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Double-vector PWM

Xueqin Zheng 1,2

Donghui Guo1

Xiamen University

Xiamem, Fujian Province, China

Xiamen University of Technology

Xiamem, Fujian Province, China

systems, many national grid codes demand complete models and

simulation studies under different system conditions in order to

ensure that the connection of a wind farm would not have a

detrimental impact on the grid . It is now recognized that doubly

fed induction generators (DFIG) are used in many large farms. A

systematic control methodology for connection of wind-turbinedriven DFIGs to the grid is presented in this paper. The purpose

is to optimize control and enhance performance doubly fed

induction generator wind power system by using double-vectorpwm control. The control strategies of DFIG under vector

control in stator flux orientation of rotor side converter and

vector control of grid side PWM converter are investigated. A

dynamic model of the DFIG wind turbine is derived to develop a

vector controller to decouple dynamically active and reactive

power control ,and keep the DC link voltage stable, and supply

low distortion currents both in the machine rotor and the supply

grid. The simulations confirm the response of the DFIG

independent of speed and dynamic performance of the complete

system. The model is suitable to be used in a wind farm and the

network under various system disturbances .

dynamic performance and is independent control of the active

and reactive power output of the DFIG drive[9][10].There are

two kinds of vector control. One is stator flux orientation

(SFO),the other is stator voltage orientation (SVO) [11]. The

controller[12] is used by SVO , but this approach increases the

complexity and computational burden. Petersson et al.[13]

assert that such stability problems do not exist when an SVO

is employed.

This paper proposes a systematic approach for connection

of DFIGs to the grid. The control strategies of DFIG under

vector control in stator flux orientation of rotor side converter

and PWM control of grid side convert are investigated. The

load voltage is maintained at constant frequency and its

magnitude is regulated through control of the stator flux of the

generator. The DC link voltage keeps stable. At the same time,

this control method is characteristic by supplying low

distortion currents both in the machine rotor and the supply

grid.

modelling; double-vector-pwm control

I.

II.

shown in Fig.2. The wind turbine is connected to the DFIG

through a mechanical shaft system, which is composed of a

low speed shaft and a high-speed shaft and a gearbox in

between. The wound-rotor induction machine in this

configuration is fed from both stator and rotor sides. The rotor

is fed through a variable frequency converter ,while the stator

is directly connected to the grid.

INTRODUCTION

pollution and a possible energy shortage, the renewable energy

systems and generation have attracted great interests in recent

years[1][2]. Wind energy is one of the fastest growing energy

sources, and is regarded as an important alternative to

traditional power generating sources. The large wind farms

have been planned or installed around the world, at the same

time the power ratings of the wind turbines are increasing. For

many wind farms, wind turbines based on the doubly fed

induction generator (DFIG) technology whose converters

rating are about 25%30% of the generator. Compared with

wind turbines using other generators[3], DFIG-based wind

turbines have several advantages including cost effective,

providing simple pitch control, reducing mechanical stress,

compensating torque and power pulsations, improving power

quality and so on[4].

developed for DFIG, such as closed-loop frequency control[5]

,open-loop control[4][6], phase-angle control[7][8]. It was

shown to stabilize the machine over a wide speed range.

978-0-7695-4031-3/10 $26.00 2010 IEEE

DOI 10.1109/iCECE.2010.526

The aerodynamic model of a wind turbine can be

characterized by the well-known C p curves. C p is the

2139

angle and tip speed ratio .The tip speed ratio is defined

by:

wwind R

v

The DFIG must supply constant voltage and frequency at

the stator terminals irrespective of the shaft speed. A

decoupled control using field-oriented techniques can be used,

which leads to direct control of the stator flux by one of the

rotor current components.

(1)

generator, where the rotor windings are fed through back-toback variable frequency, voltage source, converters. The

DFIG can be regarded as a traditional induction generator with

a non zero rotor voltage. Under the condition of the stator

transients neglected, the electrical equations of the DFIG can

be written as following. These equations are transformed from

three-phase to two-phase components and subsequently rotate

all variables into a synchronous reference frame(m-t axis).

the blade length in m, v is the wind speed in m/s. The

C p curves depend on the blade design.

C p (, ) = 0.5175(116

0.4 5)e

21

+ 0.0068

(2)

Where the

+ 0 .08

0 .035

3 +1

assumptions. The equations are derived in the synchronous

reference frame using direct (m) and quadrature (t) axis

representation. The stator current is assumed positive when

flowing toward the machine. The m-axis was assumed to be

90 lag of t-axis in the direction of rotation.

(3)

Given the power coefficient C p ,the mechanical power that

Stator voltage

1

P = C p Sv 3

2

u sm = Rs i sm + 1 st sm

.

u st = Rs i st + 1 sm st

(4)

by the rotor blades in m2.

(6)

Rotor voltage

.

u rm = Rr i sm s rt rm

.

u rt = Rr irt + s rm rt

(7)

sm = L s i sm L m i rm

st = L s i st L m i rt

Wind resource at a geographic location is highly variable.

Power generated from wind generator depends on the wind

speed, which fluctuates randomly with time. Wind power

studies, therefore, require the models to represent the wind

speed variation for wind farm locations of interest. Wind

speed distributions are often characterized by Weibull

distributions.

rm = L r i rm L m i sm

rt = L r i rt L m i st

(9)

Electromagnetic torque

Me =

geographic location can be simulated using:

VW = VB + VWG + VWR + VG

(8)

Lm

L

ir s = m (irt sm irm st )

Ls

Ls

(10)

u

the t-axis stator voltage, rm the m-axis rotor

(5)

voltage,

wind VG is gradient wind.

voltage,

linkage,

u st

st

rotor flux

linkage, rt

2140

the m-axis

rm

Me

converter, L the input inductance of converter, u dc the filter

the t-axis stator current, rm the m-axis rotor current, rt the taxis rotor current, Rs the stator resistance (p.u.) , Rr the rotor

self induction(p.u.),Lm the mutual inductance between rotor

and stator(p.u.), 1 the synchronous speed and s the slip

electrical frequency,

equations can be written as

of the DFIG.

III.

(13)

(14)

generation system is shown in Fig.4. The main circuit

topology of a DFIG system with a back-to-back PWM

converter, which consists of a grid-side converter(connected to

the grid,),a rotor-side converter(connected to the generator)

and a dc-link capacitor. In order to gain electrical active power

at constant voltage and frequency to the grid over a wide

operation range from super-synchronous to sub-synchronous

speed, the active power flow between the grid and the rotor

circuit must be controlled both in direction and in magnitude

.Therefore, Both of the converters have six four-quadrant

power electronic devices.

P=

3

3

(eqisq + ed isd ) = Emisd = u dc idc

2

2

(15)

So

.

Cu dc u dc = udc iL +

3

Emisd

2

(16)

include voltage and current control can be seen in Fig5.

The rotor-side converter controls torque and reactive power,

while the grid-side converter controls the dc voltage and gridside active power.

Figure 5.

In the rotor side converter, reactive power and the

referenced torque determine the current references, which

determine the voltages to be applied to the rotor side.

The rotor grid converter P-Q capability depends mainly on

grid side converter dc bus voltage. So it is important to control

the dc link voltage and keep it stable. In this section, the

vector PWM converter will be introduced in detail.

that it can operate at a shaft speed that is independent of wind

conditions to gain the stator voltage which is the same to grid

voltage, including the same amplitude, frequency and phase.

determine the current references, which determine the voltages

to be applied in the grid side converter.

is analyzed. The synchronous reference frame is linked to the

stator flux of the machine.

symmetrical :

e = ris + Lis + ur

flux vector gives:

(11)

sm = s

st = 0

C u dc = idc iL

(12)

(17)

u sm = 0 , u st = U m

2141

(18)

So,

.

s = 0

Um

s =

s

(19)

four-quadrant converter and the mechanical power delivered

to the shaft of the generator are calculated as followings. The

instantaneous active and reactive power under m-t reference

frame can be expressed as

3

p = 2 (u sm i sm + u st i st )

3

q = (u st i sm u sm i st )

shown in Fig6. The current error (the difference between the

achieved and desired) together with a PI controller was used to

u'

mainly by the output of a PI controller with an input of the

control error. Feed-forward compensation terms are often used

for enhancing the response of the controller. They usually

include the compensation of the coupling components and the

stator flux associated induced electromotive force components.

( Lr

(20)

'

urm

*

irm

L2m

) s irt

Ls

*

urm

irm

3

P = 2 U m i st

3

Q = U m i sm

2

(21)

shown in Fig.7.

power flow in the DFIG for sub-synchronous and supersynchronous operation. Above synchronous speed, the fourquadrant converter operates as a generator of active power

delivering power to the grid .Under the condition of subsynchronous, the four-quadrant converter circulates active

power from the grid into the rotor circuit.

Using equations (17) to (21),the rotor currents can be

derived in the following form.

irm = ( s + Ls ism ) / Lm

Li

irt = s st

Lm

(22)

Figure 7.

L

Lm

)irm

rm = s + Lr (1

Ls Lr

Ls

L2

rt = Lr (1 m )

L s Lr

2

m

(23)

L2 di

L2

u rm = R r i rm + ( L r m ) rm ( L r m ) s i rt

(24)

L s dt

Ls

2

2

u = R i + ( L L m ) di rt ( L L m ) i + L m s

r rt

r

r

s rm

s

rt

L s dt

Ls

Ls

IV.

MATLAB. The machine parameters are given as following.

According to the theoretical analysis, the stability of the DFIG

vector control depends only on the speed of the machine. It is

independent of the reactive power output, wind speed.

The machine parameters are rated power=6.8kW,

Frequency=50 Hz, stator rated voltage=690V, Rs=0.00788 pu,

Rr=0.00559 pu, Ls=0.173 pu, Lr=0.157 pu and Lm=2.95pu.

'

Let u rm = u rm

+ u rm

2

where u ' = R i + ( L Lm ) dirm

rm

r rm

r

Ls dt

u rm = ( Lr

L2m

) s i rt

Ls

2142

stability of the control strategy is verified with the operation of

the DFIG despite wind speed variations. The system decouples

dynamically active and reactive power control, and the values

keep as the given references .

REFERENCES

Figure 9. Input current of grid side converter

[1]

[2]

[3]

Figure 10. Waveform of the stator voltage and current of DFIG

[4]

[5]

[6]

Figure 11. Waveform of active and reactive of DFIG

to test the proposed control schemes.Fig.8-11 illustrate that the

DC bus voltage keeps stable(1000v). The voltage and current

waveform of the grid side converter have good sinusoidal

wave ,furthermore the power factor is approximately unity.

The stator voltage in this simulation is constant(690V), as

there is no change in the reactive power. The responses of

both active and reactive power during step change of their

references are 0.18s and then keep stable as their references.

There is no over shoot of either the stator currents or the active

and reactive power. The DFIG has stable operation even with

wind speed variation.

V.

CONCLUSION

[7]

[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

[12]

[13]

system has been presented in this paper. The strategy makes

use of the vector control in stator flux orientation of rotor side

2143

Wind Turbine With Doubly Fed Induction Generator by FAST and

Simulink[J].IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol.23, no.2,

pp.690-700,2008.

Gomis Bellmunt 0,Junyent Ferre A,Sumper A,et al, Ride-Through

Control of a Doubly Fed Induction Generator Under Unbalanced

Voltage

Sags[J].

IEEE

Transactions

on

Energy

Conversion,vol.23,no.4,pp. 1036-1045,2008.

Lie Xu, Phillip Cartwright, Direct Active and Reactive Power Control

of DFIG for Wind Energy Generation, IEEE Transactions on Energy

Conversion,vol.21,no.3,pp. 750-758,2006.

Bys.Mll E R,M.Deicke,Rik W, De Doncker, Doubly Fed Induction

Generator Systems for Turbines,IEEE Industry Application,pp. 2633,MAY/JUNE 2002.

R.Li,R.Spee,A.K.Wallace,and G.C.Alexander, Synchronous Drive

Performance of Brushless Doubly-fed Motors[J], IEEE Industry

Application,vol.30,no.4,pp. 963-970 ,1994.

D.Feng,P.C.Roberts,and R.A.McMahon, Control Study on Starting of

BDFM,in Proc.41st Int.UPEC,2006(2):660664.

S.Shao,E.Abdi,and R.A.McMahon, Operation of Brushless Doubly-fed

Machine for Drive Applications, in Proc.Power Electron.Mach.Drives

Conf.,Apr.2008,pp.340344.

S.Shao,E.Abdi,and R.A.McMahon, Stable Operation of the Brushless

Doubly-fed Machine(BDFM),in Proc.Power Electron. Drive Syst. Conf.

,Nov.2007,pp.897902.

Y.Tang and L.Xu, A Flexible Active and Reactive Power Control

Strategy for a Variable Speed Constant Frequency Generating System,

IEEE Trans. Power Electron.,vol.10,no.4,pp.472478,Jul.1995.

Shiyi Shao,Ehsan Abdi, Stator-Flux-Oriented Vector Control for

Brushless Doubly Fed Induction Generator, IEEE Transactions on

Industrial Electronics,vol.56,no.10,pp.4220-4228,2009.

Agiou Pavlou, Stability of Doubly-fed Induction Generator under

Stator Voltage Orientated Vector Control, IET Renew.Power Gener.,

Vol.2, No.3, pp.170180, 2008 .

D.Zhou,R.Spee,G.C.Alexander,and A.K.Wallace, A Simplified Method

for Dynamic Control of Brushless Doubly-fed Machines,in Proc.22nd

Annual.IEEE IECON, vol.2 ,pp.946951,Aug.1996.

Petersson A.,Harnefors L.,Thiringer T, Comparison between Statorflux and Grid-flux-oriented Rotor Current Control of Doubly-fed

Induction Generators,IEEE 35th Annual Power Electronics Specialists

Conf., vol.1,pp.482486,2004.

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