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Proceedmgs o/the First PacIfiC/Asia Offshore Mechanics Symposium

_
Seoul, Korea, 24-28 June, 1990
CopYrlght 1990 by The InternatIOnal SOCiety o/Offshore and Polar Engineers

OFFSHORE PLATFORMS IN INDONESIA


D. Harsokoesoemo, S S. Brodjonegoro, and P PrawlrowlJoto
Institut Teknologi Bandllllg
Bandllng, INDONESIA

Total Indonesie
Union Oil California (UNOCAL)
Union Texas (South East Asia) Inc.
The first oil companies started to operate on
oil drillings
Indonesian seas in 1970 when offshore
met a success.
Offshore platforms started to be built in 1969.
Planning,design and construction of the first platforms
were carried out by American contractors for American
oil companies.
The platforms
were, hence,
built
according to American Petroleum Institute recommended
practice which continued to be used as design and
construction bases until today.
With the presence of offshore platforms on Indonesian seas, Indonesian engineers started to become
familiar and to have experiences with them. In 1980 an
Indone~ian consultin~ company won
a platform design
tender in an international competition. API recommended
de~jgn standard was used. Until mid 1980, approximately
30 Indonesian designed platforms were in
successful
operation.At about the same time an Indonesian-American
joint venture construction company started to build
offshore platforms on Indonesian facilities. At present
there are a few Indonesian construction companies that
build offshore platforms.
The approximately 330 offshore platforms are well
platforms as well as production, service, quarter and
storage platforms, active as well as several inactive
ones. They are of the fixed type, piled steel jacket,
caisson platforms, as well as 3-pile (tripod), 4-pile,
6-pile to 8-pile platforms, \vith depth from 6 feet to
300 feet.

ABSTRACT
The number of offshore platforms in Indonesia has
been increasing since 1969 when the first offshore
platform was built. At the moment there are a total of
approximately 330 offshore platforms with various types.
Planning,design and construction of the first platforms
were carried out by American contractors, however, at
present there are already a few Indonesian construction
companies that build offshore platforms. Standards and
regulations used for offshore platforms in Indonesia
are according to API RP2A, API RP2L and to the regulation of the Hinister of Mining, Republic of Indonesia.
There are several problems in offshore platform
practice in Indonesia, one of them is the very rapid
tropical marine growth.Care should be taken for offshore
platform leg which has hard marine growth with thickness
of 2 inches. Underwater marine growth surveys and measurements should be conducted during offshore platform
inspections.
KEY .lORDS : Design appraisal, Environmental conditions,
Inspection, Marine growth.
OFFSHORE OILFIELDS IN INDONESIA
The producing offshore oilfields in Indonesia are
located on the Java sea, north of the island of Java,
and the Natuna Sea, the sea between the Malayan peninsula and the island of Kalimantan.
At the moment there are approximately
15 oil
companies operating at both seas with a total of
approximately' 330 offshore platforms :
Amoco Indonesia Petroleum Company
Amoseas Indonesia, Inc.
Atlantic Richfield Indonesia, Inc.
Continental Oil Company of Indonesia (CONOCO)
Esso Exploration & Production
Hudbay Oil (Malaca Strait) Ltd.
Maxus Indonesia Aru Inc.
Offshore Oil NL
Petromer Trend Corporation
Roy M. Huffington, Inc. (Huffco)
Tesoro Indonesian Petroleum
Texas Eastern Bawean Inc.

OFFSHORE STRUCTURE STANDARDS & REGULATIONS


The following documents are used as accepted
practice for the design, fabrication and installation
of offshore oil and gas platforms in Indonesia.
- Republic of Indonesia "Regulation of the ~inister of
tuning No. 05/P/tf/PERTPMB/1977 on the Obligation to
Possess a Certificate of Worthy Construction for
Platforms for Natural Oil and Gas Mining in Offshore
Areas".
- American Petroleum Institute, API RP2A "Recommended
Practice for planning, Designing, and Constructing
77

DESIGN APPRAISAL AND REVIEU

Fixed Offshore Platforms",


- American PetroleUIQ Institute, API RP2L "Recommended
Practice for Planning, Designing, and Constructing
Heliports for Fixed Offshore Platforms",
- Third Party Certif'ication Companies "Scope of tlork for
the Design Appraisal and Inspection of Platforms for
Petroleum and Natural Gas in Offshore Areas under the
Regulation of the Minister of ~ines No.05/P/M/PERTAMB/
1977", by Biro Klasifikasi Indonesia in assiciation
with Det Norske Veritas, P.T. Indospec in association
with American Bureau of Shipping, and P.T. ~aramuda
Jaya in association with Lloyd's Register of Shipping~
~rch 1983.
Construction (AISC)
- American Institute of Steel
"Manual of Steel Construction"

Design Appraisal is, to be composed of two phases:


1. Detailed review of structural design
documents,
reports, drawings and calculations submitted to the
Third party by the Oil Companies, their consultants
and designers.
Third party structural design review is to cover
jackets, decks, piles, flare and personnel bridges.
2. Independent analysis by the Third party of the structural design of jackets,piles,deck legs and columns.
Third party is to perform independent analysis of the
submitted structural designs in order to verify that the
procedures, methodologies, algorithms and assumptions
employed by the structural designers are adequate with
regard to meeting applicable code and the Directorate
General of Oil and Gas of the Mining & Energy Department
requirements and the requirements contained herein
pertaining to :
- Structural in-place strength under design dead, live
and environmental loads.
- Joints fatigue lives,
- Resistance to structural dynamic amplification under
cyclic loads on the basis of assessment of structural
frequencies and expected cyclic loads.
- Resistance to earthquake ground motions.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
Environmental conditions on Java Sea and Natuna Sea
are relatively mild, with Java Sea as the milder of the
two.
The Natuna Sea is out of thyphoon track. Maximum
wave height for the 100 year storm is 38 feet, and the
significant wave (hs) is 19 feet. The most significant
weather occurs in December and January, when waves of
15 feet and winds of 30 knots may persist for 3 to 10
days. The weather can be summarized as a four month
Northeast monsoon and a milder Southwest
monsoon
separated by calm and generally featureless seas.
The design data for one of the platforms in Natuna
Sea was
Storm wave
11.8 meters (38.75 feet)
Period
11.0 second
Surface Current
2.9 knots
Environmental conditions used in the design of one
of the offshore platforms on Java Sea were :
Operating Condition : Storm wind, wave and current
with one year recurrence interval,as follows :
- Wave Height: 17.5 feet
- Wave Period: 7.8 sec
- Tide : 2.0 feet above M.S.L.
- Current @ Surface: 2.8 ft/sec.
Current @Mudline : 0.8 ft/sec.
- Wind : 48 miles per hour

SURVEY DURING FABRICATION AND INSTALLATION


Third party surveyors are to perform surveys during
fabrication of the jackets, decks, piles and bridges
involved in any new offshore complex, for compliance
with design drawings, codes and specifications. Pa~ti
cular attention is to be paid for fabrication of structural members critical to structural integrity of the
platform, but all structural components and appurtenances (e.g. Boat Landing, Mud-mats, Barge Bumpers etc.)
are to be surveyed.
The third party
surveyor is to
be
present
throughout the period of installation of jacket, piles,
decks and bridges as deemed necessary for any offshore
complex or any alteration of modification of existing
structure.
OFFSHORE PLATFOID-I INSPECTION

Storm Condition : Storm wind, wave and current with


100 year recurrence interval, as follows :
- Wave Height: 27.3 feet
- Wave Period: 9.1 sec.
- Tide: 2.5 feet above M.S.L,
- Current @ Surface: 3.8 ft/sec.
- Current @Mudline : 1.0 ft/sec.
- Wind : 80 miles per hour
The earthquake data used in the design of the same
offshore platforms are as follows
the ground accelerations for the
100 years return period: 0.12 g
800 years return period : 0.20 g
Results at each deck levels for the 800
years
return period earthquake are as follows :
100 % X
acceleration
g 2
(in/s )

100 % Y
acceleration
g 2
(in/s )

100 % Z
acceleration
g 2
(in/s )

Cellar deck

0.31
(121)

0.37
(144)

0.50
(196)

Main deck

0.37
(145)

0.44
(172)

0.50
(200)

The technical inspection of offshore platform in


Indonesia is in accordance to the Regulation of the
Minister of Mines and its extension issued in 1977.
There are three categories of inspection i.e. initial
inspection, periodical inspection and special inspection.
If the platform satisfies the requirements of security
and safety to work mentioned in the regulation then a
certificate of structural fitness for platforms
for
petroleum and natural gas in offshore areas will be
issued,
Initial inspection is conducted for new platform
and it consists of the design appraisal, inspection
during platform construction to ensure that the platform
is in accordance with the design and inspection during
installation to check that the platform and its foundation do not sustain any damage which could effect its
strength, life and use.Initial inspection of a platform
under construction or already installed before the
coming into force of the Ministerial Regulation consists
of the design appraisal and physical inspection.
Periodical inspection is regulated as follows :
a, Minor inspection to be carried out not later than 1
year and 3 years after the date of the initial inspection of the date of the last complete inspection,
covering at least the inspection of the parts of the
platform in the splash zone and all the risers.

78

b. Hajor inspection to be carried out not later than 2


years after the date of the last complete inspection,
consisting the above inspection, inspection of
certain platform members beneath the water in order
to determine damage, extent of marine growth,
corrosion, wear and tear, debris logged on the s tructure and inspection of the corrosion prevention system.

7.

c. Complete inspection to' be carried out not later 4


years after the date of' the initial inspection or thedate of the last previous complete inspection,
covering at least the following :
1. A general inspection to appraise the
general
condition of the platform and in the case of
a new platform to establish whether the platform
is in accordance with the design and whether the
work--manship and the erection of the platform is
satisfactory.

8, MPI on welded joint should be carried out on :


- joints which experience high stressess by design
appraisal
- joints with low fatigue life, on which the
fatigue life already exceeded.
Minimum of 2 of those joints should be inspected:

2. Inspection of the sea bed to establish the ammount


of scour.

9. Photograph to be taken on :
- joints which are MPIed
- location of marine growth which the thickness is
exceeded the permitted maximum thickness by
design appraisal
- deteriorated parts

3. Inspection of the platform in the splash zone

4. Inspection of the welded connections to determine


possible cracking
5. Verification of the thickness of the material
the platform members to determine the extent
corrosion.

on
of

10. Survey above water to verify the structural integrity which consists of
- building and equipment layout
- modification inspection
- critical areas

6. Examination of the connections on the platform


members to establish the degree of deterioration,
damage and cracking.

7. Examination of the corrosion

prevention

The scope of the major


following

system

8. Inspection of periodical reports of examination


which have been carried out by the company using
the platform.

9. Special inspection of
which have previously
carried out.

of

the

4. Any debris in contact with the

jacket structure
and extended 20 feet around jacket vicinity should
be reported sketched.

5. All legs shall be surveyed for potential reading


of the corrosion protection system on splash zone
and all nodes from water surface down to mudline
on outside part of each leg.

the

1. Inspection conducted down to -25 feet water depth


minimum.
2. Visual inspection using video
zone down to minimum -25 feet
verify structural integrity.

of

3. The soil erosion around jackets legs, horizontal


bracings and riser elbows at seabed should
be
surveyed, sketched and recorded, extended minimum
20 feet around jacket vicinity and 20 feet off
J-bow risers.

1. The platform has suffered damage


2. Alterations have been carried out on the platform
3. The condition of the platform is in doubt
4. A principal repair or change has been carried out
on the platform
consists

consists

2. Visual inspection using video camera to verify


structural integrity, including anode mapping.

damages to the platform


occured ~nd the repairs

inspection

inspection

1. Inspection conducted down to mudline

d. Special inspection to be carried out if

The scope of the minor


following

of 1 leg should be .inspected for marine


growth measurements for platforms with jacket legs
up to 4 legs, and minimum 2 legs for platforms
with jacket legs more than 4 legs. Measurements
starts from surface down to minimum -25 feet in
every 5 feet increments.If any measurements needed
to be taken below -25 feet, than the measurements
taken in every 15 feet increments starting from
-25 feet. Measurements is taken at 4 positions
around each jacket leg at the reference depth,
including a percentage of hard and soft growth
and average thickness of combined
growth on
compressed circumference.
~Unimum

6. Bolts and clamps of risers should be inspected for


signs of damage from water surface down to mudline.

camera at splash
water depth to

7. Minimum of 1 leg should be inspected for marine


growth measurements for platform Ivith jacket legs
up to 4 legs, and minimum of 2 legs for plarforms
with jacket legs more than 4 legs.
Measurements starts from surface down to minimum
of -25 feet in every 5 feet increments, and below
-25 feet to mudline should be taken in every 15
positions around each jacket leg at the reference
depth, including a percentage of hard and soft
growth and average thickness of combined growth
on compressed circumference.

3. Soil erosion around jacket legs,


horizontal
bracings and riser elbows at seabed should to be
inspected, extended minimum 20 feet around jacket
vicinity and 20 feet off J-bow for risers.
This
inspection is applied for 1st minor inspection
after installation only.

4. Any debris in contact with the

jacket structure
down to -25 feet should be reported and sketched.

5. All platform legs should be surveyed for potential


reading of the corrosion protection
system on
splash zone and the node m1n1mum to -25 feet,
taken at outside part of each leg.

8. riPI on welded joint should be carried out on :


- joints which experience high stress by design
appraisal
- joint with low fatigue life,on which the fatigue
life already exceeded
riinimum of 2 of the most critical joints should be
inspected.

6. Bolts and clamps

of risers should be inspected


for signs of damage down to -25 feet minimum.

79

9. Thickness measurement should be carried out minimum on 1 leg each platform, which are to be taken
on splash zone, leg nodes and in the midle of the
leg between 2 horizontal elevations, and taken at
outside part.
10. Photograph to be taken on :
- joints which are MIPed
- location of marine growth which the thickness
is exceeded the permitted maximum thickness by
design appraisal
- deteriorated parts
11. Survey above water to verify the structural integrity, consisted of
- building and equipment layout
- modification inspection
- critical areas
On complete inspection, at least the scope of Major
inspection should be carried out added by a review of
the completion of the recommendation on the previous
periodical inspection.
In general, the platform inspection schedules and
procedures are in accordance to the ones stated in API
Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms, except for marine
growth ~tlrvey. Survey of marine growth and loading due
to marine growth is not mentioned in the API-Recommended
Practice, h0wever, in Indonesia marine growth is very
rapid and therefore it can cause some additional loading
to .ahe <offshor.e structure.
One of the problem in conducting inspection and
survey of Indonesian Offshore Platform is visibility,
especially around the bottom legs of the structure due
to strong current carrying Eud or particles. In 'some
cases, the visibility approaching zero causing the inspection officer to stop the survey. This mostly happens
for platforms located within 500-600 meters off the
shore. A study is being corducted to overcome this problem.

MARINE GROWT!I
One of the problems in platform practice in Indonesia is the very rapid tropical marine growth on the
platform structures. Currently, the average hard marine
growth rate in Indonesia is approximately 0.18 in. per
year. This number is rather pesimistic since in certain
locations the rate is much higher. The structures will
have to support additional loads due to marine growth
-mass and due to wave impinging on marine growth and
hence on platform structures.
As an illustration, the typical marine growth measurements and ~hotographs can be seen on table I, table
2, figures 1 to 6. The marine growth inspection was
carried out for platform structure located 160 miles NE
of Singapore and 620 miles North of Jakarta in the Natuna
Sea which is shown in figure 7. The measurement
was
taken at four equal intervals around the structure's
leg at the reference depth, including percentage of
hard (mussels, clams, barnacles, etc.) and soft growth
(soft coral, sea grass, algae, etc.) and reading of the
combined growth and circumference.By removing the marine
growth at these positions, the overall depth of soft and
hard marine growth could be established. It can be seen
from the tables that the percentage of hard
marine
growth is mostly greater than that of the soft marine
growth.
The marine growth clean-up period varies depending
on the structures location and some of them apply the
standard practice of minimum biannual clean-up. A study
is being conducted on which alternative is less expensive,
i.e. to have longer period of clean-up but with stronger
structure to support additional loads. At present, the
design lenvironmem.tal conditions for marine growth are
the folloWing :
- From elevation of +2.5" to mudline, thickness is
2 inches
- Density of marine growth : 1400 kg/m 3 in air

Figure 2 : Marine growth photograph of leg B at elevation of -5 feet

Figure 1 : Marine growth photograph of leg A at elevation of -5 feet

80

Figure 3: Marine growth photograph of leg A at elevation


of -150 feet

Figure 4: Marine growth photograph of leg B at elevation


of -150 feet

Figure 5: Marine growth photograph of leg A at elevation


of -300 feet

Figure 6: tmrine growth photograph of leg B at elevation


of -300 feet

81

Table 2

Marine growth survey (leg A)

Table 1

Marine growth survey (leg B)

DEPTH

eIR

h N s

h E s

h S s

h Ws

DEPTH

erR

h N s

h E s

h S s

h Ws

EL-5

11'6"

6"

9"

5"

6"

5"

6"

5"

a"

60%

60%

EL-5

11 '6"

4"

a"

4"

S"

4"

6"

4"

6"

60%

60%

-10

II' 7"

4"

a"

3"

6"

3"

7"

3"

a"

60%

60%

-10

11 '6"

3"

a"

4"

a"

3"

9"

4"

a"

60%

60%

-15

11'4"

4"

9" 2.5

a"

3"

7"

4" 7.5

60%

60%

-IS

10' 11"

3"

4"

4"

6"

4"

6"

3"

S"

60%

60%

10'6"

2"

6 11

2"

6" 2.S

4" 2.S

5"

60%

50%

6" 1.S

5" 1.5

4"

4"

60%

SO%

I" S.5

70%

40%

%HARD XSOFT

10'10"

3"

7"

3"

9"

3"

9"

3" 6.5

60%

60%

-20

-25

10'5"

2"

5"

2"

4"

2"

4"

2"

a"

60X

50%

-2S

10'S" 1.S

-30

10'0"

2"

7"

2"

7" 2.5

a" 2.5

a"

ao%

40%

-30

10'5"

I"

S" 1.S

S" 1.5 6.S

40%

-45

10'8" 1.S

8" 1.5

7" I.S

10'S"

I"

8"

8"

I"

4" 1.S 4.5

-20

-45

10'6"

2"

7"

2"

-60

10'6"

I"

5" 1.5

-7S

9'11"

I"

6"

-90

9'10"

I"

S" 1. S

3"

5"

6" 1. S

4"

70%

60X

-90

10'0"

I" 4.5 1.5

S" 1.S

4"

I"

4"

70%

SO%

9' 9 11

2"

S" 1.S

3"

2"

I"

3"

4"

80%

60%

2"

3" 1.5

2"

I"

2"

3"

8"

70%

70%

5"

2"

4"

70%

SO%

4" 1. S

4"

9'a"

3"

2"

I"

S"

4"

4"
5"

80%

80%

3" .5"

70%

90%

-120

9'6 11

2"

90%

80%

-13S

9'7"

I" 2.S 1.S

3" .5"

-150

9'9 11

2"

2"

3"

2"

2" 3.5

2"

3"

80%

80%

-16S

9'9"

3"

3"

3"

4"

2"

6"

2"

8"

80%

80%

-180

9'8" 1.S

S"

2"

5" .5"

8"

3"

3"

90%

60%

-195

9'8"

I"

6"

3"

4"

I"

S"

2"

I"

90X

80%

-210

9'7"

2"

2"

4"

6"

I" .S"

I"

2" 100%

100%

-22S

9'7" I.S

7"

2"

2"

I"

8"

2"

6"

80%

SO%
80%

4"

4"
3"

80%

80%

4"

5" 1. S

S"

3"

S"

3" 3.5

80%

80%

-lao

9'9"

1.5

S" 1.5

6"

I"

S"

2"

80%

60%

-22S

9'8"

1"

-240

-2S5

9'a"
9'7"

3" 5.5 1.5

4" 2.5 2.5

I" loS 1.5 4.S

2" 3.S

2"

3"

I"
I"

3"

2" 2.5

80%

70%

1" 2.5

2"

90%

ao%

4" 1.5

4"

90%

aoz

3"

I" 1.5

I" 2.S

I" 2.5

90%
90%

ao%
80%

I" .7S .75 .75 .5"

ao%

60%

1" .5" .5 11 .5 11 .5" .25 .S" .S"

SO%

SO%

-270

9'7" 1.5

-28S

9'6"

I"

I"

I"

2"

I"

9' 10"

2" 4.5 1.5 4.5

I"

-lOS

-16S

2" 3.5

40%

10'2 U

-13S

9'9"

80%

-75

3" .5"

-210

6"

40%

3"

6"

4" 1.5

40%

80%

1" 2.S loS

1"

40%

80%

9'7"

9'9"

40%

SO%

a"

-120

-195

70%

8"

6"

2"

3"

6"

I"

I"

3"

4"

I"

I" 7.5

I"

4"

3"

5"

ao%

2"

3"

9' 10"

4"

5" 1.5 7.5


S"

'9'9"

6" 1. S

I"

6"

-60

-105

-ISO

4"

2"

5"

2"

%HARD %SOFT

-240

9'9"

I"

I"

I"

8" 1. S

2"

I" 1. S

90%

-25S

9'8"

2"

6" 1.5

3" 2.S

I"

I"

4"

90%

70%

-270

9'9"

I" .S"

I" .5 " 1.S 1.5

70%

30%

-28S

9'5" .5" .25 .75 .25 .7S .25 .25 .25

60%

40%

1" .5(1

OTHER PROBLEMS
Another problem is the sea floor scouring that
causes hundreds of feet of pipe left hanging.At present,
consolidated sand to replace the eroded sea bed seems
to be the only solution on hand. Scouring also causes
risers to need protection in the form of the burial
of their bases beneath the scour zone.
Parts of offshore platform leg that face corrosion
problem are mostly located in the splash zone. It has
been observed that the average corrosion rate in the
splash zone is approximately 1 mm per year.
The decks of no longer producing well platform are
usually dismantled and reconstructured on new platforms,
leaving the jackets on their old places. Also during the
1986 oil slump, many of the jackets were left unused.
For safety purposes, these non-functioning jackets must
be provided with navigation lights or must be partially
cut such that its highest point is 30 to 50 feet beneath
the sea level.
CONCLUSIONS
It has been shown that offshore platforms in Indonesia were designed and constructed according to API
recommended practice for planning, design and construction. The API based designed and constructed platforms

Figure 7: Location of the offshore platform at which the


marine growth surveys were conducted

82

be a bit overdesigned, apparently due to platform


design loads that were selected on the bases of wind,
tide, current, wave and earthquake non encountered in
Indonesia seas where the oil sources are, Environmental
conditions in Indonesia can be considered to be relatively mild,
Despite the relatively mild environmental conditions, there are some serious problems to be taken care
such as rapid marine growth, visibility and scouring,

REFERENCES

may

API-Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing and


Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms, 17th edition
Republic of Indonesia "1U!gulation of the Minister of
Mining No, 5/P/M/PERTANB/1977 on the Obligation to
Possess a Certificate of Worthy Construction for
Platforms for Natural Oil and Gas ~ining in Offshore
Areas"
Scope of Tork for the Design Appraisal and Inspection
of Platforms for ~etroleum and Natural Gas in Offshore
Areas under the Regulation of the Minister of Mining
of 05/P/H/PERTAMB/ 1977. March 1983

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors gratefully acknowledge the permission
of the Directorate General for Oil and Natural Gas to
publish this paper and for their support and contributions, Contributions made by other colleagues to make
this paper possible are gratefully appreciated,

Carl, A,C" Satar S" and Liles, S,P" "Kepiting Field


Production/Storage Barge - Its Design, Installation
and Operating Experiences", 7th Offshore South East
Asia Conference, Singapore, February 2 - 5, 1988

83