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HD gii bi tp Vt L C 2

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HNG DN GII BI TP VT L I CNG 2


( Lu : Ti liu cha c thm nh nn vn cn nhng ch cha chnh xc hon ton)

PHN I: IN T HC
Chng I: TRNG TNH IN VT DN TRONG TRNG TNH IN
1. L thuyt.
1.1 S nhim in ca cc vt
+ Nhim in do c xt: hai vt khng nhim in khi c xt vi nhau th c th lm
chng nhim in tri du nhau.
+ Nhim in do tip xc: cho thanh kim loi khng nhim in chm vo qu cu
nhim in th thanh kim loi nhim in cng du vi in tch ca qu cu. a thanh kim loi
ra xa qu cu th thanh kim loi vn cn nhim in.
+ Nhim in do hng ng: a thanh kim loi khng nhim in n gn qu cu
nhim in nhng khng chm vo qu cu, th hai u thanh kim loi s nhim in. u gn
qu cu hn nhim in tri du vi in tch ca qu cu, u xa hn nhim in cng du vi
in tch ca qu cu. a thanh kim loi ra xa qu cu th thanh kim loi tr v trng thi khng
nhim in nh lc u.
Gii thch hin tng nhim in:
- Do c xt hay tip xc m cc electron di chuyn t vt ny sang vt kia.
- Do hng ng m cc electron t do s di chuyn v mt pha ca vt (thc cht y l s
phn b li cc electron t do trong vt) lm cho pha d electron tch in m v pha ngc li thiu
electron nn tch in dng.
1.2 So snh s ging nhau v khc nhau:
Ging nhau:
T l vi bnh phng khong cch.
T l thun vi tch ln.
u c hng s t l.
Khc nhau:
nh lut Coulomb
nh lut vn vt hp dn ca Newton
Va l lc y va l lc ht ty
L lc ht.
vo du ca in tch.
T l vi ln ca in tch.
T l vi tch ln khi lng ca hai
vt.
Hng s t l l:
Hng s t l l:
N .m2
k 9.109 2
N 2 .m2
C
G 6,67.1011
2
kg
Ph thuc vo s c mt ca vt
khc v mi trng gia hai vt.
Khng ph thuc vo s c mt ca vt
khc v mi trng gia hai vt.
1.3 nh lut Culng.

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+ ln ca lc tng tc gia hai in tch im ng yn t l thun vi tch cc ln ca
hai in tch v t l nghch vi bnh phng khong cch gia chng.
|qq |
Nm2
F = k. 1 22 ; k = 9.109
; l hng s in mi ca mi trng; trong chn khng (hay gn
C2
.r
ng l trong khng kh) th = 1.
+ Vc t lc tng tc gia hai in tch im:
C im t trn mi in tch;
C phng trng vi ng thng ni hai in tch;
C chiu: y nhau nu cng du, ht nhau nu tri du;
9.109 | q1q2 |
C ln: F =
.
.r 2

+ Lc tng tc gia nhiu in tch im ln mt in tch im: F F1 F2 ... Fn


1.4 in trng
+ in trng l mi trng vt cht tn ti xung quanh cc in tch.
+ Tnh cht c bn ca in trng l n tc dng lc in ln in tch t trong n.
+ in trng tnh l in trng do cc in tch ng yn gy ra.
+ Vc t cng in trng gy bi mt in tch im:
C im t ti im ta xt;
C phng trng vi ng thng ni in tch vi im ta xt;
C chiu: hng ra xa in tch nu l in tch dng, hng v pha in tch nu l in tch m;
9.109 | q |
.
.r 2
+ n v cng in trng l V/m.

C ln: E =

+ Nguyn l chng cht in trng: E E1 E 2 ... E n .

+ Lc tc dng ca in trng ln in tch: F = q E .


+ ng sc in l ng c v trong in trng sao cho hng ca tip tuyn ti bt k im
no trn ng sc cng trng vi hng ca vc t cng in trng ti im .
+ Tnh cht ca ng sc:
- Ti mi im trong in trng ta c th v c mt ng sc in v ch mt m thi. Cc
ng sc in khng ct nhau.
- Cc ng sc in trng tnh l cc ng khng khp kn.
- Ni no cng in trng ln hn th cc ng sc in s c v mau hn (dy hn),
ni no cng in trng nh hn th cc ng sc in s c v tha hn.
+ Mt in trng m cng in trng ti mi im u bng nhau gi l in trng u.
in trng u c cc ng sc in song song v cch u nhau.
1.5 --.......
2. Bi tp.
Bi 1-1:
Tm tt:

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rH2 0,5.108 (cm) 5.1011 (m)

qe 1,6.1019 (C)
Fh =?

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Hng dn:

Theo bi ra ta c: Fh

k. qe .qe

r
H2

9.109.(1,6.1019 )2

5.10

11 2

9, 216.108 ( N )

Bi 1-2:
Tm tt:

e 1,6.1019 C
me 9,1.10

31

m
Fht

kg

r 10 cm 10
ve = ?

10

Hng dn:
Theo bi ra th electron chuyn ng xung quanh ht nhn theo qu o trn di tc dng ca lc
hng tm nn ta c: Fht

mv2 9,1.1031.v2

9,1.1021.v 2 ( N )
10
r
10

9
19
kqe 2 9.10 .1,6.10
Theo nh lut Culong ta c: Fcl 2
2,304.108 ( N )
2

2
r
10
2

Khi cn bng th: Fht Fcl 9,1.1021 v2 2,304.108 v2 2,53.1012 v 1,6.106 (m / s)


Bi 1-3:
Tm tt:

q0 3, 2.107 C

600
l 10cm 0,1m

m=?
q0
2
A

q0
Fcl
2
I

Hnh 2

Hng dn:
Theo hnh v ta thy mi qu cu u chu tc dng ca ba lc: Trng lc (P), sc cng (T) v
lc y Culong ( Fcl )
Do cc qu cu ging nhau nn, in tch ca mi qu cu nhn c l:
q 3, 2.107
q1 q2 0
1,6.107 (C )
2
2
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HD gii bi tp Vt L C 2

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F
r
Do c iu kin cn bng nn: P Fcl T 0 . Khi ta c: tan cl sin 1
P
2l
Vi: 1

2
2

k. q0
2
Fcl
k.q 2
k.q02
Vy: tan
4r 20
P
P
4r P 4.(sin 1 )2 .P
T ta c: P
Nn: m

kq02

4. 2l sin 1 .tan
2

9.109 3, 2.107

4. 2.0,1.sin 300 .tan 300


2

0,039N

P 0,039

3,99.103 kg
g
10

Bi 1-4:
Tm tt:

' 540
0 800 (kg / m3 )
2 2
'?
Hng dn:
Tng t cch gii trn ta c: P

q0 2
(*)
4 01.4(2l sin 1 )2 .tan 1

Trong mi trng du ha th mi qu cu s chu tc dng ca lc y Acsimet P. Nn:

P P'

q0 2
'

2 (**)

2
4 0 2 .4(2l sin 2 ) .tan 2
2

P P ' mg m ' g 0Vg 'Vg ( 0 ')Vg


Kt hp (*) v (**) ta c:
Ta xt:

P P ' 1.sin 2 1.tan 1 ( ' 0 )Vg ' 0


1.sin 2 300.tan 300 ' 0

P
2 .sin 2 2 .tan 2
'Vg
'
2.sin 2 270.tan 270
'

T ta suy ra: ' 2557,54 (kg / m3 )


Bi 1-5.
Tm tt:

0 800 (kg / m3 )
2 2

? '

T'
F'

B F

q2

q1

Hnh 3a
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q2

q1

Hnh 3b
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HD gii bi tp Vt L C 2

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Hng dn:
Theo hnh 3a th mi qu cu u chiu tc dng cu Trng lc(P), Sc cng dy (T), Lc y Culong
(F). Theo nh lut Culoong p dng trong bi ton ny th:

q02
4 01.(2l sin 1 )2

sin 1 2l

Trong trng hp cn bng th: ( Theo hnh v) P F T 0 .


P mg
cos 1
T cos 1 mg .
T
T
q02
q02
F

T
sin

sin 1
1
2 .
T 4 01 2l sin 1 2 T
4 01 2l sin 1

Vy:

q02
2
q02
q02
sin 1 4 01 2l sin 1 T
tan 1

2
2
mg
cos 1
4 01 2l sin 1 .mg 4 0 2l sin 1 .mg
T
(1 1) (1)
Khi vo mi trng: du th qu cu s chu thm lc y Acsimet F. Nh vy F s gim i 2 ln.
Vy lc ny ng nhin sc cng cng phi l T.
Khi ta c iu kin cn bng: P Fd T ' 0

P Fd' mg F 'd

T 'cos 1 mg F 'd
T'
T'
q02
F
sin 1
.
T ' 4 0 2 2l sin 1 2 T '
cos 1

q02
2
q02
sin 1 4 0 2 2l sin 1 T '

(2)
Vy: tan 1
2
mg Fd'
cos 1
4 0 2 2l sin 1 mg Fd'
T'
Do ta c: tan 1 (1) tan 1 (2)

q02

4 0 2l sin 1 .mg
2

q02

4 0 2 2l sin 1 mg Fd'
2

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

mg 2 mg Fd'
mg 2 mg m ' g
V 2 V V '
2 '

2 '
.
2 1

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HD gii bi tp Vt L C 2

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4
m V r 3 .
3
(Gii thch: Ta c
)
4 3
'
Fd V ' g r . ' g
3
Bi 1-6:
Tm tt:

4.109 C / cm2 4.105 C / m2

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m 1g 10 kg

q 1,6.109 C

=?

F
B

Hnh 4
Hng dn:
Gi thit bi cho c th hin hnh 4.
Xt n iu kin cn bng khi ta c: tan
Vy: tan

F k. q0 .q E.q
.q
2

P
r P
P 2 0 .P

4.105.1,6.109
0,3616 19,870
2.8,85.1012.103.10

Bi 1-7:
Tm tt:
q1 3, 2.108 C

q2 4,8.108 C

F31

q3 9,6.10 C

A (+)
2

AC 3cm 3.10 m

Fth

AB 4cm 4.102 m

q1

F21

BC 5cm 5.10 m

B
q2 (+)

FthA = ?

C
q3 (-)

Hnh 5
Hng dn:

Lc in tng hp tc dng nn q1 ti A l Fth . Vy: Fth F21 F31


+ Phng: Nm trn ng thng AC.
Ta c: F31

+ Chiu: Hng ra xa im A.
9
8
8
k q1.q3 9.10 3, 2.10 . 9,6.10

0,03( N ) .
+ ln: F31
2
( AC )2
3.102

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+ Phng: Nm trn ng thng AB.

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+ Chiu: Hng t A n B.

F21

9
8
8
k q1.q2 9.10 3, 2.10 .4,8.10
+ ln: F21

8,64.103 ( N )
2
2

2
( AC)
4.10

Theo d kin bi cho ta d dng nhn thy: BC2 AC2 AB2 . Nn ABC vung ti A.
Do :
+ ln: Fth F31 F21

0,032 8,64.103

+ Phng: hp vi AB mt gc : tan

0,0312( N ) .

F31
0,03

3, 472 73,930 .
3
F21 8,64.10

+ Chiu: Nh hnh v.
Bi 1-7: *( Ch )
Tm tt:

q 1,6.109 C

dF
2
2

Q 3, 2.10 C
r0 8cm 0,08m

Ftd ?

dF1

dl

dF

r0

Hnh 6

Hng dn:
Chia na vng xuyn thnh nhng phn t dl mang in tch dQ.
Ti tm O v tnh cht i xng nn tng cc thnh phn: dF2 0

(1)

Khi hnh chiu ca lc tng hp nn cc trc Ox, Oy l: sin

F1

co s

dF

T (1) v (2) ta c: F1 F

qQ
4 0 r

2
0

M
Hnh 7

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4q

F2

(2)

dF

1,6.10 .3, 2.10


0,7197.103 ( N )
2
12
4 .8,85.10 .1. 0,08

Bi 1-9: B, do bi khng r.
Bi 1-10: ---Cha hc---(B xung sau)
Bi 1-11: Hng dn:
r
q
q

Gi im M trn ng thng ni 2 in tch q v


4q in trng do 2 in tch gy ra trit tiu:

E E1 E2 0
Vy E1 = E2
Trong :
E1 l cng in trng do q gy ra ti
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im M cch 1 khong r.
E2 l cng in trng do 4q gy ra ti im M v cch M 1 khong ( l r ).
Nh vy E1 = E2 .
kq
k.4q
1
4q
1
4q
2
2
2
3r 2 0,3r 0,0225 0
2
2
2
r
r
r
l r
l r
0,15 r

r 0,05m 5cm

r 0,15m (loai)
Vy im M cch in tch 1 khong r = 5 cm.
Bi 1-12: ( Tham kho cch gii trong sch bi tp trang 75)
Bi 1-13: ( Tham kho cch gii trong sch bi tp trang 76)
Bi 1-14:
Tm tt:

2.109 C / m2 .
3.108 C / cm 3.106 C / m
F=?
Hng dn:
Do c cng thc: F = q.E
Khi ta c: q l (2)
Vi:

(1)

l mt in di ca dy.
l l mt n v chiu di ca dy ( Ta ly: l = 1m)

M: E

2 0

(3)

T (1), (2) v (3) suy ra: F q.E

l 3.106.1.2.109

3, 4.104 ( N )
2 0 2.8,85.1012.1

( Vi 1 ly mi trng chn khng)


{ Nhng p n trong sch bi tp l 3,4 (N), mk khng hiu lm ???)
Bi 1-15:
Tm tt:

E 0
rq1q2 l
1. q1q2 cng du
2. q1q2 khc du

q1

q2

l
Hnh 8

l'?
Hng dn:
Theo gi thit th: E 0

Theo hnh v ta thy vct cng in trng ti mt im M bt k l: E E1 E2 .


Vi E1 , E2 ln lt l cc vct cng in trng do q1q2 gy ra.
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Nn: E1 E2 . Vy im M nm trn AA.( Hnh v)
Khi ta c: E1 E2

(1) . iu cho ta:

q
l'
1
l l '
q2

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(2)

1. Xt trng hp 1: q1, q2 cng du th t (1) ta c: 0 l ' 1

l'

l l '

l'

q1
l '. q2 l l ' . q1 l. q1 l '. q1 l '
q2
l. q1
q1 q2

q1 q2 l. q1

2. Xt trng hp 2: q1, q2 khc du th t (1) ta c: l ' l 0

q
l'
1 l '. q2 l l ' . q1 l. q1 l '. q1 l '
l l '
q2

l'

l. q1
q2 q1

q2 q1 l. q1

Bi 1-16:---Cha hc---( B xung sau)


Bi 1-17:--Bi 1-18:
Tm tt:

q1 q2 q3 3, 2.108 C
AB AC a 1m
Fq1 ( A) 0
a) FA = ? EA = ?
b) Q =? V tr?
Hnh 9
(Cn tip....)

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