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Benefits of cucumber tea

12. anti-cancer benefits rich source of vitamin C,

1. Flushes out toxins from your cells

13. beta-carotene & manganese

2. Improves Skin Complexion

14. free radical scavenger

(natural moisturizer, wrinkles be gone, fountain

of youth hello)
3. Regulates body temperature
4. Helps relieve headaches, migraines and even
back pains
5. Replenishes nutrients to your vital organs
6. Good for your joints
(they need water to stay strong, healthy and

15. anti-estrogenic effects

16. helps with hydration
17. helps with blood pressure beneficial for pyorrhea
18. aids in helpful with constipation
19. natural remedy for treating tapeworms high silica
20. helps brittle nails

21. may relieve gout & arthritis pain
7. Boots your metabolism
(drinking enough water helps your burn more

22. beneficial for diabetes

calories throughout the day)

23. may reduce cholesterol levels
8. Helps maintain a healthy weight
(promotes weight loss, keeping you fuller longer)
9. Helps you sleep better at night
(when you are fully hydrated)
10. antioxidant properties
11. anti-inflammatory benefits


Background, objectives and overall research requirements

24. may help with kidney stones

25. aids in weight loss
26. good source of B vitamins
27. effective hangover cure

The European Commission Directorate-General for Health and Consumers commissioned research to review health
warnings used on tobacco packages, and recommend a set of future warnings, based on state of the art scientific
There is a great wealth of scientific evidence demonstrating the detrimental health effects on smokers, including increased
risks of heart disease, lung cancer and other respiratory diseases. Research has also highlighted the health risks to nonsmokers from second hand smoke, in particular in the work environment, but also to non-smoking partners / children in
the home environment as well as health damage to foeti in pregnant women. Health warnings on the packages of tobacco
products are a cost-effective tool (the cost is borne by the industry) for communicating the dangers of tobacco usage as
well as encouraging consumers to quit. The first EU wide requirements for tobacco labelling were introduced in 1989
through the labelling Directive (89/622/EEC) and amended in 1992 through Directive 92/41EC. This stated that all tobacco
products should carry specific warnings but only required the warnings to cover 4-8% of the front and back of the pack.
Initially, the health warnings were in text form. The Tobacco Product Directive (2001/37/EC) introduced bolder health
messages and radically increased the size of the warnings and improved their legibility. According to the Directive each
unit packet of tobacco products intended to be smoked must carry a general warning (Smoking Kills / Smoking can kill or
Smoking seriously harms you and others around you) covering at least 30-35% of the front and one of the fourteen
additional warning sets covering at least 40-50% of the back. Non-combustible tobacco products shall carry the general
warning This tobacco product can damage your health and is addictive. The Directive allows Member States to require
additional warnings in the form of colour photographs and other illustrations. For that purpose the Commission adopted
rules for the use of pictorial warnings (Decision 2003/642EC) and established a library of 42 selected sourced documents.
There are three images for each health warning. Member States can choose illustrations most suitable for consumers in
their country. Belgium was the first EU Member State to introduce pictorial warnings on cigarette packs in November
2006, followed by Romania in July 2008 and the UK in October 2008. Latvia has also adopted legislation to require the
use of pictorials from March 2010, and six further EU Member States plan to introduce pictorial warnings in the near
future. Outside the EU the following 15 countries have introduced pictorial warnings: Canada (2000), Brazil (2001),
Singapore (2004), Venezuela (2005), Thailand (2005), Australia (2006), Uruguay (2006), Chile (2006), Jordan (2007),
Hong Kong (2007), New Zealand (2008), Brunei (2008), Egypt (2008), Panama (2008) and Cook Island (2008). Other
countries that have adopted legislation to introduce pictorial warnings in 2009 / 2010 include China, Djibouti, India, Iran,
Kyrgyzstan, Malaysia, Mauritius, Peru, Switzerland and Vietnam. 6The Commission was therefore keen to obtain a
rigorous review of the current scientific knowledge on health and tobacco labelling, an evaluation of the impact of existing
textual and pictorial warnings, and proposals for future warning messages, based on state of the art knowledge on direct /
indirect tobacco related risks / harm. The results will be used by the Commission to develop proposals for a new set of
warning texts and graphical images (based on reliable scientific evidence) that will be more effective in warning
consumers of the potential risks and harm associated with both direct and passive smoking.

Background Information/Statement of the Problem

Major obstacles to child survival in the developing world include infections, parasitic diseases, malnutrition and the risks
associated with low birth weight and high fertility. (UN Informational Letter #37-435) A serious problem exists in the rural
villages of Malnesia of children dying from common illness and infections that are attributable to poor nutrition. Though
high nutrition foods are available in the villages, it is apparent that mothers do not have an understanding of exactly what
foods contain the most value for their children. (Ministry of Health, 1994) The most significant person in the life of the
young child is the child's mother. Research has shown that the children of mothers who have an understanding of how to
provide good nutrition to their children stand a significantly greater chance of survival during the first three years of life
(87% survival rate) as compared with children of mothers who do not know how to provide good nutrition (43% survival
rate) (Position Paper, Opening Plenary Session, Malnesian Health Conference - MALHEALTHCON - 96).
The use of volunteers to provide community service is a new concept in Malnesia and can be capitalized upon as a viable
way to provide trained manpower for the offering of educational services. The first student service scheme, Service
Mahasiswa/SERMAH, was created in the early 1990s. Initially operated at only two universities, SERMAH is now a
mandated national program that operates at all public and private universities (Directorate for Higher Education, Ministry
of Education, Statistics for 1996). The emphasis of SERMAH has been exclusively on the providing of information to local
farmers on improved farming practices. The Universitas Pembangunan Pertanian has been funded by the Ministry of

Agriculture to operate the SERMAH Educational Development Center (Introducing SERMAH, Ministry of Agriculture,
1996) as a central agency for the providing of farming practices instructional materials to all universities in Malnesia. The
selection and training of student volunteers is conducted autonomously at each university with the support of the
instructional materials disseminated by the SERMAH Educational Development Center.