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Title of the Experiment: Numerical Experiment on Process Control

Submitted by: Group (1) Section: L51

Date of experiment: 11-6-2015

Date of submission: 15-6-2015

Item

Report presentation

Abstract

Introduction and Theory

Experimental Procedure

Results and Discussion

Conclusion and

recommendation

Citation and References

Total

Grades

Spelling,

grammar,

05

sentence structure

Appearance and formatting

05

10

10

05

Raw Data

Sample Calculation

Data Processing (Tables and graph)

Discussions

10

05

100

Scor

e

05

10

10

25

Table of conten

Abstract.........................................................................................................................................4

Objectives....................................................................................................................................5

Introduction [1]..........................................................................................................................5

Procedure and report requirement [1]..............................................................................6

Results and Discussions.........................................................................................................6

Conclusion and Recommendation....................................................................................17

References.................................................................................................................................18

List of Figures

Figure 1: a representative Simulink model [1]................................................................................6

Figure 2: transfer function in Simulink model [1]...........................................................................6

Figure 3: The response of the system with a continuous oscillation...............................................7

Figure 9: Changing the denominator coefficient from 12 to 7......................................................12

Figure 10: the process performance due to changing the kc and I

in theory.........................13

Figure 12:changing I

for kc/2.................................................................................................14

for kc...................................................................................................14

Figure 13:changing I

for kc/3.................................................................................................15

List of Tables

Table 1: Controller setting based on the continuous cycling method..............................................7

Table 2: Result Ziegler-Nichols tuning relation...............................................................................8

Table 3: Result Tyreus-Iuben tuning relation...................................................................................8

Abstract

In this report, a numerical experiment on process control has been studied.

First of all, different types of controllers such as: Proportional, Proportional

Integral and Proportional Integral Derivative controllers were generated by

using two most widely methods which are ZN method and TL. It was found

that the method which has a better performance was selected to proceed on

the process. Moreover, the effect of changing the process parameters such

as dead time and gain of the response were studied and it can be

summarized that as the gain is increasing the oscillation becomes more

significant. In addition, the dead time affect the response and as it is

increasing the response becomes more sluggish. Finally, the effect of having

disturbances in the process was observed to affect the speed of the

response.

Objectives

The objective of this experiment is to be familiar with MATLAB Simulink

model used in process control, as well as designing the PID control

parameter using different tuning method such as Z-N and T-L methods. It

also aims to analyze the effect of each PID parameters such as Kc, Ti and Td

on control and discuss with respect to set point and disturbance.

Introduction [1]

SIMULINK is a graphical programming block diagram

for multi-domain

generation and it is part of MATLAB. SIMULINK has a graphical editor,

customizable block libraries, and solvers that used for modeling and

simulating dynamic systems.

SIMULINK adds a new class of windows which is block diagram windows.

These windows contain the models, and these models can be edited. Any

physical process control system can be simulated though MATLAB SIMULINK.

shown here.Gc model constants is the characteristic of the process.

In this experiment SIMULINK in MATLAB is used (figure 1).First starting with P controller and

varying value of Kc and plotting it to get continuous oscillation then determining value of

ultimate gain and ultimate period. After that, runnig the Simulink model for P, PI and PID at the

values of previous step by Z-N and T-L methods. Next step is to change the denominator

coefficient from 10 to 5 in Gs (In1out1). Then, running the model using the best PID parameter

and plotting the response. Again, running the code for the coefficient value of 7 and plotting

responses for values of coefficient 10, 7 and 5. Step after is disturbance block, which value 1

must be entered in the block, otherwise there is no disturbance.

The value of kc changed until continuous oscillation was obtained as shown below and the actual

gain was found to be3.26 and with an ultimate period of 16.

For determining the PID parameters for the Z-N method and the T-L equations from the process

control books were provided in following table:

P

PI

PID

Kc

1.63

1.47

1.96

0

13.33

8

0

0

2

Tyreus-Luyben method

P

PI

PID

Kc

0

1.011

1.47

0

35.2

18.4

0

2.54

ZieglerNicholsmethod

TyreusLuybenmethod

Figure (4) &(5) shows that the difference ofusing P,PI,and PID controllers forboth

methods.Ingeneral,proportionalcontrollercanstabilizeonlyfirstorderunstableprocess,which

canbeappliedforthiscase.Thedynamicofthiscontrollerisrelatedtothecontrollergain,

whichindicatessteadystateerror,thespeedofthedynamics,andthemagnitudeoftheamplitude.

AsitisclearfromthefiguresthesteadystateofthePcontrollerreachesatagainvalueof0.5,

whichissmallerthanPIandPIDcases.Moreover,proportionalintegralcontrollerismostwidely

adaptedinindustrialapplicationssinceithassimpleinstructoranditiseasytobedesigned.The

useofPIcontrollerwilleliminatetheoffsetofPcontroller.Howeveritwillaffectthespeedof

theresponseandoverallstabilityofthesystem,whichleadstolowerprocessstability.Incaseof

PIDcontroller,asitshownithasahigheroscillation.Thederivativecontrollerincreasesthe

stabilityofthesystemandtherefore,itcanbeconcludethatthebestcontrolleristhecombined

PID.

In figure (5) T-L method is shown and it can be notices that the PI and PID parameters

performance have lower oscillation but the response is very slow in order to reach steady since

the integral time value is quit large.

1. Comparisonofthetwomethods

In comparison of the two methods, Tyreus-Luyben method has the same procedure as Z-N

method but the final controllers are different. Also it has only P and PID compared to the other

one. Tyreus-Luyben is more conservative than the Z-N method and it gives better performance

with smaller value of integral time. However, sluggish performance will take place when the

integral time is large.

giveslessoscillationbutslowerresponse,andthatishowthebestPIDtunewascreatedasit

shows in figure (7) it is plot between the two methods to show faster response with less

oscillation.

Figure(9) shows the result obtained by changing the dominator coefficient of Gs from 12-7. It is

noticed that the process becomes unstable and has high oscillation. Since figure(9) shows the

effect of having Gs value of 7, it can be predicted that changing the Gs to a value of 5 or less will

have a negative effect on the process stability and oscillation.

Theeffectofchangingintegraltimeparameterhasbeenstudiedthroughsimulatingthe

processatdifferentintegraltime. Ithasnoticedfromfigure(11)thatastheintegraltimeis

increasing,theoscillationreducesandthishasapositiveeffectontheprocessstability.The

I I

integraltimevaluewasselectedtobe 2 , 3 I /4 andtheprocessresponseofthesedifferent

valuesisplottedinfigure(11)whichalsoimplementsthatthegreaterthevaluesofintegraltime,

theslowerresponse.Moreover,theeffectofchangingkcvaluewasplottedforallintegraltime

valuesanditwasnoticedthatdecreasingthevalueofthekcwoulddecreasetheoscillationwhile

increasingitwillleadtomoreoffset.

In conclusion, the experimental trends obtained are similar to the theoretical trend that gotten

from process control book and it can be shown in figure (10).

in theory

Figure 6: changing

Figure 7:changing

I

for kc/2

for kc

Figure 8:changing

for kc/3

Effect of disturbance

Inordertostudyandpredicttheeffectofthedisturbanceontheprocessresponse,the

systemwassettobeindisturbedmood.Figure(12)showstheobtainedresultanditisclearthat

bothPIandPIDcontrollershasthealmostthesameresponse.Ontheotherhand,itwasnoticed

thatPcontrollerhasafasterresponsecomparedtoothersanditreachsteadystatefaster.

Figure 9: The

for a

system

PID controller

disturbed

Conclusion

To conclude, the objective of the experiment was to be familiar with MATLAB

Simulink model used in process control, as well as designing the PID control

parameter by two different tuning methods Z-N, and T-L. It was found that

the best controller is PID in both methods but in comparison the PI and PID

parameters performance had lower oscillation but the response was very

slow in order to reach steady. Moreover, the effect of each PID parameters

such as Kc, Ti and Td on control was studied with respect to a set point. The

effect of changing integral time parameter studied through simulating the

process at different integral time. It was noticed that as the integral time is

increasing, the oscillation reduces and this has a positive effect on the

process stability. Finally, in order to study and analyze the influence of the

disturbance on the process response, the system was set to be in disturbed

mood. It was clear that both PI and PID controllers have almost the same

response. Instead, it was observed that P controller has a faster response

compared to others and it reach steady state faster.

Recommendation

It is recommended to use MATLAb software and generate more plots for

wider values of the process parameters in order to be able to precisely

determine its effect on the process dynamic, stability and response

References

[1] Chemical Engineering Lab IIIManual- Qatar University -Spring2014

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