20 views

Uploaded by Anthony Wells

wind turbine

- Power Electronics l.p
- $$$.Introduction to Power Electronics.pdf
- 2-Eee - Ijeeer - Realization - Surendra Babu - Paid
- 1150079001-002_Manual 30kVA UPS.pdf
- Optimization for Harmonic Multilevel Inverters
- Grainger Brandon ETD Thesis Final April 2011
- Bruckner 2005
- Three Phase 19 Level Modular Multi Level Inverter-ijaerdv03i151266
- 25kW 50kHz generator for induction heating.pdf
- Taufik Tutorial
- A General Space Vector Pwm Control Algorithm for Multilevel Inverters (Sanmin Wei, Bin Wu)
- Capture_Compare_PWM module.pdf
- PE_II_Week_1_upload
- Grid connceted MLI
- Thesis a Roc%27h
- [IJET-V2I5P9] Authors: Anju John Gray, Beena M Vargheese, Miss. Geethu James
- matrix convertor
- buck ppt new 2
- 6 Ee462l Fall2011 Dc Dc Buck
- EEE B.E B.TECH 2014-2015

You are on page 1of 6

Speed Wind Energy Conversion System

Anubhav Sinha

Devesh Kumar

Indian Oil Corporation Limited

Vadodara, India

anubhavsinha7@gmail.com

Hindustan Aeronautics Limited

Nasik, India

devesh.kumar.49@gmail.com

Paulson Samuel

Rajesh Gupta

Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology

Allahabad, India

paul@mnnit.ac.in

Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology

Allahabad, India

rajeshgupta@mnnit.ac.in

wind energy conversion system (WECS) has been obtained. The

generator used in WECS for this study is a Permanent Magnet

Alternator (PMA) coupled to a wind turbine. It is assumed that

the wind speed varies widely at the chosen site of WECS. The

wide fluctuation of the wind speed produces variable dc voltage

across the ac/dc converter stage. A dc-dc buck converter stage

has been proposed to be used in such a situation to robustly hold

the output dc voltage to the desired constant value needed for the

dc link of the PWM inverter. It is shown through the small-signal

modeling of the buck converter that the system has sufficient

stability margins to control the output voltage and provide

insensitivity against variations in the input voltage due to wind

speed variations. Both dc output voltage of the buck converter

and ac output voltage of the inverter are controlled through a

common control strategy. The proposed wind energy scheme has

been simulated and analyzed in the MATLAB/SIMULINK

platform for different wind speed variations. The experimental

verification of the performance of the buck converter to be used

for the WECS has been obtained on the laboratory model using a

dc motor-synchronous generator set.

Keywords- Buck Converter, Permanent Magnet Alternator

(PMA), Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS), Pulse Width

Modulated (PWM) Inverter

[3]. A generator is needed to be coupled with the wind turbine

so as to derive electricity. Recently, Permanent Magnet

Alternators (PMA) have been used in conjunction with a fullbridge rectifier to produce the dc output power. The dc output

voltage of the rectifier depends upon the wind speed. However

the wide wind speed variability has resulted in the need for

robust dc-dc converter stage in the design of a wind energy

conversion system.

This paper analyses the performance of the converter used

in variable speed wind energy conversion system. A small

signal analysis has been used to prove the robustness of the

buck converter over other types of dc-dc converters. Further, a

common control scheme is implemented in both the buck

converter and PWM inverter of the proposed power electronics

converter stages. The controller enables the system to generate

electricity within permissible power quality limits. The

simulation verification of the proposed scheme has been

obtained on the MATLAB/SIMULINK platform. The

experimental verification of the performance of the buck

converter to be used for the WECS has been obtained in the

laboratory model using a dc motor-synchronous generator set.

II.

I.

INTRODUCTION

and fossil fuel sources depleting fast, non renewable energy

options are the sources of the future. Wind energy provides a

cheaper and cleaner energy alternative. It is a reliable and

economical option especially for remote and wind potential

areas such as coastal and hill regions. Supplying electricity in

these regions is difficult and costly. However there is huge

potential of wind energy that can be locally converted to

supply electricity.

Variation in the wind speed is the major challenge in

generating efficient electricity as per the required system

system is shown in Fig. 1. It shows the power electronics

converters at various stages of the WECS [4].

978-1-4244-4331-4/09/$25.00 2009 IEEE

2009 Third International Conference on Power Systems, Kharagpur, INDIA December 27-29

PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER 164

A. Permanent Magnet Alternator

In this scheme a Permanent Magnet Alternator has been

used to derive the electricity from wind turbine. An induction

generator is the widely used generator for wind energy

applications due to its robustness and low cost. However, the

operating speed of a typical induction generator is around

1000-1500 rpm while wind turbine rotates at around 30-60

rpm [1]. Hence, a gearbox is needed to couple the generator to

the turbine. This decreases the overall efficiency of the

system.

algorithm used is as follows.

directly to the wind turbine system. This excludes the need of a

gearbox. Further, a PMA can be used in variable speed

systems. The variable-speed based systems inflict lower stress

on the shafts and gears compared to the constant-speed systems

[5]. Also, the absence of field circuit in a PMA makes the set

up less complicated and proves to be convenient for use for

remote applications.

above equation and is given by

The variable ac voltage from the generator is converted to

usable electricity by the power electronics based scheme

consisting of rectifier, buck converter and pulse width

modulated (PWM) inverter stages.

The diode bridge rectifier converts the variable ac voltage

into a variable dc voltage. The operating equation of a rectifier

is given as [6]

Vo =

(3 2 )Vrms

(1)

from the variable ac obtained from the generator.

The variable dc is controlled by using a dc-dc buck

converter stage with a controller. The theory and performance

analysis of this converter stage is discussed in detail in the

following sections.

The controlled constant dc voltage obtained from the dc-dc

converter is converted into ac by a PWM inverter. The PWM

inverter with double edge sinusoidal modulation has been used

in the proposed system. Each edge of the carrier wave is

modulated by a variable angle and can be mathematically

represented as [7]

= m sin( ) max

(2)

the angular displacement of the un-modulated edge and max is

the maximum displacement of the edge for a chosen frequency

ratio. A PWM topology considerably reduces harmonics in the

ac output voltage. A controller is also implemented at this

stage to regulate the ac output voltage feeding the load.

Vref

K

(Vref Vo ) +

s

Vin

(3)

where variables are defined as, the duty ratio of gating pulse,

Vin is the input voltage, Vo is the output voltage, Vref is the

reference voltage and K the constant gain.

The duty ratio of the gating pulse of the IGBT switch is

varied by the controller to obtain the voltage Vref at the output.

m=

V ref _ rms

K

(V ref _ rms V o _ rms ) +

s

Vin _ dc

(4)

according to the variations in the input and output rms

voltages of the inverter.

III.

STAGE

A buck converter steps down the dc voltage from one level

to another level [8]. The operating equation is given as

Vout = Vin

(5)

input voltage to the converter, Vout is the output voltage of the

converter, is the duty cycle of the gating signal. The

simplified circuit diagram of the buck converter is shown in

Fig.2.

capacitor voltage VC are the dynamic variables [9]. The

operation of the converter can be analyzed in terms of these

variables separately during the ON and OFF periods of the

switch as follows.

1)

During ON Period: When the switch is ON, the

equivalent circuit of the buck converter is as shown in Fig.3.

C. Controller Design

The control algorithm is implemented at the buck

converter and the inverter stages of the system following the

2009 Third International Conference on Power Systems, Kharagpur, INDIA December 27-29

PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER 164

x = A2 x + b 2Vi

(14)

Vo = q 2 x

(15)

where

following equations can be derived.

dI Vi Vc

=

dt L L

(6)

dVc I

Vc

=

dt

C RC

(7)

Vo = Vc

(8)

From (6), (7) and (8), the state space model for the system can

be obtained during the ON Period:

x = A1 x + b1Vi

(9)

Vo = q1 x

(10)

where

dI

dt

0

;

A1 =

x =

dVc

1

dt

C

1

1

L ; b1 = ; and q1 = [0 1]

L

1

0

RC

2)

During OFF Period: When the switch is OFF, the

equivalent circuit of the buck converter is as shown in Fig.4.

current and voltage laws.

dI

Vc

=

L

dt

(11)

dVc I

Vc

=

dt

C RC

(12)

Vo = Vc

(13)

From (11), (12) and (13), the state space model for the OFF

Period can be written as

dI

dt

0

x =

;

2

A

=

1

dVc

C

dt

1

L ; b 2 = 0 and q 2 = [0 1]

1

0

RC

The above equations (9), (10) and (14), (15) describe the

system operation separately during the ON and OFF periods

respectively. The system may be represented by a single

equivalent dynamic model by deriving its averaged model as

follows [9], [10]

xavg = xON + xOFF (1 )

(16)

(17)

by using equations (16) and (17):

dI

dt 0

dVc = 1

dt C

1

L I + 0Vi

1 Vc 0

RC

I

Vo = [0 1]

Vc

(18)

(19)

The averaged model represented by (18) and (19) is linear

but not time invariant. The system equations must be

linearized so that the converters transfer function may be

defined and linear system theory may get applicable to the

design of closed loop controllers for the converters [9].

Let us consider and vi be the quiescent operating points

for the duty ratio and input voltage respectively and and v i

be the respective perturbations about the operating point due

to time varying inputs. The duty ratio and input voltage may

be expressed as

= +

(20)

Vi = vi + v i

(21)

vi

<< 1 and

<< 1 . Substituting the values defined

where,

vi

X = [ A1( + ) + A2(1 )]( X + x )

(22)

+ [b1( + ) + b2(1 )](vi + v i )

vo = [q1( + ) + q 2(1 )]( X + x )

(23)

2009 Third International Conference on Power Systems, Kharagpur, INDIA December 27-29

PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER 164

where, X is the dynamic variable at the operating point and x

is the perturbation about it. Solving (22) and (23) and equating

the dc component from the result to zero, the following

equations are obtained.

x = Ax + bVi + e

(24)

vo = qx + (q1 q 2) X

(25)

where,

A = A1 + A2(1 ); b = b1 + b 2(1 )

q = q1 + q 2(1 )

The input transfer function can be derived from (24) and (25)

as

v o( s )

= q( sI A) 1 e vi =0

(26)

(s)

where, I in (26) is an identity matrix. The control transfer

function of a buck converter derived from the results of (24),

(25) and (26) is given as

v o(s)

1

= Vi

(27)

L

(s)

2

s

1

+

+

s

LC

From the results it is seen that the gain and phase margins

of the buck converter are both positive. Therefore the buck

converter based system under voltage control mode will be

stable.

It can be seen from (28) that the boost converter under

voltage control mode has a non-minimum phase

characteristics. Also as can be seen from Fig. 6, the phase

margin and gain margin for this converter are found to be

negative. This indicates the instability of the boost converter

under voltage control mode. Similarly, it can be shown that the

buck-boost converter also has the non-minimum phase

characteristics and hence show instability under voltage

control mode of operation.

This implies that for the applications such as wind energy

conversion system where the converter is required to control

the output voltage directly the buck converter is a suitable dcdc converter due to its stability and robustness under voltage

control mode. This leads to the constant dc link voltage at the

PWM inverter stage and relieves the designer from using

complicated control strategy at the inverter stage [11], that

otherwise may be required to provide the high performance

control against variations in the dc link voltage. The constant

dc link voltage allows to use a slow RMS controller (4) at the

PWM inverter stage to regulate the voltage across the load.

converter, the control transfer function of a boost converter

can be similarly derived as [9]

L

1 s

v o(s)

Vi

R(1 ) 2

=

2

( s) (1 )

L

LC

+ s2

1 + s

2

R(1 )

(1 ) 2

IV.

(28)

BOOST CONVERTER

VSWECS model is analyzed by evaluating the frequency

response of its control transfer function obtained from (27).

The system is tested for the 2 kW rating of the buck converter

and load. The input and output voltages are considered 440 V

and 220 V respectively. The inductance and capacitance

values of 10mH and 45F are considered respectively so as to

maintain continuous conduction mode in the buck converter

stage.

are compared with that of the boost converter using equations

(27) and (28) for the common system ratings. Fig 5 and Fig. 6

shows the frequency response results of the buck and the boost

converter respectively for a typical duty ratio of 0.4 through

the bode plots.

2009 Third International Conference on Power Systems, Kharagpur, INDIA December 27-29

PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER 164

Fig. 7. Circuit diagram of the laboratory model of the buck converter based

wind system.

V. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

The buck converter control under varying wind input is

tested on the laboratory model of the wind energy system. The

converter has been designed for the reduced rating of 200W.

The laboratory model consists of a dc motor-synchronous

generator set that models the wind turbine as shown in Fig. 7.

An IGBT is used as the switching device in the buck

converter. The controller algorithm is implemented through

ATmega32 microcontroller. The voltage sensors (model LV25P) have been used to convert the input and the output

voltage of the buck converter with the voltage conversion ratio

of 1/50. These reduced voltages are used for the control

algorithm implementation in the microcontroller.

implemented using the motor-generator set. The input and

output voltages of the buck converters are recorded using a

digital oscilloscope to analyze the performance of the

converter and its controller.

Fig. 8 shows the transient response of the output voltage

when the circuit is switched on. It is seen that the output

voltage settles to within 5% of the pre-programmed reference

voltage of 80 volts in 13 ms. Fig. 9 shows the step response of

the circuit when the reference voltage is doubled from 40 volts

to 80 volts suddenly at 27 ms. It is seen that the controller of

the buck converter successfully tracks the new reference

voltage. The respective change in the gating signal can also be

seen in Fig. 9.

2009 Third International Conference on Power Systems, Kharagpur, INDIA December 27-29

PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER 164

VI. SIMULATION RESULTS FOR COMPLETE WIND ENERGY

CONVERSION SYSTEM

In this section the simulation results are obtained for the

complete wind energy conversion system for the load ratings

as considered in Section IV. The power electronics converters

and their controller given in Section II.B have been

implemented

in

MATLAB/SIMULINK.

of the inverter for the step input. The figure also shows the

total harmonic distortion of the inverter output voltage that

settles to 0.75 %.

VII. CONCLUSIONS

In this paper performance of the buck converter based

wind energy conversion system has been analyzed. The results

have been obtained using frequency response characteristics of

the small signal model of the converter. It has been shown that

the buck converter used in the dc-dc converter stage controls

the output voltage robustly against variations in the input wind

speed. This allows the use of a slow RMS controller at the

PWM inverter stage. A common control algorithm used in this

paper for both dc-dc and dc-ac converter stage eases the

controller implementation. The experimental results verified

the performance of the buck converter used for the wind

energy conversion system. The simulation results have been

obtained to show the performance of the complete wind

energy conversion system upon change in the input wind

speed.

REFERENCES

[1]

Fig. 11. Inverter output voltage waveform for step input voltage.

controller in tracking the desired reference voltage. At the time

instant t = 1.2 and 1.7 seconds, the input ac voltage to the

rectifier stage is suddenly changed. This is due to the change

in the wind speed. The controller is seen to successfully track

the RMS reference voltage of 220 V and give a constant

inverter output voltage irrespective of the change in the input

voltage. Fig. 11 shows the single-phase PWM output voltage

generator with maximum power point tracking system, Journal of King

Saud Uni.. Eng. Sci., vol. 19, no. 2, pp.223-237, 2007.

[2] F. Blaabjerg, Z. Chen, Power Electronics for Modern Wind Turbines,

Synthesis Lectures on Power, vol. 1.no. 1, pp.1-68, Morgan and

Claypool Pubilishers, 2006.

[3] V. Lavanya, N. A. Gounden, and P. M. Rao, A simple controller using

line commutated inverter with maximum power tracking for wind-driven

grid-connected permanent magnet synchronous generators, IEEE Int.

Conf. on Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems (PEDES), pp.16, 12-15 Dec., 2006.

[4] A. Sinha, De. Kumar, Da. Kumar, P Samuel and R Gupta, A TwoStage Converter based Controller for a Stand Alone Wind Energy

System used for Remote Applications, 30th IEEE Int. Conf. on

Telecom. Energy, 2008. (INTELEC 2008), 14-18 Sept. 2008, San. Diego,

CA.

[5] E. Koutroulis and K. Kalaitzakis, Design of a maximum power tracking

system for wind-energy-conversion applications, IEEE Trans. Ind.

Electr., vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 486-494, April 2006.

[6] M.H.Rashid, Power Electronics Handbook, Academic Press, 2001.

[7] R. M. Hilloowala and A. M. Sharaf, A rule-based fuzzy logic controller

for a PWM inverter in a stand alone wind energy conversion scheme,

IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 57-65, Jan.-Feb., 1996.

[8] N. Mohan, T. M. Undeland and W. P. Robbins, Power Electronics,

Converters, Applications and Design, Singapore, John Wiley & Sons,

Inc., 1989.

[9] V. Ramanarayanan, Course Material on Switched Mode Power

Conversion, 2nd ed. IISc Bangalore, India, 2006.

[10] R. D. Middlebrook and S. Cuk, Advances in Switched-Mode Power

Conversion, TESLAco , 1983.

[11] R. S. Bajpai and R. Gupta Voltage and Power Flow Control of Grid

Connected Wind Generation System using DSTATCOM, IEEE PES

General meeting 2008, Pitts., PA, 20-24 July 2008.

- Power Electronics l.pUploaded byAtib Shaikh
- $$$.Introduction to Power Electronics.pdfUploaded byFaeez Izzham
- 2-Eee - Ijeeer - Realization - Surendra Babu - PaidUploaded byTJPRC Publications
- 1150079001-002_Manual 30kVA UPS.pdfUploaded byCarlos Torrez
- Optimization for Harmonic Multilevel InvertersUploaded byvalentinmuller
- Grainger Brandon ETD Thesis Final April 2011Uploaded byVeer Singh
- Bruckner 2005Uploaded byscribdnvnho
- Three Phase 19 Level Modular Multi Level Inverter-ijaerdv03i151266Uploaded byEditor IJAERD
- 25kW 50kHz generator for induction heating.pdfUploaded byVictorGonzalez
- Taufik TutorialUploaded byFahim Khanzada
- A General Space Vector Pwm Control Algorithm for Multilevel Inverters (Sanmin Wei, Bin Wu)Uploaded byPalomeo Gonzales Perez
- Capture_Compare_PWM module.pdfUploaded bySerchu_29
- PE_II_Week_1_uploadUploaded byAniruddha Narkhede
- Grid connceted MLIUploaded byknighthood4all
- Thesis a Roc%27hUploaded byGaetano Gaetano
- [IJET-V2I5P9] Authors: Anju John Gray, Beena M Vargheese, Miss. Geethu JamesUploaded byInternational Journal of Engineering and Techniques
- matrix convertorUploaded bybud
- buck ppt new 2Uploaded bydivya k s
- 6 Ee462l Fall2011 Dc Dc BuckUploaded byasmonov
- EEE B.E B.TECH 2014-2015Uploaded byBuddha_Technologies
- f0038Uploaded byMircea Raceanu
- Powerelectronics BookUploaded byHari v
- Split ACsUploaded byJenefa Justin
- Project40 Final PaperUploaded byAdithya Chandrasekaran
- vol8no4_abstract05Uploaded byPci Electronica
- IETE Journal of ResearchUploaded byPradyumn Chaturvedi
- Fo 23970975Uploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- 1. EEE - IJEEE - Analysis, Design and - Irfan Jamil - China-PakistanUploaded byiaset123
- Cascaded Multilevel Inverters With DCUploaded byAnand Kumar
- 1-s2.0-S18Grid Support with Variable Speed Wind Energy System and Battery Storage for Power Quality76610211019618-mainUploaded bySharath Chandra

- IJCNS20090200002_21460108Uploaded byArup Kunti
- 1optappl_4601p71Uploaded byAnthony Wells
- 1Full-Duplex RSOA-Based PONs UsingUploaded byAnthony Wells
- 713293.pdfUploaded byAnthony Wells
- wind turbineUploaded byAnthony Wells
- wind turbineUploaded byAnthony Wells
- wind turbineUploaded byAnthony Wells
- IET 20010 HybridUploaded byAnthony Wells
- OThO1Uploaded byAnthony Wells
- MemoriaUploaded byAnthony Wells
- amroCES5-8-2012Uploaded bynamhoa02
- ofdmUploaded byJohn Jairo Arango Quintero
- Optical fiberUploaded byAnthony Wells
- coding fiberUploaded byAnthony Wells
- OFDMUploaded byAnthony Wells
- silverUploaded byAnthony Wells
- silver nanoUploaded byAnthony Wells
- silvernanoUploaded byAnthony Wells
- silvernanoUploaded byAnthony Wells
- silver nanoUploaded byAnthony Wells
- cr1568Uploaded byAnthony Wells
- Wireless Communications With Matlab and SimulinkUploaded byyesme37
- 0811ijcseit02Uploaded byAnthony Wells
- 322-1183-1-PBUploaded byAnthony Wells
- 36Uploaded byAnthony Wells
- art-3A10.1134-2FS1063783413050247Uploaded byAnthony Wells

- I Am Applying to This Program to Acquire a Different Perspective From This Culture Which Seems to Be So Far From My ChileUploaded bySamanthaRamirez
- lec20-21_compressed SCATTER.pdfUploaded byBobby Ward
- Lab InstrumentsUploaded bySoma Ghosh
- Magnesium Versus Sulphur in Ductile IronUploaded byarnaldorcr8646
- Follow Grammar HaskellUploaded bykhorefilm
- Prem KanthUploaded byazzam_ali
- Advanced Fuel Measurement and Lock SystemUploaded byInternational Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
- WLCA2-2-TSUploaded byLuis Salinas
- 02 Basic PF StructureUploaded bypejman14
- gifted paperUploaded byapi-283959223
- Christ as the Ideal Model for YouthUploaded byHonecaMulawan
- cryptographic manetUploaded byAftab Ashraf
- ChicagoArchitect.pdfUploaded byerickagt13
- Understanding the Independent-Samples t TestUploaded bypsykohaxk
- Configure Symbols for components.pdfUploaded byEduardo Martinez
- A New Breakup Regime of Liquid Drops Identified in a Continuous and Uniform Air Jet Flow 2007Uploaded by李海鹰
- Formulation and Evaluation of Transdermal Patch of Repaglinide.pdfUploaded byapa men
- SystemVerilog for VHDL EngineersUploaded byraysalemi
- AllotResultR1 NEET 2013Uploaded byKumud Ranjan
- sol4_99Uploaded byHossain
- 3-d cell modelUploaded byapi-263365378
- Cum Sa Scrii o Lucrare StiintificaUploaded byBujoreanu Sterica
- A Review on Grid-Connected PV SystemUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- McKinsey Asia Marketing PracticeUploaded byAman Rana
- Repaired 3 Bu'Uuraalee OgbarruuUploaded byyusuf
- QSK-50L Maint Schedule (1)Uploaded bybvdas
- Extra ExercisesUploaded bysofiairu7885
- The_Twin_Flames_Journey_Guide.pdfUploaded byGratiela Feraru
- AN0021Uploaded byperiodo
- Canal FallUploaded bymuhammad_ajmal_25