b are of the same positive degree and seek all c satisfying (3. b in place of a.1) Ck = fk(cifk+2fk+ll where ct = a + b 2w._ §h + 1 = a2+ac+2aw'+1 . The corollary follows since if n = 2. Theorem 2 shows that £= a (a. [In Section 6 we consider the same problem for a and b in Z. on the other hand.b) = fkfcifk+2fklh wnere ^1 = a + h 2w. then c = c^fe. Second. This leads to a whole new sequence which we designate by dj. First if c < b and c i s of positive degree n. t h e n / = 1 = z . If a and b are both linear or both quadratic in x and if c satisfies (3.b) for some k. we have in general more than two sequences.1). When n > 2. It can also be verified that the Cj satisfy the same recursion formula asq. m&ab+ 1 = w2 we define z'and w'by what corresponds to (3.2) h = fk(cih2fk+l) . Theorem 2 with b and ^interchanged shows that b =a +£+2y where y =ac+ 1. Corollary. But w = a+y.2W iv' = az —'yw.Z?>/ for some k or c = h(a.if ? < b and f is in Z.6).l:b' + 1 = z'2 defines/?'which. If.1).I Q in place of YQ = 1 = ZQ. But by (3.b) for some/.1). Since each time we apply transformation (3. Theorem 4. If a and /? are of the same positive degree.3). by (3. where n = na= nc. Note that the conditions 4a > h > a and a < c < b imply that a. If ?= 0. since a <b ^?we may use Theorem 1 wiUJi £ a. = (a + w')2 = w2 Theorem 3 affirms that if a and b are "close enough together/Lwhether of positive degree or in Z.. stem all the c satisfying (3. We collect these results in the next theorem. then c = c^(afb) for some k or c = 'cj(afb) for some/. Then y^ and z£ will satisfy the same recursion formula but will be expressed differently in terms of the f^. given in (2.3) we can for each c find a ?of degree not greater than n.b) for some k. b < 4a implies b < ac + 1 and hence from Theorem 2 with b and c interchanged.b'a + /are all squares with only a not in Z. Then if b < 'c. then ? < a < b and/? is even. Since lea + 1 =ry2.9) cu (a.] We can get explicit results if nc = kn. by use of fk+i =2wfk .l:b + 1 =12.. By Theorem \. The second sequence is omitted if b = a +2. Theorem 1 shows that we decrease the degree of c by 2n. If c> 4. then no c can be inserted between a and b to form a /'set of three elements. Similarly. w = 1 + ac. Hence a <b *c'impliesz' = w'= 1 antib =a+2y'+'c.
Let the first t coefficients of iptfa) and \pi(a) be the same f o r / = 1 and 2.with ab + 1 = w and w in Z+[x]. 2. that ckcr + 1 is a square in ZfxJ and seek a contradiction. />SETS WHEN a AND b ARE LINEAR From Theorem 5. cr. a'1] such that the first t coefficients of ifi (a) and ^ 2 ^ a r e t n e same. Theorem 6. Thus if k > r. Or the reader may prefer to note the modifications needed in the following proof where we assume that et0. Then the first t coefficients of <# (a)X(a) and ^ / W X r W are the same. 5. whered^ = ck or q .4) Now fr+l fk+1 \2wfr . the first 2r + 1 coefficients of ef^ + 2f^+i and otefr+i +2fr+2 are the same. The " i f " part is established by Theorem 5 and/or Eq. Let <#(a). Then the first t coefficients of the two polynomials are the same. is not in Z. ck is a Pset if and only if r and k are consecutive integers. d ^M be three polynomials in Z[a. $2(al ar. Lemma 1. Lemma 3. Henceforth in this proof we assume that k > r + 1.1 terms with 1 and 0 alternating as coefficients. From what we have just noted. So the case e = 0 is covered by the previous paper. as in the previous paper. The polynomials cr+i cr+ 1 and "cr+{cr + 1 are squares in Z[x]. Now if k = r + 1. a'1] whose leading coefficients are positive and such that the first t coefficients of their squares are the same.A SECOND VARIATION ON A PROBLEM OF DtOPHANTUS AND DAVENPORT 160 [APR. Now we prove the basic theorem.1 coefficients of fr is the same as the sequence of the first 2r . it follows that f^_r = 1 and we have (4. being different from zero. according as ± is + or . we omit it. we write (4. Let <pi (a). and w = W^X + WQ. Note \\wXe = a+b .3) dk = fk(d1fk+2fk+1).fr_i \2wfk . If a and b are linear in Z + /x/. Proof.6) dr+1 dr + l = (dt fr+1 fr ±2frfr+2 ± V 2. .1 coefficients for fk.and d1 = d±. To prove the "only if" part. If a and b are linear we can show as in the previous paper that c^cr + 1 is a square in Z[x] only if k and r are consecutive integers. then a. first note that e=a+b2w>$ is equivalent to (b . Fr. So we have the following theorem. we state without proof since the proofs are easy.fk_i fr fk fr fk fr f k fr1 f kl fi h fkr+1 f kr = fk This shows that fr+lfkfk+lU = fk Thus dkdr+1 (4. The idea of the argument is the same but the needed modifications cause a little trouble. a'1] of degree r—1. the sequence of 2r . It ha$2r . (4. / ° 1. We need the same result \wcy:r+ 1 but since the proof is almost the same. £"& .a)2 > 4 with equality if and only \\b= a+2. Then dkdr +1 = Cdi fkfr ± fk+l fr ± fr+l 4 ^ " (fr+l fk ~ fk+1 U)2 + ? • (4.5) = (dlfkfr±2frfk+l±fk„r)2f2kr+1 .2w. ck cr + 1 is a square when k and r are successive integers. Then the firsts coefficients of $i (a)$2(a) aR d ^1 (a)^2(a) are a so t n e ' same. Theorem 5. b = b^x+bo. The same is true for a. Lemma 2. b. where the ft are viewed as polynomials in Zl^oT1]. b. Now fr can be thought of as a polynomial in Z[a.6). We will need the following three lemmas which. To treat these together. for suppose this is true and write a = a\x+ao. be two polynomials in Z[a.
Then by Lemma 1. w in Z+fxJ. in fact ip(x) = e$i + }f2. Furthermore e is not in Zfa. we then see that the first 2r + 1 coefficients of cy. Hence.1) 9 9 /? Vjv^gks 9 9 9 _ "? = e v4o3 +2e\/^V40^04+ 0 1/^04 . the corollary of Theorem 4 shows that c = c^(afb) for some k or c = Cj(a. ip(x) = w~1to(w) = W^IWOQM + U] . We next show t h a t ^ r is also a square in Z'[a. Note that 2w = a + a .6). a"1 J since a depends only on the product aband not on the sum a + b. But = 2r+1. a]. b. and (1/3. We showed above that the first 2r + 7 coefficients of g^r and gr+ij are the same. The degree of \Jgr+i.2. Now compare \/ffr+l. the 2r + /st coefficient in \/gk.2) a/b/a+b+2w/c is a Pset of four elements. This implies that 1/411/3 and 1/311/4 and hence 1/4 = 1/3= 7. Let vi = hv^. t > 0.r in a i s l a n d hence each of the first ?/.a+b+ 2w). and v^T r = eo3 + 04 . Hence the same can be said for ffk.r = cr+icr+ 1. From this it follows that bo =ao+2 and hence e = 0. where s is a nonnegative integer. a^bi = Wi and ai + b± 2wi =0 imply ai =bi=wi. and cr. Theorem 7. On the other hand. Using Lemma 2 and (4. Writer = eix + eo where. Then 9 (5.r = efr+lfr+2fr+2fr+1. where u is in Z. v2 = hv4.and o(w) with OQ(W) areinZ/W/. Thus each of the first 2r + 2k2 r + k1 > r + r + 21 + 1 coefficients is divisible by e or 2. as we showed above.1971] A SECOND VARIATION ON A PROBLEM OF DIOPHANTUS AMD DAVENPORT 101 Then if e is in Z.3) with d[ = q. d± =ci = e implies *2M = gk.b) and if c = cy>(a.r = e2flf2 +2efkfr(frfk+l +fkfr+l)+4fkfrfk+lfr+l The degree of g^r in a is 2r+2k . This.3) c = c2 (a. v± and v2 are positive factors of eiw\2s. (4. Let Z'=Z[e] and see that c^ and cr are InZ'faT*. by Lemma 3. If (5. Let a and b be linear in Z+fxJ and ab + 1 = w .b) = ~c2(b. Note that w^O since a and b are linear.6) shows that the 2r + /st coefficient of gr+i!r i s a n °dd integer. a'1 J and et'= e for some t' in Z. with (4.coefficients of \/gr+i>r is divisible by 2 ore (or both). Thus h gk. no factor of v^ greater than 1 divides all coefficients of eo^ (a) and no factor of v2 greater than 1 divides all coefficients of 04(a). Since x = (w .r = e2o23+2eo304 + 04 .b) for some/ Now a +b +2w = ci(a.1) with ci replaced by e. a ]. This is the contradiction that proves the theorem for q . that is. &i / 0. c is a Pset. c^cr and cr+\ cr have the same first 2r+ 1 coefficients.r is an odd integer.b). where ^ and $2 are in Z[a. The proof for c^ and cr is almost the same. then (5. V4)= 1. Since a. Now we prove our principal theorem for a and b linear. Now fr+i fr is a sum of odd powers of a and hence there is no term free of a in fr+i fr. 2 Hence h = 1 and i p M = 0(73(0) * 04(0). contrary to hypothesis. Proof. which is the result we announced at the beginning of this paragraph.r = Ckcr+ 1 and gr+i. and have y(x) = eoi (a)/ei wtf12s + o2(a)/e1 w\2s = eo3 (a)/vi + 04 (a)/v2.WQ)/WI . and the first 2r + 7st coefficient is the term free of a. from (4. and cr+i are the same. Theorem 6 implies .#^ r is a square in ZfxJ. Supposegk>r ^V M.
NextweprovethatC2^ / 3^i& + 2w) = c2(a. (5.8) fore in place of c.b).h) = c^(b.p~k)/(p p1) to see that hk corresponds to fy.a+b+2w) 2]a+2(a+2b+2w) 2 = [4(ab+b + 2bw+1)2]a+2(a+b+2w)+2b = (4ab +2)(a +b +2w) +2a+2b 2 = (4w . we assume that a and b are "not too far apart.b.b) = ~c2(b.5) ck(b.2)ci (a. a + b + 2w) for some /' But (5.162 A SECOND VARIATION ON A.b) we know from (5.6) or c = c2(b. Notice that the part of the above where we showed c2(a.7) may be written (5. a <b.2w)f^+2fkfk^ . that \%.b +w is the " w " for the pair b.1 > a = w + V ^ 2 . c = Cj(a. where w is a positive integer.d. Also. a+b + 2w. for some/. So. we have = [4(h+w)2 c2(h.7. Corollary. Lethk = (@k . 2 We showed above that b(a + b + 2w) + 1 = (h+w) .2w)f£ for k>2. and (5.PROBLEM OF D80PHANTUS AND DAVENPORT (5. from (4.b) Now use the same argument with a replaced by b and h by a + h + 2w.4) or c = C2(a.Jo that hk/fk increases with k.7) ck(b.4).a+b+2w) > l}.(ajb). h.8) for cy. the equality implies/= k. the inequality (5. if k > 2. Then the only Pset contain a. In the course of proving this result we only assumed ah + 1 = w2 and (2. We find all integers . Hence b^/fk increases with k and (5. Thus. 6. that is. Hence the inequality (5.a+b+2w) = hk(ahh+2hk+1). Let a. as in Theorem 3. To do this use the recursion formulas for /?^ and 4 to get Hfkl ~ fkhkt > (2whk_t hk„2)fk_i(2wfk~i = hkifk2fklhk~2 this end we first show ~ fk2frh~l > 1*2*1 bif2 = h2f2 > 0.1 and cy of degree 2j .b) +2a+2b = c2(a.1) and (5. b.c2(a. a + b + 2w) for some k or c = h (b. that b < 4a.8) holds if ah2 > (a + h2w)f2. The following corollary follows immediately from Theorem 2.8) ahl+2hkhk+1 > (a+b . The last inequality is easy to verify.9). The corollary of Theorem 4 shows that c = c%(h. a+b +2w) for some/ and k greater than 2.6) that Cj(a.b) [APR. using the recursion formula (2. Mo\Nb(a +b +2w) + 1 = (b +w)2. and d is Pset of three linear elements of Z+fx] with a <b <d.h).1.5) a = c1(b/a+h+2w) and Theorem 6 shows that (5." specifically. REMARK.b). To show that (5.3).8) holds. PSETSOVERZ Sn this section we assume that a and b are positive integers. We now reach a contradiction by showing that (5. a + b +2w) did not depend on a and b being linear. Corresponding to a for this pair is 0 = b+w + *J(h +w)2 .dbea ing a.a+b+2w) c = c^(bfa+b +2w) for some/:. it is sufficient to show that ah^ > (a+b . Then if c j= c2(a. Using (3. But since c^ is of degree 2k . a(b + w)2 > (a + b2w)w2 .7) follows and the theorem is proved. andab + 1 = w2. and dj.
then c = cy. then d must be in each of the two following sets: = [ck(a. c. Second.1) hold. If a < b <4a. Proof. Theorem 2 implies/. Theorem 2 shows that c' = a + b + 2w = c^ (a.b). ^1 One possibility \sd = C2(aJb) = C2(b. Then.b)} $2 = {ck(bfe) u Cj(b.1) Let a.3) becomes 0 >4a 20a.e = a + b + 2w. then c > b .b)}. as in Theorem 2. a and b are in Z + . a).b. where w'2 = ac'+ 1. (3. 2 \\d = 2. As in the proof of Theorem 1. +2d+2)+d2 4. c = Cj(a.10a3 which holds if and only if a < 10. follows that (6. (6. Proof To apply Theorem 8 to this theorem we must notice that e < 4b is equivalent to 4 < (9b .b >ac'+ b = a + c' + 2y' = ale'. Write ac'+ 1 = y<2 and be'+ 1 = z'2.3) define/'. After this. Thus c > 4abc' and the proof is complete. as in the case when d = 1.e)} . Then. 1 implies^ +c' + 2y'>ac'+ 2y' > dad. \tb = a+2. if b <<? +c. (6. Then 1.a) which holds since b>a>0. Then where 4(ac'+1) > d2a2 0 > d2a2 2a(d2 (6.] If c' > b. b in place of a. as in the proof of Theorem 3. and Eqs. Then if b < ac' + 1. It remains to consider 0 <c'<a <b and b >ac'+I Then 4a > £ implies c'< 3. Theorem 9.h) u Cj(a.b) and hence c = Ck(a. For the rest.c' = a + b 2w and hence c = lj(afb) for some j. = a+c' + 2w'. Theorem 8 implies the following theorem with only two little details to be filled in.1) and let (3. it c' < c/4ab. Since bc'+ 1 = = w2ac' + ab + 1+a2(1+bc')+2way'z'. Thena +b . \\a.a and. c is a Pset. \ic> w2. further details must be dealt with.h) for some k. the only possibility \%a = 4. 2d2a+d2.\ib = a + 2. Hence b'= 0 and. Then.3) yields a c' < w2. b. by Theorem 1.2w = c' = ci (a. Proof. that is. if c <w2 the argument is what follows. Hence c = (w2+ab)c' + h+a+2wy'z' > 2abc''+a + b + 2sjabsjabc'.(a. Ud= 1.3) once for c'f a. [We assume that the c before c' in the sequence is not less than w2. b. .that\s. c' < b. thenj^ = \Ck(a.2) First if c'= 2 or 3.b) for some k or c = Cj(a. Theorem 3 shows that c' < a < b. since a < 1 + b. on the other hand. d \s a Pset of four distinct elements of Z+subject to the conditions a <b 2 < 4a and ab + 1 = w . since w = sfab + 1.b = 12. this implies (6. Toward this end we first need to sharpen inequality (3. Now we use (3.2w = 2 = c'= ci(a. Lemma 4.3) d = c' 1. the condition/? <a+c z'2 we have ac + 1 = y2 = (wy'+az')2 implies that / ' a n d z' are positive.b) for some/ The set Cj is omitted \\b = a+2. Then. under the conditions imposed. If.a <5/2 which is impossible. if c'= 1. (6.b) for some/ This completes the proof.8) of Theorem 1. Hence a + b .3) becomes0> a2 .b) and c = ij(ajj) for some/. The first part of the proof of the next theorem is like that of Theorem 4. and ac'+ 1 = y'2 define c'.1978] A SECOND VARIATION ON A PROBLEM OF DIOPHANTUS AND DAVENPORT 163 c such that a. where this sequence is omitted \ic'=0.e). (3. Theorem 8. one notes the Remark after the Corollary of Theroem 7. b. c satisfy Eqs. By Lemma 4 the transformation takes Z? into /?' satisfying the inequality b' < b/4ac' < 1/c'.a)(b . w = 7.2) becomes b = a + 1 + 2y'and 1 +ab = w2 implies w = y' + a. a sequence of transformations (3.
4) will follow if we can show (7. F2r+2. > 5/4. 8.a)2.2) F2r2.2) is.be + 1 = (b +w)2 = (2b . Now Fk = £ _ z _  ~ . since F2r_1 F2r+1 = f f r + I. If a = F2r_2.then (7. To this end. c2(a. The following Theorem shows that c is not a Fibonacci number.5) to get F$r/F2r (7. w = ba These two properties show that a. E.^I'lf Thus the two inequalities in (7. b. (7.b) < F6r. Hoggatt. where = F2r_1.6) F6r/F2r (7.b).4) Proof. and C.3) where b = F2r. UNFINISHED BUSINESS For b of degree greater than 2.a)2. b = F2r. 0 = (1  y/5)/2. Theorem 2 shows that if these same three numbers form a Pset with F2r < c < F\r_t.1) 2t = 3 + *j5 + 4/a2. Hence the hypotheses of Theorem 8 hold and all the numbers d such that a. F6r/F2r Also (7. k = 2.then e = ci (a.t From (13). c in (7. where b = at. notice that. c = 4F2r„1 F2rF2r+1 is a Pset. This shows that b <3a with equality only if a = 1.7) holds since F2r/F2r_i > 8.b) = 4F32f < c2(a.b) = 3b . d form a Pset can be expressed asck(a.6) follows from = 5F2r+3. there does not seem to be much of interest since in most cases there will be more than two sequences of numbers which with a and b form a Pset.6) use (7.164 A SECOND VARIATION ON A PROBLEM OF D80PHANTUS AND DAVENPORT [APR.ae + 1 = (a + w)2 = b2. This can be shown to bec2(a. + 4F2r.DkFk] .a. Then > F12/F4 = 48 > 8. a2 .. It is not hard to show that c in (7. From i).c2(a.b) for a = F2r_2 and b = F2r. Our Theorem 3 shows that there is no c between F2r_2 and F2r such that c. where 0 = (7 + y/5}/2. 7. F2r is a /'set. r > 1: i) w2 = ab + 1 = (b. a form a /'set. and r > 1. E.b) NCj(a. Hence (75) = '1/5)IF3k ~ 3(. in our notation. which shows that F^r/F2r is an increasing function of r. b. V. then c = F2r+2. The following well known facts can easily be verified for 5 = F2r_2 » b = F2r. For a and b linear it would be interesting to show that . Thus the proof is complete.Sab + b2 = 1. F2r. is an increasing function of r and F6r/F6r1 > F12/Fn = 144/89 > 5/4. ii) If e = F2r+2 .8) with w = b a.t To show (7. F2r2. F6r. F{ . PSETS OF FIBONACCI NUMBERS Let F{ denote the / Fibonacci number. (7. that is. Bergum showed [1] that (7. e. Theorem 10.b) by using (2.7) F6r/F6r. Jr.2) can also be written c = 4b(b2 + 1).
The difficulty in proving this is that. E.b]. b. Jr.s for which crcs + 1 is a square.b) is not aAset for any r and s. using Theorem 9.b) is not a Fibonacci number. Hoggatt.1) (2pZf) = 2(2p. Jr. that cr(a.. Bergum. An Find An'A T where A T 0 \ 0 \ 0/ / nXtt B. 4 (Dec. assume. Even if that were surmounted.3) = 120. 1977). REFERENCE 1. 323330. An .b) and cs(b. The DavenportBaker result shows that in Theroem 9 when a = 1. For a and b quadratic functions of x.4). Vol.1) 165 a. C2(a. b.3) and a proof of "infinite descent" reduce the general result to that of the pair a = 1. From Theorem 10. Let ( 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 2 10 nXn . "A Problem of Fermat and the Fibonacci Sequence. for c^(a. c. [Continued from page 154. We can easily obtain (2P)p Thus2p ^2(2p .cr(a. h. this paper does not add much to present knowledge except to place the problem in a larger setting. Hence (mod/?5).e) were in the same interval and thus get a relationship between r and s which might be fruitful. Hoggatt. San Jose State University. One might at least prove that there isat most one pair r and s such that (8. if one is to use the method of Birch.cs(a.b) with k > 2 there does not seem to be such a definite inequality as (7. Also it would be interesting to show that a. A somewhat weaker result would be the conjecture that if a. c as defined above are not in aPset of five elements. But this seems like a long hard row to hoe. Unfortunately. (2p) = 2 (mod/? 3 ). the basic difficulty is that gy. for example.." The Fibonacci Quarterly. pp. c are three successive evenindexed Fibonacci numbers and if a. E. and 2p .1H=1 inverses (mod/7 ) and we get/?/#/? . adapting Theorem 6 to quadratics would present some difficulties.1) is a Pset. 2 p(i2p4p ) (mod/?5) = p2p2 2p4p2 (mod/? 3 ). AN ADJUSTED PASCAL H213 Proposed by V.h). < m o d P3)' S i n c e & P3^= (2P ~ IP3) = 12. To show this independently from their result would present all the difficulties they encountered for their special case. At one time I hoped that one might by using the sequence of transformations (3. h = 3. A. the intersection of ^ and J2 is £2(1. All of these results seem very plausible.V = (2p~2) p/(2p1) The result then follows. Let An be the left adjusted Pascal triangle. one first needs a pair r. San Jose. Now(2p . Perhaps one could. California.D(2pZi) and from Part A. but it does not seem to work. Thus /1 0 ••• 1 1 0 " V1 2 1 0 • J \ represents the transpose of matrix.b. then d cannot be a Fibonacci number.b = 3. d is a Fset of four numbers.19781 A SECOND VARIATION ON A PROBLEM OF DIOPHANTUS AWD DAVENPORT (8. One possible approach could be to consider the set of Fibonacci numbers as dividing the line of positive reals into intervals.>r could be a square in Z[x] without being a square over Z[a. A really significant result would be a proof that this is true for a and b any two successive Fibonacci numbers of even index. and G. E. 15. with n rows and columns and 0's above the main daigonal. V. For a and b integers.] B. No..1 we have the multiplicative 3 (mod/? 5 ).
8 2Pn = (A .kl. (12) and (16). Consider ^j(Gj)k) = tyfPlk)/2 (9) which is obvious from (1) and (8) and the fact that ^j(V= . Morgantown.D^Gj^i 166 . = where j 2 is really j 2 times the identity operator. (3) Pjtk+i = JPj. to wit (8) \\jj(Bj)n) for a l l / .E.kl)+i3 Eliminating/^ by calculating tyGj^+i . (9)].ON GENERALIZED Gj.k +Pj. ^GjM1 = (j+l)^Gjfk .(2 +j2)P*k j2 . To begin we need the following easily proven identities. In (9) elimination of 5 via (6) gives (9a) 4jj(Gj)k) .k2 = (4 +j2)Pjtk • Secondly given any two point recurrence/ 3 ^ =aPn +bPn_i the recurrence among its bisection is known to be (5) Pn+2 = (a2+2b)Pnh2Pn_2 Thirdly we need the central difference operator ./ .l]Fn.ki = PjM2 +Wj.k NUMBERS W.k+Pj. West Virginia 26506 Most of this paper was finished prior to the author's involvement in other work [ 9 .(j./ an integer. I have defined these numbers in [2. and where the initial conditions (IC) are by choice (3a) Pjt0 = 0 and Pjj = 1 for all /'.fj2 +4][jPj)k +Pj. G numbers of thej'th order are: (1» GJtk = where the Lucas complement is by definition 1+P*k+Pj.(3)] and [3.ki> and where coprime sequences are by definition.klJ ~ ft2 +2][jPlk <10) = Mj(Gjtk) + + Pj. The Lucas complement of the Lucas complement is (4) PJMI +Pj. = (4 +j2)Pj>k Rewrite (9a) as i/'yGy^+i and substitute (3) giving 1>j(GJtk+1) .2Pn +Pn_t (6) and fourthly I define a new operator small psi (7) VjfPJ [S2j2]Pn. GREBG West Virginia University.2kl. Theorem.V)Pn = Pn+1 . Note that if B^n is any generalized bisected coprime sequence with any BtQ and Bu whatsoever that xjjj then acts as a null operator. 1 0 ] .k = PjMi+pj. Such are (10).k~l] il>j(Gj. The recurrence for \pj(Gjfk) is Fibonacci but for the additive constant/" 5 . =0 Now when / = /then (7) reduces to \\j(Fn) = [82 .^Gj>k„2 • J2 . It is the purpose of this exegesis to find a selfcontained definition of {Gj} which is not dependent on other sequences. (2) Pj. Proof.\pGjfk obtains Corollary 1.
.108. then Eqs. The zeroth term of all {Gj} equals the constant 4. To be specific replace/ by . where E is the forward shift operator.10.and third parentheses of (12) are.. Directly from (10) one can find the modified recurrence GjM1 = (j2+j+2)Gj>k(j3 (14) + 2/)Gj)kl ~ 0'2 ~ J +2)Gj>k_2 + Gj)k_3 +j3 . 0. A *.79. First some simplifications.10. Omitting the subscript/for simplicity and recalling that Pjj = 1 for all/we have: Go = 1+Po+Pl = 1+Pi+Pi+Pi (15) = 1+3Pi =4 Gj>0 = 4. 60204. This recurrence is not messy but instead factors into the crowning equation of this paper (E2(j2+2)E + !)(E2jEl)(El)Ghk (12) = 0. when/= 7.k(J3 +J2+3j+2)Gjyk_1+(j3 j2 + + tj2j 3j2)Gj}k_2 + 3)Gj}k_3Gj)k_4.k+i = (i2+i + 3)Gj. Now (12) is more general than (1) and (13) is more general than { ^ j 21. (1) through (3a). becomes (14a) Gk+1 = 4Gh3Gk_l2Gk_2 + Gk_3 + 1 and from this latter it is easy to derive the exquisite (14b) 84Gk+2 = 382Gk+1Gk +l .has the same recurrence as 4 .k) and the Corollary regenerates itself.1221. Gould [5] found (11a) independently. (12).3. 4 .0. Thus 4. 0. 4 2 .21. An example of (13) is the sequence (13a) = .6.0..b) Gjfl = (j+2) and b2Gji0 = Gj}1AGjy0 . 3267.Gk4 > (11a) respectively.414729. ./ a n d let n = (1 . one finds the general recurrence (11) Gj. in fact.. From (12) of paper [3] one may easily find (16a.450.APR.10.0.1. 22880. Note that (13a) was calculated by (13) and checked by (11a).0. coprime and constant sequences respectively! A more useful expression in terms of forward and backward difference operators is (82I)(A+Vl)AGj>k (13) = 0 = (A32A2 + AM82)Gj)k only if/ = 7. from the first zero is (13b) 0. 162. Lemma. Also note that (11). (10) and (11) become (82l)Gk (9b) (10a) = 5Fk3Lk1 = (1+2Lk_2) <\)Gk+1 = \pGk + \PGk_1 + f Gk+i = 5Gk .8668.! + G^2 + 3G^3 .7G}.9. 1878 ON GENERALIZED Gj>k NUMBERS 107 Inserting (7). 3. The proof is direct from Eqs. When/ = 7. 1 . which. 1 8 . 0 . Now a curious fact results from Corollary 1 which I rewrite as Corollary 1. . whose falling diagonal. Note that the first.0.4.46.2.42. second. 9 . 5.See Table 1.0.. \p (Gj}k+i + Gj)k_2) = (1 +MGj>k + (1 ~ MGj>ki This says that making both / and k negative reproduces the same recurrence. •••. At this point the reader should study Tables 1 and 2.0. 56. (9a). the recurrences for bisected coprime.8.21. the definition of psi.3.158108. 6. (13). 0. 18. (11a) are fifthdegree recurrences. 101. Hence to obtain/ order 6 numbers some IC must be introduced.46.
10.jt€ Now (18) and (19) are easily proven from (1) and the odd/even properties of F and L sequences. We may now take this to be 32Gj}1 = 2Gj_1.j.168 [APR.t for all integer/.y. The divisibility of the odd G^ is involved. for all integer/ and k and indeed a special case follows if e is even (19) Gj>e = G. P 2n1 = PnPn1 ~ COS (iw) .3 12 3 4 7 10 29 14 108 ••• 62 37 23 16 8 27 46 25 7 r 9 48 123 7 6 19 75 200 21 11 1 3 19 46 10 4 15 23 75 2 21 323 leaving a fourth initial condition to be chosen in order to define Gj^.1) + 2 = G^+U. into it giving (20) (20a) 1+ Gjtk = Plk(l+Pj. DIVISIBILITY PROPERTIES For the study of divisibility properties we are able to rewrite (1) by substituting (6) of [ 3 ] . (16c) One can also show from (1) or from (12) of paper [3] that (17) Gj}_2 = (I2 +2)2 and Gjt_i = j(j . Three divides G^ at intervals of eight starting with . 1»3.k='®.2 . p.33.1 0 1444 32 4 729 22 4 324 14 4 121 8 4 36 4 4 9 2 4 4 2 4 9 4 4 36 8 4 121 14 4 1 2 3 76 1640 54 843 36 382 22 146 12 44 6 10 2 4 2 1 6 2 0 12 16 1 22 74 8 ti 6 5 4 3 4 54796 19629 5796 1309 204 21 4 21 204 1309 5 2034896 513402 99574 13364 1068 46 6 2 24 804 12578 108 4 108 TabSe 2 The Table of D ifferences of Gk 9 2 7 4 2 9 3 6 1 .3927.3 53120 18761 5392 1154 156 10 2 18 184 1226 .1189.tJ+l + fV^1 .360.kl> + (1>k+l Gk = Lkd + Fk. ON GENERALIZED Gjtk NUMBERS Table 1 Array of G^k Numbers j/k 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 2027452 510354 98532 13090 1020 42 4 42 1020 13090 .109.. Hence the divisibility properties of the even Gk are known since Jarden [4. In fact relations stronger than Corollary 1 exist as is evident from Table 1 where we see that p (18) Gj)k+Gj„k = G^k+G. At this point it will help the reader to go through an example such as t h e / = 3 case beginning with 3. 97] has tabulated the divisors of (1 + Fn).
d + Gj}„d = P*2d+2 JPj.9.33. Note that these numbers lie along a falling diagonal from GQ = 4 in Table 2. . 582.1878] ON GENERALIZED Gj}k NUMBERS k = •••/. 1 9 .25.4106. Note that all falling diagonals :3FE two bisected sequences.4n for d odd DIFFERENCES OF Gk We need the following: (25) (26) (27) VkHn = Hn_2k 2k l Bn = Bn. 75348.17. and where An is a twopoint sequence with alternating signs satisfying (29) An+1 = An+Ani corresponding to j = 1 in (3). (33) An+4Gk = 3An+2GkAnGk .k k V An lkHh and so and V 2k+1 = signum Bn = H_k = MBn. and where (25) and (26) are easily derivable from (28) Hn+1 = Hn + Hn_i.2n+l ~Pj. Gj = 263. 658. Then application of (25) and (26) to (1) immediately gives (30) VkGk = Fki+(UkLk. Gd + G„d = L2d+2 And more generally it is rather easy to show via (20) that (23) = Gj2n ~ Gj}2n = Pj.108. and five divides G^ at intervals of twenty starting with k = — 3 . 160 1. n > 2. and satisfy for all k and all n > 1.46.6. 28980. G± =3. 37. A glance at these G numbers provide another symmetry property.2. . The first thirteen G_k numbers are placed immediately below their corresponding Gk numbers beginning with k = 1 in both cases. G$i may be prime. Bn.11146.252.7 5 .k (An)\An+k\.21. The sequence of G_£ is interesting.28459. Divisibility properties are left for a later paper. . Conjecture 2. any H0 and Ht. G_i =2. If Gk is prime then \k\ is prime.195898. 75547. 17.1645.1. (21 ) 3.5. and signum is the sign function.a r e a bisection of the falling diagonal from Gi = 3. Conjecture 1. ••• almost Lucas numbers. 4305. Equation (30) introduces a significant simplicity into the Gk numbers. Likewise one may also show that (32) V ^ G f e = Fk4 for odd k > 3 and these numbers 1. I did not expect to find upon glancing at the central differences of GQ that they would be: .42.2nlt (24) Gj.10. The number of primes in [GI } is infinite. Note that (30) is reminiscent of the definition of the Bell numbers.11070.2n(Pj. (22) G2nG2n and = F4n for d odd. .1674.3 . to wit: (31) V ^ B e l l .263.2. and proceeding in both directions. which becomes Pk+i in the odd k case.79.10.9. where Bn is any bisection of Hn. We may write (34) d2nG0 = l2nGn = 1 + (1)nL3n . . The known primes are G_$ = 79. = Bell n _i.
W.24. 1976. 9. Gould and W. The author appreciates some comments by Zeitlin [8] concerning (14) and (23)." The Fibonacci Quarterly.1977. Jr. Let Bn = AnA^. . W.W. 2 .170 ON GENERALIZED Gj)k NUMBERS APR. Equations (35) prove what is obvious by looking at Table 2. 3. . Having found that the messy looking G^y.U3k2 + ^2. 5. Theory. Letter to H. 18. This makes the whole sequence easy to generate by hand. sequence actually satisfies the near Fibonacci relationships (10) and (12) and further that the Lucas numbers have made their presence known. Note to the author dated 1976. 10. W. "On Sums of FibonacciType Reciprocals. 4. Greig. H. in press. W. Jerusalem. Greig.1 .elsewhere. H.] . Dov Jarden. A." Amer. 7 are themselves a Fibonacci sequence. Notices. .1977. 1973.] ******* where the / ^ c o l u m n of Cn is t h e / ^ row of Pascal's triangle adjusted to the main diagonal and the other entries are 0's. W.3 . 176177. Gould. We obtain (35a) V^Gu 2k (35b) (35c) V Gk V 2k+1 Gk = Lk_4k = L3k = L_3k+2.E. Dec. 7 . REFERENCES 1. 4648.1978 This may be easily derived from (1) withy = 1 by applying (25). Zeitlin [7] has also pointed out that the subscript of the subscript of the last term of Eq./ Combin. 1977). E.7 5 .1 2 . pp. H. "Sums of Fibonacci Reciprocals. 7. 4 6 .w h i c h is almost the Lucas sequence. The critical step is V2kLk according to (25). Greig.W. Letter to V.2). 1977. Gould and W. This mis? print is obvious from the expansion in (13) of [ 6 ] . Math. respectively. Recurring Sequences. David Zeitlin.E. 2. Vol. "The Lucas Primality Criterion. = o elsewhere. David Zeitlin. . Similarly. n n Solution by P. I am impelled to write down an old haiku of mine in which even the numbers of syllables in each line. namely if we make a zigzag below the 4 entry we obtain the sequence: .. 15. 123. H. namely 3. "On Fibonacci and Triangular Numbers. Let a^ and b{j be the entries in the ith row ar\djth column of An and Bn. of course. 1977. Hoggatt. Soc. 1978. Illinois. 1 9 . < = ({=!)'"</ = o [continued on page 183. where." The Fibonacci Quarterly. "The Lucas Triangle Primality Criterion. F_2 = .Gould. Finally the choice of letter for these sequences was Gould's [1] who suggested my name for them after seeing my paper [ 6 ] .1) and not (k . pp." The Fibonacci Quarterly. Bruckman. 5. . E. k>U. Greig. Find CnAT. therefore. 15 (Dec.".. Vol. E. June 8. let a?/ be t h e / ^ entry of AT. p. 2.2 9 . Letter to the Author. Then ' i ~ 1 > if i>j. Chicago. 15 (Feb. Vol. Gould. W. . 8.1 and F_f = 1. Riveon Lematematika. A231. Nov. Vol. May 18. [Continued from page 165. 3rd Ed. Greig. 6. 1977). PHI Multiply Or add We always reach phi Symmetries we perpetrate. k > 1 k > 1 = L_3k+F_u . 35658. (12) of [6] should be (k . E. University of Illinois at Chicago.
leading to minimal uncertainties in later scaleup. The depth of penetration of the grid gas jets has been correlated empirically and the size of the initial bubble resulting from a detached void shown. 4(b) through 4(f) this same gas rate is passed through the bed in the opposite direct 1 '^. What size can they attain? 7. How do bubbles form? 2. a knowledge of the considerations surrounding its development allows some appreciation of the consequences of any compromises. gives rise to a number of questions forming the bases of realistic scaling criteria and bubblerelated kinetics. it is at first difficult to understand why the particles do not fall from its roof and annihilate the bubble. to be about half the penetration depth [ 1 ] . 3. Though an average size may be suitable in certain instances. They form simply because the velocity at the interface of the bed just above the hole represents a gas input rate in excess of what can pass through the interstices with a frictional resistance less than the bed weight and hence the layers of solids above the holes are pushed aside until they represent a void through whose porous surface the gas can enter at the incipient fluidization velocity. hence a truerthanaverage physical interpretation is to be preferred. provide the physical demonstration and Rowe and Henwood's [5] experiments the classical approach. What makes them grow in size? 6. 2. 4(a) the air rate is raised to the point of incipient fluidization and in Fig. How fast do they rise? 5. In the scaling of fluidized bed reactors and the development of bubble models to describe the gassolids contact. The idealized instantaneous picturization of a freely bubbling gas fluidized bed of solids. If the void attempts to grow larger the interface velocity becomes insufficient to hold back the walls of the void and hence they cave in from the sides cutting off the void and presenting a new interface to the incoming gas. What lends them stability? 4. 4. it is necessary that the bubble be definable from its source to the bed surface. How do bubble and interstitial gas interact? BUBBLE FORMATION Bubbles form at the ports where fluidizing gas enters the bed.5 D B . Danckwerts [4] simple bed support experiments. New York 10471 The basic criterion in establishing a pilot plant fluidized bed reactor. in Fig. Though this may frequently require a largerthaneconomicallyjustifiable design. as illustrated in Fig. Since free flowing and/or incipiently fluidized bulk solids have shallow angles of repose their walls cannot stand at 90° and hence the solids slide down the bubble's walls into its bottom where all the peripheral streams collide to form a socalled "wake" as illustrated in Fig.A. 1. By what mechanism do they rise? 3.THE FLUID MECHANICS OF BUBBLING BEDS F.ZENZ Manhattan College. This sequence is illustrated in Fig. 1. Riverdale. its determination is in any event dependent on the very parameters needed to describe the bubble's entire history. MECHANISM OF RISE Bubbles or "gas voids" rise in a fluidized bed by being displaced with an inflow of solids from their perimeter. illustrated in Fig. Note that in position (d) the solids do not slide to their angle 171 . Observations [2] of this downflow of solids in a "shell" around the bubble [3] have shown it to occupy an annular thickness of % of the bubble diameter so that the overall diameter within which a bubble can rise "freely" as it would in a bed of infinite diameter can be defined as 1. is to ensure that it simulate exactly a portion of the freely bubbling commercial bed. SURFACE STABILITY Since the peripheral surface of the bubble is simply a layer of particles. within experimental error.
J u~> t . ^ % . 1 idealized FreelyBubbling Gas Fluidized Bed .*• ••> ^s /"•• r *JL3LJ'Li L_> Li. . »•••••• • • %9 • « • • • * .j L. •••• •••*! •*"•* ••"% •••* *•"» •**• » * ^ •""*..* •*• t « * • • * ••* /•• *• *• ""l A **# #•• .L} tJ £_*tS i3 L : LJ< Fig. * ••••• %J» •••«* ••** i .• **"l • • • • • • • • » ^ :.••••••..• •• %•••••• 0 • ••••••••• .172 THE FLUID MECHANICS OF BUBBLING BEDS .
1978] THE FLUID MECHANICS OF BUBBLING BEDS 173 =" i c Vo (0 (b) (a) L 1 2 i i V p ' ' mf ® © ^ ® S» <8 Vo (d) (e) Fig. 2 Bubble Formation from BedPenetrating Gas Jets at the Grid Ports .
3 Bubble Rise via Displacement by Inflow of a Surrounding DownFlowing Shell of Bed Solids [APR.5 D B Fig.displacing annular downflowing "shell" of bed solids \ .. *+**>* wake !j "^.•'X 1.174 THE FLUID MECHANICS OF BUBBLING BEDS bubble . .
V.1978] THE FLUID MECHANICS OF BUBBLING BEDS 175 <f> £&#&: (d) (b) Fig. Danckwerts . 4 Bed Support Experiments of P.
Merely the prior passage of another bubble could alter local densities or distributions so as to make bed solids in one local area more readily flowable in a given direction than the bed solids in an adjacent area. The results are in excellent agreement with what would be predicted for gas bubbles in liquids from the drag coefficient versus Reynolds number correlations of such investigators as Van Krevelen and Hoftijzer [6] illustrated in Fig. For this to occur. VELOCITY OF RISE The velocity at which bubbles rise in a gas fluidized bed has been measured photographically by several investigators.. When the surface of a bed is traversed by an incipiently fluidizing flow the particles cannot separate from each other.176 THE FLUID MECHANICS OF BUBBLING BEDS [APR. the touching shells will represent a local downflowing stream of solids faced with more than one path to the nearest void. of repose but instead are held at 90° and that on reaching (f) the bed is held up without solids falling from what is now its lower side or conversely the upper surface of a bubble in a fluidized bed. 3 it is obvious that a bed must be exceptionally homogeneous to expect the shell of downflowing solids around a bubble to be flowing at equal rate in every plane. BUBBLE GROWTH That bubbles must grow by merger as they rise through the bed is obvious from the large and less frequent surface eruptions relative to a much higher frequency of small voids initiated from a usual multitude of grid ports. These newer bubbles will rise even more rapidly and can catch up with bubbles of 1 or 2 times the volume of the initial bubble resulting in bubbles of at most 5 times the volume of the initial bubble. 6(c) and (d). the excess gas could not be passed through the bed unless the bed were physically held down or restrained at its upper surface.The bubble of fivefold volume can now catch up with bubbles of 1. If two bubbles get close enough that their shells of downflowing solids begin to interact. 2. Tarmy and Matsen [7] have shown that in slugging beds the full width of the downflowing solids shell (Fig. Growth by simple gas expansion resulting from the pressure reduction between bottom and top of a fluidized bed is generally relatively insignificant.pG) 3pBV2B 4g_ 3k DB(PBPG) pB or VB = 4. From the solids inflow model [3] of Fig. 5. Carrying on this process of overtaking bubbles results in a sequence of maximum multiples of the initial bubble volume in which each . 3) is restricted and the velocity of bubble rise then approximately Yz that in a freely bubbling bed. The stream could be squeezed to the point of being insufficient to satisfy both bubbles and thereby drain off leaving no wall between the voids and hence the appearance of a single bubble. etc. Since larger bubbles rise more rapidly these double volume bubbles will catch up and merge with other unit volume bubbles to yield bubbles of thrice the initial bubble volume. so that the entire mass or bed above the bubble would have to collapse as a unit. This simply means that a particle cannot fall from the roof of a bubble because if it did then it would immediately be followed by the particle above it. and that by the particle stili further above. 2 or 3 times the volume of the initial bubble resulting in bubbles of at most 8 times the volume of the initial bubble as illustrated in Figs. Rowe and Henwood carried out classical drag measurements which revealed that the drag on a downstream particle is reduced due to the presence of an adjacent upstream particle. This has been corroborated in experiments with freely bubbling beds. It is therefore readily acceptable that the idealized bubbling of Fig. The solids inflow model therefore obviates a simple mechanism of bubble merger. Over the range of Reynolds numbers corresponding to reasonable size bubbles the drag coefficient is essentially a constant so that simple substitution shows that if gas density is small relative to the bed density: CD 4gDB(pB .01^DB . Any bed nonuniformity can cause a shift in the bubble shape or position. 6(a) will lead to a situation as in 6(b) where two bubbles of unit initial volume can merge into bubbles of twice this volume. This not only explains the bubble's surface stability but also the integrity of the walls of a bed penetrating jet as in Fig.
6 o o o" o O .1978] THE FLUID MECHANICS OF BUBBLING BEDS 1 1 177 •°o T — i —  I ERIES BUB LING r CD LBS. 1 K 1 ^ sass # St mm « \ h Ir o o o o / X / » • n o o cr CO SIN GLE BUBBL (f) *HI J o o ^ /1 o o o o i o o o 1 _L q .
THE "CATCHUP" MECHANISM OF BUBBLE GROWTH .178 THE FLU8D MECHANICS OF BUBBLING BEDS [APR. (b) (o) £D cs dO £D O o <o o a> o o o o o o a o o o o o o o a o o ° O o o o 0 J) JUL 0 JU O O CD O O o o o o o o 0 Q 0 0 0 0 (c) (d) (ID o (X> o 3 CD o o £1} o 2 o o o o I o £D £D O o CO CD <0 CD ° <0 JUOJUUL FIGURE 6.
000 micron lead particles a water bubble of 7 inches. MAXIMUM STABLE DIAMETER Danckwert's bed support experiments (Fig. illustrated in Fig. For the case of the maximum size of merged bubble this is illustrated analytically in Fig. Since pickup velocity is approximately twice saltation [12]. it follows that the ratio of merged bubble diameter to initial bubble diameter is equal to the cube root of the number of initial bubbles consumed in the merger. LB. and also that the level at which the merged bubbles exists relative to the height (or diameter) of the initial bubble is equal to the summation of the cube root of the number of initial bubbles consumed in the merged bubble. there would appear to be no limit to the attainable bubble size. Figure 9 must also not be extrapolated beyond the maximum attainable stable bubble size. and fluid and particle properties. if the dome cannot collapse amid free flowing bed solids then as the bubble grows it could only be limited by particles leaving the shell and being entrained into the bubble void. above the grid it is necessary to determine the initial bubble diameter. demonstrated that a bed interface (and hence a bubble) should be fundamentally stable against collapse as long as it is traversed by a superficial velocity equal to its incipient fluidization rate. which could exist at the grid level as a result of individual or merged jets. = DB + Q. 9 with the limitation of the system's maximum stable bubble size. this is equivalent to equating bubble velocity to saltation velocity.1978] THE FLUID MECHANICS OF BUBBLING BEDS 178 multiple is the sum of the two previous multiples. Since against the downward velocity of bulk solids the bubble fluid (whether gas or liquid) rises at approximately an equal velocity. 7. 9 where the empirical bubble growth relationships proposed by Chavarie and Grace [9]. it is possible to calculate the initial bubble size . That the mechanism of Figs.Werther [10].and Rowe [11] are superimposed on the curve representing the Fibonacci series. Since the inflowing solids shell volume usually far exceeds the incipient fluidization rate. or dome. BUBBLE GAS INTERACTION The outside diameter of the shell of downflowing bed solids surrounding the rising bubble is the minimum reactor diameter necessary to simulate free bubbling. would be most likely to occur from the bubble walls as the result of the relative velocity between gas and surface particles at the interface. DBI.D. Thus from grid design. In addition to simulating free bubbling hydrodynamically it may be argued that gas permeation from bubble into surrounding bed should also be equalled.D. 9 to determine the maximum bubble diameter. In using Fig. 7 and 8 appears in good agreement with experimental observations is illustrated in Fig. Sand particles 600 microns in diameter when fluidized with water would permit a maximum stable bubble size of only % inch and 3. Presumably. This sequence. apt to collapse. or particle pickup. Since the levels at which the maxima exist represent the summation of the diameters of their forebearers and since their diameters are proportional to the cube root of their volumes. 8. at any bed level. For example 80 micron particles of sand fluidized with air could sustain a maximum bubble diameter of the order of 24 inches whereas when fluidized with water the maximum bubble size would be indiscernable. D%. operating superficial velocity. = 1. Since the bubble rises at a velocity equal to 4 times the square root of its diameter it follows that: Thickness of gas penetrated "cloud" Thickness of downflowing solids "shell" = m f ^ ^ or since "shell" O. This only becomes significant or controlling with coarse and easily permeated beds having a high incipient fluidization velocity. the relative flow of fluid past the particles at the bubble wall is twice the shell or bubble velocity. The gas permeation or "cloud" diameter is calculable from the depth of gas flow at incipient fluidization velocity over the time interval required for the bubble to rise a distance of one bubble diameter.5Z?B _ "cloud" O. 4) and those of Rowe and Henwood based on particle drag force measurements.Sy/DBVmf In applying free shell or cloud criteria in scaleup or scaledown the relationship between bubble diameter and bed depth is obtainable from Fig. Such entrapment. This procedure has given results in reasonable agreement with a broad range of observations reported to date. is the well known "Fibonacci" [8] series. 7 and shown graphically in Fig. Equating twice the bubble velocity to the particle pickup velocity allows calculation of the minimum bubble size necessary to stir up the solids interface and thus thwart bubble appearance or growth.
MERGED DB _ OR B.180 THE FLUID MECHANICS OF BUBBLING BEDS [APR. OF BUBBLES OF DIAM. N 13 DB(H5£+3T) %% ]™">  /  ^ Fig. N * NO. 7 Maximum Bubble Growth by the "CatchUp" Mechanism Resulting in a Fibonacci Sequence £•1$* Oft . DB.
J _ J L _ ™JL 1 !aa/9Q  i 1 1 .1978] THE FLUID MECHANICS OF BUBBLING BEDS f §• """" 1 • —J—^^ T —i 1— ^v — t o o 1 L 1 I 1 I h m Q •J " I ^ 2\ CD "1 3 o I \ 1 m ©0 \ Mb L™^ O !.
< L««« n ju« J \ ml o~ _J 1 Q i o 00 \ + IRS h I !a o / Sa L— I E o o . THE FLUID MECHANICS OF BUBBLING BEDS V. o o i 1 j \ I x\ L™J 'S o «J r ^ ^ B •& ffl 1 I APPROX IMAT ION: r wv \ in CO 6 Nfc 3 4 \ XN ] o i $ d *" II ml o m \ \ L i i i i . _ —  ^^^ X i i i i """^"r^™" i i [APR.182 1 J r L. ^J^^^ O Q4 1 in u.
Symposium on Fluidization held at A. M. 30. F. P. of Chem. J. 62.£. Danckwerts.Arn\ let c{] and d{j bfe the entries in the / ' * row and/* 2 column of Cn and Dn. Series No./sec. Matsen. 6576 (1964). Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers. Symp. S. Then c [Contmued on p. Wilde. 171175 (1967). Symp. 1964. dimensionless l/g = Bubble rise velocity.62. P. Etantinttesl from page 170.E. 2 Lg = Bed depth. 32. Therefore.1959.2 ft. F.E. /.3 1 . REFERENCES 1. Ibs. feet P = Grid jet penetration Re = Reynolds number./ V <n ' B. let Dn = Cn. Once having reached their maximum stable diameter any further unlikely mergers would also leadto collapse. An unquestionably conservative approach to a minimal risk pilot plant reactor free of scaleup considerations would suggest it equal the larger of either "cloud" or "shell" diameter surrounding the system's maximum stable bubble. 46. San Jose State University. Zenz. Rowe. Chem. NOMENCLATURE CJJ = Drag coefficient. W ] ij= {[!])> j<i<2i1 . October 5. pp. 101. (London). so that: (1) bij = ( 7 ^ 7 2 ) ' fora. Van Krewelen. Fundamentals. Harwell. P. No. B. 1. England. As before. Hoftijzerr Chem. pp. Jr. Chem. Engineers (London). No. Engrg. G. (ij) = m + 1. Henwood. and the bed depth over which the bubbles may grow from their initial to their stable diameter./sec. J. pp. ft. M. Zenz. Englewood Cliffs. J.1978] THE FLUID MECHANICS OF BUBBLING BEDS 183 at the grid. PG = Gas density. A. Howe. the maximum stable size. Eng. F. N. 7578.. k=i k=i Actually. Incipient fluidization velocity. PrenticeHall Pub. pp. k=0 k=0 which shows that by is symmetric in / and / Actually.. 'istn. Botterill. the effective upper limit of this last summation is min. 5. Optimum Seeking Methods. J. J. 9. 4. 12. ft. Ibs.1 (1966). Co. 17 (1970). J. No. Progress. 3. Grace. & E.Tarmy. the last summation may readily be evaluated by the Vandermonde convolution theorem. 2. 11. >iji tk'ZicrWjZi). Zenz. 4./cu. m " m ^•=E('V)(^7i f c )r( y ^)(/VJ. pp. D. so that bubble diameter may be considered constant once having reached the stable size. 3 0 . feet 0Bi = Bubble diameter at grid level g = Gravitational acceleration.C.. Hydrocarbon Processing. Prog.. May (1975). 8. P. Fundamentals 14. /. Ser. Vmf= PB = Bed density. A. ft. Symp. W. 136139 (1968). Instn.ibid. 529 (1948). 3. Engrs. No. & E. 7. D. V. respectively. (in discussion of preceding paper). Besford. Chavarie. A. International Fluidization Conference. see also V. S. 6../sec. California. L. A. E. N. 10. Series 66. H. June 1520 (1975). 44. 3 £ 43 (1961). George./cu.} Thus. E. pp. N. C. Hoggatt. Trans. G. ft. C. Asilomar. J. Werther. P.R. R. dimensionless DB = Bubble diameter.
Let a2n = Pn+i an d a2n+l = Fn+i Fn+2> Find the rational function that has 2 3 ao +aix +a2X +a$x +— as its Maclaurin series. Find all integers n > 3 such that n .E.p is an odd prime for all odd primes/? less than n. Pennsylvania State University. San Jose. Roanoke. B379 Proposed by Herta T. Preference will be given to those typed with double spacing in the format used below. 1 . Freitag. Albuquerque. Concord. 184 .ELEMENTARY PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS Edited by A.P. Hillman. California. Prove that F3n+1 +4nFn+3 = 0 (mod 3) for/7 = 0 . prove that N J2 [by/1(k/aM .. B380 Proposed by Dan ZwiI linger. 709 Solano Dr. Hoggatt. respectively. Texas.HILLMAN University of New Mexico. Mullen. Each solution or problem should be on a separate sheet (or sheets). . •. Albuquerque. DEFINITIONS The Fibonacci numbers Fn and the Lucas numbers Ln satisfy Fn+2 = F n+l + Fn. Let a. Lamar University. FQ = 0.. University Park and Sharon. Cambridge. MA. California. New Mexico 87131 Send all communications regarding Elementary Problems and Solutions to Professor A. PROBLEMS PROPOSED IN THIS ISSUE B378 Proposed by Frank Kocher and Gary L. Fi = 1 and Ln+2 = Ln+i+Ln. k=i k=i where [x] is the greatest integer in x. Bruckman.x Li = 1. For all real numbers a > 1 and b > 1. Beaumont. San Jose State University. B377 Proposed by Paul S. b. E. Pennsylvania. Prove that F^n = n(l) (mod 5) for all nonnegative integers n. lb] = £ fay/1(k/b)*] . Solutions should be received within four months of the publication date. S. of x LQ = 2. P. Jr. B381 Proposed by V. Virginia. 1 = 0. New Mexico 87108. 2 Also a and/? designate the roots (1 +>/5)/2 and (1 ~ V 5 ) / 2 . B378 Proposed by George Berzsenyi. 2. and c be nonnegative integers. Prove that n E • lk+a — l)(ri \ a l\ — k + b— c) _ in+a + b ~ c \ b i ~ \ a+b +1 ) ' k=l Here (^) = 0 if m <r..
David Zeitlin. Also \etSn=A(0. I. California. G.A. Ralph Garfield. Jr. Bruckman. David Zeitlin and the Proposer. Milsom. n For what value of c \%Sn=2 Fn+i for all nonnegative integers n? Solution by Paul S. Since Fn+3 = Fn+2 + Pyi+1 > it follows that c = 4. Graham Lord. John W. Bob Prielipp. Canada.B. Australia. and Sn+2 = 2Sn+i + cSn . and the Proposer. Milsom. C. Dinh The'Hung.n) +A(k. California.n) +A(1. \etA(k. Quebec. Gregory Wulczyn.+ A(n. C. Bruckman.n)= 1 = A(n. A(1. San Jose. n + 1) i=l n A<i <n + 1) +c i=0 2 Mjn) i=0 = 2Sn+i +cSn. n+1) +A(k + l.n).n+2) = cA(k. Show that Fn+kLkFn+(^kFnklFtk+3Fn+kFnLk] Solution by Graham Lord.$i= 2. This follows from a special case of the algebraic identity = 0.n) + . San Jose State University. John /vie.n+2) = 2+Y< i=0 n+1 A(i. Hoggatt.n) + J2 A(i. San Jose State University. New South Wales.n + 1). n+2 Sn+2 = H n+1 A(i. Brady. Ralph Garfield. Graham Lord. Substituting the definition of Sn into the given recursion yields: 2n Fn+s = 2n Fn+2+C'2nFn+i> or Fn+3 = Fn+2 + 1/4CFn+i.1978 ELEMENTARY PROBLEMS ARID SOLUTiOfyS 185 SOLUTIONS C IS EASY TO SEE B352 Proposed by V. Bob Prielipp. Freitag. Show that "n+2 = Z^n+1 C^n • Solution by A. as required. San Jose. G. A. A. Shannon. E. Wray G. Hoggatt. E.. Albuquerque. John Ivie. Shannon. Concord. California.n). ofl. John W. Dinh The' Hung.2) = c + 2 and A(k + 1.n) be defined by A(0.n + 1)+J^ n+1 A ni ^ ^ = 2 12 i=l A(i. Jr.n) + J^ i=l i=l n+1 + J2 n+1 A(i .n+V i=0 i=0 n+1 = 2 + c Y* A(i1. Herta T. Peck. Universite'r Laval. A VANISHING FACTOR B354 Proposed by Phil Mana. Also solved by George Berzsenyi. B. For/rand n ontegerswith 0 <k <n..APR. Let Sn be defined by So = 1. Peck. RECURSIVE SUMS B353 Proposed by V.n+2) i=l n = 2 +c Y n A(i. New Mexico. Also solved by Paul S.1. Herta T. Freitag. .
Peck.3(1)kLk and the utilization of the identity of problem B354 changes the left 3(1)kLkFn[F2Fn+kFn„k]. . Bruckman. Bucknell University. California. G.F2k + F2k_2 } = {(k l)F2k_t  F2k_2}\nk+=1 k=l ~ F2n . The statement of the problem seems to require finding all solutions/77. and the Proposer. Solution by Paul S. David Zeitlin and the Proposer. Bruckman. Clearly. The replacement of L^ hand side above into by i \ . Freitag. b = LkFn and c = (1)kFn_k. Let/77 be a fixed positive integer and let k be a real number such that 2m<^^m<2m log a where a = (1 + s]5)/2. Milsom. Pennsylvania. G. Show that F3n+k ~ L3kF3n+(DkF3n_k = 3(VnFnFkF2k . Milsom. Note that Fn+kLkFn+(l)kFn~k = 0. John W. Also solved by Paul S. Since F1 = F2 = 1. where 3 = Fn+k. Wray G. and this appears to be a difficult task. Graham Lord. Brady. LetS n = F2 +2F4 +3F& + — +nF2n. Ralph Garfield. John W. Dlnh The'Hung. For how many positive integers n is Fn <k? + 1. G. Universite Laval. A. Gregory Wulczyn. Shannon. Also solved by Wray G.. Brady. Gregory Wulczyn. Peck. CUBIC IDENTITY B355 Proposed by Gregory Wulczyn. Herta T. B. Shannon. A. C. perhaps not intended by the Proposer. We first find a closed expressfon for Sn. Bob Prielipp. B. F2n + Sn = n F2n+l . Also solved by George Berzsenyi. A. Freitag. Find/77 as a function of A? so t h a t f m + j is an integral divisor of Fm +Sn. Concord. Virginia. Roanoke. Ralph Garfield. and so m = 2n is a solution of the problem. A. it is clear that/77 = 0 and m = 1 are also (trivial) solutions. Quebec. Paul S. Lewisburg. Bob Prielipp. C. Shannon. bcca). Canada. Naperville. and the Proposer. Illinois. Note that n $n = Z k=l = n F2n+l n kF2k = E { kF 2k+i <k DF2ki . Bob Prielipp. which is the same as 3(VkLkFn(Vn+k+2F2k> n that \s3(V FnFkF2k. Bruckman. f Solution by Graham Lord. SOME SOLUTIONS B356 Proposed by Herta T. A. GOLDEN RATION INEQUALITY COUNT B357 Proposed by Frank Higgins.186 ELEMENTARY PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS a3 + b3 + c3 3abc = (a+b +c)(a2+ b2+ c2'ab [APR.
Also solved by the Proposer. Since 2m < log (ky/5)/\o$ a<2m + l. G.E (ituWu1)." ^ ( " 7 7 7 )* fe=0 fe=0 or: 5 y = (1+x+x2) (2) Therefore. _ a2m_b2m = Q2m __ {_al}2m < ^ < ^m+1 _ (_a~l^m+l = a2m+l b2m+l i.*)E r=0 fe=0 fe=0 r=2fe k=0 . = 0 elsewhere.e.E ( i ) * " E (*7fc)*r. hence. Therefore.2 f e E* r n f e )u f e )r=0 Thus. j . we may deduce that the tfy's satisfy the fol 0.1978] ELEMENTARY PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS 187 Solution by Paul S. i.£ *r E 7 ( 7 * x r : f c ) . d1:j = 1. For any given/.\\ follows that a2m < kyj5 < a2m+1.j > V.E ( V ) ( . . whose/ column is composed of the coefficients of (1+x ^x2)^'1. di:1 = 0 (i > 1).E £*r(rk%'.. Shannon and the Proposer. K . fc=0 ^ r=0 by rearranging the combinatorial terms.d+*r E (sfe) ( ^ . d2:j = j1 (j>U. for 2m (distinct) values of n. We may readily construct a matrix (of unspecified dimensions). 2m.E ( . Therefore. Also solved by A.:*)•• fe=0 let K = E Or**' • r=0 Then K .. if/ > / . California. Bruckman.e. Therefore. k=i k=i The effective limits of this summation are from k = 1 + [%i] to min.1) nonzero terms).E r r % ^ u ) • h=[1/2t] For convenience.j). ) * 2 W r * . St will be convenient. the extra terms included vanish in any event. Then.f l » . let / — 1 = r. written in correspondence to the ascending powers of x. beginning with x . Concord. From this. however.~>. il [U(il)] «/<. / ^ m < Ar < f 2 m + i • Since {Fn}7 is a nondecreasing sequence of positive integers. y . . (i.1 = s. to consider the upper limit to be equal t o / .. d^ is the coefficient oix1"1 lowing recursion: (3) </i+2:/+j = dij+di+1:j+di+2:j in f 7 * x +x2)i~1.2.for n = 1. k=0 [V2r] " i y . it follows that Fn < A. d{l = 0 for all / >2j (since (1 +x+x2)^'1 contains (2j .
ADVANCED PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS Edited By RAYMOND E. H281 Proposed by V. Mathematics Department. . Beverage. This department especially welcomes problems believed to be new or extending old results. Bn. Cn. Pennsylvania 17745. Define f(n) as follows: \n+k k=0 V X Express f(n) in closed form. Lewisburg. Proposers shouJd submit solutions or other information that will assist the editor. San Jose State University. H284 Proposed by G. Lock Haven State College.Whitney. and determine which series converges the faster. W. Prove £ a*>1 a2k1 & k odd where a = (1 + ^j5)/2. E. (A generalization of R. To facilitate their consideration. Hoggatt. E. Consider matrix equation (b) Identify An'. Lock Haven. solutions should be submitted on separate signed sheets within two months after publication of the problems.Bn\ Cn\ (0 7 OY 7 \0 0 7 7 0] = JAn' Bn' Cn<\ Dn' \Hn< E n* ln' Gn'\ Jn>) (n > 1). Wulczyn. Greig. G. California. Identify An. California. San Jose. H282 Proposed by hi. San Diego Evening College. Pennsylvania 17745 Send all communications concerning Advanced Problems and Solutions to Raymond E. San Diego.. Bucknell University. . Jr. Buschman's H18) Show that n (a) £ [iVrkLmrk k=0 \ = 2nFm or (FT + L r h (2Fr)n (Umbral notation) * 188 . Pennsylvania. Gould and W.Jn. H283 Proposed by D.Jn'. Consider matrix equation 7 1 1 (1 \1 \0 (a) OY /An 1 \ =[Dn 7/ \Hn Bn En ln C n\ Gn\ Jn ] (n > 1). West Virginia University.WHITNEY Lock Haven State College. Lock Haven.
this and the original formula hold for any sequence [Fn. i. 1 3 . The generalization is valid for all Type I quadratic real fields. n then. The proposer's solution. however. the same source quoted by Lind for formulas ( 4 ) (5).k)(x)k > xn = (5) k=0 where (x)n = x(x. n so by the same argument we have the dual formula to the original problem: n m (3) £ E s(nm¥^Fk = F„.1)(x2). { 1. Formulas (1) and (2) are both in Jordan's "Calculus of Finite Differences. 5 3 .F„ k=0 (2) m=k s(m¥k) y *~i n m k=0 = sk . n m n n E. n > 0). and are implied by the two expansions n S(n. and Fibonacci numbers in particular. Since. Bucknell University. what is more interesting. 6 1 .177178.e. n = 2nLm+2L« or I \ (2nL F (C) £ [l) rkFmrk = 189 (L' + L')"* {2Lr)n+2L» 2Ln) •*" '' Note. submitted a solution for H265 as well as an extensive partial solution for H266." page 184."321.. . Fibonacci Quart. Relations (1) and (2) are the standard orthogonality relations for the two kinds of Stirling numbers. 2. for Z7 = 5 . uses Stirling number expansions of factorials and powers. Gregory Wulczyn..£ Ffe5. with (x)0 = 1. The essential point I am making is the generality of formulas (1)(2) as opposed to the original solution. it is true that (1) Y $(m)S(k) L~s n m = dk fC) k t n.k)xk (4) Mn = 0 and n $(n. . m=0 k=0 and. the Fibonacci numbers really having nothing whatever to do with the truth of the formulas. 1 (1969). . for perfectly arbitrary Fy. 2 9 . No. k = n. E < m=0 k=0 as desired. EDITORIAL ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. Expansions (4)(5) of course are the ones used by the proposer in his solution of his problem.1978 (b) ADVANCED PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS £ {iVrkLmrk k=o v . Remark on Problem H123 by Henry Gould. n ^ = E Fk £ s^sw .APR. West Virginia University. It is also true that m .
Jr. We identify the given series as (1) (kn + ir1 S(x) = T *. From (5). exp (xSk(x)) = Six). /is analytic aboutx = 0. and Paul S. let (6) Then f(x) = ex. Jr. pp. SOLUTIONS SUM SOLUTION H267 (Corrected) Proposed by V. Hoggatt. E.. 4. the following result is proved (where. " 1ai:ki+sl s 1 ki + s " ^ ~ 1 ki+1 ^ (ki+1){ _ (ki+l)11 if and also G(x) = S(x). 35768. Fibonacci Quarterly. as given by (1). we change the notation): Let (2) f(x) = £ ai:0x\ i=0 oo (f(x)P+1 = £ (3) ai:jx\ i=0 where f(Q)t0. . E. Hoggatt. San Jose. it now follows that (8) Also solved by V. Dec. x —. Also. let oo i=o'kl+$ Then (5) f{x(GM)k}. *. s = /. "' satisfies S(x) = exS Solution by P. n=0 In "The //Convolution Transform/' V.190 ADVANCED PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS [APR. Concord. Show that (kn + ir1 S(x) = £ n=0 where k is any integer and 01. i=0 i! i=0 which implies (7) <*> Hence. GM = In particular. (*) California.. £ Hoggatt. Jr. California. 13.. Bruckman. . Bruckman. to avoid confusion. No. Vol. San Jose State University. 1975.
j) in the expansion n+k =X C(n. given by: x<n> m x(x (1) l)(x2)(xn + 1)= £ St(n. Show that xsnM = £ (ir^\sj+1 M j=0 Sn+1M=x £ t^Sjfx) .r) £ Stfr+kJ) £ S2(j.k) andS2(n.r) £ xm8r+k:m = £ S2(n. respectively. LetSi(n. For the sake of typographical convenience. California. we make a slight change in notation. k=0 where S(n.ADVANCED PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS 1978] 191 USE YOUR USVIBRALAH H268 Proposed by L Carlitz.k.r)xr+k = £ S2(n. The following orthogonality relation is satisfied by the Stirling numbers: (3) u m:n ~ j=m \ Using (1)(3).n>0).k)x(k) .j)'s as follows: n n r+k n r+k xkSn(x) = £ S2(n.k)xk. r=M m r+k Z j=m Si(r+kj)SjM S^kJ/S^m) . Bruckman.k) denote the Stirling numbers of the first and second kinds.i)SjM j=0 xkSn(x) (k. we define x^ ss 1.k)xk .m)xm = £ S2(n/) £ r=0 j=0 m=0 r=0 j=0 £ j=0 SjM itS2(n.k) denotes the Stirling number of the second kind defined by xn = X k=0 S(n. Qurham. Duke University. fe=o (2) Also. North Carolina. j=0 \} ' More generally evaluate the coefficients C(n.j).r>Si(r + k.k)x(x1)(xk+1). Concord. Solution by P.r) £ * m=0 m=0 r=0 =0 n r+k j n r+k £ S2(n.k. Put n Sn(x) = ] r S(n. k=0 xn = X S2(n.k. we may derive an explicit expression for the c(n.
. in all cases (i.l.1. Thus. r=M A more elegant algorithm for computing c(n.n + 1) = if 1 </ </7.1j) = £ r=0 ^ ' where the summation possibly includes undefined terms.j)uj = £ u^(uk)n.J) may be derived by employing the umbral calculus. 1978 ADVANCED PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS where M = max (j . =x f) j=0 = (1)n. (4) c(n. c(n.(f. c{n. Hence. whereby Sj(x) is replaced by SJ.k. and replacing true equality by "umbral equality. Using the fact (7) Si (In) = bn:1) we find in particular.1j) = Z (*)(»rSl(Vr) fyfirStdV = (1)nSi(1.n). c(n.r ' f ' l ^ . derived by expanding u' ' in terms of Si (kj)'s.k. we have the generating function: (5) c(n. is the following: N (6) (nr)(k^l(kJr)f c(nXi) =Y1 r=M X } where M has been previously defined and N = min (j.1j) . »^ (8) . 3=0 An alternative expression. (")SjM. " we then have: YL xkSnM =Z T~f~fe. n+l o) n / w . 1.OJ = StdO) = 0.j). By the well known technique of binomial inversion. Hence. and S is treated as an algebraic quantity.Q) = fy(1}°Si. where the binomial coefficients r \ are defined to vanish whens < 0 ors >r. Howard and the Proposer.V =L l t ^ • r=jl Therefore. which we define to be vanishing terms.. n + 1).j) = T< $2 (n/)Si (r + k..192 APR. \oxj = 0. Returning to one of the relations preceding (4).E h)D>sj+1M.e.k.k.(f)f1 [." denoted by the symbol " . YL S2(n.r)s(r+h) r=0 = S(h> J2 S2(n/)(Sk)^ = S^(Sk)n. S 2("S) E r=0 Yl $t(r + KJ)SjM = £ j=0 Y^K. 0). r=0 More precisely.j f . c<n. •>. from (6): {n\hDrS1(hir)f c(n.r) £ r=0 Sttr + kjW = £ j=0 S2(n. (10) Sn+1M Also solved by F.
Frankel F. Harris A. T. Roth well C. Shannon J. A. Virginia Kelemen R. L. J. Washington THE BAKER STORE EQUIPMENT COMPANY . P. Kelisky C. L. G. Yang ACADEMIC OR INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERS DUKE UNIVERSITY Durham. Styles L. T. J. Byrd C. Hillman *Verner E. Serkland A. Paul Bruckman Paul F. Schumaker D. Farmer Harvey Fox E. C. California UNIVERSITY OF SANTA CLARA Santa Clara. R. R. Hoggatt. * Sister M. D. Giuli *H. MARY'S COLLEGE St.Gould Nicholas Grant William Greig V. A. L. Arkin D. Brown. Jr.McConnelUr. California WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY Pullman. Jr. Baker Murray Berg Gerald Bergum J. B. E. Mary's College.K.Winans E. Bridger John L. DeSales McNabb L. Fuller R. W. Ledbetter "D. Walker Marcellus Waddill Paul Willis C. Cocuzza M. R. Jr. G. P. Berkeley George Berzsenyi C. P. Carlitz G. Ossiander F. Kimberling J. Taylor H. Burton L. Umansky *L. C. Singmaster C. P. F. H. J. California SACRAMENTO STATE COLLEGE Sacramento. A. Ercolano * Charter Members * James Maxwell D. North Carolina ST. L. Mamuscia R. A. Meissner Leslie Miller F. M. DeLeon Harvey Diehl J. California SAN JOSE STATE UNIVERSITY San Jose. Long J. Alder *J.SUSTAINING MEMBERS *H. Krabacker George Ledin. Chakerian P. *C.
The price per binder is $3. There is a small pocket on the spine for holding a tab giving year and volume. Mathematics Department. Santa Clara. is printed in gold on the front of the binder and the spine.The binder is made of heavy weight virgin vinyl. Calif. All orders should be sent to: Professor Leonard Klosinski. fitted with a 1VF multiple mechanism and 4 heavy wires/ 5 The name. . These latter will be supplied with each order if the volume or volumes to be bound are indicated.BINDERS NOW AVAILABLE The Fibonacci Association is making available a binder which can be used to take care of one volume of the publication at a time.. The tabs will be sent with the receipt or invoice. The color of the binder is dark green. University of Santa Clara. FIBONACCI QUARTERLY. This binder is described by the company producing it as follows: ". 95053.. round cornered. electronically sealed • over rigid board equipped with a clear label holder extending 2 W high from the bottom of the backbone.50 which includes postage (ranging from 50^ to 80^ for one binder).