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ConstructionofaModelPrototypeDayTankFurnacefortheProductionofGlassBeads

MathewG.O.andShadoA.S
DepartmentofGlassandCeramicsTechnology,FederalPolytechnicAdoEkiti,EkitiState,
Nigeria.
Email:olufunkegrace2012@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
Thisresearchisfocusedatthefabricationofasmalldaytankfurnaceusinglocallysourcedmaterialstopromoteandencouragemelting
ofwasteglassfortheproductionofglassbeads.Theconstructionphilosophyistoeliminatetheuseofglassbatchformulationand
replacewithculletduetolessenergyconsumption.Designdrawingswereproducedandstructuralsteelframeworkwasusedforthe
fabricationsupportofthefurnace,whiletheothercomponentsneededforthedesignwereselectedbasedonfunctionality,durability,cost
andlocalavailability.Experimentaltestshavebeenperformedtoevaluatetheperformanceofthefurnace.Itwasobservedthatthe
furnacehasafastheatingratenearly30C/minandlessgasconsumptionratetoattaintemperatureintheburningzoneandcouldbeas
highas1100Cintheburningchamberand900Cintheinnerpot.
Keywords:Fabrication,Bead,Refractory,Efficiency,Furnace

1. Introduction

Combustion products flowing with high speed inside the


furnaceensureanoptimalheattransferintotheglassmelt.The
capacity ofthe burners can be regulated. The givenheating
enables an ideal combustion both from economical and
ecologicalpointsofview.Combustionproductsareexhausted
intoachimneythroughaholethatservesasaheatgenerator
for the annealing compartment on the tank furnace. The
furnaceisequippedwithoneworkinghole.
FurnaceEfficiency
Theefficiencyofafurnaceistheratioofitsusefuloutputto
heatinput.Thefurnaceefficiencycanbedeterminedbyboth
directandindirectmethod[2].Furnaceefficiencymeasuresthe
amount of heat produced compared to the amount of fuel
burned.Thepercentageoffuelthatafurnaceturnsintoactual
heatiscalledAnnualFuelUtilizationEfficiency(AFUE).
CharacteristicsofanEfficientFurnace
FurnaceClassification:
Furnaceshouldbedesignedsothatinagiventime,asmuchof
materialaspossiblecanbeheatedtoauniformtemperatureas
possiblewiththeleastpossiblefuelandlabour.Toachievethis
end,thefollowingparameterswerebeingconsidered.
Determinationofthequantityofheattobeimpartedtothe
materialorcharge.
Liberationofsufficientheatwithinthefurnacetoheatthe
stockandovercomeallheatlosses.
Transferofavailablepartofthatheatfromthefurnacegases
tothesurfaceoftheheatingstock.
Equalizationofthetemperaturewithinthestock.
Reductionofheatlossesfromthefurnacetotheminimum
possibleextent.

Afurnaceisessentiallyathermalenclosureandis
employedtoprocessrawmaterialsathightemperaturesbothin
solidstateandliquidstate.
Severalindustrieslikeironandsteelmaking,nonferrous
metalsproduction,glassmaking,manufacturing,ceramic
processing,calcinationsincementproductionetc.
employsfurnaces.
Theprincipleobjectivesareto;
a)
To eliminate the use of glass batch formulation and
replacewithculletduetolessenergyconsumption.
b)
Utilizationofheatefficientlysothatlossesareminimum,
and
c)
Handlingthedifferent phases(solid,liquidorgaseous)
moving at different velocities for different times and
temperaturessuchthaterosionandcorrosionoftherefractory
areminimal.
Furnacesarearefractorylinedvesselthatcontainsthematerial
tobemeltedandprovidetheenergytomeltit[8]. Heating
furnacesareusuallyclassifiedaccordingto(1)thepurposefor
whichthematerialisheated, (2) thenatureofthetransferof
heattothematerial,(3)themethodoffiringthefurnace,or(4)
themethodofhandlingmaterialthroughthefurnace[9].
Daytankfurnacesaredesignedformeltingvarioustypesof
glasses. Better quality glass and lower consumption are
achievedbymeltingcullet.Thetankisbuiltupofcast,high
quality bricks, thoroughly insulated. The whole lining is
tightened with a steel structured frame, which allows
compensatingmasonrydilatationduringtheheatingupofthe
furnace.Theheatingsystemisbasedonapplicationofajet
mixer,whichallowsthepremixingofgas/airmixtureat the
required ratio and subsequent combustion of the mixture. DirectMethodofmeasuringfurnaceefficiency.

Theefficiencyofthefurnacecanbecomputedbymeasuring groovedeasily.Theburningzoneswithinthetankwallswere
the amount of fuel consumed per unit weight of material insulatedwithrefractorybrickspartedbyabagwall.
producedfromthefurnace.
Annealingcompartment:
A steelplatewasselectedforthefabricationofthefurnace
Q
Thequantityofheattobeimparted(
)tothestockcanbe
annealingcasingbecauseofitslightweight,goodstrength,
foundfromtheformula
good corrosion resistant, excellent formability, weldability,

availability,andlowcostofpurchase.
Q=m . p x t2t1)
Allthecomponentsofthefurnaceincludethefollowing:
theannealingcompartment,themeltingchamber,theburner
port, and door cover. The design was made taking into
Where:
considerationthesizecruciblethatwasutilized.
Q =QuantityofheatinkCal
FabricationProcedureofFurnaceComponents
AnnealingCompartment:
m =Weightofthematerialinkg
Cuttingcuttingthesteelsheetof3mmthickness
p =Meanspecificheat,kCal/kgC
by using a guillotine from the Glass pilot plant,
FederalPolytechnicAdoEkiti.
t2=Finaltemperaturedesired,C
WeldingThecutplateweldedbymanualmetal
t1 = Initial temperature of the charge before it enters the
arcwelding.
furnace,C[4,7].
Bricklaying:
IndirectMethodofmeasuringfurnaceefficiency
Thebrickswerebeddedwithmortartocause
The furnace efficiency was determined through the indirect
method, similar to the evaluation of boiler efficiency. The
thebrickstoadheretooneanother,distribute
principleissimple:theheatlossesaresubtractedfromtheheat
pressure uniformly over the structure and to
suppliedtothefurnace.[4,2].
make the wall watertight. The mortar was
placedinbetweenthebrickstoformhorizontal
MaterialsandMethods
andverticaljointsof0.3cmto1.3cmthick.
Thematerialsusedforthefabricationandconstructionofaday
Drilling:
tank furnace are: insulating type refractory bricks, burner,

The roof was made by drilling holesof 5cm


ceramiccement,angleiron,andironrod.
diameter through each selected refractory
bricksthatwasboltedtogetherandsuspended
Table1:DesignParametersandSpecifications
to form furnace roof top, which eventually
Items
Specifications
served as the basement of annealing
Heightofsuper
137cm
Structure
compartment(furnacecover).
Thicknessof
11.5cm
DescriptionofMaterials
Superstructure
Ceramiccementmixedwithwaterintheratio
3
3
3
SizeofAngleiron
83cm 62cm 15cm
4:1byvolumepercent.Thethoroughlyblend
Annealingcasing
91cm71cm15cm
mixturewasusedasmortar.
Compartment
Sodiumsilicate+Kaolinpowderweremixed
Flueductsize
7.5cm5cm
Bricksize
24.5cm12cm6.5cm
thoroughlyintheratio2:1byvolumepercent
Mortarthickness
0.3cm1.3cm
towashthefirebox.
Doorsize
23cm16.5cm
Burnermadefrom castironisplacedinthe
Heightofbagwall
24.5cm
burnerportatahorizontalplanesuchthatthe
Burnerportsize
14cm11cm
flame is directed at the bag wall which will
Makeofannealing
Ironsteelplate
radiatetothepotorcrucibleatsomedistance
compartment
awayfromit.
Heightoftank
82cm
Thefurnaceburnerisfiredwithnaturalgas.
Insulation: insulatedfirebrickswereusedfortheglory
FurnaceFirstHeatUpafterDrying
holeandtheannealerontop.Itwascutwithhandsawand

Dryingandsetting:
Theassembleddaytankfurnacewasallowedtodryandset
foroneweekandanycracksfromjointsandwallobserved
wererepairedasthemortardried.Thecracksobservedduring
dryingdidnecessitateproperrepairtoenhancetheworking
efficiencyandlifespanofthetankfurnace.

FurnaceFirstHeatUp:
Thefirstfiringwasdoneslowlywithminimalflameasthe
jointsandbodywalloftheyetunfiredfurnacehaveasmall
amountofmoisture.Graduallyorduringsubsequentfirings,
theflameorheatsourcecanbeturneduphigher.
CostAnalysis
The entire materials and equipment used for the furnace
designarepresentedintable1.Thematerialsandequipment
usedinthedesignwerelocallysourced;andtheoverallcost
of designing the furnace is approximately N114,200. The
furnace is cheap in comparison to similar designs from
abroad.
Table2:TheMaterialsandEquipmentUsedforthe
FurnaceDesign
Materials
Qty
Cost(N)
Sodiumsilicate
2litre
3mmsteel
18214230cm
plate
5mmcastiron
4
rod
Burner
1
Gastube
1roll
Gas/pressure
1
regulator
Insulating
200pieces
Bricks
Total=N114,200

2,500
4,000
5,200
15,000
5,000
2,500

melting from batch. Government and its agents should


finance the production of day tank furnaces and more
researchesshouldbeencouragedintheareaoftemperature
controlandalternativerenewableenergy.
Acknowledgment
TheauthorswouldliketoacknowledgetheGlassPilotPlant,
Federal Polytechnic Ado Ekiti for assistance with the
experimental work and Department of Glass and Ceramic
Technology,FederalPolytechnicAdoEkitiforitssupportof
thiswork.
REFERENCES
[1]. EmanJ.Abed,ManufactureandPerformanceofGas
Performance, International Journal Metallurgical &
Materials Science and Engineering (IJMMSE) ISSN
22782516Vol.3,Issue1,Mar2013,109118
[2]. EnergyPerformanceAssessmentofFurnaces",
www.emea.org/.
[3]. Fuel EconomyinfurnacesandWasteheat Recovery
PCRA
[4]. RajivGarg,"Thermalenergyequipment:Furnacesand
refractories", Energy efficiency guide for industry in
Asia,2006.
[5]. W.Trinks, IndustrialFurnaces(Vol2) JohnWileyand
SonsInc,Newyork,1925
[6]. FurnaceTypesandStyles",www.Guid2furnaces.com.
[7]. Naturalgascombustion",www.epa.gov.
[8]. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foundry.
[9]. Martin D. Schlesinger, Klemens C. Baczewski,and
GlennW.Baggley"FuelsandFurnaces,(1998).
[10]. EfficiencyofEnergyConversion",www.ems.psu.edu.
APPENDIXI:

80,000

ConclusionandRecommendation
Thedesignandfabricationwasbasedonlocallyavailableraw
materials with characteristic cheapness, very good fuel
economy consumption and good heat retaining capacity. It
could be concluded that the day tank furnace functions
accordingtoitsdesignedcharacteristicswiththepotcrucible
easilyreplaced.
ItisrecommendedthatitsutilizationbeadoptedinNigeria
forglassproduction,takingintoconsiderationthescarceraw
materials for glass and the high temperature required for

Figure1:annealingcompartmentcover.
APPENDIXII:

Figure3:(a)Frontviewofconstructedtank
&(b)sideviewoftheconstructedtank
Figure4:(a)Dimensionsofdifferentview
&(b)furnacegraphicwork
APPENDIXIII