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1

MA.
Pras.

Madhyamakavatara (
Prasannapada

2005

Candrakirti
s Interpretations of
Dependent-Arising

Jia-cheng Liu

Fa-Kuang Institute of Buddhist Studies


Lecturer

Abstract:
The present paper investigates Candrakirti's concept of dependent-arising on
t
h
e ba
s
i
s of t
he i
n
t
e
r
p
r
e
t
a
t
i
o
n of t
he t
e
r
m
pr
a
t
ityasamutpada

dependent-arisingand of the term


s
a
jvrt
i
(
c
on
ve
n
t
i
o
n)in his writings. For
Candrakirti, t
he t
e
r
m
pr
a
t
ityasamutpada
c
o
mp
r
i
s
e
st
he t
h
r
e
ea
s
pe
c
t
so
f

r
e
l
a
t
i
v
i
t
y
,

c
on
d
i
t
i
on
a
l
i
t
y
,
a
n
d
e
mp
t
i
ne
s
s
,
while the term
s
a
jvrt
i

comprises the three aspects of


obstruction to true reality,
mutual dependence,

a
nd
worldly discourse
. Candrakirti distinguished between
true worldly
conventiona
n
d
false worldly conventionwithin conventional domain to show
that the conventional truth and the ultimate truth have different meanings to both
ordinary people and sages. The present paper, moreover, discusses that
Candrakirti's concept of dependent-arising corresponds simultaneously with the
two truths on the basis of the three aspects of
p
r
a
t
ityasamutpada
and those of

s
a
jvrt
i
to indicate that Candrakirti's concept of
de
pe
nde
n
t
-arising Middle
Waycontains no extreme views regarding the dualities of existence and
non-existence, arising and ceasing, permanence and nihility, identity and
difference, etc.

2005

Key words:
Candrakirti, dependent-arising, relativity, conditionality, emptiness,
self-existence, convention, dependent designation, two truths, middle way

apeksa


2005

(1996):23

2005

pratityasamutpada
i
prati

dhatu

2
-ya pratitya
praptiapeksa samut
pad
samutpada

bhavanaj
3

pratitya
praptipraptireach

arrival at

meeting with 4 praptiapeksa


apeksaapabackikssee, look

relativity, inter-dependent

dependence on
looking roundconnection of cause
with effect 5
samutpadasamtogetherutup
2

()
(
1979):96 13
3
Pras. p.5(1988):54-55Jeffrey Hopkins,
Meditation on emptiness, ( London: Wisdom Publication, 1983):664-65
4
Sir M.Monier-Williams, A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Oxford University Press,1899 (Delhi:
Matilal Banarsidass, 1995 Reprint):707
5
Monier-Williams 1899(1995 rpt):56

91

padto go
arise

appear
6

occur

pratityasamutpada

pratityasamutpadaprati
praptiiti

pratitya

sam

ut
pad
samutpada
7
pratitya

pratitya

8
prapyaapeksya
9
paryaya

pratitya
prapya

apeksya
10

Monier-Williams 1899(1995 rpt):5821166


29 50

(1996):2-3
8
1996:28
9
Pras. p.9 1988:58
10
Ibid. p.189368459511

6(1985):154 8
7

2005

Wrilata
11
prati
i

-itya

12
13
prati
prati
14
prati
pratitya

15

16 prati
prati
prati pratitya
pratitya
prati
17
pratit
y
a

11

1988:141 52
Pras. P.5Hopkins 1983:163-64 1996:28
13

29 50
Wrilata
2
1979:97 15
14

29 50
15
1996:28
16
2 1979:97 16
17
Pras. pp.6-7Hopkins 1983:164665-67Jeffrey Hopkins, Emptiness Yoga, ( Ithaca: Snow
Lion Publication, 1987):308 1996:28-29
12

caksuh pratityaj vijbanaj rupani ca


pratit
y
a

18
ya
19

pratitya

prati

prati
2021
prati prati

prati 22
prati

18

Pras. p.7Hopkins 1983:164667-68Hopkins 1987:308-9 1996:29


1996:30
20

p
r
a
t
i

p
r
a
t
i

Hopkins
1983:669 1996:2430
21

p
r
a
t
i

p
r
a
t
i

i
t
y
a

pratitya
Pras. p.8Hopkins
1983:669 1988:56-57
22
Hopkins 1983:165-66Hopkins 1987:312
19

10

2005

23
prapyautpanna
24 pratityaprapya
25 prati

idajpratyayata26

pratitya-samutpada

prapya
utpanna

23

not
physical Hopkins 1983:670 1988:57
24

30 255
143
(1975):63
25
Pras. pp.8-9Hopkins 1983:166669-71 1988:57-58 1996:30-31
26

29 50

1996:39 18
1996:37 5

11

27

28

29

30

svabhava sva
bhu sva self

ownbhu become(be) svabhava


27

(tat tat) prati

t
a
tt
a
t

pratityaprap
y
a

(
p
r
a
t
itya)(
)()Hopkins 1983:166Hopkins 1987:310-11
28
Pras. pp.9-10Hopkins 1983:165672-73 1996:31-32
29

148MA.150
163MA.165
162 Hopkins
1983:166673 1981:157-58
30

tha tshig 135

12

2005

own being

inherent disposition31

32
svabhava

svabhava
33

svabhava

34

35

36

37

idajpratyayata

31

Monier-Williams 1899(1995 rpt): 7601275-1276

27 393
33
Pras. p.87William L. Ames, "The notion of svabhava in the thought of Candrakirti." Journal
of Indian Philosophy 10(1982)162
34
Pras. p.241Ames 1982:161
35
30 19
36

30 19 -20
37
Pras. p.260 1988:431
32

13

38

39

40

paraspasa-apeksyaidajpratyayata

41

42
43

44
38

32 494
39
Pras. p.10Hopkins 1983:673 1996:32
40
Pras. p.252458459529 1981:170 9
41
Pras. pp.189-90
(1979):90-91
42
Pras. p.189
226MA.228
43
Pras. pp.189-90 1979:90-91
44
12

r
k
y
e
n
d
ipat
s
a
mn
y
i
d
idajpratyayatar
t
e
n
b
y
u
n
g

pratityasamutpada
225-26MA.227
(rkyen)(
d
uby
e
d
)

14

2005

45

46

47

48

(rang gi mtshan bid)


130

45
30 93
46
1981:170 8
47

Pras. pp.542-70
48

216MA.217

15

49 lokasajvrtisatya

sajvrti()
() ()50
1
sajvrti vr (cover)

51

106MA.107

(215MA.216)

52 sajvrti vr

vr

sajvrti
49

30 32 dve satye samupawritya buddhanaj dharmadewana,


lokasajvrtisatyaj ca satyaj ca paramarthatah. Pras. p.492
50
Pras. p.492 1988:755 1979:160
51

(1978):39-40
(1998):21
52

140-141

16

2005

avidyamohaviparyasa
53

54

55

2
sajvrti
sajvrtti sajvrttisaj-vrtvrt

turn

exist

arise

depend on
move saj to gether
sajvrtti 56
57
sajvrtti
vrt cesta
vrt

gantr
gamanagantavya
gati

kartrkarmankarana
cesta

58
53

prajbakaramati

1979:162

185

295
55

294-295
56
1978:39 1979:163
(
1998):164Monier-Williams 1899 (1995 rpt):1009
57
1978:40 1979:162 1994:302
58
(1975):21-23

54

17

3
sajvrti sajvrti
vr
sajvrti sammuti sammuti sajman
sajvrti
59
sajvrti

60
vyavaharavyavahara

61

vyavahara

62 vyavahara
sajvrti
vyavahara usage
custom
ordinary
63
life
vyavahara vohara vohara

30 5

12
59
1979:158
3(
1974):131
60
Pras. pp.492-93 1988:755-56
61

30 33 vyavaharam anawritya paramartho na dewyate,


paramartham anagamya nirvanaj nadhigamyate. Pras. p.494
62

83
63
Monier-Williams 1899(1995rpt):1034

18

2005

vyavahara 64

prajbapti

sajvrti vyavahara

prajbaptisammuti

savkha

samabba
voharavyavaharanama
65

66

67

68

64

1979:156-57
1979:38164 1978:41
66
Pras. p.504 1988:769

276281MA.277
281
67

294-95MA.296

68

102MA.103
65

19

102-103
MA.103

103MA.104

69

70
103-104MA.104
69

178
70

20

2005

aloka-sajvrti71

loka-sajvrti-satya72

(1985):9
189
71
24
aloka

sajvrtialoka-sajvrtiPras. P.493
1979:172-173
72
Pras. P.493 1979:171

21

sajvrti-matra

106-107MA.107-108

73

73

74106MA..76107

22

2005

107-108MA.108

107MA.10874

75
76
74

188
75

189
76

189

(1976):98-99

Mipham 2002:201

107MA..107-108

23

77

78

286MA.288
77

108118MA..108119-120

190
78

188-190

188-189
1976:98 3

11
30 106
-

185

295

19-22301MA.19-23302

24

2005

()79

()

()
80

79

80

189

25

81
82
83

apeksya
prajbaptisajvrti
wunyata

84

85

81

177MA..179

276MA..277

286MA..288 6.159d

277MA..278
loka-prasiddha-sajvrti
1976:300

loka-sajvrti-satya 1979:171
82

269MA.271

276MA..277

280MA..281
83
1988:22
84
Pras.p.504 1988:770
85
1978:14

206Bhattacharya
1986:138

26

2005

226MA.228

apeksyaprajbapti

pratityasamutpada

apeksya86

sajvrtiparaspara-sajbhavana
87
apeksya

prajbapti
sammuti
voharavyavaharasajvrti
prajbaptisajvrti

88

89
prajbaptir upadaya
86

Pras. p.5 1988:54-55


Pras. p.492 1988:755 1979:160
88

106MA.107

89
Pras. p.503 1988:768
prajbaptir upadayaupadaya

277prajbapti
823-824
upadaya prajbapti

upadaya prajbapti
upadanam upadaya prajbaptih

87

27

90
91

276MA.277

281MA.281

92

[][]

93

upadana

1979:88
164-165 1975:21upadana

1979:88-89
90
1979:89165
91
Pras. p.504 1988:769
92
1979:89
93

287
MA.288

28

2005

287-288MA.289

94

prajbaptir upadaya

apeksya95
94

(2000):138

95

277MA.278

270
MA.272

29

prajbaptir upadayaapeksya

paramartha-satya paramartha satya

tatpurusagenitive case

96
karmadharaya
nominative case

281MA.281-282

6.167

6.159

6.159

6.167

6.167

6.167

6.167

6.162

6.162

6.162

6.159

6.159
96

101-102-MA..102
Pras. p.494 1988:756 1988:81 1999:99

30

2005

97
98

99
100

101

102 wunyatarthaj

103

97

118MA..119

98

1997:95

54 205
99
1979:155 1978:51
100

206

101
72-73MA..74-75
102

wunyatarthaj

30 32 1985:744
103
Yah pratyayairjayati sa hyajato na tasya utpadu svabhav
a
t
o
sti, Yah
pratyaya dhinu sa wunyu ukto yah wunyataj jan
a
t
is
o
p
r
a
ma
t
t
a
h.
Pras. p.491.
226-227

15 497

287338

31

wunyatarthaj
104

105

106
107
108
109
110

111
104

Pras. p.491 1988:753-754

30 19
106

226-227MA.228-229
107

270
108
337
109
287
110
299
111

105

32

2005

prapabcopawamaj 112wivaj
113

108MA.109

110MA.110-111

114
jbana

30
1 Anirodham anutpadam anucchedam awawvatam, anekartham ananartham anagamam
anirgamaj, yah pratityasamutpadam prapabcopawamaj wivaj, desayamasa sajbuddhah taj vande
vandataj varam)Pras. p.11
sajbuddhadesayamasa(accusative)
11 (pratityasamutpadam) 10
10 1
2

prapabcopawamaj
wivaj 1
2
10

D.J.Kalupahana, Mulamadhyamakakarika of Nagarjuna: The Philosophy


of the Middle Way, (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, 1996):101

18 2 (1970):52 1998:73-74

206
112

prapabca

expansion

development

manifoldness

phenomenon

the visible world

the creation of visible world

the expansion of the universe

the unreality of visible world

ludicrous dialogue

having a cunning mind Monier-illiams 1899(1995rpt):681

18.9

30 24
113
wivaj auspicious, prapitious
happiness

welfare

liberation

final emancipation
Monier-Williams 1899(1995rpt):1074 wivaj

6.8 wivaj
30 8

114
Pras. p.374 1988:569

33

115

229MA.231

116
117

115

30 23
116
Pras. p.3-4 1988:53
117
Pras. p.11 1988:59

34

2005

118

sajvrti

119

120

106MA.107

sajvrtti

apeksa

sajvrtti

118

30 18
1979:2
48
(1949(1992 )):149-155
119
1978:50-52
120
43138

35

sajvrtti
apeksa

sajmuti

prajbapti24.18
prajbaptir upadaya 121
wunyata
prajbaptir upadaya

122

sajmuti

sajmuti
prajbaptir upadaya
wunyata

121

24.18
prajbaptir upadaya
89 91

24.18 prajbaptir upadaya

prajbaptir upadaya

(1985(1992 )):236-239
122

278MA. 288

36

2005

192MA.193

222MA.223
123
124

125

126

127

123

299

119MA.120

219MA.220

278
MA. 279

286MA.288

125

30 33

30 126

() 84 -
126
Pras. p.504 1988:769-770
127

120
124

37

128

129

130

131

128

120

121-122

123-124

124

138

138

149-150

155
129

270
130
270
131

(1995):121-149

38

2005

132
133
134

132

269
Pras. p.368 1988:561
134

prasajya-pratisedha

paryudasa -pratisedha

b
o
t
hbef
a
l
s
e
,
n
e
i
t
h
e
r
n
o
r

prasajya-pratisedha

133

39

135

135

108MA..120

173MA..175

176MA..178

40

2005