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International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)

Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org


Volume 4, Issue 3, May-June 2015
ISSN 2278-6856

Effect of Time on Anodized Al2O3 Nanopore


FESEM Images using Digital Image Processing
Techniques: A Study on Computational
Chemistry
1.

Parashuram Bannigidad , C. C. Vidyasagar2

Department of Computer science, Rani Channamma University, Belgaum 591156, India


2

Department of Chemistry, Rani Channamma University, Belgaum 591156, India

Abstract
The scientific interest has been focused not only on the
fabrication of various nano structured materials but also on
their
industrial
and
technological
applications.
Manufacturing of well-ordered nanostructures on the length
scales less than dozens nm by conventional optical lithography
is a great challenge. Automated microscopic image analysis
provides an efficient tool for qualitative analysis in modern
material science and biological studies. The main objective of
the present study is to develop an automatic tool to determine
the effect of time on nanopore structures formed via
electrochemical anodization of high purity Al2O3 films in
digital microscopic FE-SEM and EDX nano pore images.
Geometric shape features are used to measure the variance of
nano pore size depending on the chemical compounds,
namely, concentration (%), time (min), temperature ( oC) and
voltage (V). The current methods rely on the subjective
reading of profiles by a human expert based on the various
manual staining methods. In this paper, an automated method
is proposed for the effect of time on nanopore structures
formed via electrochemical anodization of high purity Al2O3
films in digital microscopic nano pore images and extracting
geometric shape features for the growth of Al2O3 films. It is
observed that the regularity of nanopores arrangement can be
significantly improved by increasing anodizing time at
constant temperature and voltage, and after the anodizing
process, at every interval of time there is a significant
decrease in wall thickness from 58-26nm and increase in the
nanopore diameter size about 31-86 nm. The experimental
results are compared with the manual results obtained by the
chemical expert and demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed
method.

Keywords: Anodizaion, computational chemistry,


nanopore image analysis, image segmentation, nanopores

1. INTRODUCTION
The nanopore sensor, made by drilling a tiny hole
through a thin film of aluminium oxide, could ultimately
prove capable of performing DNA analysis with a single
molecule,
offering tremendous possibilities for
personalized medicine and advanced diagnostics. Solidstate nanopore sensors have shown superior chemical,
thermal and mechanical stability over their biological
counterparts, and can be fabricated using conventional
semiconductor processes. Nanostructures represent the

Volume 4, Issue 3, May June 2015

transition from atom to solid. It is essential to obtain


particles or pores with uniform diameters and shapes and,
for the purpose of particular applications, to arrange and
embed them in a superstructure. The various applications
of nano structures or pores are; size quantization effects,
high number of surface atoms, and special surface states,
special optical, electronic, magnetic and chemical
properties. Some of the biomedical applications are
decontamination and antibacterial agents, slow release
drugs, filter in hemodialysis, enzyme mimetics and
biosensors and adjuvant in anticancer therapy.
In the past decade, the nano pore structures have been
extensively investigated as the building blocks for various
technological
applications
such
as
electronics,
optoelectronics [1, 2] and sensors [3]. Recently, as an
emerging field, NWs have been utilized for energy
harvesting devices, for instance, to convert thermal [4],
mechanical [5], and solar energy into electricity [6]. On
the other hand, the NPL axial and radial junctions provide
a three dimensional (3-D) geometric configuration for
reduced surface optical reflection and enhanced
absorption. The enhanced carrier collection and optical
absorption can in principle enable more efficient PVs as
compared to planar structures. However, the surface and
the interface area enhancement also result in an increase
in surface/interface recombination events. The ordering of
the NPL arrays may be used as light trapping schemes
analogous to random surface texturization or periodic
grating couplers in thin films [7]. A porous anodization
of aluminium oxide (AAO) template is fabricated for
subsequent NPL growth at the bottom of each pore. The
AAO template is etched back, exposing the pillars, and
the semiconductor absorber layer is then deposited. This
process enables the fabrication of an NPL cell on a lowcost Al metal foil. When anodized in an acidic
environment with proper process conditions, aluminum
oxidizes to form a pores alumina layer consisting of
hexagonally packed arrays of nanopores [9], the pores are
normal to the aluminum surface and extend from the
surface to the alumina/aluminum interface where there is
an oxide barrier layer with near hemispherical geometry.
The shape and size of the pores are relatively uniform,
with the pitch and diameter being directly proportional to
the anodization voltage, and the height controlled by the
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International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)


Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org
Volume 4, Issue 3, May-June 2015
ISSN 2278-6856
anodization time. Anodized aluminumoxide (AAO) has
proven to be a highly versatile material system that has
found important applications in photonics, energy devices
including supercapacitors, filtration and purification and
architectural and anticorrosive finishes [10-12].
Furthermore, given the uniformity of size-controlled
nanopores, AAO has been widely utilized as a template
for ordered synthesis of nanostructured materials,
including metallic and semiconductor nanorods [13-14]
nanowires [15-17] nanotubes [18] and nanoparticles [19]
Importantly, aluminium anodization, in principle, is a
highly scalable process as long as a stable voltage and
current density are applied with a constant electrolyte
temperature anodization time and composition. The
protection or decoration of Al surfaces by anodization has
been used commercially since 1923.
Self-organized nanopore structures in anodic alumina
films, called alumite, have attracted great attention due
to their high pore density and their potential use for
masking or information storage. When the pores are filled
with metals or semiconductors in a subsequent
alternating-current reductive electrolysis, these films can
be fabricated into interesting magnetic recording,
electronic, and electro optical devices [18-20]. By
considering these constraints, here demonstrated
continuous change in pore diameter, wall thickness and
inter pore distance as anodization time increases. A
synthetic diagram of nano pore development and sample
Al2O3 film nano pore images are shown in the Fig. 1.
When you submit your paper print it in two-column
format, including figures and tables. In addition, designate
one author as the corresponding author. This is the
author to whom proofs of the paper will be sent. Proofs are
sent to the corresponding author only.

Fig.1 Synthetic diagram of nano pore development and a


sample nano pore structure images
The microscopic image analysis of nanoparticles by
edge detection using ant colony optimization has been
investigated by Shwetabh Singh [21]. The estimation of
nanopores size distributions by image analysis using
deformable ellipse model was carried out by Fishker et. al.
[22-23]. The Advanced morphological analysis of patterns
of thin anodic porous alumina was investigated using
geometrical features by Toccafondi et. al.[24]. Fast
Fourier transform based arrangement analysis of poorly
organized alumina nanopores formed via self-organized
anodization in chromic acid has been investigated by
Wojciech
et. al.[25]. A Study of voltage, acid
concentration, and temperature on nanopore structures has
been proposed by Virk and Rajvinder [26]. Computer
analysis of the AFM images of the nano pore system on

Volume 4, Issue 3, May June 2015

the SiO2/Si structure surface obtained by Zn Ion


implantation is proposed by Sokolova et. al. [27]. The
automated Gram-staining characterisation of bacterial
cells using colour and cell wall properties by extracting
geometric features has been carried out by Hiremath et. al.
[28]. Automated identification and classification of white
blood cells (leukocytes) in digital microscopic images
using colour and geometric features of the bacterial cells
by Hiremath et. al. [29].
In this paper, the anodic oxide formed on pure Al TLC
film without any pre-anneal is investigated and the effects
of anodizing time, concentration and temperature on the
structural properties of the oxide films are examined in
detail through digital image analysis. Automated
microscopic image analysis provides an efficient tool for
qualitative analysis in modern material science and
biological studies. The main advantages of using digital
image processing and pattern recognition techniques in
conjunction with microscopy for quantitative studies of
anodizing alumina; automatic image analysis reduces the
amount of tedious work with microscopes needed to
perform a more accurate quantitative analysis and these
techniques provide an important quantitative tool to
analyze the structures and spatial features of Al2O3 films.

2. MATERIALS AND METHODS


TLC Silica Gel 60 F254 plates were procured from
Merck. Orthophosphoric acid was procured from s-d fine
Chem. Ltd. Mumbai. Double distilled water was used
throughout the experiments. DC power supply sourcemeasure unit was used as the power supply to measure
voltage or current simultaneously (Aplab: L6405).
MATLAB version 7.9.0.529 (R2009) software, which was
installed on PC (hp: G42, 2012) used for image analysis.
TLC plates were cut into proper size of 2x4 cm (0.5 mm
thickness) of the following chemical composition (wt%) :
Al 99. 79% (Aluminium), Cu 0.05% (Cupper), Mg 0.05%
(Magnesium), Si 0.05% (Silicon), Mn 0.05%
(Manganese) and Zn 0.01% (Zinc). Coated silica was
removed by rubbing the surface using emery sheet grit
600. The Al plates were washed with distilled water,
rinsed with ethanol, degreased with acetone in ultrasonic
bath for 15 min. Finally the Al plates were purged by
distilled water in ultrasonic bath for another 10 min.
Before anodizing, the electrochemical polishing of
samples was carried out in a 0.75 M NaOH solution. Al
plates were immersed in NaOH solution for 4 min to
remove alkaline impurities. The samples were rinsed with
distilled water and acetone. Later onwards Al plates were
rinsed thoroughly and kept undisturbed in distilled water
for 10 min. Anodization was performed in a conventional
cell using a platinum helical wire as a cathode. Al was
used as the counter-electrode, and typically about
90% of the Al was immersed in the electrolyte while
the exposed one was connected to the anode through
a crocodile clips. The electrical contact was made at the
edge of the electrodes. Pt electrode served as the cathode
Page 16

International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)


Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org
Volume 4, Issue 3, May-June 2015
ISSN 2278-6856
electrode and the distance from the anode electrode was 3
cm. The samples were anodized in an acidic aqueous
solution at different time interval at constant
concentration and voltage. Ice cold water was used to
maintain low temperatures using thermometer. During
anodization the electrolyte was kept undisturbed, and the
values of voltage, current, time and temperature were
recorded. After the anodization process, the samples were
rinsed thrice in deionized water and acetone and dried at
90 C for 1 hour in an oven and was wrapped in
aluminium foil. The variation in the time could be
attributed to change in the pore size and wall thickness of
the anodized Al2O3 thin films.

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

(E)

(F)

3.PROPOSED METHOD
The main aim of the present study is to develop an
automatic tool to determine the effect of time on nanopore
structures formed via electrochemical anodization of high
purity Al2O3 films in digital microscopic (Field Emission
Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM) and Energy
Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX)) nano pore images.
Geometric shape features are used to identify the different
characteristics of nano pore structures, namely,
concentration (%), time (min), temperature (oC) and
voltage (V). The current methods rely on the subjective
reading of profiles by a human expert based on the various
manual staining methods. In this paper, an automated
method is proposed for the effect of time on nanopore
structures formed via electrochemical anodization of high
purity Al2O3 films in digital microscopic nano pore
images and extracting geometric shape features ofAl2O3
films. The EDAX spectra of pure samples as prepared
Al2O3 films is shown in the Fig. 2. The FE-SEM images
of the top view of anodized Al2O3 films at different time
intervals (A) 5 min, (B) 9 min, (C) 20 min and (D) 30
min (E) Change in concentration (4%) at constant
temperature, voltage at 20min and (F) change in
temperature (25oC) at constant concentration, time and
voltage is shown in the Fig. 3.

Fig. 2. EDAX spectra pure samples prepared Al2O3 films.

Volume 4, Issue 3, May June 2015

Fig. 3 FE-SEM images of the top view of anodized Al2O3


films at different time intervals (A) 5 min, (B) 9 min, (C)
20 min and (D) 30 min (E) Change in concentration (4%)
at constant temperature, voltage at 20min and (F) change
in temperature (25oC) at constant concentration, time and
voltage.
3.1 Image Analysis
The aim of the present study is to develop an automated
method to determine the average growth size of the
nanopore Al2O3 films, based on their geometric and
statistical shape features. Many geometric and statistical
features have been used by various authors in the literature
[20-22, 30, 31]. It is observed that there are five geometric
features, namely, length, width, area, box area ratio
(BAR) and perimeter, which provide better results. Hence,
we have used these five features, which are defined as
given below:
Length: The longer side of smallest circumscribed
rectangle.
Width: The shorter side of smallest circumscribed
rectangle
Area : The number of pixels belonging to the object
provides a measure of the object size.
Box Area Ratio (BAR): Length*Width/Area The area
of the smallest rectangle that can be drawn around an
object, divided by the area of the object.
Perimeter: The grain boundaries of the pores.
The algorithm for segmentation and feature extraction of
nanopore regions in FE-SEM images is given below:
Algorithm: Segmentation and feature extraction of
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International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)


Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org
Volume 4, Issue 3, May-June 2015
ISSN 2278-6856
nanopore regions.
Step 1: Input nanopores image (anodized TLC plate)
Step 2: Perform pre-processing method by using
morphological operations, namely, erosion,
reconstruction and dilation.
Step3: Segment the input image using global thresholding
(i.e. 0 for background and 1 for objects) to obtain nano
pore regions.
Step4: Remove border touching nano cells and then
perform labeling the segmented image, where each
segment is known to be a nano cell region.
Step5: For each labeled segment, compute geometric
shape features, namely, length, width, area, box area ratio
(BAR) and perimeter.
Step6: Repeat the Steps 1 to 5 for all nanopores of FESEM images of the top view of anodized Al2O3 films at
different time intervals (A) 5, (B) 9, (C) 20 and (D) 30
min (E) change in concentration (4%) at constant
temperature, voltage at 20 min and (F) change in
temperature (25oC) at constant concentration, time and
voltage.
Step7: Calculate the statistical features, Mean (average),
Minimum and Maximum values of nanopore regions on
Step 6.
Step8: Determine the average nano pore diameter and its
thickness based on the geometric feature values computed
on Step 7 and analyse the nano pore size on various data
sets collected from
different combination of
concentration(%), time(min), temperature (oC) and
voltage (V).

The determination of nano pore diameter size (area and


perimeter) and thickness of the various data sets are
extracted. In the above nano pore image data set from AD, it is observed that, the extracted geometric feature
values of length, width, area and perimeter are in
increasing order, and its diameter is also increased, i.e.
32, 54, 58 and 81nm with constant concentration(%),
temperature (oC) and voltage (V) and by varying time
(min), i.e. 5, 9, 20 and 30, respectively. The wall
thickness around the nano pore is also decreased as its
size of the diameter (area) is increased, i.e. 58, 56, 48, 26
nm, respectively, which proves the effect of time (min) in
Al2O3 films, is depicted in the Table 1. Whereas, in the E
and F image data set; is observed that, the nano pore
diameter size and wall thickness both were increased
under constant in voltage (V) and time (min) and
varying in concentration(%) and temperature (oC), i.e.,
4,5; 20,25 and the values are 52;58, 58;81, pore size and
thickness, respectively.
Fig. 6 shows with increasing anodizing time an
increasing porosity and diameter at the surface of the
(anodizing aluminium oxide) AAO was plotted. This
inclining evolution became more pronounced for the
increasing time, leading to an increase in porosity. The
type of electrolyte, time and temperature of the electrolyte
solution can affect the pore size and pore distribution of
anodic alumina. The effect of anodizing time and image
analyzed pore diameter with respect to area is shown in
the Fig. 7

5. CONCLUSIONS
4. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
The implementation is done on a Pentium Core 2 Duo
@ 2.83 GHz machine using MATLAB R2009b. Each
input FE-SEM nanopore image (Fig. 4(i)) is converted
into gray scale image (Fig. 4(ii)) and the morphological
operations such as erosion, reconstruction and dilation are
applied. The resulting image is thresholded to obtain
segmented binary image (Fig. 4(iii)) and obtained the
perimeter of the nanopore particles are shown in Fig.
4(iv). The segmented image is labelled and for each
segmented region (known nano pores), the geometric and
statistical features are computed. The Table 2 presents the
minimum and maximum geometric feature values
computed for the segmented nanopore regions at different
combination of concentration (%)-time (min)-temperature
(oC)-voltage (V). The nano pore images captured at
different combination of concentration(%), time(min),
temperature (oC) and voltage (V) are considered for the
measurement of nano pore diameter are:

Volume 4, Issue 3, May June 2015

Porous alumina films were successfully fabricated at


ambient temperature. At different time intervals, Al2O3
films were found to produce nanopores that are well
ordered; the FE-SEM results show the effect of time on
nanopores Al2O3 films. As increase in anodizing time
significantly the rate of chemical dissolution and pore
formation proceed rapidly. The pore diameters were found
to be dependent on the time. As increasing anodizing time
results in increase in pore diameter, decrease in wall
thickness of pure Al2O3 films. Domain structures form in
circularly ordered anodic alumina films; the average
domain sizes are a linear function of time. The domains
form by pores moving and/or merging, but the mobility of
ions within the barrier oxide and of Al atoms within the
metal may explain why pores can rearrange dynamically
and why linear domain growth with time is possible. In
this paper, an automated method is proposed for the effect
of time on nanopore structures formed via electrochemical
anodization of high purity Al2O3 films in digital
microscopic nano pore images and extracting geometric
shape features for the growth of Al2O3 films. It is observed
that the regularity of nanopores arrangement can be
significantly improved by increasing anodizing time at
constant temperature and voltage, and after the anodizing
process, at every
found to be dependent on the time. As increasing
anodizing time results in increase in pore diameter,
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International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)


Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org
Volume 4, Issue 3, May-June 2015
ISSN 2278-6856
decrease in wall thickness of pure Al2O3 films. Domain
structures form in circularly ordered anodic alumina
films; the average domain sizes are a linear function of
time. The domains form by pores moving and/or merging,
but the mobility of ions within the barrier oxide and of Al
atoms within the metal may explain why pores can
rearrange

Fig. 4

(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(i) Original FE-SEM images at different times A-D, (ii) Grayscale image , (iii) Segmented image on (ii), (iv)
Perimeter image on (iii)

(i)
Fig. 5

interval of time there is a significant decrease in wall


thickness from 58-26nm and increase in the nanopore
diameter size about 31-86 nm. The experimental results
are compared with the automated computational results
obtained by chemical expert. There is still a huge space in
the research of nano-porous materials, which will be
considered in the future work. These results explore the
collaborative research for applied science.

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(i) Original FE-SEM images at different times E-F, (ii) grayscale image , (iii) segmented image on (ii), (iv)
perimeter image on (iii)

Volume 4, Issue 3, May June 2015

Page 19

International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)


Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org
Volume 4, Issue 3, May-June 2015
ISSN 2278-6856
Table 1. Content of the pore diameter wall thickness and depth of the pores of all the samples anodized at constant
concentration, temperature and voltage.
Sl.
No.

Concentration
H3PO4 v/v%

Time
min

Temperature
o
C

Voltage
V

A
B
C
D
E
F

5
5
5
5
4
5

5
9
20
30
20
20

20
20
20
20
20
25

50
50
50
50
50
50

Wall
Thickness
nm
58
56
48
26
52
58

Average
Pore Sizes
nm
32
54
58
81
55
83

Table 2 Geometric feature values of nanopores of Al2O3 films at different times of concentration (%), time (min),
temperature (oC) and voltage (V)
Geometric feature values of nano pore of Nanopores Al2O3 film images
o
Samples % T
C V
Length
Width
Area
Box area ratio
Perimeter
(x-size)
(y-size)
Min
Max Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min Max
A
B
C
D
E
F

5
5
5
5
4
5

5
9
20
30
20
20

20
20
20
20
20
25

50
50
50
50
50
50

16
17
30
36
19
23

52
63
86
117
65
65

17
18
27
40
18
16

46
69
132
118
73
52

237
338
558
889
264
296

1033
1496
4153
6141
2731
1800

1.2827
1.2500
1.2361
1.2276
1.2734
1.2247

2.3368
2.6362
2.0952
1.7229
1.9012
1.8595

67
100
140
227
82
74

194
430
541
542
461
270

Table 3 Average nano pore size Al2O3 film images of Fig. 3


Geometric feature values of nano pore Al2O3 film images of Fig. 3
V
Length
Width
Box area ratio
Area
Perimeter
(x-size)
(y-size)

Average
nano
pore
size
A
5
5
20
50
28.91
25.65
1.6385
450.57
114.1707
32
B
5
9
20
50
31.31
31.62
1.6957
590.01
143.2135
54
C
5
20
20
50
52
54.91
1.5087
1957.67
231.2353
58
D
5
30
20
50
71.29
68.41
1.4360
3467.04
301.9583
81
Geometric feature values of nano pore Al2O3 film images of Fig. 4 with change in concentration (%) and temperature
(T) at constant time and voltage (V)
E
4
20
20
50
32.2469
35.086
1.4519
807.01
142.5062
55
F
5
20
25
50
37.7767
33.437
1.4118
907.13
144.4196
83

Sampl
es

To

85

Wall thickness
Nanopore diameter

75
70
65

Size nm

60
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
5

10

15

Time

20

25

30

Anodized Time/ Image Analyzed Pore Diameter

80

80

Image analyzed area with diameter by X length


Image analyzed area with diameter by Y width
Image analyzed area v/s Anodized time

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

Area of the pores nm

Fig. 6 Shows the effect of anodizing time on pore


diameter and wall thickness of the Al2O3 films of Fig. 3

Volume 4, Issue 3, May June 2015

Fig. 7. Shows the effect of anodizing time and image


analyzed pore diameter with respect to area.
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International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)


Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org
Volume 4, Issue 3, May-June 2015
ISSN 2278-6856
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors are grateful to the Indian Institute of
Science (IISc), Bangalore for providing FE-SEM images
and manual results of the nano pore images by visual
inspection. This research work is financially supported
by Vision Group on Science and Technology, Department
of Information Technology, Biotechnology and Science
and Technology, Govt. of Karnataka, Bangalore, India.

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International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)


Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org
Volume 4, Issue 3, May-June 2015
ISSN 2278-6856
Bulletin of Russian Academy of Science, Physics,
2014, Vol. 78, No. 9, pp.859-863.
[28] P.S. Hiremath, P. Bannigidad Automated Gramstaining characterisation of bacterial cells using
colour and cell wall properties, International Journal
of Biomedical Engineering and Technology 7 (3),
2011, pp. 257-265.
[29] P.S. Hiremath, P. Bannigidad and Sai Geetha,
Automated identification and classification of white
blood cells (leukocytes) in digital microscopic
images, IJCA Special Issue on Recent Trends in
Image Processing and Pattern Recognition RTIPPR,
2010, pp.59-63.
[30] Hiremath P.S. and Parashuram Bannigidad (2010)
Automated identification and Classification of Bacilli
Bacterial Cell Growth Phases, IJCA Special Issue on
Recent Trends in Image Processing and Pattern
Recognition (RTIPPR-2010), Vol. 1(2), pp.48-52.
[31] Hiremath P. S. and Parashuram Bannigidad,
Automated Gram-staining Characterization of
Digital Bacterial Cell Images, Proc. IEEE Intl.
Conf. on Signal and Image Processing (ICSIP-2009),
pp.209-211 (2009).
AUTHOR
Dr.
Parashuram
Bannigidad,
Assistant Professor, Department of
Computer Science, Rani Channamma
University, Belagavi, Karnataka, India.
He has obtained M.Sc. (Information
Technology) Degree in 2003, M.Phil. (Computer Science)
Degree in 2006 and Ph.D. Degree in 2012. He has started
his teaching career since 2007. His research areas of
interest are Image Processing, Biomedical and Pattern
Recognition. He has published 30 research papers in peer
reviewed International Journals and Proceedings of
Conferences. He has been awarded Young Scientist
from Vision Group on Science and Technology, Dept. of
Information Technology, Biotechnology and Dept. of
Science & Technology, Government of Karnataka.
Dr. Vidyasagar C. C. Assistant
Professor, Dept. of Chemistry, Rani
Channamma University, Belgaum. He
has obtained Post-Doctoral Felloship
(PDF) from Indian Institute of Science
(IISc), Bangalore and Ph. D. in Physical Chemistry. He
was awarded JRF and SRF from UGC, New Delhi. His
research work has been identified in industry news
provided by news edge in Ametek (U.S.A). He has
published 15 articles in reputed international journals.

Volume 4, Issue 3, May June 2015

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