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Unit 1B - Sentence Shapes

1. BASIC SENTENCE PATTERNS


Main reference:
Dadufalza, C. D. 1992. Reading into writing 1. Makati City
Philippines: Bookmark

Basic Sentence Patterns

1. S iV or S-V
2. S LV SC
3. S tV DO
4. S TV IO DO
5. S tV DO OC

Basic Sentence Patterns


1. S-V

Subject (S) intransitive Verb (iV)

Examples: Bees buzz.


Huge waves dashed against the
seashore.
Bryan will arrive next week.

S = Actor/ Topic

- iV = Acts / Event

2. S-LV-SC
Subject (S)-Linking Verb (LV)-Subject Complement (SC)

Examples:

Raquel is a teacher.
Raquel is diligent.
That students seems smart.

S = noun or substitute
LV = connects/ties up S and SC
SC = completes meaning /explains subject
= follows a linking verb

2. S - LV - SC
Forms of the linking verbs or verbs to be:
am, is, was, are, were
will be, shall be, has been, have been
Verbs of the senses:
taste, sound, feel, hear, appear, grow, look,
remain, seem, turn

3. S tV DO
Subject - transitive Verb - Direct Object
Example: I sip coffee.
S first noun
tV verb followed by noun phrase that functions as
direct object (receiver of the action)
DO (second noun)
answers the question WHO or WHAT
receiver of action

4. S TV- IO- DO
Subject - transitive Verb - Indirect Object - Direct Object
Example: My professor taught me a good lesson.
S
tV
IO
DO

=
subject/first noun
=
follows subject; verb that takes a DO
=
second noun; person/thing to/for whom
action is performed/receiver of action
=
third noun; answers the question
WHAT/WHO

5. S tV DO OC
Subject (S) transitive Verb (tV) Direct Object (DO)
Objective Complement (OC)
Example: The villagers elected Mr. Delos Santos mayor.
OC= adjective or noun
= completes meaning of DO
= may indicate condition, state, attribute

Unit 1B - Sentence Shapes


2. RHETORICAL SENTENCE PATTERNS
Main reference:
Dadufalza, C. D. 1992. Reading into writing 1. Makati City
Philippines: Bookmark, Inc. pp. 120-121

RHETORICAL SENTENCE PATTERNS


1. Periodic (Main idea is withheld until the end
of the sentence.)
2. Semi-Periodic (Main idea is positioned in
between introducers and continuers or
reinforcers.)
3. Loose/Cumulative (Main idea is stated at the
beginning of the sentence followed by
additional information./The sentence
continues after the main idea has been
stated.)
4. Balanced (The phrases or clauses balance
each other in likeness or structure, meaning,
or length.)

RHETORICAL SENTENCE PATTERNS

1. PERIODIC - Main idea is withheld


until the end of the sentence.
How fireflies with their
continuously blinking lanterns
switch them on and off as they flit
in the night often puzzled me as a
child.
Source:
Dadufalza, C. D. 1992. Reading into writing 1. Makati City Philippines:
Bookmark, Inc. pp. 120-121

2. SEMI-PERIODIC - Main idea is positioned in


between introducers and continuers or
reinforcers.
In contrast to the labor movements in may foreign
countries that have politically waged the class
struggle for major reform, American unions exist
primarily for economic betterment: to try to get
higher wages, shorter hours, more vacations,
easier work rules, fringe benefits such as pensions
and health insurance, democratic rights for men
on the job, and so forth.
Source:
Dadufalza, C. D. 1992. Reading into writing 1. Makati City Philippines:
Bookmark, Inc. pp. 120-121

3. LOOSE - Main idea is stated at the beginning


of the sentence followed by additional
information./The sentence continues after
the main idea has been stated.
Many tough-minded economists would agree that
much of our government aid now goes to very
prosperous commercial farmers, with too little
filtering down to the really poor farmers, whose
poverty makes them most deserving.
Source:
Dadufalza, C. D. 1992. Reading into writing 1. Makati City Philippines:
Bookmark, Inc. pp. 120-121

4. BALANCED - The phrases or clauses balance each


other in likeness or structure, meaning, or length.
government of the people, by the people, for the people,
shall not perish from the earth.
But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot
consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground.

References
Amores, C. J. et. al. (2010). Handbook of English
grammar. Mandaluyong City: National Book Store.
Basic sentence structure (2005). Retrieved on 5 June
2010 from http://www.eslgold.com
Dadufalza, C. D. 1992. Reading into writing 1.
Makati City Philippines: Bookmark, Inc.
Malicsi, J. (2010). The English linguistics project:
English manual. Pasig City: Anvil Publications Inc.
Ralleta-Navarro, R. (2010). From words to sentences.
Mandaluyong City: National Book Store.
Prof. T. J. Yambaos powerpoint presentation on Basic
Sentence Patterns