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Fluids Analysis Guide

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Table of Contents
I. CFD ........................................................................................................................................................... 1
1. Overview of FLOTRAN CFD Analyses ................................................................................................ 3
1.1. Types of FLOTRAN Analyses ......................................................................................................... 3
1.1.1. Laminar Flow Analysis ........................................................................................................ 4
1.1.2. Turbulent Flow Analysis ...................................................................................................... 4
1.1.3. Thermal Analysis ................................................................................................................ 4
1.1.4. Compressible Flow Analysis ................................................................................................ 4
1.1.5. Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow Analysis .................................................................................... 4
1.1.6. Multiple Species Transport Analysis .................................................................................... 4
1.1.7. Free Surface Analysis .......................................................................................................... 4
1.2. About GUI Paths and Command Syntax ....................................................................................... 4
2. The Basics of FLOTRAN Analysis ....................................................................................................... 7
2.1. Characteristics of the FLOTRAN Elements .................................................................................... 7
2.1.1. Other Element Features ...................................................................................................... 7
2.2. Considerations and Restrictions for Using the FLOTRAN Elements ............................................... 8
2.2.1. Limitations on FLOTRAN Element Use ................................................................................. 8
2.3. Overview of a FLOTRAN Analysis ............................................................................................... 10
2.3.1. Determining the Problem Domain .................................................................................... 10
2.3.2. Determining the Flow Regime .......................................................................................... 10
2.3.3. Creating the Finite Element Mesh ..................................................................................... 11
2.3.4. Applying Boundary Conditions ......................................................................................... 11
2.3.5. Setting FLOTRAN Analysis Parameters ............................................................................... 11
2.3.6. Solving the Problem ......................................................................................................... 11
2.3.7. Examining the Results ...................................................................................................... 12
2.4. Files the FLOTRAN Elements Create ........................................................................................... 12
2.4.1. The Results File ................................................................................................................. 12
2.4.2. The Print File (Jobname.PFL) ......................................................................................... 13
2.4.3. The Nodal Residuals File ................................................................................................... 13
2.4.4. The Restart File ................................................................................................................. 13
2.4.5. The Domain File ............................................................................................................... 14
2.4.6. Restarting a FLOTRAN Analysis ......................................................................................... 14
2.5. Convergence and Stability Tools ................................................................................................ 15
2.5.1. Relaxation Factors ............................................................................................................ 15
2.5.2. Inertial Relaxation ............................................................................................................ 15
2.5.3. Modified Inertial Relaxation .............................................................................................. 15
2.5.4. Artificial Viscosity ............................................................................................................. 16
2.5.5. DOF Capping ................................................................................................................... 16
2.5.6. The Quadrature Order ...................................................................................................... 16
2.6. What to Watch For During a FLOTRAN Analysis .......................................................................... 17
2.6.1. Deciding How Many Global Iterations to Use .................................................................... 17
2.6.2. Convergence Monitors ..................................................................................................... 17
2.6.3. Stopping a FLOTRAN Analysis ........................................................................................... 19
2.6.4. Pressure Results ............................................................................................................... 20
2.7. Evaluating a FLOTRAN Analysis .................................................................................................. 20
2.8. Verifying Results ....................................................................................................................... 20
3. FLOTRAN Laminar and Turbulent Incompressible Flow ................................................................. 23
3.1. Activating the Turbulence Model ............................................................................................... 24
3.1.1. The Role of the Reynolds Number ..................................................................................... 24
3.1.2. Determining Whether an Analysis Is Turbulent .................................................................. 25
3.1.3. Turbulence Ratio and Inlet Parameters .............................................................................. 25
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3.1.4. Turbulence Models ........................................................................................................... 25
3.1.4.1. Standard k-epsilon Model (default) .......................................................................... 26
3.1.4.2. Zero Equation Turbulence Model (ZeroEq) ................................................................ 28
3.1.4.3. Re-Normalized Group Turbulence Model (RNG) ........................................................ 28
3.1.4.4. k-epsilon Model Due to Shih (NKE) ........................................................................... 29
3.1.4.5. Nonlinear Model of Girimaji (GIR) ............................................................................. 29
3.1.4.6. Shih, Zhu, Lumley Model (SZL) .................................................................................. 30
3.1.4.7. k-omega Turbulence Model ..................................................................................... 31
3.1.4.8. Shear Stress Transport Model (SST) .......................................................................... 31
3.2. Meshing Requirements ............................................................................................................. 32
3.3. Flow Boundary Conditions ........................................................................................................ 33
3.4. Strategies for Difficult Problems ................................................................................................ 36
3.5. Example of a Laminar and Turbulent FLOTRAN Analysis ............................................................. 38
4. FLOTRAN Thermal Analyses ............................................................................................................ 39
4.1. Meshing Requirements ............................................................................................................. 39
4.2. Property Specifications and Control .......................................................................................... 39
4.3. Thermal Loads and Boundary Conditions .................................................................................. 40
4.3.1. Applying Loads ................................................................................................................ 40
4.3.1.1. Applying Loads Using Commands ............................................................................ 41
4.3.1.2. Applying Loads Using the GUI .................................................................................. 41
4.3.1.3. Solutions ................................................................................................................. 42
4.4. Solution Strategies .................................................................................................................... 42
4.4.1. Constant Fluid Properties ................................................................................................. 43
4.4.2. Forced Convection, Temperature Dependent Properties .................................................... 43
4.4.3. Free Convection, Temperature Dependent Properties ........................................................ 43
4.4.4. Conjugate Heat Transfer ................................................................................................... 44
4.5. Heat Balance ............................................................................................................................. 46
4.6. Surface-to-Surface Radiation Analysis Using the Radiosity Method ............................................ 47
4.6.1. Procedure ........................................................................................................................ 47
4.6.2. Heat Balances .................................................................................................................. 47
4.7. Examples of a Laminar, Thermal, Steady-State FLOTRAN Analysis ................................................ 47
4.7.1. The Example Described .................................................................................................... 48
4.7.2. Doing the Buoyancy Driven Flow Analysis (GUI Method) ................................................... 49
4.7.3. Doing the Buoyancy Driven Flow Analysis (Command Method) ......................................... 55
4.8. Example of Radiation Analysis Using FLOTRAN (Command Method) ........................................... 56
4.9. Where to Find Other FLOTRAN Analysis Examples ...................................................................... 57
5. FLOTRAN Transient Analyses .......................................................................................................... 59
5.1. Time Integration Method .......................................................................................................... 59
5.2. Time Step Specification and Convergence ................................................................................. 60
5.3. Terminating and Getting Output from a Transient Analysis ......................................................... 61
5.4. Applying Transient Boundary Conditions ................................................................................... 62
6. Volume of Fluid (VOF) Analyses ...................................................................................................... 65
6.1. VFRC Loads ............................................................................................................................... 66
6.1.1. Initial VFRC Loads ............................................................................................................. 66
6.1.2. Boundary VFRC Loads ...................................................................................................... 67
6.2. Input Settings ........................................................................................................................... 67
6.2.1. Ambient Conditions ......................................................................................................... 67
6.2.2. VFRC Tolerances ............................................................................................................... 68
6.2.3. VOF Time Steps ................................................................................................................ 69
6.3. Postprocessing ......................................................................................................................... 69
6.4. VOF Analysis of a Dam ............................................................................................................... 70
6.4.1. The Problem Described .................................................................................................... 70

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Fluids Analysis Guide


6.4.2. Building and Solving the Model (Command Method) ........................................................ 70
6.5. VOF Analysis of Open Channel with an Obstruction ................................................................... 71
6.5.1. The Problem Described .................................................................................................... 71
6.5.2. Building and Solving the Model (Command Method) ........................................................ 71
6.6. VOF Analysis of an Oscillating Droplet ....................................................................................... 74
6.6.1. The Problem Described .................................................................................................... 74
6.6.2. Results ............................................................................................................................. 75
6.6.3. Building and Solving the Model (Command Method) ........................................................ 76
6.6.4. Where to Find Other Examples .......................................................................................... 78
7. Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) Formulation for Moving Domains ........................................ 79
7.1. Boundary Conditions ................................................................................................................ 81
7.2. Mesh Updating ......................................................................................................................... 83
7.3. Remeshing ............................................................................................................................... 84
7.4. Postprocessing ......................................................................................................................... 86
7.5. ALE Analysis of a Simplified Torsional Mirror .............................................................................. 87
7.5.1. The Problem Described .................................................................................................... 87
7.5.2. Boundary Conditions ....................................................................................................... 87
7.5.3. Forces and Moments ........................................................................................................ 88
7.5.4. Building and Solving the Model (Command Method) ........................................................ 90
7.6. ALE/VOF Analysis of a Vessel with a Moving Wall ........................................................................ 94
7.6.1. The Problem Described .................................................................................................... 94
7.6.2. Results ............................................................................................................................. 95
7.6.3. Building and Solving the Model (Command Method) ........................................................ 95
7.7. ALE Analysis of a Moving Cylinder ............................................................................................. 97
7.7.1. The Problem Described .................................................................................................... 97
7.7.2. Results ............................................................................................................................. 98
7.7.3. Building and Solving the Model (Command Method) ........................................................ 98
8. FLOTRAN Compressible Analyses ................................................................................................. 103
8.1. Property Calculations .............................................................................................................. 103
8.2. Boundary Conditions .............................................................................................................. 104
8.3. Structured vs. Unstructured Mesh ............................................................................................ 105
8.4. Solution Strategies .................................................................................................................. 105
8.4.1. Inertial Relaxation .......................................................................................................... 106
8.5. Example of a Compressible Flow Analysis ................................................................................ 106
8.5.1. The Example Described .................................................................................................. 106
8.5.1.1. Fluid Properties ..................................................................................................... 106
8.5.1.2. Approach and Assumptions ................................................................................... 106
8.6. Doing the Example Compressible Flow Analysis (GUI Method) ................................................. 107
8.7. Doing the Example Compressible Flow Analysis (Command Method) ....................................... 113
9. Specifying Fluid Properties for FLOTRAN ..................................................................................... 117
9.1. Fluid Property Types ................................................................................................................ 117
9.1.1. Property Types for Specific Heat ...................................................................................... 118
9.1.2. Property Types for Density and Thermal Conductivity ...................................................... 119
9.1.3. Property Types for Viscosity ............................................................................................ 119
9.1.4. Property Types for Surface Tension Coefficient ................................................................ 119
9.1.5. Property Types for Wall Static Contact Angle ................................................................... 119
9.1.6. General Guidelines for Setting Property Types ................................................................. 119
9.1.6.1. Using a Fluid Property Table ................................................................................... 120
9.1.6.2. Specifying Property Types ...................................................................................... 120
9.1.7. Density .......................................................................................................................... 122
9.1.8. Viscosity ......................................................................................................................... 123
9.1.9. Specific Heat .................................................................................................................. 124
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Fluids Analysis Guide


9.1.10. Thermal Conductivity ................................................................................................... 124
9.1.11. Surface Tension Coefficient ........................................................................................... 125
9.1.12. Wall Static Contact Angle .............................................................................................. 125
9.2. Initializing and Varying Properties ........................................................................................... 126
9.2.1. Activating Variable Properties ......................................................................................... 126
9.3. Modifying the Fluid Property Database .................................................................................... 126
9.4. Using Reference Properties ..................................................................................................... 129
9.5. Using the ANSYS Non-Newtonian Flow Capabilities ................................................................. 129
9.5.1. Activating the Power Law Model ..................................................................................... 130
9.5.2. Activating the Carreau Model ......................................................................................... 130
9.5.3. Activating the Bingham Model ....................................................................................... 131
9.6. Using User-Programmable Subroutines ................................................................................... 131
10. FLOTRAN Special Features .......................................................................................................... 133
10.1. Coordinate Systems .............................................................................................................. 133
10.2. Rotating Frames of Reference ................................................................................................ 135
10.3. Swirl ..................................................................................................................................... 136
10.4. Distributed Resistance/Source ............................................................................................... 136
11. FLOTRAN CFD Solvers and the Matrix Equation ......................................................................... 139
11.1. Tri-Diagonal Matrix Algorithm ............................................................................................... 140
11.2. Semi-Direct Solvers ............................................................................................................... 140
11.2.1. Preconditioned Generalized Minimum Residual (PGMR) Solver ...................................... 141
11.2.2. Preconditioned BiCGStab (PBCGM) Solver ..................................................................... 143
11.3. Sparse Direct Method ............................................................................................................ 143
12. Coupling Algorithms ................................................................................................................... 145
12.1. Algorithm Settings ................................................................................................................ 145
12.1.1. Advection Scheme ....................................................................................................... 145
12.1.2. Solver ........................................................................................................................... 146
12.1.3. Relaxation Factors ........................................................................................................ 146
12.2. Performance ......................................................................................................................... 146
13. Multiple Species Transport ......................................................................................................... 149
13.1. Mixture Types ....................................................................................................................... 149
13.1.1. Dilute Mixture Analysis ................................................................................................. 149
13.1.2. Composite Mixture Analysis .......................................................................................... 150
13.1.3. Composite Gas Analysis ................................................................................................ 150
13.2. Doing a Multiple Species Analysis .......................................................................................... 151
13.2.1. Establish the Species .................................................................................................... 151
13.2.2. Choose an Algebraic Species ........................................................................................ 151
13.2.3. Adjust Output Format ................................................................................................... 151
13.2.4. Set Properties ............................................................................................................... 152
13.2.5. Specify Boundary Conditions ........................................................................................ 153
13.2.6. Set Relaxation and Solution Parameters ........................................................................ 153
13.3. Doing a Heat Exchanger Analysis Using Two Species .............................................................. 154
13.4. Example Analysis Mixing Three Gases .................................................................................... 156
14. Advection Discretization Options ............................................................................................... 161
14.1. Using SUPG and COLG ........................................................................................................... 161
14.2. Strategies for Difficult Solutions ............................................................................................. 162
II. Acoustics ............................................................................................................................................. 163
15. Acoustics ..................................................................................................................................... 165
15.1. Solving Acoustics Problems .................................................................................................. 165
15.2. Building the Model ................................................................................................................ 166
15.2.1. Harmonic Acoustic Analysis Guidelines ......................................................................... 166
15.2.1.1. FLUID29 and FLUID30 .......................................................................................... 166

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15.2.1.2. FLUID129 and FLUID130 ...................................................................................... 167
15.3. Meshing the Model ............................................................................................................... 168
15.3.1. Step 1: Mesh the Interior Fluid Domain .......................................................................... 168
15.3.2. Step 2: Generate the Infinite Acoustic Elements ............................................................. 169
15.3.3. Step 3: Specify the Fluid-Structure Interface .................................................................. 170
15.4. Applying Loads and Obtaining the Solution ........................................................................... 171
15.4.1. Step 1: Enter the SOLUTION Processor ........................................................................... 171
15.4.2. Step 2: Define the Analysis Type .................................................................................... 171
15.4.3. Step 3: Define Analysis Options ..................................................................................... 171
15.4.4. Step 4: Apply Loads on the Model ................................................................................. 172
15.4.4.1. Applying Loads Using the GUI .............................................................................. 173
15.4.4.2. Applying Loads Using Commands ........................................................................ 173
15.4.4.3. Load Types .......................................................................................................... 174
15.4.5. Step 5: Specify Load Step Options ................................................................................. 175
15.4.5.1. Dynamics Options ............................................................................................... 175
15.4.5.2. General Options .................................................................................................. 175
15.4.5.3. Output Controls ................................................................................................... 175
15.4.6. Step 6: Back Up Your Database ...................................................................................... 176
15.4.7. Step 7: Apply Additional Load Steps (Optional) .............................................................. 176
15.4.8. Step 8: Finish the Solution ............................................................................................. 176
15.5. Reviewing Results ................................................................................................................. 176
15.6. Fluid-Structure Interaction .................................................................................................... 177
15.7. Sample Applications ............................................................................................................. 177
15.8. Example 1: Fluid-Structure Coupled Acoustic Analysis (Command Method) ............................ 177
15.9. Example 2: Room Acoustic Analysis (Command Method) ........................................................ 179
III. Thin Film ............................................................................................................................................. 183
16. Thin Film Analysis ........................................................................................................................ 185
16.1. Elements for Modeling Thin Films .......................................................................................... 185
16.2. Squeeze Film Analysis ........................................................................................................... 185
16.2.1. Static Analysis Overview ............................................................................................... 187
16.2.2. Harmonic Response Analysis Overview ......................................................................... 187
16.2.3. Transient Response Analysis Overview .......................................................................... 188
16.2.4. Flow Regime Considerations ......................................................................................... 188
16.2.5. Modeling and Meshing Considerations ......................................................................... 188
16.2.6. Analysis Settings and Options ....................................................................................... 189
16.2.7. Loads and Solution ....................................................................................................... 190
16.2.8. Review Results ............................................................................................................. 190
16.2.9. Sample Harmonic Analysis ............................................................................................ 191
16.2.10. Simplified Transient Analysis ....................................................................................... 194
16.2.11. Complex Transient Analysis ......................................................................................... 196
16.3. Modal Projection Method for Squeeze Film Analysis ............................................................... 201
16.3.1. Modal Projection Method Overview .............................................................................. 201
16.3.2. Steps in Computing the Damping Parameter Using the Modal Projection Technique ...... 202
16.3.2.1. Modeling and Meshing ........................................................................................ 203
16.3.2.2. Perform Modal Analysis ....................................................................................... 203
16.3.2.3. Extracting Eigenvectors ....................................................................................... 203
16.3.2.4. Performing a Harmonic Response Analysis and Extracting Damping Parameters .... 203
16.3.3. Example Problem Using the Modal Projection Method .................................................. 204
16.3.4. Damping Extraction for Large Signal Cases .................................................................... 208
16.4. Slide Film Damping ............................................................................................................... 208
16.4.1. Slide Film Damping Example ........................................................................................ 211
Index ........................................................................................................................................................ 217
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Fluids Analysis Guide

List of Figures
2.1. Convergence Monitors Displayed by the GST Feature ............................................................................ 18
3.1. Internal Flow ......................................................................................................................................... 23
3.2. External Flow ........................................................................................................................................ 23
3.3. Structured Mesh ................................................................................................................................... 32
3.4. Unstructured Mesh ............................................................................................................................... 32
4.1. Diagram of the Square Cavity ................................................................................................................ 48
4.2. Plot of the Temperature Solution ........................................................................................................... 52
4.3. Plot of Streamline Contours ................................................................................................................... 53
4.4. Plot of Velocity Vectors .......................................................................................................................... 54
4.5. Plot of Flow Trace .................................................................................................................................. 55
6.1. Instantaneous Pressure Distributions at 0.001 ms .................................................................................. 76
6.2. Instantaneous Pressure Distributions at 0.012 ms .................................................................................. 76
7.1.Torsional Mirror at t = 0 Seconds ............................................................................................................ 79
7.2. Torsional Mirror at t = 2.5 Seconds ......................................................................................................... 80
7.3. Torsional Mirror at t = 7.5 Seconds ......................................................................................................... 80
7.4. Boundary Conditions for Moving Walls .................................................................................................. 81
7.5. Torsional Mirror Problem Description .................................................................................................... 87
7.6. Torsional Mirror Problem - Boundary Conditions .................................................................................... 88
7.7. Square Vessel with a Moving Wall .......................................................................................................... 94
7.8. Left Wall Displacement and Velocity ...................................................................................................... 95
7.9. Moving Cylinder ................................................................................................................................... 97
7.10. Elements at 0 Seconds ........................................................................................................................ 98
7.11. Elements at 22 Seconds ....................................................................................................................... 98
7.12. Elements at 44 Seconds ....................................................................................................................... 98
8.1. Three Types of Meshing ....................................................................................................................... 105
10.1. Direction of Positive Swirl Velocity VZ for Axisymmetric Models .......................................................... 134
10.2. Rotating Flow Problem ...................................................................................................................... 135
10.3. Problem Schematic with Rotating Coordinate .................................................................................... 136
11.1. Typical Debug Files ........................................................................................................................... 141
13.1. Environment for a Typical Heat Exchanger Analysis ............................................................................ 154
15.1. Example of a 2-D Acoustic Model (Fluid Within a Structure) ................................................................ 166
15.2. Example of Absorption Element Application ...................................................................................... 167
15.3. Submerged Cylindrical Shell .............................................................................................................. 168
15.4. Mesh the Fluid Domain ..................................................................................................................... 169
15.5. Add the Absorption Element on the Boundary ................................................................................... 170
15.6. Specify Fluid-Structure Interface ........................................................................................................ 171
16.1. Moving Plate above a Fixed Wall ........................................................................................................ 186
16.2. Perforated Plate Structure ................................................................................................................. 186
16.3. Pressure Distribution on a Plate at a Low Driving Frequency ............................................................... 187
16.4. Damping and Squeeze Stiffness Coefficients vs. Frequency ................................................................ 187
16.5. Coupling of Nodes at the Hole Periphery with the Center Node of a FLUID138 Element ...................... 189
16.6. Pressure Distribution (Real Component) ............................................................................................ 192
16.7. Pressure Distribution (Imaginary Component) ................................................................................... 192
16.8. Applied Voltage ................................................................................................................................ 197
16.9. Displacement Time History ................................................................................................................ 197
16.10. Pressure Time History ...................................................................................................................... 198
16.11. Modal Projection Technique for Damping Characterization .............................................................. 201
16.12. Damping and Squeeze Stiffness Parameters for a Rectangular Plate ................................................. 202
16.13. Fluidic Cross-Talk between Transverse and Rotational Motion ........................................................... 204
16.14. Time-Transient Response from Voltage Pulse ................................................................................... 208
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16.15. Slide Film Damping at Low and High Frequencies ............................................................................ 209
16.16. Viscous Slide Film Element FLUID139 ............................................................................................... 211
16.17. Comb Drive Resonator .................................................................................................................... 211
16.18. Displacement of Central Mass .......................................................................................................... 212
16.19. Real and Imaginary Current ............................................................................................................. 212

List of Tables
2.1. 2-D Solid Elements .................................................................................................................................. 7
3.1. Boundary Conditions at Intersections .................................................................................................... 35
4.1. Command Family and GUI Path Used to Apply Loads ............................................................................. 40
4.2. Load Commands for a FLOTRAN Thermal Analysis .................................................................................. 41
5.1. Specifying Values for Time Steps ............................................................................................................ 60
5.2. Saving Analysis Results for Processing ................................................................................................... 61
7.1. Interface Boundary Conditions .............................................................................................................. 82
7.2. Element Qualities .................................................................................................................................. 84
7.3. Remeshing Limitations ......................................................................................................................... 86
7.4. Quality Requirements ........................................................................................................................... 97
9.1. Units for Thermal Quantities ................................................................................................................ 118
9.2. Energy Units for Incompressible Analyses with Viscous Heating ........................................................... 118
9.3. Units for the AIR Property Type ............................................................................................................ 119
9.4. Property types for Value ................................................................................................................... 120
9.5. Property Database Format .................................................................................................................. 128
10.1. Coordinate System Specification ....................................................................................................... 134
12.1. Advection Scheme Defaults ............................................................................................................... 146
12.2. SIMPLEF and SIMPLEN Performance Results ....................................................................................... 146
15.1. Loads Applicable in an Acoustic Analysis ........................................................................................... 172
15.2. Commands for Applying Loads in Acoustic Analysis ........................................................................... 173
15.3. Load Step Options for a Harmonic Acoustic Analysis .......................................................................... 175
16.1. Thin Film Fluid Elements .................................................................................................................... 185
16.2. Load Options for Thin Film Fluid Elements ......................................................................................... 190
16.3. Beam Model Results Considering Perforated Holes ............................................................................ 191
16.4. Modal Damping Parameters for First Two Eigenfrequencies ................................................................ 204

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of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Part I, CFD

Chapter 1: Overview of FLOTRAN CFD Analyses


The ANSYS FLOTRAN derived product and the FLOTRAN CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) option to the
other ANSYS products offer you comprehensive tools for analyzing 2-D and 3-D fluid flow fields. Using either
product and the FLOTRAN CFD elements FLUID141 and FLUID142, you can achieve solutions for the following:

Lift and drag on an airfoil

The flow in supersonic nozzles

Complex, 3-D flow patterns in a pipe bend

In addition, you can use the features of ANSYS and ANSYS FLOTRAN to perform tasks including:

Calculating the gas pressure and temperature distributions in an engine exhaust manifold

Studying the thermal stratification and breakup in piping systems

Using flow mixing studies to evaluate potential for thermal shock

Doing natural convection analyses to evaluate the thermal performance of chips in electronic enclosures

Conducting heat exchanger studies involving different fluids separated by solid regions

The following FLOTRAN CFD analysis topics are available:


1.1.Types of FLOTRAN Analyses
1.2. About GUI Paths and Command Syntax

1.1. Types of FLOTRAN Analyses


You can perform these types of FLOTRAN analyses:

Laminar or turbulent

Thermal or adiabatic

Free surface

Compressible or incompressible

Newtonian or Non-Newtonian

Multiple species transport

These types of analyses are not mutually exclusive. For example, a laminar analysis can be thermal or adiabatic. A turbulent analysis can be compressible or incompressible.
To solve any analysis involving the flow of fluid, use either of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA1,SOLU,FLOW,TRUE
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options

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Chapter 1: Overview of FLOTRAN CFD Analyses

1.1.1. Laminar Flow Analysis


In these analyses, the velocity field is very ordered and smooth, as it is in highly viscous, slow-moving flows.
The flow of some oils also can be laminar.

1.1.2. Turbulent Flow Analysis


Turbulent flow analyses deal with problems where velocities are high enough and the viscosity is low enough
to cause turbulent fluctuations. The two-equation turbulence model in ANSYS enables you to account for
the effect of the turbulent velocity fluctuations on the mean flow.
Laminar and turbulent flows are considered to be incompressible if density is constant or if the fluid expends
little energy in compressing the flow. The temperature equation for incompressible flow neglects kinetic
energy changes and viscous dissipation.

1.1.3. Thermal Analysis


Often, the solution for the temperature distribution throughout the flow field is of interest. If fluid properties
do not vary with temperature, you can converge the flow field without solving the temperature equation.
In a conjugate heat transfer problem, the temperature equation is solved in a domain with both fluid and
non-fluid (that is, solid material) regions. In a natural convection problem, the flow results mainly or solely
from density gradients brought about by temperature variations. Most natural convection problems, unlike
forced convection problems, have no externally applied flow sources.

1.1.4. Compressible Flow Analysis


For high velocity gas flows, changes in density due to strong pressure gradients significantly influence the
nature of the flow field. ANSYS uses a different solution algorithm for compressible flow.

1.1.5. Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow Analysis


A linear relationship between the stress and rate-of-strain cannot describe many fluid flows adequately. For
such non-Newtonian flows, the ANSYS program provides three viscosity models and a user-programmable
subroutine.

1.1.6. Multiple Species Transport Analysis


This type of analysis is useful in studying the dispersion of dilute contaminants or pollutants in the bulk
fluid flow. In addition, you can use multiple species transport analysis for heat exchanger studies where two
or more fluids (separated by walls) may be involved.

1.1.7. Free Surface Analysis


Free surface analyses deal with problems involving a unconstrained gas-liquid surface. You can use this type
of analysis to solve two dimensional planar and axisymmetric problems such as flow over a dam and tank
sloshing.

1.2. About GUI Paths and Command Syntax


Throughout this document, you will see references to ANSYS commands and their equivalent GUI paths.
Such references use only the command name, because you do not always need to specify all of a command's

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1.2. About GUI Paths and Command Syntax


arguments, and specific combinations of command arguments perform different functions. For complete
syntax descriptions of ANSYS commands, consult the Command Reference.
The GUI paths shown are as complete as possible. In many cases, choosing the GUI path as shown will perform
the function you want. In other cases, choosing the GUI path given in this document takes you to a menu
or dialog box; from there, you must choose additional options that are appropriate for the specific task being
performed.
For the thermal related analyses described in this guide, specify the material you will be simulating using
an intuitive material model interface. This interface uses a hierarchical tree structure of material categories,
which is intended to assist you in choosing the appropriate model for your analysis. See Material Model Interface in the Basic Analysis Guide for details on the material model interface.

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Chapter 2: The Basics of FLOTRAN Analysis


Before running a FLOTRAN analysis, you need to understand the behavior of the FLOTRAN elements, the
steps to running a FLOTRAN analysis, the tools available, and how to evaluate an analysis.
The following FLOTRAN analysis topics are available:
2.1. Characteristics of the FLOTRAN Elements
2.2. Considerations and Restrictions for Using the FLOTRAN Elements
2.3. Overview of a FLOTRAN Analysis
2.4. Files the FLOTRAN Elements Create
2.5. Convergence and Stability Tools
2.6. What to Watch For During a FLOTRAN Analysis
2.7. Evaluating a FLOTRAN Analysis
2.8. Verifying Results

2.1. Characteristics of the FLOTRAN Elements


The ANSYS FLOTRAN elements, FLUID141 and FLUID142, solve for 2-D and 3-D flow, pressure, and temperature distributions in a single phase viscous fluid. For these elements, the ANSYS program calculates velocity
components, pressure, and temperature from the conservation of three properties: mass, momentum, and
energy.

Table 2.1 2-D Solid Elements


Element

Dimens.

Shape or Characteristic

DOFs

FLUID141

2-D

Quadrilateral, four nodes or triangle,


three nodes

Fluid velocity, pressure, temperature,


turbulent kinetic energy, turbulent
energy dissipation, multiple species
mass fractions for up to six fluids

FLUID142

3-D

Hexahedral, eight nodes or tetrahedral, four nodes or wedge, six nodes


or pyramid, five nodes; tetrahedral
and hexahedral elements can be
combined by pyramids

Fluid velocity, pressure, temperature,


turbulent kinetic energy, turbulent
energy dissipation, multiple species
mass fractions for up to six fluids

2.1.1. Other Element Features


Other features of the FLOTRAN elements include:

A two-equation turbulence model for simulating turbulent flows.

Derived results, such as Mach number, pressure coefficient, total pressure, shear stress, y plus at walls,
and stream function for fluid analyses and heat flux and heat transfer (film) coefficient for thermal
analyses.

Fluid boundary conditions, including velocities, pressures, and the turbulence quantities kinetic energy
and kinetic energy dissipation rate. You may supply specific values of the turbulence quantities at the
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Chapter 2: The Basics of FLOTRAN Analysis


inlet, but the FLOTRAN default boundary conditions suffice if the entrance is not close to the regions
of primary interest.

Thermal boundary conditions, including temperature, heat flux, volumetric heat sources, and heat
transfer (film) coefficient.

You can solve problems in Cartesian, cylindrical, polar, and axisymmetric coordinate systems. If a problem
is axisymmetric, activating a swirl option allows you to calculate a velocity component normal to the
axisymmetric plane.

2.2. Considerations and Restrictions for Using the FLOTRAN Elements


The FLOTRAN elements have some limitations:

You cannot change the problem domain during a single analysis.

Certain features of the ANSYS program do not work with the FLOTRAN elements.

You cannot use certain commands or menu paths with the FLOTRAN elements.

If you use the ANSYS GUI, only the features and options called for in the FLOTRAN SetUp portion of the
menus and dialog boxes will appear.

2.2.1. Limitations on FLOTRAN Element Use


When you are using the FLOTRAN elements, you should avoid using certain ANSYS features and commands,
or if you do choose to use them, be aware that they have slightly different uses with the FLOTRAN elements.
This does not mean that every command not listed here will work with FLOTRAN elements. ANSYS informs you
if you try to issue a command that is invalid.
When using the FLOTRAN elements, keep the following points in mind:

FLOTRAN elements cannot be combined with other elements except when using the ANSYS Multi-field
solver.

The nodal coordinate system must be identical to the global coordinate system.

The /CLEAR command does not destroy an existing FLOTRAN results file (Jobname.RFL), thus preventing
you from inadvertently destroying a results file that took much time and effort to create. Existing Jobname.RFL file names will become Jobname.RFO file names if the number of nodes in the model has
changed since the Jobname.RFL file creation. You should remove unwanted results files at the system
level.

In FLOTRAN, the CP command enforces periodic boundary conditions by coupling all degrees of freedom
between two nodes. You should not use the CP command to couple more than two nodes or to couple
a subset of the degrees of freedom. You should only use this command to couple all degrees of freedom
of one node on a periodic boundary face to one other node on another periodic boundary face.
You cannot couple nodes on the same element, and you may have difficulty coupling nodes on adjacent
elements.

The ADAPT macro does not work with FLOTRAN.

You cannot use the ANTYPE command to invoke a transient analysis with the FLOTRAN element. (See
Chapter 5, FLOTRAN Transient Analyses (p. 59).)

FLOTRAN analyses do not support automatic time stepping. For more information, see Chapter 5, FLOTRAN
Transient Analyses (p. 59).

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2.2.1. Limitations on FLOTRAN Element Use

If you specify nodal heat generation loads via commands BFCUM, BFDELE, or BFUNIF, ANSYS uses load
values specified with the BFE command instead.

The commands CE, CECMOD, CEDELE, and CEINTF do not work with FLOTRAN.

The CNVTOL command does not set convergence tolerances with FLOTRAN as it does for other analyses.
For information about FLOTRAN convergence, see Deciding How Many Global Iterations to Use (p. 17).

The symmetry and antisymmetry conditions that the DSYM command specifies are not appropriate for
FLOTRAN. Chapter 3, FLOTRAN Laminar and Turbulent Incompressible Flow (p. 23) explains how to specify
flow symmetry boundary conditions for FLOTRAN.

FLOTRAN does not support angular acceleration vectors for rotating coordinate systems.

In a FLOTRAN analysis, the command FLDATA4,TIME (rather than the DELTIM command) specifies a
time step for a load step.

For FLOTRAN, you cannot use the DESOL command or the PRESOL command to modify HEAT, FLOW,
or FLUX nodal results.

FLOTRAN does not permit extrapolation of integration point results to nodes (via the ERESX command).

FLOTRAN does not allow you to generate elements through reflections. Although not recommended,
FLOTRAN will execute properly if you generate reflected elements using a different element type and
you subsequently switch to the FLOTRAN element type.

In FLOTRAN analyses, you cannot ramp loads via the KBC command. The FLOTRAN command
FLDATA4,TIME,BC, however, is analogous to the ANSYS command KBC, except that the default for
FLOTRAN is a step change.

Load case operations, such as those performed by the LCCALC, LCDEF, LCFACT, and LCFILE commands,
are not allowed in a FLOTRAN analysis.

Do not use the LSWRITE or LSSOLVE command in a FLOTRAN analysis. Use the SOLVE command to
start a FLOTRAN solution.

The convergence tool invoked with the NCNV command does not apply to the FLOTRAN segregated
solver.

Do not use the NEQIT command, which defines the number of equilibrium iterations for a nonlinear
solution, in a FLOTRAN analysis.

FLOTRAN requires the nodal and global Cartesian coordinate systems to be the same. Therefore, you
cannot use the rotational fields on the N, NMODIF, and NROTAT commands.

In a FLOTRAN analysis, the commands FLDATA2,ITER, FLDATA4,TIME, and FLDATA4A,STEP control


items written to the results files (Jobname.RFL and Jobname.PFL

FLOTRAN does not permit user programmable elements, such as those specified via the NSVR command.

In a FLOTRAN analysis, the commands FLDATA2,ITER and FLDATA4,TIME control items written to the
database.

The PRNLD command does not apply to FLOTRAN, because it does not store boundary conditions as
printable element nodal loads.

Node reaction solutions, such as those produced by the PRRSOL command, are not available for FLOTRAN.

The partial and predefined solution option (called by the PSOLVE command) does not apply to the
FLOTRAN segregated solver.

The TIME command, which associates boundary conditions with a particular time value, does not apply
to FLOTRAN.

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Chapter 2: The Basics of FLOTRAN Analysis

FLOTRAN analyses use the FLDATA1,SOLU command instead of the TIMINT command to specify transient load steps.

FLOTRAN analyses use the FLDATA4,TIME command instead of the TRNOPT command to specify
transient analysis options.

The RESCONTROL command does not apply to FLOTRAN. Some of the functionality of RESCONTROL
is provided with the FLDATA32,REST command.

For FLOTRAN, you cannot use the DK command to define DOF constraints at keypoints.

2.3. Overview of a FLOTRAN Analysis


A typical FLOTRAN analysis consists of several main steps:
2.3.1. Determining the Problem Domain
2.3.2. Determining the Flow Regime
2.3.3. Creating the Finite Element Mesh
2.3.4. Applying Boundary Conditions
2.3.5. Setting FLOTRAN Analysis Parameters
2.3.6. Solving the Problem
2.3.7. Examining the Results

2.3.1. Determining the Problem Domain


You need to determine the proper domain for each problem you analyze. Locate the boundaries of the
problem where conditions are known. If you do not know precise conditions and must make assumptions
about them, do not locate boundaries too close to the regions of greatest interest or near regions that have
steep gradients in the solution variables.
Sometimes, you may not realize that steep gradients occur too near the outlet or in some other region until
you see the analysis results. Should this happen, you can re-analyze the problem with a different problem
domain.
For specific recommendations on determining problem domain, see the sections discussing the various flow
phenomena.

2.3.2. Determining the Flow Regime


You need to estimate the character of the flow. The character is a function of the fluid properties, geometry,
and the approximate magnitude of the velocity field.
Fluid flow problems that FLOTRAN solves will include gases and liquids, the properties of which can vary
significantly with temperature. The flow of gases is restricted to ideal gases. You must determine whether
the effect of temperature on fluid density, viscosity, and thermal conductivity is important. In many cases,
you can get adequate results with constant properties.
To assess whether you need the FLOTRAN turbulence model, use an estimate of the Reynolds number, which
measures the relative strengths of the inertial and viscous forces. (See Chapter 3, FLOTRAN Laminar and Turbulent Incompressible Flow (p. 23) for more information.)
To determine whether you need to use the compressible option, estimate the Mach number. (See Chapter 8,
FLOTRAN Compressible Analyses (p. 103)) The Mach number at any point in the flow field is the ratio of the
fluid speed and the speed of sound. At Mach numbers above approximately 0.3, consider using the compressible solution algorithm. At Mach numbers above approximately 0.7, you can expect significant differences

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2.3.6. Solving the Problem


between incompressible and compressible results. You may want to compare results from each algorithm
for a representative problem.

2.3.3. Creating the Finite Element Mesh


You will need to make assumptions about where the gradients are expected to be the highest, and you
must adjust the mesh accordingly. For example, if you are using the turbulence model, then the region near
the walls must have a much denser mesh than would be needed for a laminar problem. If it is too coarse,
the original mesh may not capture significant effects brought about through steep gradients in the solution.
Conversely, elements may have very large aspect ratios with the long sides along directions with very low
gradients.
For the most accurate results, use mapped meshing. It more effectively maintains a consistent mesh pattern
along the boundary. You can do this by issuing the command MSHKEY,1 (Main Menu> Preprocessor>
Meshing> Mesh> entity> Mapped).
In some cases, you may wish to use hexahedral elements to capture detail in high-gradient regions and
tetrahedral elements in less critical regions. As described in Creating Transitional Pyramid Elements in the
Modeling and Meshing Guide you can instruct ANSYS to automatically create pyramid elements at the interface.
For flow analysis, especially turbulent, you should not use pyramid elements in the region near the walls
because it may lead to inaccuracies in the solution.
Wedge elements can be useful when a complex area can be easily meshed with triangles that are then extruded. For a quick solution, you can use wedge elements in the region near the walls. However, for accurate
results, you should use hexahedral elements in those regions.
Wedge elements are considered to be degenerate hexahedral elements. When using the ANSYS MeshTool
(Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> MeshTool) to sweep triangles into wedges, you must select Hex
elements.

2.3.4. Applying Boundary Conditions


You can apply boundary conditions before or after you mesh the domain. Consider every model boundary.
If a condition is not specified for a dependent variable, a zero gradient of that value normal to the surface
is assumed.
You can change boundary conditions between restarts. If you need to change a boundary condition or accidentally omit it, you do not need to restart your analysis unless the change causes instabilities in the analysis
solution.

2.3.5. Setting FLOTRAN Analysis Parameters


In order to use options such as the turbulence model or solution of the temperature equation, you must
activate them. Specific items to be set, such as fluid properties, are a function of the type of flow problem
at hand. Other sections in this document recommend parameter settings for various types of flow.

2.3.6. Solving the Problem


You can monitor solution convergence and stability of the analysis by observing the rate of change of the
solution and the behavior of relevant dependent variables. These variables include velocity, pressure, temperature, and (if necessary) turbulence quantities such as kinetic energy (degree of freedom ENKE), kinetic
energy dissipation rate (ENDS), and effective viscosity (EVIS).
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Chapter 2: The Basics of FLOTRAN Analysis


An analysis typically requires multiple restarts.

2.3.7. Examining the Results


You can postprocess output quantities and examine the results in the output files. Use your engineering
judgment when examining the results to evaluate the plausibility and consistency of the overall analysis
approach, how specific properties are used, and the conditions imposed.

Note
Results tracking via the NLHIST command is not available with FLOTRAN analyses.

2.4. Files the FLOTRAN Elements Create


You perform most fluid flow analyses in ANSYS by stopping the analysis job and then restarting it multiple
times. Often, analysts change parameters such as relaxation factors or turn options (such as solution of the
temperature equation) on or off between restarts. Each time you continue a job, the ANSYS program appends
data to all of the files that its FLOTRAN element creates.
The following list explains all files that a FLOTRAN element creates. A discussion of the residual file appears
at the end of this section.

The results file, Jobname.RFL, contains nodal results.

The print file, Jobname.PFL, contains input convergence monitors, and inlet/outlet summaries.

The wall file, Jobname.RSW, contains wall shear stress and Y-plus information.

The residual file, Jobname.RDF, contains the nodal residuals.

The debug file, Jobname.DBG, contains information about algebraic solver performance.

The results backup file, Jobname.RFO, contains a copy of the results file data.

The restart file, Jobname.CFD, contains FLOTRAN data structures.

The domain file, (jobname.pv_0000n) for use by ICEM CFD's PV3 postprocessing visualization tool.

2.4.1. The Results File


The results of a FLOTRAN analysis are not stored in the ANSYS database automatically. At the end of every
solution, the ANSYS program adds a set of results to the results file, Jobname.RFL. You have some control
over the content of the results file and how often ANSYS updates it. The defaults given in the description
of the FLDATA5,OUTP command in the Command Reference reflect FLOTRAN's determination of what the
results file should store based on the options you choose.
The ANSYS program is flexible about how many sets of results you can store for a steady-state FLOTRAN
analysis. Keeping sets of results from earlier executions has advantages: you can compare changes that occurred between sets of results, and you can continue an analysis from its earlier stages using different options
or relaxation parameters.
The ANSYS program stores a set of results when you begin an analysis (before the first iteration), then stores
results again when one of the termination criteria is reached. Between those events, you can append the
results to the Jobname.RFL file. Storing intermediate sets of results enables you to continue the analysis
from an earlier stage with different options and features activated, for example to enhance stability.

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2.4.4.The Restart File


We recommend that you use ANSYS' overwrite frequency option because it allows you to periodically store
and update a temporary set of results. Using this option ensures that a useful set of results will exist should
you need to restart an analysis after a power failure or other system interruption. The next regularly scheduled
output of results overwrites the temporary results set. You can accomplish the same thing by instructing
ANSYS to append data to the results file more often; however, this method inflates the size of the results
file.
To set the overwrite frequency, use either of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA2,ITER,OVER,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl
To set the append frequency, use either of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA2,ITER,APPE,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl

2.4.2. The Print File (Jobname.PFL)


The Jobname.PFL file contains a complete record of all FLOTRAN input parameters, including properties
and solution options. This information is recorded each time a SOLVE is issued so as to provide a complete
account of the analysis history. In addition, all convergence monitors are recorded for all active values. A
results summary, showing maximum and minimum values of each property and degree of freedom, is
provided at a user-determined frequency. Average values are also recorded. The mass flow boundaries are
identified and a mass balance is calculated. Finally, all heat transfer information is summarized for all heat
transfer and heat sources.

2.4.3. The Nodal Residuals File


The nodal residuals file, Jobname.RDF, shows you how well the current solution is converged. At every
stage in the solution procedure, the flow, property, and temperature fields are used to calculate coefficient
matrices and forcing functions for each DOF. If a solution is converged completely, these matrices and forcing
functions will produce the same velocity field used to generate them and the residuals of the matrix equation
will be very small. You must request at least one global iteration to obtain a nodal residual file.
If a solution oscillates, however, the magnitude of the residuals shows where the maximum errors are. (The
main diagonal entries of the matrix normalize the residuals.) This normalization enables you to compare
directly the value of the DOF and the value of its residual.
To calculate residuals for every active degree of freedom and output them to the residuals file, do either of
the following:
Command(s): FLDATA5,OUTP,RESI,TRUE
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN SetUp> Additional Out> Residual File
To read the residuals file, either issue the FLREAD command (Main Menu> General Postproc> FLOTRAN
2.1A). The residuals are postprocessed with the label associated with the DOF (for instance, TEMP or PRES
for the temperature or pressure residuals).

2.4.4. The Restart File


By default, FLOTRAN calculates data structures at the beginning of a restart of an analysis. These calculations
may take considerable time for large models. To avoid recalculation, you can opt to have FLOTRAN store

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Chapter 2: The Basics of FLOTRAN Analysis


the data structures in the Jobname.CFD file. FLOTRAN creates this file from information in the ANSYS
database (but the file is not required for restarts).
To write to or read from the Jobname.CFD file, use either of the following methods before the restart:
Command(s): FLDATA32,REST,RFIL,T
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Restart Options> CFD Restart File
You can toggle the RFIL state on (TRUE) or off (FALSE). If is on, ANSYS reads the restart file when FLOTRAN
begins to execute. If no restart file exists, one will be created.
If you are restarting an analysis with updated boundary conditions, you must overwrite an existing .CFD
file in order to use the new conditions. To overwrite the file, use either of the following methods:
Command(s): FLDATA32,REST,WFIL,T
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Restart Options> CFD Restart File
This will cause FLOTRAN to create a new restart file during the next load step, and automatically sets the
RFIL state to False. After the restart that has created the new file completes, issue the
FLDATA32,REST,RFIL,TRUE command so that subsequent restarts use the new Jobname.CFD restart file.

2.4.5. The Domain File


Domain files are used by ICEM CFD's PV3 postprocessor visualization tool. In addition to nodal results these
files contain information to define the finite element model, including node locations, element topology,
element connectivity, and family information concerning predefined ANSYS components. They also contain
load step, substep, cumulative iteration, and time point values.

2.4.6. Restarting a FLOTRAN Analysis


You can restart the FLOTRAN analysis from any set of results in the Jobname.RFL file or from a different
.RFL file. You can base the restart on the set number (Label = NSET), the global iteration number (Label
= ITER), the load step/subset numbers (Label = LSTP), or the transient analysis time (Label = TIME). You
determine the restart criteria by doing either of the following:

Issue the command FLDATA32,REST,Label,Value. Specify one of the labels listed above in place of
Label. The Value argument causes values associated with the other criteria to be zeroed. Once invoked,
the behavior is turned off in the database by setting all the criteria to zero. If you are restarting from a
different results file, you also need to specify the filename, extension, and directory of that file.

Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Restart Options> Restart/Iteration
(or Restart/Load step, Restart/Set, etc.)

If you specify invalid criteria, ANSYS notifies you and (if the program is operating in batch mode) terminates
the analysis.
When you restart an analysis, ANSYS copies the original results file to the file Jobname.RSO and places the
restart point, all previous results sets, and all subsequent results sets in the new Jobname.RFL file. If the
Value input on the FLDATA32,REST command is negative, creation of the Jobname.RSO file is blocked.
FLOTRAN uses the absolute value of the number specified for Value.
If a results file name is entered in the Fname field of the FLDATA32,REST command, FLOTRAN interpolates
those results onto the current mesh in the database, regardless of whether or not the mesh has changed.
This causes the convergence monitors to start again from zero. This restart is different than a restart without
a file name specification. However, the results quickly converge to the original solution.
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2.5.3. Modified Inertial Relaxation

2.5. Convergence and Stability Tools


2.5.1. Relaxation Factors
The ANSYS program offers several tools to help with convergence and solution stability. The Theory Reference
for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications explains how they are implemented.
The relaxation factor is the fraction of the change between the old solution and the newly calculated solution
that is added to the old solution, giving the results for the new global iteration. The relaxation factors for
every component must be between 0.0 (resulting in no update to the degree of freedom or property) and
1.0 inclusive. You set relaxation factors via either of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA25,RELX,Label,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> DOF Relaxation
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Prop Relaxation
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> DOF Relaxation
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Prop Relaxation

Note
See the description of the FLDATA25,RELX command in the Command Reference for lists of degree
of freedom and property component names.

2.5.2. Inertial Relaxation


Inertial relaxation of the equation set for a DOF provides diagonal dominance to make a solution stable.
Hypothetically, when a solution is converged in the absence of round off-error, the inertial relaxation applied
does not affect the value of the answer. However, in real situations, some round off-error always occurs, so
the inertial relaxation may affect your solution.
You can apply inertial relaxation to the momentum equations (MOME), turbulence equations (TURB), the
pressure equation (PRES), and the temperature equation (TEMP). To do so, use either of these methods:
Command(s): FLDATA26,STAB,Label,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms
The inertial relaxation factor is in the denominator of the term added, so smaller values have a greater effect.
Typical useful values range between 1.0 (mild) and 1.0 x 10-7 (severe).

2.5.3. Modified Inertial Relaxation


Modified inertial relaxation adds a local positive value to the diagonal term to guarantee a positive diagonal.
You can apply modified inertial relaxation to the momentum equations (MOME), turbulence equations (TURB),
and the temperature equation (TEMP). To do so, use either of these methods:
Command(s): FLDATA34,MIR,Label,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> MIR Stabilization
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> MIR Stabilization

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Chapter 2: The Basics of FLOTRAN Analysis


A larger modified inertial relaxation factor gives a more robust scheme, but it may yield a slower convergence.
The recommended range is 0.1 to 1.0.
You should consider inertial relaxation and modified inertial relaxation to be mutually exclusive.

2.5.4. Artificial Viscosity


Artificial viscosity smooths the velocity solution in regions of steep gradients. It has proven useful in aiding
convergence of compressible problems and in smoothing velocity solutions in incompressible problems
with distributed resistances. For incompressible analyses, you should keep the artificial viscosity within an
order of magnitude of the effective viscosity.
To apply artificial viscosity, use either of these methods:
Command(s): FLDATA26,STAB,VISC,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms

2.5.5. DOF Capping


DOF capping allows you to prevent variables from going out of boundaries you specify. You can limit the
velocities, pressure, and temperature degrees of freedom (VY, VY, VZ, PRES, TEMP). To do this, use either of
these methods:
Command(s): FLDATA31,CAPP
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Results Capping
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Results Capping
Velocity capping eliminates the effects of velocity spikes on properties, which may occur in the early stages
of convergence. Capping is especially suited to compressible analyses, where velocity spikes can cause kinetic energy terms great enough to produce negative static temperatures. When a degree of freedom is
capped, ANSYS prints a message along with the convergence monitor printout.
The pressure value calculated by the solution of the pressure equation is capped, not the relaxed value.
Therefore, if you introduce pressure capping upon restarting an analysis, pressure values may still be outside
the caps.
Capping applies to relative values of pressure and absolute values of temperature.
You should cap the total temperature when performing compressible thermal analyses. It will help ensure
negative properties do not enter the calculations.

Caution
When velocities are capped, conservation of mass may not be enforced.

2.5.6. The Quadrature Order


You have control over the quadrature order. In axisymmetric problems, the quadrature order automatically
is set to 2 upon solution. This is because quadrature orders of 2 produce more accurate results for problems
with irregularly shaped elements. The quadrature order is also automatically set to 2 upon solution for 3-D
problems using cylindrical coordinates.

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2.6.2. Convergence Monitors


If you notice anomalous results near a region of skewed hexahedral elements, reset the quadrature order
to 2. There might be a problem with the results when the included angles of the hexahedra exceed 120
degrees.
You can change the quadrature order for momentum diffusion or source, pressure diffusion or source,
thermal diffusion or source, turbulent diffusion or source, using either of the following:
Command(s):
FLDATA30,QUAD,Label,Value
(Label is the element integral to change quadrature for, and Value is the number of integration points).
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Mod Res/Quad Ord> CFD Quad Orders
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Mod Res/Quad Ord> CFD Quad Orders
For more information on quadrature order, refer to the description of the FLDATA30,QUAD command in
the Command Reference.

2.6. What to Watch For During a FLOTRAN Analysis


This section describes what happens in a FLOTRAN analysis and how to evaluate how the analysis is proceeding.

2.6.1. Deciding How Many Global Iterations to Use


A FLOTRAN analysis is nonlinear and uses a sequential solution, so the first thing you must do is decide how
many global iterations should be executed. A global iteration is the solution, in sequence, of all relevant
governing equations followed by any fluid property updates that are needed.
In a transient simulation, a time step loop exists around the global iteration loop.
During a global iteration, the ANSYS Multiphysics program or ANSYS FLOTRAN obtains approximate solutions
to the momentum equation and uses them as forcing functions to solve a pressure equation based on
conservation of mass. ANSYS uses the resulting pressures to update the velocities so that the velocity field
conserves mass. If you request it, the ANSYS program solves the temperature equation and updates temperature dependent properties.
Finally, if you have activated the turbulence model, the equations are solved and the program uses the
turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate to calculate the effective viscosity and thermal conductivity.
Effective viscosity and thermal conductivity replace, respectively, the laminar viscosity and thermal conductivity to model the effect of turbulence on the mean flow.
To specify how many global iterations a FLOTRAN analysis should execute, use either of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA2,ITER,EXEC,Value (Value is the number of iterations.)
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl

2.6.2. Convergence Monitors


As a FLOTRAN simulation proceeds, ANSYS calculates convergence monitors for each degree of freedom every
global iteration. Convergence monitors are computed for velocities (VY, VY, VZ), pressure (PRES), temperature
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Chapter 2: The Basics of FLOTRAN Analysis


(TEMP), turbulent kinetic energy (ENKE), kinetic energy dissipation rate (ENDS), and any active species
transport equations (SP01-SP06).
The convergence monitors are a normalized measure of the solution's rate of change from iteration to iteration. Denoting by the general field variable, , any DOF, the convergence monitor is defined as follows:
N

ki ki 1

ConvMon = i=1

ki

i=1

The convergence monitor represents the sum of changes of the variable calculated from the results between
the current kth iteration and the previous (k-1)th iteration, divided by the sum of the current values. The
summation is performed over all n nodes, using the absolute values of the differences.
Available in both batch and interactive sessions, the Graphical Solution Tracking (GST) feature displays the
computed convergence monitors while the solution is in process. Be default, GST is ON for interactive sessions
and OFF for batch runs. To turn GST on or off, use either of the following:
Command(s): /GST
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Grph Solu Track
Figure 2.1: Convergence Monitors Displayed by the GST Feature (p. 18) shows two typical GST displays:

Figure 2.1: Convergence Monitors Displayed by the GST Feature

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2.6.3. Stopping a FLOTRAN Analysis


(a) Steady-state simulation, (b) Transient simulation
In Figure 2.1: Convergence Monitors Displayed by the GST Feature (p. 18) (b), a plot of a transient FLOTRAN
solution, each "spike" on the plot indicates the beginning of a new time step.
After perhaps some initial fluctuations, convergence monitors will decrease as the analysis approaches
convergence. How small the numbers become depends on several factors, such as:

Complexity of the geometry

Adequacy of the finite element mesh in regions with steep gradients

The severity of the turbulence levels, indicated by the flow Reynolds number

Development of the flow near outlet boundaries

Points to remember when using graphical solution tracking include:

The GST feature is available for FLOTRAN analyses and also for structural, thermal, and electromagnetic
analyses containing nonlinearities. For information about using GST to track convergence in non-FLOTRAN
analyses, see the Thermal Analysis Guide, the Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide, and the
Structural Analysis Guide.

GST can display up to ten curves at the same time. (Your model can include more than ten DOFs, but
only the first ten will be displayed.)

When the GST begins its plotting, ANSYS displays a dialog box with a STOP button. You can stop the
solution at any time by clicking on this button. To restart it, issue SOLVE or choose Main Menu>
Solution> Run FLOTRAN.

The time label which is positioned above the graph reveals the time at the last iteration.

2.6.3. Stopping a FLOTRAN Analysis


You can choose a target value for terminating a FLOTRAN analysis, based on the convergence monitors for
each degree of freedom falling below a certain value. To specify these values, use the following:
Command(s): FLDATA3,TERM,Label,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl
See the Command Reference for the default values. Termination checks do not include inactive degrees of
freedom or degrees of freedom set to a negative value.
The analysis must satisfy convergence criteria for all active degrees of freedom, or complete the specified
number of global iterations requested. FLOTRAN terminates on the first condition satisfied. For information on
terminating transient analyses, see Chapter 5, FLOTRAN Transient Analyses (p. 59).
To stop a FLOTRAN batch or background job in progress, place a file named Jobname.ABT in the subdirectory from which the ANSYS job has been executed. The first line of this file should contain the word "terminate," and should be left-justified. On Windows systems, you should also add a blank line at the end of
the Jobname.ABT file. FLOTRAN looks for the Jobname.ABT file during every global iteration. If it finds
the file and reads the word "terminate," it will finish that global iteration and terminate normally, writing
the results to the Jobname.RFL file and extending the Jobname.PFL file.

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Chapter 2: The Basics of FLOTRAN Analysis

2.6.4. Pressure Results


For locked tetrahedral elements (those at a corner where two walls meet) there is a slight pressure anomaly.
ANSYS takes those elements out of the solution domain because all the nodes have boundary conditions.
The solution is correct in the domain. Use hexahedral elements to avoid this pressure anomaly.

2.7. Evaluating a FLOTRAN Analysis


The two basic questions an analyst must answer are:
1.

When is the analysis completed?

2.

Has it been done correctly?

These questions are interrelated, since convergence may not be achieved it you have not set up and executed
the analysis correctly.
If you have set the input parameters and boundary conditions correctly, the analysis is complete when the
convergence monitors for all variables stop decreasing and the average, maximum, and minimum values of
the solution variables no longer increase or decrease. There is no guarantee, however, that you will achieve
a single exact answer because nature does not guarantee that a single exact answer exists. Oscillatory
problems (for example, vortex shedding behind a cylinder) may not yield stationary results from a steadystate or a transient solution algorithm. You may wish to continue executing the analysis to verify whether
a solution has a stable or a fluctuating nature.
The ANSYS program stores the average, minimum, and maximum values of the solution variables in the file
Jobname.PFL. This file also records the FLOTRAN input plus the convergence monitors which have been
calculated. The results summary includes all the DOF, as well as laminar and effective properties. You determine
how often ANSYS issues the results summary by using one of these methods:
Command(s): FLDATA5,OUTP,SUMF,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Additional Out> RFL Out Derived
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Additional Out> RFL Out Derived
The Value argument is the number of global iterations that pass before ANSYS issues the next results
summary.
You may also want to map your results onto a path through your model. See Mapping Results onto a Path
in the Basic Analysis Guide for more information on reviewing results along a path.

2.8. Verifying Results


You, the analyst, are responsible for verifying results. If your FLOTRAN analysis produces unexpected results,
take the actions listed below. You can accomplish many of these actions at the beginning of the analysis.
ANSYS creates a Jobname.PFL file and checks inputs even if the number of iterations executed is zero.
1.

Check the mass balance printed as part of the results summary. Internal checks will determine if any
mass flow can potentially cross a model boundary. Boundary conditions admitting mass flow are:

Specified velocity boundaries

Specified pressure boundaries

Unspecified boundaries (These can result if you inadvertently omit a boundary condition.)

The ANSYS program tabulates the number of inlets/outlets, which should correspond to expectations.
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2.8. Verifying Results


2.

Check boundary conditions within ANSYS to ensure that they are accurate.

3.

Check that you specified the properties correctly and that they can vary with temperature and pressure
if necessary. The results summary in the Jobname.PFL file is a convenient place to check this.

4.

Check that the length units used to build the model are consistent with those used in specifying
properties.

5.

In some cases, you need to verify that equations associated with the options chosen are solved correctly
(for instance, the pressure equation in compressible flow).

6.

If the unexpected result of your analysis is divergence, the finite element mesh may not have sufficient
resolution, or significant gradients may exist near outlets. To resolve this, you may need to use convergence aids such as relaxation. Later sections in this document discuss various relaxation techniques.

7.

If you get a diverged solution for a particular variable, you can re-initialize that variable to a single
value and continue. To do so, use one of these methods:
Command(s): FLDATA29,MODV
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Mod Res/Quad Ord> Modify Results
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Mod Res/Quad Ord> Modify Results

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Chapter 3: FLOTRAN Laminar and Turbulent Incompressible Flow


A laminar or turbulent flow analysis calculates the flow and pressure distribution in a 2-D or 3-D geometry.
Flow problems require you to specify density and viscosity. Problems may be internal or external in nature.
For internal flows, wall or symmetry planes bound the flow (for example, flow in a pipe), except for the inlet
and outlet boundaries. (Figure 3.1: Internal Flow (p. 23) shows an example). The boundaries of external
problems generally are either far-field velocity or pressure boundary conditions. The flow surrounding an
airfoil is an external flow (See Figure 3.2: External Flow (p. 23)).

Figure 3.1: Internal Flow


Wall

Wall

Figure 3.2: External Flow


Free Stream Conditions

Free Stream Conditions


The distinction between incompressible and compressible flow lies in both the equation of state and the
solution algorithm.

In an incompressible flow, density variations can drive the flow only through gravitational acceleration.
Temperature changes cause variations of density.

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Chapter 3: FLOTRAN Laminar and Turbulent Incompressible Flow

In a compressible flow, the density changes caused by pressure variations significantly affect the momentum and temperature equations.

In any event, the incompressible algorithm can measure flow of an ideal gas, complete with small density
changes due to pressure. See Chapter 8, FLOTRAN Compressible Analyses (p. 103) for more information.
The following FLOTRAN laminar and turbulent incompressible flow topics are available:
3.1. Activating the Turbulence Model
3.2. Meshing Requirements
3.3. Flow Boundary Conditions
3.4. Strategies for Difficult Problems
3.5. Example of a Laminar and Turbulent FLOTRAN Analysis

3.1. Activating the Turbulence Model


The distinction between laminar and turbulent flow lies in the ratio of the inertial transport to the viscous
transport. As this ratio increases, instabilities develop and velocity fluctuations begin to occur. A turbulent
model accounts for the effect of these fluctuations on the mean flow by using an increased viscosity, the
effective viscosity, in the governing equations. The effective viscosity is the sum of the laminar viscosity
(which is a property of the fluid) and turbulent viscosity (which is calculated from a turbulence model).
e = + t
Generally, the more turbulent the flow field, the higher the effective viscosity.

3.1.1. The Role of the Reynolds Number


The dimensionless Reynolds number measures the ratio of inertial and viscous forces to help determine
whether or not the turbulence model should be activated. The Reynolds number is defined in terms of the
properties of the fluid, a characteristic velocity, and a characteristic dimension:
RE =

VLc

The density (mass/length3) and absolute viscosity (mass/length-time) are properties of the fluid. For internal flow problems, the characteristic dimension is the hydraulic diameter, defined as:
Lc =Dh =

4 (Cross-Sectional Flow Area)


Wetted Perimeter

For example, the hydraulic diameter of a pipe is simply the diameter. As a general guideline for internal flow
problems such as flow in pipes, the turbulence model should usually be activated if the Reynolds number
is in excess of about 2300.
For an external flow problem, such as the flow over an airfoil, the characteristic length is a parameter such
as the length of the airfoil (wing cross section for a 2-D analysis).
For flow over a flat plate, the dimension is the length along the plate from the leading edge, with the
transition to turbulence occurring at a Reynolds number of approximately 500,000.
For more information, see Turbulence in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications.

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3.1.4.Turbulence Models

3.1.2. Determining Whether an Analysis Is Turbulent


Determining if an analysis is laminar or turbulent is your responsibility. What happens if turbulence is not
activated when it should be, or vice versa? What are the indications and the consequences?
If turbulence is needed but not activated, the analysis probably will diverge. If this occurs, the momentum
and pressure convergence parameters will approach 1.0 and the values of velocities and pressure will become
very large. You should start over with the turbulence model activated.
In some cases, convergence occurs even without the turbulence model. This can happen if no geometrical
features such as bends disturb the flow. Physically, some flows retain laminar characteristics unless they are
slightly disturbed in some fashion.
Conversely, although the turbulence models are not low Reynolds number models and do not "automatically"
resort to laminar behavior at low Reynolds numbers, in such cases the turbulence models predict low values
of effective viscosity. If the final average effective viscosity is less than five times greater than the laminar
value, you should rerun the case without the turbulence model and evaluate the differences.
You can postprocess the effective viscosity with the label EVIS. It is also tabulated in the results summary
output provided in the Jobname.PFL file. Therefore, you can observe the average behavior of effective
viscosity as the solution proceeds. You also can postprocess it to see its variation throughout the flow field.

3.1.3. Turbulence Ratio and Inlet Parameters


Be aware that when an analysis begins, the effective viscosity initializes as a multiple of the laminar value.
This initialization occurs whether a turbulence model is or is not active. The default value of this multiple
(also called the turbulence ratio) is 1000; a reasonable value for most turbulent analyses. The algorithm calculates lower or higher values as conditions dictate. However, the accuracy of the initial estimate affects
how long the program takes to compute the final value.
To set the turbulence ratio, use either of these methods:
Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,RATI,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Turbulence> Turbulence Param
The two-equation turbulence models require boundary conditions for the turbulent kinetic energy (ENKE)
and turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate (ENDS) at an inlet. If known values are available at the inlet,
you can specify ENKE and ENDS, Otherwise, you must specify an inlet intensity (ININ), which is the ratio of
the fluctuating velocity to the inlet velocity, and an inlet scale factor (INSF), which is the ratio of a length
scale inlet region to the hydraulic diameter of the inlet. ININ and INSF default to 0.01.
To set the inlet intensity and inlet scale factor, you use either of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,ININ,Value FLDATA24,TURB,INSF,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Turbulence> Turbulence Param

3.1.4. Turbulence Models


FLOTRAN offers several turbulence models:
3.1.4.1. Standard k-epsilon Model (default)
3.1.4.2. Zero Equation Turbulence Model (ZeroEq)
3.1.4.3. Re-Normalized Group Turbulence Model (RNG)
3.1.4.4. k-epsilon Model Due to Shih (NKE)
3.1.4.5. Nonlinear Model of Girimaji (GIR)
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Chapter 3: FLOTRAN Laminar and Turbulent Incompressible Flow


3.1.4.6. Shih, Zhu, Lumley Model (SZL)
3.1.4.7. k-omega Turbulence Model
3.1.4.8. Shear Stress Transport Model (SST)
Turbulence modeling is activated by either of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA1,SOLU,TURB,T
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Solution Options
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Solution Options
To select a model, you use either of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,MODL,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model
Normally, the Standard k- Model is the first model to apply. It usually provides a realistic picture of the flow.
It is fine for the analysis of turbulent flow in pipes and channels. However, it over predicts the amount of
turbulence in a number of situations. For example, the flow in a converging nozzle undergoes significant
normal strain and the Standard k- Model over predicts the amount of turbulence. The resulting kinetic energy
is over predicted, and the resulting effective viscosity prevents simulation of shock waves in some cases.
In general, the RNG, NKE, GIR, and SZL turbulence models produce significantly more realistic and reliable
results in regions of large strain. This is particularly important for cases where the flow is strongly accelerated
or decelerated (e.g. a converging nozzle) or where there is significant separation or recirculation (e.g. a duct
that goes through a 180 degree change of direction). Other situations where the Standard k- Model encounters difficulties include flows with stagnation points.
The RNG, NKE, GIR, and SZL turbulence models control the excess turbulence by applying adjustments to
C and the source term of the dissipation equation. The adjustments are made in accordance with the local
rate of strain.
The k- turbulence model has the advantage near the walls to accurately predict the turbulence length
scale in the presence of an adverse pressure gradient. The k- model is much more sensitive to the freestream turbulence levels than the k- model. The Shear Stress Transport model (SST) combines the k-
model near the wall and the k- model away from the wall to overcome the deficiencies of both models.
See the Command Reference and Turbulence in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical
Applications for more information on the models.

3.1.4.1. Standard k-epsilon Model (default)


The Standard k- Model, the Zero Equation Turbulence Model, and the k- Model are the simplest models.
The other models are all extensions of the Standard k- Model and the k- Model. The Standard k- Model
is the default model.
To select the Standard k- Model, you use either of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,MODL,1
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model
C, C1, C2, SCTK, and SCTD are Standard k- Model constants that are defined as follows:
C - Value is the k- turbulence model constant
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3.1.4.Turbulence Models

t = C

k 2

which is used in the update of the turbulent viscosity.


C1 - Value is the k- turbulence model C1 constant. It is the multiplier of the shear rate generation term
of the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate equation.
C2 - Value is the k- turbulence model C2 constant. It is the multiplier of the dissipation source term in the
turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate equation.
SCTK - Value is the Schmidt number for the turbulent kinetic energy. The diffusion term in the turbulent
kinetic energy equation is divided by this factor.
SCTD - Value is the Schmidt number for the kinetic energy dissipation rate. The diffusion term in the dissipation rate equation is divided by this factor.
To set the Standard k- Model constants C, C1, C2, SCTK, and SCTD, you use either of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,Label,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model
The following five wall parameters control turbulence wall modeling. The wall parameters apply for all turbulence models except the Zero Equation Turbulence Model.
KAPP - Value is the law of the wall constant. It is the slope of the plot of normalized shear velocity (u+)
versus the nondimensionalized distance from the wall (y+). See Near-Wall Treatment in the Theory Reference
for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications for details.
EWLL - Value is the law of the wall constant. It is related to the y intercept value for a plot of normalized
shear velocity (u+) versus the nondimensionalized distance from the wall (y+). See Near-Wall Treatment in
the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications for more details.
WALL - Value is the choice of wall conductivity model. The default model is the Van Driest model (Value
= VAND), used most often for high Prandtl number fluids. The second choice is the Spalding model (Value
= SPAL), applicable to low Prandtl number fluids. The third choice is the Equilibrium model (Value = EQLB).
The equilibrium model is also automatically invoked for the wall viscosity by this command.
VAND - Value is the constant A in the Van Driest wall conductivity model, as described in Equation 761
and Near-Wall Treatment in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications.
TRAN - Value is the magnitude of y+ marking the outer boundary of the laminar sublayer. Used only for
the Equilibrium Wall model.
To set the wall parameters KAPP, EWILL, WALL, VAND and TRAN, you use either of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,Label,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Wall Parameters
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Wall Parameters
The following three buoyancy terms control buoyancy modeling. The buoyancy terms apply for all turbulence
models except the Zero Equation Turbulence Model.

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Chapter 3: FLOTRAN Laminar and Turbulent Incompressible Flow


BUC3 - Value is the k- buoyancy model constant. A value of zero means that there is no contribution to
the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate equation. The default value of one is appropriate for stable
thermally stratified flows. A value of zero is appropriate for unstable thermally stratified flows.
BUC4 - Value is the k- multiplier applied to the buoyancy term of the turbulent kinetic energy equation.
A value of 1.0 is appropriate for the calculation of stable thermally stratified flows. The default value is zero.
BETA - Value is , the coefficient of thermal expansion

1
T

This term is used in the buoyancy terms of the k- model.


To set the buoyancy terms BUC3, BUC4, and BETA, you use either of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,Label,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Buoyancy Terms
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Buoyancy Terms
See Standard k-epsilon Model in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications
and the Command Reference for more information.

3.1.4.2. Zero Equation Turbulence Model (ZeroEq)


The Zero Equation Turbulence Model (ZeroEq) is the simplest and fastest turbulence model. It applies to
problems with fairly simple geometry and flow characteristics. The model does not give accurate results if
there is significant separation or recirculation.
To select the Zero Equation Turbulence Model, you use either of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,MODL,2
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model
The Zero Equation Turbulence Model contains an automatic calculation of the length scale or you can specify
the length scale. Generally, the turbulence ratio can be set to 2.0 when you are using the Zero Equation
Turbulence Model.
See Zero Equation Model in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications and
the Command Reference for more information.

3.1.4.3. Re-Normalized Group Turbulence Model (RNG)


The Re-Normalized Group Turbulence Model (RNG) is effective where the geometry has a strong curvature
(e.g., a duct that goes through a 180 degree change in direction. If you have tried the SZL Model and the
results are unsatisfactory, it is generally recommended that you try the RNG Model.
To select the RNG Model, you use either of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,MODL,3
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model

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3.1.4.Turbulence Models
To set the constants for the RNG Model, you use either the FLDATA24A,RNGT command or the foregoing
GUI.
The RNG Model is an extension of the Standard k- Model. Seven constants are assigned values. The C, C1,
C2, SCTK, and SCTD constants are assigned values that are separate from the Standard k- Model. The following
two constants are added:
BETA -Value is the RNG model constant,
ETAI -Value is the asymptotic value of the strain rate parameter eta.
Inlet parameters and wall parameters are the same as the Standard k- Model.
See RNG Turbulence Model in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications and
the Command Reference for more information.

3.1.4.4. k-epsilon Model Due to Shih (NKE)


The k- Model due to Shih (NKE) features a variable C term which helps to reduce the excess normal strain
terms in the Standard k- Model. The NKE model also employs a different dissipation source term than the
Standard k- Model.
The NKE and GIR models are recommended for rotating flows.
To select the NKE Model, you use either of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,MODL,4
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model
To set the constants for the NKE Model, you use either the FLDATA24B,NKET command or the foregoing
GUI.
The NKE Model is an extension of the Standard k- Model. Four constants are assigned values. The C2, SCTK,
and SCTD constants are assigned values that are separate from the Standard k- Model. The following constant
is added:
C1MX - Value is the maximum allowed value of the C1 constant in the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation
rate equation.
Inlet parameters and wall parameters are the same as the Standard k- Model.
See NKE Turbulence Model in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications and
the Command Reference for more information.

3.1.4.5. Nonlinear Model of Girimaji (GIR)


The Nonlinear Model of Girimaji (GIR) is suggested for cases with secondary vortices in the flow. The GIR
and NKE models are recommended for rotating flows.
To select the GIR Model, you use either of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,MODL,5
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model
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Chapter 3: FLOTRAN Laminar and Turbulent Incompressible Flow


Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model
To set the constants for the GIR Model, you use either the FLDATA24C,GIRT command or the foregoing GUI.
The GIR Model is an extension of the Standard k- Model. Seven constants are assigned values. The SCTK,
and SCTD constants are assigned values that are separate from the Standard k- Model. The following five
constants are added:
0
G0 - Value is the C1 constant.

G1
G2
G3
G4

Value
Value
Value
Value

is
is
is
is

the
the
the
the

C11

constant.
C2 constant.
C3 constant.
C4 constant.

Inlet parameters and wall parameters are the same as the Standard k- Model.
See GIR Turbulence Model in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications and
the Command Reference for more information.

3.1.4.6. Shih, Zhu, Lumley Model (SZL)


The SZL Model is simpler than the NKE and GIR models. It produces the lowest level of turbulence. The SZL
model is numerically efficient, but in some cases the resulting low effective viscosity has an adverse effect
on stability. Generally, if the SZL model does not give satisfactory results, it is recommended that you try
the RNG model.
If conditions of large strain exist in the flow field, you may want to try the SZL Model after trying the RNG,
NKE or GIR models. If the SZL Model gives significantly different results, it is recommended that you refine
the mesh in the regions where the turbulence field is strongly altered.
To select the SZL Model, you use either of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,MODL,6
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model
To set the constants for the SZL Model, you use either the FLDATA24D,SZLT command or the foregoing
GUI.
The SZL Model is an extension of the Standard k- Model. Five constants are assigned values. The SCTK, and
SCTD constants are assigned values that are separate from the Standard k- Model. The following three
constants are added:
SZL1 - Value is the numerator constant used in the calculation of C. It is the Aszl1 constant.
SZL2 - Value is the denominator constant used in the calculation of C. It is the Aszl2 constant.
SZL3 - Value is the strain rate multiplier. It is the Aszl3 constant.
Inlet parameters and wall parameters are the same as the Standard k- Model.
See SZL Turbulence Model in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications and
the Command Reference for more information.

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3.1.4.Turbulence Models

3.1.4.7. k-omega Turbulence Model


The k- model is one of the simplest turbulence models. It provides better modeling of the turbulent
boundary layer than the standard k- model, but is more sensitive to the free-stream turbulence levels.
To select the k- Model, you use either of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,MODL,7
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model
To set the constants for the k- Model, use either the FLDATA24E,SKWT command or the foregoing GUI.
The k- Model solves for the equation rather than the equation in the standard k- Model. Four constants
are assigned values. The SCTK constant is an assigned value that is separate from the Standard k- Model.
The following three constants are added:
SCTW - Value is the Schmidt number for the specific dissipation rate.
BETA - Value is the BETA factor.
GAMA - Value is the GAMMA factor.
Inlet parameters and wall parameters are the same as the Standard k- Model.
See Standard k-omega Model in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications
and the Command Reference for more information.

3.1.4.8. Shear Stress Transport Model (SST)


The SST Model combines advantages of both the Standard k- Model and the k- Model. It automatically
switches to the k- Model in the near region and the Standard k- Model away from the walls.
To select the SST Model, you use either of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,MODL,8
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model
To set the constants for the SST Model, use the FLDATA24F,SST1, FLDATA24G,SST1 and FLDATA24H,SST2
commands, or the foregoing GUI. Similar to the k- Model, the SST Model solves for the equation rather
than the equation in the Standard k- Model. Nine constants are assigned values. The SCTK1 and the SCTK2
constants are assigned values that are separate from the Standard k- Model. The following seven constants
are added.
CLMT - Value is the turbulent production clip factor.
SCTW1 - Value is the Schmidt number for the specific dissipation rate in the k- regime.
SCTW2 - Value is the Schmidt number for the specific dissipation rate in the k- regime.
BETA1 - Value is the BETA factor in the k- regime.
BETA2 - Value is the BETA factor in the k- regime.
GAMA1 - Value is the GAMMA factor in the k- regime.
GAMA2 - Value is the GAMMA factor in the k- regime.
Inlet parameters and wall parameters are the same as the Standard k- Model.

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Chapter 3: FLOTRAN Laminar and Turbulent Incompressible Flow


See SST Turbulence Model in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications and
the Command Reference for more information.

3.2. Meshing Requirements


The meshing requirements for turbulence are more restrictive than those for laminar flow. The most important
areas obviously are those with the higher gradients, in particular the regions near walls.
Structured meshes, as contrasted with free meshes, can provide more consistent representation at the walls.
Figure 3.3: Structured Mesh (p. 32) and Figure 3.4: Unstructured Mesh (p. 32) compare the structured and unstructured meshes for a region near the wall.

Figure 3.3: Structured Mesh

This mesh was produced with MSHAPE,0,2D and MSHKEY,1 commands.

Figure 3.4: Unstructured Mesh

This mesh was produced with MSHAPE,1,2D and MSHKEY,0 commands.


You can evaluate the adequacy of the mesh near the walls. Applying the turbulence model near walls involves
the "Log Law of the Wall," the relationship between a nondimensionalized distance from the wall Y+, and
the log of a nondimensionalized velocity in a region near the wall. This law calculates a near wall viscosity
that is consistent with experimentally determined velocity profiles near the wall. Values of Y+ are relevant
only for wall nodes and are available for postprocessing (YPLU).

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3.3. Flow Boundary Conditions


Optimum values of Y+ are between approximately 30 and 1000. If the pressure is decreasing in the direction
of flow, values up to 5000 are acceptable. FLOTRAN handles the case where Y+ is less than 30 for the near
wall node by assuming that the near wall node is in the laminar sublayer or the overlap region. In the former
case, the near wall viscosity is simply the laminar value.
If Y+ is very small, perhaps below 1, more elements than necessary are being used to resolve the flow distribution field. If Y+ is greater than 5000, decrease the mesh spacing near the wall.

Caution
Use enough elements to resolve the flow field in the regions of interest. You should use at least
four elements to span the cross sections of long thin channels. Use more than four elements
where thin channels connect to larger regions.

3.3. Flow Boundary Conditions


Each boundary of the problem domain requires treatment. You specify some combination of DOF (VX, VY,
VZ and PRES) at the boundary types listed below. (If suitable values are available, you can specify turbulent
kinetic energy (ENKE) and turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate (ENDS) at an inlet.) The derivative of all
dependent variables normal to the surface is zero if you apply no conditions at the boundary surface.
To set DOF constraints at nodes, use either of the following:
Command(s): D
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> boundary condition type
You can set boundary conditions on the solid model using any of the following:
Command(s): DA and DL
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> boundary condition type>
On Areas
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> boundary condition type> On Areas
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> boundary condition type> On
Lines
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> boundary condition type> On Lines
This enables you to redo the analysis with a different mesh, without reapplying boundary conditions on a
nodal basis. These commands or GUI paths allow you to specify the condition on the endpoints of a line or
the edge of an area.
Take care to ensure that the proper conditions are applied at intersecting boundaries. You have control over
whether or not boundary conditions are applied at the ends of lines or at the edges of areas. A nonzero
velocity component at the end of a line or at the edge of an area will not replace an existing zero velocity
condition at the associated nodes. Where a wall intersects an inlet, the wall condition will automatically
prevail.
If you apply new (and different) boundary conditions to a solid model of a finite element mesh, you should
delete existing nodal boundary conditions before transferring the new loads.
Specified Flow: You specify all velocity components at the boundary. Use this method to specify a flow at
an inlet. Knowledge of the mass flow at the inlet requires you to know the density.

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Chapter 3: FLOTRAN Laminar and Turbulent Incompressible Flow


Specified Pressure: Typically, you apply a relative pressure (usually zero) as an outlet boundary condition.
In the absence of gravity and a rotating reference frame, the absolute pressure is the sum of the FLOTRAN
(relative) pressure and the reference pressure. See the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications for a more complete discussion of pressure. A problem may also be pressure driven, in
which case one of the pressure boundaries is an inlet.

Note
If significant gradients are calculated near a boundary, a mass imbalance can occur. This is due
to the implied condition of fully developed flow for a constant pressure boundary. If the flow has
not fully developed, FLOTRAN is forced to adjust it across the last row of elements to satisfy the
boundary condition. Occasionally, this adjustment may cause a mass imbalance.
To prevent this from occurring, you can add a development length to the exit. This addition does not actually
need to match the physical flow geometry. You can subtract the pressure drop in this "chimney" to obtain
the desired pressure drop. The pressure drop in the "chimney" will vary over its full cross section. You will
have to choose a representative value of the pressure drop to match the desired outlet conditions. You will
not know this pressure drop, of course, until after you examine the results from the chimney. You can opt
to apply an exit pressure profile, based on these results, to the original geometry.
You can calculate the required length of the chimney (L) using the characteristic diameter (D) from the development length formula:
Laminar flow: L/D ~ 0.06 Re
Turbulent flow: L/D ~ 4.4 Re1/6
Typically, a chimney 20 to 25 diameters long will be sufficient. Although the mesh in this region may be
coarse, you should avoid drastic changes in element size by using a size ratio in the chimney. The important
feature is the chimney length, not the number of nodes in it.
Symmetry Boundary: The velocity component normal to the boundary is specified as zero. Leave all other
degrees of freedom unspecified.
Generalized Symmetry Boundary Conditions: You can also apply generalized symmetry boundary conditions.
Velocity components are set tangential to the symmetry surface if the ALE formulation is not activated. They
are set equal to the mesh velocity if the ALE formulation is activated. To apply generalized symmetry
boundary conditions, use one of the following commands or the GUI equivalent:
D,NODE,ENDS,-1
DL,LINE,AREA,ENDS,-1,Value2
DA,AREA,ENDS,-1,Value2
With one exception, if any velocity component is specified at the same boundary, the generalized symmetry
boundary conditions are overwritten. In a 2-D swirl problem, specification of a velocity component VZ does
not overwrite generalized symmetry conditions.
Stationary Wall: This is also referred to as a no-slip condition. All the velocity components are set to zero.
Moving Wall: Specify the velocity component tangent to the wall and set all other velocity components to
zero. As a flag to indicate this is a moving wall, set the turbulent kinetic energy to -1 on a moving wall. This
specification is as a flag only; it does not affect the performance of the wall turbulence model. If you are
using the GUI, indicate a moving wall when specifying the velocities.

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3.3. Flow Boundary Conditions


Unspecified Boundary: In this case, neither the relative pressure nor the velocities are known. The most
common application for this is at downstream boundaries in compressible supersonic flow.
Periodic Boundary: Conditions are unknown but identical at two boundaries. You select the nodes at one
boundary and then issue the macro PERI,DX, DY, DZ, where DX, DY, and DZ are the offsets of the second
boundary from the first. The offsets are input in the established FLOTRAN coordinate system. The meshes at
the two boundaries must be identical.
Intersections: At the intersection of surfaces where two different boundary conditions are applied, either
the boundary conditions are merged or one takes precedence over the other. The following table provides
guidance on what boundary conditions are applied at the intersection.

Table 3.1 Boundary Conditions at Intersections


Intersecting Boundary Intersecting Boundary Action
1
2
Inflow:
Wall:
VX, VY, VZ values specifiedVX, VY, VZ = 0

Overwrite inflow with wall

Inflow:
Symmetry:
VX, VY, VZ values specifiedVX or VY or VZ = 0

Combine inflow with symmetry

Inflow:
Outflow:
VX, VY, VZ values specifiedP = 0

Enforce inflow condition, not outflow

Symmetry:
VX or VY or VZ = 0

Outflow:
P=0

Combine symmetry and outflow

Symmetry:
VX or VY or VZ = 0

Wall:
X, VY, VZ = 0

Overwrite symmetry with the wall

Wall:
VX, VY, VZ = 0

Outflow:
P=0

Combine wall and outflow conditions

Generalized Symmetry

Outflow:
P=0

Combine the generalized symmetry and outflow conditions

Note
Inflow, symmetry , and wall boundary conditions all overwrite generalized symmetry conditions.
Inlet Values: If you activate the turbulence model, boundary conditions are required. The ANSYS program
supplies default values based on the inlet velocity and a scale factor. Given an inlet velocity magnitude V,
the inlet kinetic energy is specified as:
3
kinlet = [(ININ)V]2
2
The default value of the factor ININ is 0.01, corresponding to a level of turbulence of 1 percent at the inlet.
The inlet value of the kinetic energy dissipation rate is calculated from:
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Chapter 3: FLOTRAN Laminar and Turbulent Incompressible Flow

inlet =

3
k2

(INSF)L

The INSF value is a user-controlled scale factor. To specify the factors ININ and INSF, use either of the following
methods:
Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,ININ,Value and FLDATA24,TURB,INSF,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Turbulence> Turbulence Param
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Turbulence> Turbulence Param
You can set specific values of the turbulent kinetic energy (ENKE) or the dissipation rate (ENDS) using either
the FLDATA24 command or the menu paths in Determining Whether an Analysis Is Turbulent (p. 25).
Occasionally, you may wish to activate the turbulence model for the case, but deactivate it for certain regions.
To deactivate the turbulence model in regions, set the kinetic energy (ENKE) to zero and the dissipation rate
(ENDS) to 1.0. It is never valid to set the dissipation rate to zero, and FLOTRAN prohibits it. ENDS will be set
to 1.0, if ENKE is set to zero.
Wall Roughness:
The FLOTRAN default condition is smooth walls. To specify wall roughness values, you must use the equilibrium wall turbulence model. You activate it using the FLDATA24,TURB,WALL,EQLB command.
To apply a uniform wall roughness in length units to all walls, you can use the FLDATA24,TURB,KS,Value
command. In addition to being the actual roughness, the KS parameter determines the regime of roughness
(smooth, transitional, or fully rough). The default value of 0.0 implies a smooth wall.
You can also apply an empirical dimensionless factor (CKS) between 0.5 and 1.0 that specifies the degree
of nonuniformity of the surface. The default value of 0.5 means that the roughness signified by KS is uniformly
distributed. Higher values increase the roughness losses without changing the flow regime implied by the
value of KS. You can use the FLDATA24,TURB,CKS,Value command to specify this factor.
The following two methods are available if you have surfaces that require different roughness values.
The first method utilizes real constants for all the wall elements. You apply suitable KS and CKS values to
the near wall elements as real constants. A different real constant set will exist for each set of wall roughnesses.
Note that roughness constants applied to elements that are not near wall will be ignored. Also, any KS and
CKS values specified by the FLDATA24,TURB command will be ignored.
The second method is for cases where most of the surfaces have the same roughness condition and only a
few are different. First, set the values appropriate for most of the surfaces with the FLDATA24,TURB command.
Then use real constants to apply roughnesses to the walls that have different conditions. The real constants
will overwrite the FLDATA24,TURB values. Note that if the same value of CKS is applied to all the surfaces
(as is typical), it can be controlled with the FLDATA24,TURB command and the real constant can be omitted.

3.4. Strategies for Difficult Problems


The most common problems are divergence or oscillation of the pressure and/or velocity field.
The following strategies have proven helpful in getting difficult turbulent problems to converge.
1.

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Activate the turbulence option if you have not done so.


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3.4. Strategies for Difficult Problems


Turbulence modeling is activated by either of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA1,SOLU,TURB,T
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Solution Options
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Solution Options
2.

Use a mapped mesh if a free mesh has given poor results. Resolve the boundary layer so that the value
of Y+ is less than 5000.
To set the Y+ output option, use the following:
Command(s): FLDATA5,OUTPUT,YPLU,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Additional Out> RFL Out Derived
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Additional Out> RFL Out Derived

3.

Set the turbulence inertial relaxation factor to 1.0. Values as low as 1.0-2 may help. (For incompressible
flow problems, you may not need to vary this factor.)
To set the turbulence inertial relaxation factor, use the following:
Command(s): FLDATA26,STAB,TURB,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms

4.

Use pressure and momentum relaxation factors less than 0.5. If values as low as 0.2 do not help, going
lower probably will not help either.
To set the pressure and momentum relaxation factors, use the following:
Command(s): FLDATA25,RELX,PRES,Value FLDATA25,RELX,VX (or VY, VZ),Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> DOF Relaxation
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> DOF Relaxation

5.

Begin the problem with a higher turbulence ratio (meaning a higher initial effective viscosity). Do not
set values for this parameter, which takes effect only at problem startup, above 1.0 x 107. The ratio set
controls the initial effective viscosity no matter when you activate the turbulence model.
To set the turbulence ratio, use either of these methods:
Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,RATI,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Turbulence> Turbulence Param
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Turbulence> Turbulence Param

6.

After initializing with the correct properties, solve the problem with a higher viscosity and the turbulence
model turned off. When the flow field is partially converged, the turbulence model is activated. You
may need to reduce the relaxation factor of the effective viscosity to 0.1 or 0.0 for some global iterations
to allow partial convergence of the turbulence equations. Refer to the foregoing strategies for command
information.

7.

Difficulties can involve large changes in properties due to large fluctuations in pressure or temperature.
Preventing property variations early in the analysis (until the large fluctuations calm down) can stabilize
the analysis significantly.
You also can invoke velocity capping to prevent large values of velocities or pressures. This is particularly
useful in compressible analyses, where velocity spikes can cause negative static temperatures.
To implement velocity capping, use either of the following methods:

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Chapter 3: FLOTRAN Laminar and Turbulent Incompressible Flow


Command(s): FLDATA31,CAPP,Label,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Results Capping
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Results Capping
If you use the FLDATA31 command, Label represents a capping parameter such as VELO (velocity),
or TEMP (temperature). Value is either the capping flag (T or F) or the capping parameter value.
Pressure capping applies to relative values of pressure. Temperature capping applies to absolute values
of temperature.
8.

Problems involving pyramid, wedge or in particular tetrahedral element shapes may require tighter
convergence of the pressure equation. Values as low as 1.E-18 may be required
(FLDATA21,CONV,PRES,1.E-18). You should reduce the convergence criterion until, from one global
iteration to the next, the number of iterations required to solve the equation varies by less than 10
percent (as per the Jobname.DBG file).

9.

The solution of the pressure equation may affect the mass balance. The mass balance may be incorrect
(as per the Jobname.PFL file) if large aspect ratio elements are near significant flow area changes.
Mass imbalances may also occur if inlet or outlet regions are too coarsely meshed or if the flow tends
to exit at an angle at outlets.

10. If FLOTRAN displays a message stating that the coefficient matrix has a negative diagonal and the
solution is probably divergent, try turning on modified inertial relaxation in the momentum equation
or turbulence equation. Set the Value between 0.1 and 1.0. To achieve a faster convergence rate, use
the smallest Value possible.
To set the turbulence inertial relaxation factor, use the following:
Command(s): FLDATA34,MIR,Label,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> MIR Stabilization
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> MIR Stabilization
11. If you notice anomalous results for 3-D problems, you should increasing the quadrature order to 2.
12. Specifying the Streamline Upwind/Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) approach for momentum may help convergence. Specifying the SUPG approach for temperature may also yield more accurate energy solutions
and hence more accurate energy balances. For more information on the SUPG approach, see Chapter 14,
Advection Discretization Options (p. 161).

3.5. Example of a Laminar and Turbulent FLOTRAN Analysis


Access the CFD Tutorial to perform an example analysis of laminar and turbulent flow in a 2D duct.
Before you begin the laminar/turbulent example, note the following:

The example problem is only one of many possible FLOTRAN analyses. It does not illustrate every
technique you might use in a FLOTRAN analysis, and is intended only to show the kinds of tasks a
FLOTRAN analysis typically requires.

You can use many techniques in a FLOTRAN analysis that are not shown in this problem. For example,
you can integrate pressure and shear stress on an airfoil to determine the lift and drag forces (see the
description of the INTSRF command in Integrating Surface Results in the Basic Analysis Guide).

The values you enter in this example are specific values for this example only. The characteristics of the
individual problem you are solving dictate what values you should specify for a particular FLOTRAN
analysis.

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Chapter 4: FLOTRAN Thermal Analyses


In a thermal analysis, you solve the temperature equation to determine temperature. Even if the temperature
itself is not important, the variation of fluid properties with temperature may be important enough to warrant
a thermal analysis.
In addition to calculating a temperature field, a thermal analysis provides heat fluxes at problem boundaries
and heat transfer coefficients based on an assumed bulk or ambient temperature.
You activate solution of the temperature equation via one of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA1,SOLU,TEMP,TRUE
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options
FLOTRAN automatically includes viscous heating for compressible flows. For information on activating viscous
heating for incompressible flows, see Forced Convection, Temperature Dependent Properties (p. 43) and the
description of the FLDATA1 command in the Command Reference.
The following FLOTRAN thermal analysis topics are available:
4.1. Meshing Requirements
4.2. Property Specifications and Control
4.3.Thermal Loads and Boundary Conditions
4.4. Solution Strategies
4.5. Heat Balance
4.6. Surface-to-Surface Radiation Analysis Using the Radiosity Method
4.7. Examples of a Laminar, Thermal, Steady-State FLOTRAN Analysis
4.8. Example of Radiation Analysis Using FLOTRAN (Command Method)
4.9. Where to Find Other FLOTRAN Analysis Examples

4.1. Meshing Requirements


The ANSYS program has no formal criteria for evaluating the finite element mesh. However, thermal gradients
are often extremely high near thermal boundaries, especially heat flux boundaries. Therefore, the mesh
should usually be denser near thermal boundaries.

4.2. Property Specifications and Control


In addition to density and viscosity, thermal flow problems require the specification of thermal conductivity
and specific heat. You must determine whether or not fluid properties should vary with temperature.
To set properties for non-fluid regions, use one of these methods:
Command(s): MP
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> CFD> Conductivity> Isotropic
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> CFD> Specific Heat
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props

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39

Chapter 4: FLOTRAN Thermal Analyses

4.3. Thermal Loads and Boundary Conditions


The ANSYS program supports six types of thermal boundary conditions:
1.

Constant temperatures

2.

Constant heat fluxes

3.

Applied heat transfer (film) coefficients with associated ambient temperatures

4.

Ambient radiation with associated surface emissivities and ambient temperatures

5.

Surface-to-surface radiation with associated emissivities and enclosure number.

6.

Adiabatic boundaries (the default condition)

In addition, constant volumetric heat sources may be located in both fluid and non-fluid regions.
The applicable commands are summarized below.
You can apply your boundary conditions via TABLE type array parameters (see Applying Loads Using TABLE
Type Array Parameters in the Basic Analysis Guide). You can also apply your boundary conditions using
function boundary conditions (see "Using the Function Tool" in the Basic Analysis Guide).
You can define a TABLE type array parameter to apply your boundary conditions in a FLOTRAN analysis.
Attempting to use tabular boundary conditions in a FLOTRAN analysis will create erroneous results.

4.3.1. Applying Loads


The table below lists the loads you can apply in a thermal FLOTRAN analysis.

Table 4.1 Command Family and GUI Path Used to Apply Loads
Load Type

Category

Cmd
Family

Constraints

Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply>


Temperature

Convection (CONV), Surface


Heat Flux (HFLU),
Loads
Radiation (RAD),
Surface-to-surface
radiation (RDSF)

SF

Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply>


Thermal> Convection
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply>
Thermal> Heat Flux
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply>
Thermal> Ambient Rad
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply>
Thermal> Surface Rad

Heat Generation
Rates (HGEN)

BF

Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply>


Fluid/CFD> Heat Generat

Temperature
(TEMP)

Body
Loads

GUI Path

In an analysis, you can apply, remove, operate on, or list loads.

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4.3.1. Applying Loads

4.3.1.1. Applying Loads Using Commands


The table below lists all the commands in detail you can use to apply loads in a FLOTRAN thermal analysis.

Table 4.2 Load Commands for a FLOTRAN Thermal Analysis


Load Type

Solid
Model or
FE

Entity

Apply

Delete

List

Temperature

Finite Element

Nodes

DDELE

DLIST

Convection,
Heat Flux, Ambient Radiation, or
Surface-to- surface Radiation

Solid Model

Lines

SFL

SFLDELE

Solid Model

Areas

SFA

SFADELE SFALIST

Finite Element

Nodes

SF

SFDELE

SFLIST

Finite Element

Elements

SFE

SFEDELE

SFELIST

SFSCALE

Finite Element

Elements

SFE

SFEDELE

SFELIST

SFSCALE

Solid Model

Lines

BFL

BFLDELE BFLLIST

BFTRAN

Solid Model

Areas

BFA

BFADELE BFALIST

BFTRAN

Solid Model

Volumes BFV

BFVDELE BFVLIST

BFTRAN

Finite Element

Nodes

BF

BFDELE

Finite Element

Elements

BFE

BFEDELE BFELIST

Heat Generation
Rates

BFLIST

Operate

Apply
Settings

SFTRAN

SFGRAD

BFSCALE

Note
You must use tabular boundary conditions if you are applying tapered heat flux or convection
loads.

4.3.1.2. Applying Loads Using the GUI


You access all operations except List through a series of cascading menus. From the Solution Menu, you
choose the operation (Apply, Delete, etc.), then the load type (temperature, heat flux, etc.), and then the
object (node, line, or area) to which you are applying the load.
For example, to apply a temperature load to lines, follow this GUI path:
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Thermal> Temperature> On Lines
To list loads, follow this GUI path:

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Chapter 4: FLOTRAN Thermal Analyses


Utility Menu> List> Loads> load type

4.3.1.3. Solutions
The following list describes what is known and what is calculated as a function of the type of boundary
specified.

For temperature boundary conditions, heat flux and heat transfer coefficient are calculated.

For heat flux boundary conditions, temperature and heat transfer coefficient are calculated.

For ambient radiation boundary conditions, temperature and heat flux are calculated.

For surface-to-surface radiation boundary conditions, temperature and heat flux are calculated.

For heat transfer boundary conditions, temperature and heat flux are calculated.

For adiabatic boundary conditions, temperature is calculated.

When you apply a heat transfer (film) coefficient, you also specify an associated ambient temperature. The
ANSYS program uses this along with the surface temperature to calculate the heat flux at that boundary.
You specify heat flux and heat transfer coefficients at external model boundaries. You cannot specify them
at general internal surfaces. You can specify heat flux and heat transfer coefficients at internal boundary
faces (such as fluid/solid interface surfaces), but FLOTRAN will issue a warning because they are probably
incorrect. In a standard FLOTRAN analysis the heat transfer at a fluid/solid boundary is a desired result, not
a boundary condition. If you wish to apply a heat flux or a heat transfer coefficient, you should apply it at
the external solid material boundary, or at the edge of the fluid region without modeling the solid material
in the analysis. If you specify a film coefficient or a heat flux at an internal fluid/solid interface, FLOTRAN
interprets it to be a line/area heat source or sink. You can prescribe temperatures anywhere.
In cases where you must calculate the heat transfer coefficient at a surface, ANSYS uses the surface temperature along with the bulk temperature you specify using either of the following methods:
Command(s): FLDATA14,TEMP,BULK,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions
If the analysis is compressible, boundary condition temperatures are in terms of total temperature, and the
temperature equation is formulated and solved in terms of total temperature.
The FLOTRAN ambient radiation load simulates radiation heat transfer to space at a constant temperature.
You specify the constant temperature with the SF command. You specify the Stefan-Boltzmann constant
with the STEF command (defaults to 0.119E-10 Btu/hr/in2/ R4). The form factor is 1.0 by assumption.
Since radiation can pass through a fluid region and impact on a solid, you can apply the ambient radiation
load on a fluid/solid interface, as well as on external model boundaries. In this case, you should apply the
surface load to either the fluid or solid element faces, or the solid model entity defining the interface. If you
apply the load to more than one face, FLOTRAN applies the boundary conditions on only one face and issues
a message that it skipped duplicate boundary conditions.

4.4. Solution Strategies


The most efficient way to solve thermal-flow problems depends on the degree to which the fluid properties
depend on the temperature.

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4.4.3. Free Convection, Temperature Dependent Properties

4.4.1. Constant Fluid Properties


In this case, the flow solution does not depend at all on the temperature field and can be converged without
activating the temperature equation solution.
Once the flow solution is complete, the temperature equation become linear. You can then solve it in one
global iteration after you set the relaxation factor for temperature to 1 using either method shown below:
Command(s): FLDATA25,RELX,TEMP,1.0
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap/DOF Relaxation
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap/Prop Relaxation
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap/DOF Relaxation
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap/Prop Relaxation
This is often best accomplished with a semi-direct solution algorithm.
See Chapter 11, FLOTRAN CFD Solvers and the Matrix Equation (p. 139) for more information.
The flow equations need not be solved during the solution of the temperature equation. Executing two
global iterations should result in a very small change, if any, in the answer during the second calculation.
This will be reflected in a large decrease in the convergence monitors for temperature in the second iteration.

4.4.2. Forced Convection, Temperature Dependent Properties


The flow pattern will be a mild function of the temperature field. You can choose to solve the temperature
equation every global iteration or converge the flow field calculations before activating solution of the
temperature equation. In the latter case, you will still need to solve the flow and temperature equations
together to refine the flow field with the property variations. If difficulties with the temperature equation
are encountered early in the solution, it is then best to start over and partially converge the flow solution
before allowing the properties to vary with temperature.
For incompressible flows, viscous heating is generally not important for cases with low Prandtl numbers or
low to moderate velocities. However, you should turn on viscous heating whenever the Prandtl number is
greater than 2 or the velocities are high (e.g., greater than 100 m/s in air). FLOTRAN automatically includes
viscous heating for compressible flows. To include viscous heating for incompressible flows, use one of the
following:
Command(s): FLDATA1,SOLU,IVSH,T
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options
For information on the energy units required for thermal quantities when an incompressible analysis includes
viscous heating, refer to Fluid Property Types (p. 117).

4.4.3. Free Convection, Temperature Dependent Properties


In this case, the driving force for the flow is the density change brought about by temperature variations.
You must turn on both options.
You also must do the following:

Specify acceleration due to gravity, using one of the following:


Command(s): ACEL
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Chapter 4: FLOTRAN Thermal Analyses


GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Gravity
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Gravity

Activate the variable density option using one of the following:


Command(s): FLDATA13,VARY,Label,TRUE (Label = fluid property)
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid properties
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid properties

Buoyancy property types, which use a constant pressure to evaluate the density from the ideal gas law are
provided for AIR. (See Chapter 9, Specifying Fluid Properties for FLOTRAN (p. 117).) Pressure fluctuations are
thus prevented from causing instabilities in density calculations. Natural convection cases converge slowly,
and may be more stable if the TDMA algorithm is used for pressure and temperature. The number of sweeps
used may be set to Number of Nodes/10, but should be at least 100.

4.4.4. Conjugate Heat Transfer


When the thermal properties of the non-fluid material are several orders of magnitude different from those
of the fluid, this is called an ill-conditioned conjugate heat transfer problem. In this situation, the TDMA
method probably will not yield useful results, no matter how many sweeps you specify. You access the TDMA
method using either of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA18,METH,TEMP,1
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> Temp Solver CFD
The Conjugate Residual method offers more functionality and requires little more memory than the Tri-Diagonal Matrix Algorithm (TDMA) method. To access it, use either of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA18,METH,TEMP,2
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> Temp Solver CFD
You can control several parameters, such as convergence criteria and the number of search vectors used,
to enhance performance. (See the discussion of FLDATA18 in the Command Reference for more information
about these parameters.) However, the conjugate residual method, although fairly fast, is not suited for difficult problems.
A more robust choice for solving ill-conditioned heat transfer problems is the Preconditioned Conjugate
Residual method, which requires much more memory than either the TDMA or Conjugate Residual methods.
The PCR method allows you to control the number of search vectors used, up to a maximum of 30. To use
it, use either of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA18,METH,TEMP,3
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> Temp Solver CFD

Note
For nodes connected only to solid nodes, the value stored in the Jobname.RFL file under the
density (DENS) label is the product of the density and specific heat.
You can evaluate performance of the Conjugate Residual and Preconditioned Conjugate Residual methods
by looking at the Jobname.DBG file (described in Chapter 11, FLOTRAN CFD Solvers and the Matrix Equation (p. 139)).

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4.4.4. Conjugate Heat Transfer


The most robust, but most memory-intensive, method for solving conjugate heat transfer problems is the
Preconditioned Generalized Minimum Residual method. You can access it via either of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA18,METH,TEMP,4
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> Temp Solver CFD
The Preconditioned Generalized Minimum Residual (PGMR) solution method is the default choice for temperature.
Although the same user controls exist for the PGMR method as for the PCCR solver, the default values are
different. For PGMR, the least restrictive convergence criterion allowed is 1.E-10. If you try to use a less restrictive convergence criterion, FLOTRAN will change it to 1.E-10. A convergence criterion as low as 1.E-20
may be necessary for some problems. In addition, you should use at least 12 search vectors, and FLOTRAN
ensures this. For the PGMR solver, 12 search vectors is the default and the allowable range is 12 to 20.
FLOTRAN non-fluid elements support both temperature dependence and orthotropic variation. That is, KXX,
KYY, and KZZ can assume different values and temperature variations. FLOTRAN considers conductivity as
an element quantity, evaluated at the quadrature points in the element. However, in fluid elements, FLOTRAN
considers thermal conductivity to be a nodal quantity.
To specify the variable and orthotropic conductivities, you use the following commands or GUI paths:
Command(s): MP or MPDATA
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> CFD> Conductivity> Orthotropic
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props

Note
Thermal analysis problems having variable thermal conductivity are nonlinear and require multiple
iterations to solve. Variable solid thermal conductivities are not relaxed.
For a conjugate heat transfer problem, it is wise to obtain an initial temperature solution before solving the
coupled energy/momentum equations. To achieve the temperature solution, use the following:
Command(s): FLDATA1,SOLU,FLOW,F
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options
Command(s): FLDATA1,SOLU,TEMP,T
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options
Command(s): FLDATA25,RELX,TEMP,1.0
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> DOF Relaxation
Command(s): FLDATA2,ITER,EXEC,1
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl
Command(s): FLDATA18,METH,TEMP,3
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Contr> TEMP Solver CFD
In the above steps, an initial temperature solution is obtained from a solution of the heat conduction
equation.

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Chapter 4: FLOTRAN Thermal Analyses


FLOTRAN can calculate film coefficients at walls in conjugate heat transfer problems. Two algorithms are
available for this purpose: the conductivity matrix algorithm and the temperature field algorithm. The conductivity matrix algorithm uses the thermal conductivity matrix to calculate heat fluxes and film coefficients.
It is the default. Generally, it produces satisfactory results for well shaped elements. However, if the elements
are not well shaped, it can produce non-smooth results. You should then switch to the temperature field
algorithm. It calculates film coefficients directly from thermal gradients. To set the algorithm, use the following:
Command(s): FLDATA37,ALGR,HFLM,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Algorithm Ctr
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Algorithm Ctr

4.5. Heat Balance


Using information in the Jobname.PFL file, you can calculate a heat balance for your problem. For any
flow problem with the thermal option activated, the energy flow into and out of the problem domain at
the inlets/outlets is calculated and tabulated. Also calculated for the flow boundaries is the heat conduction
across the boundary faces. The difference between the energy flow into the system and out of the system
at the flow boundaries should equal the total energy added through sources and sinks.
The accuracy of the energy balance depends on the approach used to discretize the advection term in the
energy equation. In general, the Streamline Upwind/Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) approach provides a more accurate energy balance than the Monotone Streamline Upwind (MSU) approach. If you desire an exact energy
balance, use the Collocated Galerkin (COLG) approach. For steady-state incompressible flows, it provides an
exact energy balance, even with a coarse mesh. However, SUPG or COLG may suffer from oscillatory thermal
solution near walls with a coarse mesh. Use the FLDATA40,WADV command to minimize such spatial oscillation.
Energy flowing into or out of the system at mass flow boundaries is equal to the product of the mass flow,
the specific heat, and the temperature. A temperature offset specified by the TOFFST command does not
enter this calculation. Positive numbers mean heat flows into the system.
Energy sources include volumetric heat sources in either fluids or solids. Specified wall temperatures and
specified film coefficient boundaries are either sources or sinks, depending on the temperature gradient.
Heat fluxes are sources or sinks depending on the sign.
Heat transfer to/from wall faces refers to boundaries of fluid regions which are not inlets or outlets.
Heat transfer at wall faces refers to fluid boundaries, regardless of whether or not the boundary is a no-fluid
element or simply a no-slip condition. Positive numbers mean heat flows into the fluid.
Volumetric heat generation can be applied to solid regions or fluid regions. Be careful, when calculating the
energy balance to avoid accounting for heat generation in solids twice.
For example, suppose a conjugate heat transfer problem featured a volumetric heat source in a solid region
which is cooled by a fluid flow. The difference between the energy flow in and out should equal heat
transfer to wall faces. This number should also match the volumetric heat generation in the solid.
For all cases, the difference between the energy flowing into the system at flow boundaries and flowing out
at the boundaries should equal heat transfer to wall faces plus fluid volumetric heat sources plus the heat
conduction effects normal to the flow direction at the flow boundaries.
Essentially, FLOTRAN performs a heat balance on the fluid region only. Heat fluxes and film coefficients are
solution outputs for the external fluid boundaries only. Heat fluxes applied on external boundaries are not
part of the solution output.
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4.7. Examples of a Laminar, Thermal, Steady-State FLOTRAN Analysis


The effects of viscous dissipation on a heat balance are not explicitly tabulated. The associated heat generation is manifested in terms of an increased temperature, which in turn affects the energy departure at the
outlet and the heat transfer at wall faces if applicable. With adiabatic walls, for example, the temperature
of the fluid will increase from viscous dissipation, even though no heat sources will be apparent.

4.6. Surface-to-Surface Radiation Analysis Using the Radiosity Method


Surface-to-surface radiation analysis in FLOTRAN can be used for solving generalized radiation problems
involving two or more radiating surfaces in single or multiple open or closed enclosures. The method is
supported for both 3-D and 2-D FLOTRAN elements FLUID141 and FLUID142. The thermal solution option
has to be on for radiation analysis. You can switch radiation analysis off using the FLDATA1, SOLU, RDSF
command. The command defaults to on.
Surface-to-surface radiation analysis in 2-D is supported for planar and axisymmetric geometry about YR
and XR coordinate systems. Radiation analysis is not supported for 3-D/2-D compressible flow thermal analysis and for R- and R--Z coordinate system in 2-D and 3-D analysis respectively.
Elements supported for the radiosity method include:
FLOTRAN
FLUID141
FLUID142

4.6.1. Procedure
The Radiosity Solution method consists of four steps:
1.

Define the radiating surfaces.

2.

Define Solution options.

3.

Define View Factor options.

4.

Calculate and query view factors.

See Using the Radiosity Solver Method in the Thermal Analysis Guide for a detailed explanation of these
steps.

4.6.2. Heat Balances


Jobname.PFL file provides information of the net positive and negative radiation heat transfer from both
solid and fluid surfaces.
See Example of Radiation Analysis Using FLOTRAN (Command Method) (p. 56)

4.7. Examples of a Laminar, Thermal, Steady-State FLOTRAN Analysis


This chapter describes a laminar, thermal, steady-state fluid flow problem and two ways to solve it: by
choosing items on the ANSYS GUI menus or by issuing a series of ANSYS commands.
Before you begin reading about the example, note the following:

The example problem described is only one of many possible FLOTRAN analyses. It does not illustrate
every technique you might use in a FLOTRAN analysis, and is intended only to show the kinds of tasks
a FLOTRAN analysis typically requires.
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Chapter 4: FLOTRAN Thermal Analyses

The values you enter in this example via commands or dialog boxes are specific values for this example
only. The characteristics of the individual problem you are solving dictate what values you should specify
for a particular FLOTRAN analysis.

4.7.1. The Example Described


This example evaluates buoyancy-driven flow in a square cavity with differentially heated vertical sides. It
is a laminar steady-state analysis that uses the FLUID141 2-D element. The physics modeled in this problem
govern a number of practical problems, including solar energy collection, the ventilation of rooms, and so
on.

Figure 4.1: Diagram of the Square Cavity


Insulated

T = 320K

g = 9.81 m/s2

T = 280K

Insulated
L = .03m
Density variations resulting from the temperature difference across the cavity drive the laminar flow. The
Rayleigh number for this flow is 1.01E+05, and is defined as follows:
Ra = g TL3 2Cp/k
The symbols in this equation are:
g = gravitational acceleration
= 1/T
T = THOT - TCOLD
L = cavity length
= density
Cp = specific heat
k = thermal conductivity
= viscosity
Other example analysis conditions are:

Cavity: dimensions 0.03m x 0.03m; gravitational acceleration 9.81 m/s2

Operating conditions: nominal temperature 193K; reference pressure 1.0135E+05 Pa

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Step 4: Define Lines, Mesh, and Plot Elements

Fluid: Air in SI units

Loads: no slip walls (Vx = Vy = 0); left wall of cavity maintained at THOT = 320K; right wall of cavity
maintained at TCOLD = 280K

4.7.2. Doing the Buoyancy Driven Flow Analysis (GUI Method)


To do the example buoyancy-driven flow analysis using the menus, perform the steps discussed in the next
few sections.

Step 1: Establish an Analysis Title and Preferences


When you have entered the ANSYS program, do these tasks:
1.

Choose menu path Utility Menu> File> Change Title. The Change Title dialog box appears.

2.

Enter the text "Buoyancy driven flow in a square cavity."

3.

Click on OK.

4.

Choose menu path Main Menu> Preferences. The Preferences for GUI Filtering dialog box appears.

5.

Click the button for FLOTRAN CFD to "On."

6.

Click on OK. You have just instructed the ANSYS program to do a FLOTRAN analysis.

Step 2: Define Element Types


Next, you need to specify which elements your analysis will use. The example uses only one element, FLUID141.
To define it:
1.

Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete. The Element Types
dialog box appears.

2.

Click on Add. The Library of Element Types dialog box appears.

3.

In the two scrollable lists, highlight (click on) FLOTRAN CFD and "2D FLOTRAN 141."

4.

Click on OK. ANSYS returns you to the Element Types dialog box.

5.

Click on Close.

Step 3: Create Areas


Next, create the areas you need. Our example requires an area representing the square cavity. To create it,
perform these tasks:
1.

Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Areas> Rectangle> By Dimensions. The Create Rectangle by Dimensions dialog box appears.

2.

Enter the X coordinates from 0.0 to 0.03.

3.

Enter the Y coordinates from 0.0 to 0.03.

4.

Click on OK. The square area you have just created will appear in the Graphics Window.

Step 4: Define Lines, Mesh, and Plot Elements


This step meshes the square cavity area so that you can apply temperature loads to it. Follow these steps:
1.

Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> MeshTool. Under the Size Controls section
of the MeshTool, click Lines,Set. The Element Size on Picked Lines picking menu appears.
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Chapter 4: FLOTRAN Thermal Analyses


2.

Click Pick All. The Element Size on Picked Lines dialog box appears.

3.

Set the number of element divisions to 25.

4.

Click on OK.

5.

In the MeshTool, select Areas from the Mesh drop down menu. Then click Quad and Free. Then click
MESH. The Mesh Areas picking menu appears.

6.

Click on Pick All to generate the mesh.

7.

Click on Close on the MeshTool.

8.

Click SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar.

Step 5: Apply Velocity Boundary Conditions


In this step and Step 6, you apply boundary conditions to your model, starting with the exterior nodes. Do
the following:
1.

Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Select Entities dialog box appears.

2.

Select Nodes and Exterior.

3.

Click on OK.

4.

Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Velocity>
On Nodes. The Apply V on Nodes picking menu appears.

5.

On the picking menu, click on Pick All. The Velocity Constraints on Nodes dialog box appears.

6.

Set the VX velocity component and VY velocity component fields to 0.

7.

Click on OK.

Step 6: Apply Thermal Boundary Conditions


Now you need to apply temperature loads on the left and right edges of the model. To do so:
1.

Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Thermal> Temperature> On Nodes. The Apply TEMP on Nodes picking menu appears.

2.

Click on Box. Doing this enables you to select the nodes to which you are applying loads by drawing
a box around them.

3.

Press and drag your left mouse button to draw a box around the nodes on the left edge of the meshed
area.

4.

Click on OK.

5.

In the Apply TEMP on Nodes dialog box, enter 320 as the temperature value.

6.

Click on OK.

7.

Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Thermal> Temperature> On Nodes. The Apply TEMP on Nodes picking menu appears.

8.

On the menu, click on Box. Doing this enables you to select the nodes to which you are applying loads
by drawing a box around them.

9.

Press and drag your left mouse button to draw a box around the nodes on the right edge of the
meshed area.

10. Click on OK.


11. In the Apply TEMP on Nodes dialog box, enter 280 as the temperature value.
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Step 10: Solve the Problem


12. Click on OK.
13. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Everything. This step is important; it ensures that ANSYS
includes all nodes and elements in the analysis.
14. Click on the SAVE_DB button on the Toolbar.

Step 7: Set FLOTRAN Solution Options and Execution Controls


In this step and the next few steps, you set up conditions for the FLOTRAN analysis. You first specify what
type of FLOTRAN analysis you are doing and what values will control FLOTRAN execution.
1.

Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options. The FLOTRAN
Solution Options dialog box appears.

2.

Set the "Adiabatic or thermal?" field to Thermal.

3.

Click on OK.

4.

Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl. The Steady State
Control Settings dialog box appears.

5.

Set the Global Iterations (EXEC) field to 200.

6.

Set the .RFL File Overwrite Freq field to 50.

7.

Set the Output summary frequency (SUMF) field to 50.

8.

Click on OK.

Step 8: Set Fluid Properties


To set the fluid properties for the example analysis, do the following:
1.

Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties. The Fluid
Properties dialog box appears.

2.

Set the "Density," "Viscosity," "Conductivity," and "Specific heat" fields to AIR-SI.

3.

Set the "Allow density variations?" field to Yes.

4.

Click on Apply. The CFD Flow Properties dialog box appears.

5.

Read the information about how coefficients will be calculated, then click on OK.

Step 9: Set FLOTRAN Flow Environment Parameters


To set the flow environment parameters, follow these steps:
1.

Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Gravity.
The Gravity Specification dialog box appears.

2.

Set the "Accel in Y direction" field to 9.81.

3.

Click on OK.

Step 10: Solve the Problem


Set controls for the FLOTRAN solver before you initiate the solution process. Follow these steps:
1.

Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Contr> PRES Solver
CFD. The PRES Solver CFD dialog box appears.

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Chapter 4: FLOTRAN Thermal Analyses


2.

Choose TDMA.

3.

Click on OK. The TDMA Pressure dialog box appears.

4.

Make sure that the value of the "No. of TDMA sweeps for pressure" field is 100. If so, click on OK.

5.

Click on the SAVE_DB button in the Toolbar.

6.

Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Run FLOTRAN.

7.

Wait for the solution to finish, then review the information in the ANSYS Output Window. Click Close
in the Solution is done window.

Step 11: Read In Results and Plot the Temperature Solution


Perform these steps:
1.

Choose menu path Main Menu> General PostProc> Read Results> Last Set.

2.

Choose menu path Main Menu> General PostProc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu. The
Contour Nodal Solution Data dialog box appears.

3.

In the "Item to be Contoured" list, click on (highlight) DOF Solution.

4.

In the scrollable list, scroll down and choose TEMP.

5.

Click on OK. The Graphics Window shows you the following contour plot:

Figure 4.2: Plot of the Temperature Solution

Step 12: Plot Streamline Contours


1.

Choose menu path Main Menu> General PostProc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu. The
Contour Nodal Solution Data dialog box appears.

2.

Click on (highlight) "Other quantities."

3.

In the scrollable list, select "Strm func2D STRM" (stream function).

4.

Click on OK. The Graphics Window shows you the following contour plot:

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Step 13: Plot Velocity Vectors

Figure 4.3: Plot of Streamline Contours

Step 13: Plot Velocity Vectors


For better viewing of the analysis results for the example, switch to vector plotting as described below:
1.

Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Device Options. The Device Options dialog box appears.

2.

Set Vector mode (wireframe) to "On."

3.

Click on OK.

4.

Choose menu path Main Menu> General PostProc> Plot Result> Vector Plot> Predefined. The
Vector Plot of Predefined Vectors dialog box appears.

5.

Verify that the items "DOF solution" and "Velocity" are highlighted. If so, click on OK. The display in
the Graphics Window now looks similar to the one below.

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Chapter 4: FLOTRAN Thermal Analyses

Figure 4.4: Plot of Velocity Vectors

Step 14: Plot Particle Traces Contoured by Temperature


In the example analysis, the dimensions of the problem are small (.03 x .03). Therefore, before plotting
particle trace points, you should change the working plane to give a better view from which to choose those
points.
1.

Choose menu path Utility Menu> WorkPlane> WP Settings. The WP Settings dialog box appears.

2.

Set Snap Increment to 0.0005.

3.

Set Spacing to 0.0001.

4.

Set Tolerance to 0.00005.

5.

Click on OK.

6.

Choose menu path Utility Menu> Plot> Elements.

7.

Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Flow Trace> Defi Trace Pt.

8.

Using your mouse, pick five or six points anywhere within the upper half of the problem domain.

9.

Click on OK in the picking menu.

10. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Flow Trace> Plot Flow Trace.
The Plot Flow Trace dialog box appears.
11. In the scrollable list, click on (highlight) "Temperature TEMP".
12. Click on OK. The Graphics Window shows a plot that resembles the plot shown below. Your plot may
look different, depending on the location of the points you picked. If a warning message appears telling
you that the maximum number of loops has been exceeded, review it and click Close. For the purposes of
this problem, the particle trace is stuck in a loop by definition, so you can ignore this message.

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4.7.3. Doing the Buoyancy Driven Flow Analysis (Command Method)

Figure 4.5: Plot of Flow Trace

Step 15: Plot Particle Traces Contoured by Velocity Magnitude


1.

Choose menu path Main Menu> General PostProc> Plot Results> Flow Trace> Plot Flow Trace.
The Plot Flow Trace dialog box appears.

2.

In the scrollable list, choose "VSUM."

3.

Click on OK. The plot shown in the Graphics Window is now contoured by velocity magnitude. How
your plot looks will depend on the location of the points you picked. If you receive another warning
message about the maximum number of loops being exceeded, click Close.

4.

If you wish, you can use animation to enhance your analysis of particle flow. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Animate> Particle Flow. When the Animate Flow Trace dialog box appears,
enter the desired animation data and click OK. (To animate particle flow, you must have at least one
trace point defined. To complete the sample analysis, simply take the defaults and click on OK.)

5.

When you are done viewing the animation, click Stop and then Close in the Animation Controller. If
additional warning messages appear, close them.

6.

To exit ANSYS, click Quit on the ANSYS Toolbar. Choose an exit option and then click on OK.

See Section 5.10, Doing the Sample Analysis (Command Method), for an example problem.

4.7.3. Doing the Buoyancy Driven Flow Analysis (Command Method)


To do the example buoyancy-driven flow analysis, you issue these ANSYS commands:
/TITLE,Buoyancy driven flow in a square cavity
/PREP7
ET,1,FLUID141
! Set 2-D fluid element type
RECTNG,,0.03,,0.03
! Create square area
LPLOT
LESIZE,ALL, , ,25,1,0
! Define line divisions and mesh area
AMESH,1
EPLOT
NSEL,S,EXT
! Apply velocity b.c. on exterior nodes
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Chapter 4: FLOTRAN Thermal Analyses


D,ALL,,,,,,VX,VY
NSEL,S,NODE,,1
! Apply thermal b.c. on left edge
NSEL,A,NODE,,52
NSEL,A,NODE,,77,100
D,ALL,TEMP,320
NSEL,S,NODE,,2
! Apply thermal b.c. on right edge
NSEL,A,NODE,,27,51
D,ALL,TEMP,280
NSEL,ALL
ESEL,ALL
FLDATA1,SOLU,TEMP,1
! Set solution option to thermal
FLDATA2,ITER,EXEC,200
! Set FLOTRAN execution controls
FLDATA2,ITER,OVER,50
FLDATA5,OUTP,SUMF,50
!*
FLDATA13,VARY,DENS,1
! Set fluid properties
FLDATA7,PROT,DENS,AIR-SI
FLDATA7,PROT,VISC,AIR-SI
FLDATA7,PROT,COND,AIR-SI
FLDATA8,NOMI,COND,-1
FLDATA7,PROT,SPHT,AIR-SI
!*
ACEL,0,9.81,0
! Set flow environment gravity
FLDATA18,METH,PRES,1
! Set FLOTRAN solver controls
FLDATA19,TDMA,PRES,100
FINISH
/SOLU
SOLVE
! Solve model
FINISH
/POST1
SET,LAST
PLNSOL,TEMP
! Plot temperature solution
PLNSOL,STRM
! Plot streamline contours
/DEVICE,VECTOR,1
!*
PLVECT,V, , , ,VECT,ELEM
! Plot velocity vectors
wpstyle,0.0005,0.0001,-1,1,0.00005,0,2,,5
EPLOT
TRPOIN,P
! The P argument enables graphical picking
! of trace points via the GUI
PLTRAC,FLUID,TEMP
! Plot particle traces contoured by
PLTRAC,FLUID,V,SUM
! temperature and velocity magnitude
FINISH

4.8. Example of Radiation Analysis Using FLOTRAN (Command Method)


The following is an example of a laminar, thermal, steady-state FLOTRAN analysis with surface-to-surface
radiation using the radiosity solution method (command method). In this example a buoyancy-driven flow
in a square cavity with differentially heated vertical walls is considered. All walls of the cavity are radiating
surfaces with an emissivity of 0.9. The final temperature distribution in the cavity effected by the presence
of the radiating walls in the fluid domain.
To do the surface-to-surface radiation problem, you issue these ANSYS commands:
/prep7
et, 1, 141
! 2-D Fluid element
rectng, , .027744, , .027744 ! Create square cavity
esize, , 20
! Set number of elements
amesh, all
! Mesh area
nsel, s, ext
! Select external nodes
d, all,,,,,,vx,vy
! Set all external wall velocities to zero
allsel
lsel, s, loc, x, 0.0
nsll, s, 1
d, all, temp, 500
! Set wall temperature at x = 0.0 to 500 K
lsel, s, loc, x, .027744
nsll, s, 1
d, all, temp, 200
! Set wall temperature at x = 0.027744 to 200 K
nsel, all

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4.9. Where to Find Other FLOTRAN Analysis Examples


esel, all
fldata1, solu, temp, 1
! Set solution option to thermal
fldata2, iter, exec, 200
! Set FLOTRAN execution control
fldata2, iter, over, 50
fldata5, outp, sumf, 50
!
fldata13, vary, dens, 1
! Set fluid properties
fldata7, prot, dens, air-si
fldata7, prot, visc, air-si
fldata7, prot, cond, air-si
fldata8, nomi, cond, -1
fldata7, prot, spht, air-si
!
acel, 0, 9.81, 0
! Set flow environment gravity
fldata18, meth, pres, 1
fldata19, tdma, pres, 100
fldata18, meth, temp, 6
stef,5.67e-8
! Set Stefan-Boltzmann constant
toff,0
! Set temperature offset to zero
radopt,.5,0.0001
! Set radiosity solver options
finish
/solu
allsel
nsel,s,ext
! Select all external nodes
sf, all, rdsf, 0.9, -1
! Apply radiation on external faces facing inwards
allsel
solve
! Solve
finish
/post1
set last
plnsol, temp
! Plot temperature solution
plnsol, strm
! Plot streamline contours

4.9. Where to Find Other FLOTRAN Analysis Examples


Another example of a FLOTRAN analysis is the CFD Tutorial. Also, the Verification Manual contains several
additional examples of FLOTRAN analyses. The Verification Manual examples include:
VM46 - Flow Between Rotating Concentric Cylinders
VM121 - Laminar Flow Through a Pipe with Uniform Heat Flux
VM178 - Plane Poiseuille Flow
VM209 - Multiple Species Flow Entering A Circular Pipe
VM219 - Non-Newtonian Pressure Driven Sector Flow

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Chapter 5: FLOTRAN Transient Analyses


You activate the transient algorithm by setting the solution option, using one of these methods:
Command(s): FLDATA1,SOLU,TRAN,TRUE
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options
You must make decisions regarding the time step, the method of converging the analysis during a time
step, the length of execution of the job and the frequency of output.
What you specify via one of the following methods determines the transient execution and output:
Command(s): FLDATA4,TIME and FLDATA4A,STEP
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl
The final section of this chapter explains how to apply transient boundary conditions for FLOTRAN.
The following FLOTRAN transient analysis topics are available:
5.1.Time Integration Method
5.2.Time Step Specification and Convergence
5.3.Terminating and Getting Output from a Transient Analysis
5.4. Applying Transient Boundary Conditions

5.1. Time Integration Method


There are two methods available for the time integration: Backward (the default) and Newmark. The Newmark
method is more accurate than the Backward method. To specify the Newmark method, use one of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA4,TIME,METH,NEWM
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Transient Contrl> Time Integration Meth
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Transient Contrl> Time Integration Meth
When using the Newmark method, you can introduce numerical damping to stabilize the solution.
Command(s): FLDATA4,TIME,DELT,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Transient Contrl> Time Integration Meth
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Transient Contrl> Time Integration Meth
The Newmark parameter must be 0.5. It defaults to 0.5. The recommended range is 0.5 to 0.6. Higher
values are more stable because there is more damping. Lower values result in more accurate results with
0.5 corresponding to second order accuracy. For more information on the Newmark method, see Transient
Analysis in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications.

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Chapter 5: FLOTRAN Transient Analyses


There are two mass types that you can set for the transient analysis: lumped (the default) and consistent.
The consistent type is more dissipative than the lumped type. To specify the consistent type, use one of the
following:
Command(s): FLDATA38,MASS,Label,CONS MSMASS,SPNUM,CONS
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Transient Contrl> Mass Type
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Transient Contrl> Mass Type
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species

5.2. Time Step Specification and Convergence


Because the algorithm is implicit in nature, no stability restrictions exist on the time step size. You specify
a time step or elect to have FLOTRAN calculate a time step. To do so, use either of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA4A,TIME,STEP,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl
The graphical user interface will require you to set the time step if you choose the User Defined option.
The table below shows the values you can specify. A brief description of the FLOTRAN calculation follows
the table.

Table 5.1 Specifying Values for Time Steps


Value to Specify
Any value > 0

Meaning
User Specified Time Step

-1

Advection Limit

-2

Pressure Wave Limit

-3

Smaller of Pressure wave and Advection

-4

Conduction Limit

The advection limit prevents a particle of fluid from passing completely through a finite element during a
time step.
The pressure wave limit means the time step is chosen small enough to prevent a pressure wave from
passing all the way through a finite element during a single time step. This option is active only if you choose
the compressible solution algorithm.
The choice of -3 (again valid only for compressible analyses) means that the more restrictive (that is, smaller)
time step criterion will be imposed.
The conduction limit is calculated to prevent the conductive diffusion of a parcel of energy completely
through an element during a time step. The limit applies only to problems that include conduction, and is
valid for problems with both fluid and non-fluid elements.
FLOTRAN must execute global iterations to converge within a time step. The time step terminates when
either of the following happens:

The convergence criteria are met.

The maximum number of global iterations allowed per time step executes.

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5.3.Terminating and Getting Output from a Transient Analysis


You set the maximum number of global iterations per time step using one of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA4A,TIME,GLOB,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl
The convergence criteria are values below which the convergence monitors for each active degree of freedom
must drop to cause the time step to terminate. You specify these values using the following commands or
menu paths:
Command(s): FLDATA4,TIME,Label,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl
As soon as all the convergence criteria are met, the time step terminates. The time step terminates on the
number of global iterations allowed if the convergence monitor criteria are not met.
If the problem is adiabatic, only the pressure equation monitor is checked. Both the pressure and temperature
equation monitors must be reduced below the convergence criteria values if the temperature equation also
is solved.
As soon as the convergence monitor criteria are met, the time step terminates. The time step terminates on
the number of global iterations allowed if the convergence monitor criteria are not met.

5.3. Terminating and Getting Output from a Transient Analysis


You can either specify an end time for a transient FLOTRAN analysis or have it end after a specified number
of time steps. To specify an end time, use either method shown below.
Command(s): FLDATA4,TIME,TEND,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl
To specify a number of time steps, either use one of the menu paths listed above or issue the following
command:
Command(s):
FLDATA4,TIME,NUMB,Value
The event that occurs first (end time or reaching the time step threshold) terminates the analysis.
You determine how often ANSYS saves the analysis results for processing and how often it writes information
to the Jobname.PFL file. You do this by choosing from the following commands or menu paths:
Command(s): FLDATA4,TIME,Label,Value and FLDATA4A,STEP,Label,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl
The table below shows you how the values you specify affect analysis output:

Table 5.2 Saving Analysis Results for Processing


Name, Label, Value

Meaning of Value

STEP,APPE,n

Output results to Jobname.RFL every n time steps


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Chapter 5: FLOTRAN Transient Analyses


Name, Label, Value

Meaning of Value

TIME,APPE,x

Output results to Jobname.RFL every x seconds

STEP,SUMF,n

Add output summary to Jobname.PFL every n time steps

TIME,SUMF,x

Add output summary to Jobname.PFL every x seconds

STEP,OVER,n

Overwrite the temporary results set every n time steps

TIME,OVER,x

Overwrite the temporary results set every x seconds

If you wish to control the output based on time, you must first defeat the default controls which set APPE
and SUMF to ten steps.

5.4. Applying Transient Boundary Conditions


When any boundary conditions are changed, FLOTRAN assumes either a step change (default) or a ramp
change. The ramp is chosen by setting the BC label in the TIME item to 1 via one in the following:
Command(s): FLDATA4,TIME,BC,1
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Execution Control
The ramp will occur for the next execution over the period of time for execution specified by the user. This
is the difference between the current time (i.e., the beginning in the execution) and the end time as specified
by the following:
Command(s): FLDATA4,TIME,TEND,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Execution Control
The ramp is between the "old" boundary conditions and the "new" boundary conditions. A boundary condition
is considered old as soon as FLOTRAN has gone through the calculational loop. This means that to use a
ramped condition at the beginning of an analysis, a zero iteration execution (which may be accomplished
with the FLOCHECK command) should be done with the initial condition (applied as a boundary condition)
and then the boundary condition value(s) are changed to those at the end in the ramp.
Note that the ramp is calculated with the value of TEND as specified above, NOT the actual ending time in
the case. For this reason, it is recommended that the user terminate the case with the TIME controls rather
than the STEP controls. Ensure that the case will not terminate prematurely due to an insufficient number
of time steps. If the case terminates before the time specified by TEND, upon restart the boundary conditions
will be immediately changed from where they were when the run terminated to what the current boundary
condition setting is. If you use the STEP controls in the GUI to set the number of time steps, you need to
set TEND in that same dialog box. Otherwise, TEND defaults to 1.0 x 106 and the ramp is almost nonexistent.
Transient boundary conditions on velocity DOF (VX, VY, and VZ) must not be ramped from zero to a nonzero
value. A very small velocity must be used instead of zero so that FLOTRAN recognizes the face as an inlet
or outlet rather than a wall.
At any time, you can change the applied boundary conditions to the "old" state with one of the following:
Command(s): FLOCHECK,2
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Flocheck
FLOCHECK,2 has no effect on the Jobname.RFL file.

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5.4. Applying Transient Boundary Conditions

Caution
FLOTRAN has no record of boundary conditions at earlier times. That is, if you want to restart
from an earlier point in time and simulate a ramped boundary condition it is necessary to apply
the boundary condition appropriate for the beginning of the ramp, make it an old condition via
the FLOCHECK command, and then apply the condition at the end of the ramp.

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Chapter 6: Volume of Fluid (VOF) Analyses


In a Volume of Fluid (VOF) analysis, FLOTRAN uses an advection algorithm for the volume fraction (VFRC)
to track the evolution of the free surface. The VFRC value for each element varies from zero to one, where
zero denotes an empty or void element and one denotes a full or fluid element. The values between zero
and one indicate that the corresponding elements are the partially full or surface elements (henceforth called
partial elements), and the free surface can thus be determined by the distribution of the VFRC field.
For the dynamic behavior at the interface between a gas and liquid, FLOTRAN uses a continuum surface
force (CSF) method to model the surface tension. Surface tension is an inherent characteristic of material
interfaces. It is a localized surface force acting on the interface. FLOTRAN reformulates this surface force into
an equivalent volumetric force in the momentum equation. This force consists of two components: a normal
component to the interface due to local curvature and a tangential component to the interface due to local
variations of the surface tension coefficient.
Currently, VOF capability is available only for quadrilateral elements for two dimensional planar or axisymmetric analyses. For a VOF analysis, boundary conditions are required for boundary nodes that belong to at
least one non-empty (partial or full) element.
To activate a VOF analysis in FLOTRAN and model the surface tension effect, use the following commands
or GUI menu paths:
Command(s): FLDATA1,SOLU,VOF,Value FLDATA1,SOLU,SFTS,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Solution Options
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Solution Options
In FLOTRAN, the VOF algorithm first computes the motion of the polygon of fluid in a Lagrangian sense and
then utilizes the computational geometry of the intersection of two polygons to determine the VFRC fluxes.
This method is referred to as the Computational Lagrangian-Eulerian Advection Remap (CLEAR) method.
See CLEAR-VOF Advection in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications for
information on the theoretical background. This CLEAR-VOF method tracks the free surface explicitly in time,
and it is therefore necessary to activate the transient solution option for a VOF analysis. Refer to Chapter 5,
FLOTRAN Transient Analyses (p. 59) for information on the selection of the transient parameters, such as the
time step, converging method, execution length and the output frequency. For accuracy, you should use
the Streamline Upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) approach described in Chapter 14, Advection Discretization
Options (p. 161). If you encounter a convergence difficulty, the time increment may be reduced, and the
modified inertial relaxation (MIR) scheme may also be activated for robustness.

Caution
You should avoid using quadrilateral elements with only one node on the inflow or outflow
boundary.
The following VOF topics are available:
6.1. VFRC Loads
6.2. Input Settings
6.3. Postprocessing
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Chapter 6: Volume of Fluid (VOF) Analyses


6.4. VOF Analysis of a Dam
6.5. VOF Analysis of Open Channel with an Obstruction
6.6. VOF Analysis of an Oscillating Droplet

6.1. VFRC Loads


When performing a VOF analysis, you need to apply both initial and boundary VFRC loads. In most cases,
default values are appropriate.

6.1.1. Initial VFRC Loads


You impose initial conditions for the velocity and other degrees of freedom in the usual manner. For the
initial VFRC field, you can define each element as initially full, partially full or empty. Take care when initially
setting partial elements. Each partial element must be adjacent to at least one full element and one empty
element. During the analysis, if a partial element does not have any full elements as neighbors, it will be
reset to empty. You should also include at least one layer of empty elements above the free surface to allow
the surface to evolve in time.
To set the initial volume fraction field, use one of the following:
Command(s): ICE,ELEM,VFRC,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Volume Fract> Init
Loads> On Elements
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Volume Fract> Init Loads> On Elements
By default, the volume fraction is zero. Therefore, if there is fluid initially inside the problem domain, you
must set the VFRC field accordingly.
To set the initial volume fraction for a given geometry, use one of the following:
Command(s): ICVFRC,GEOM,VAL1,VAL2,VAL3,VAL4
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Volume Fract> Init Loads> By
Geom
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Volume Frac> Init Loads> By Geom
ICVFRC automatically calculates the volume fraction value for all selected elements that are either inside
the given geometry or intersect with it. The volume fraction is:

One for elements completely within the geometry

A fraction equal to the element area within the geometry for elements intersected by the boundary of
the geometry

Currently, there are two valid geometries: circle (CIRC) and ellipse (ELPT). For a circle or ellipse, VAL1 and
VAL2 are the x and y coordinates of the center, respectively. For a circle, VAL3 is the radius and VAL4 is not
used. For an ellipse, VAL3 and VAL4 are the x and y semiaxes, respectively.
To display the initial volume fraction loads, use the following:
Command(s): /PICE,VFRC,,KEY
GUI: Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Symbols
The /PBF and /PSF commands override the /PICE command.

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6.2.1. Ambient Conditions

6.1.2. Boundary VFRC Loads


You impose boundary conditions for the velocity and other degrees of freedom in the usual manner. Although
boundary conditions outside the fluid region have no physical meaning initially, these conditions will become
active if the fluid touches these boundaries. Accordingly, you should apply all appropriate boundary conditions
on all boundaries potentially touched by the fluid. FLOTRAN treats unspecified boundaries with natural
conditions.
Boundary conditions for VFRC loads consist of the boundary VFRC value and the wetting status. FLOTRAN
only allows zero (empty) and one (full) values for the boundary VFRC values. By default, boundary VFRC
values are set to one (full). FLOTRAN uses the boundary VFRC values to determine the normal surface direction
in the VOF reconstruction stage, when the boundary is adjacent to the surface elements. The wetting status
specifies whether the fluid can be advected into the problem domain. A zero value indicates a non-wetting
boundary, whereas a unity value indicates a wetting boundary. By default, wetting status is set to zero (nonwetting boundary). On a wetting boundary, fluid advection into the problem domain takes place. The corresponding boundary VFRC value must be set to unity to be meaningful. On a non-wetting boundary, advection of the fluid or void elements into the problem domain does not take place. The boundary VFRC
value only acts passively to help determine the normal surface direction.
To set boundary VFRC loads, use one of the following:
Command(s): SFL,LINE,VFRC,VALI,VALJ,VAL2I,VAL2J SFE,ELEM,LKEY,VFRC,KVAL,VAL1,VAL2,VAL3,VAL4
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Volume Fract> Bound
Loads> On Lines
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Volume Fract> Bound Loads>
On Elements
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Volume Fract> Bound Loads> On Lines
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Volume Fract> Bound Loads> On Elements
For the SFL command, VALI specifies the boundary VFRC value and (defaults to 1) VAL2I specifies the
wetting status (defaults to non-wetting). If Lab = VFRC, a VAL2I setting of 1 indicates a wetted boundary.
For the SFE command, VAL1 specifies the boundary VFRC value (defaults to 1) when KVAL = 0 or 1, and
VAL1 specifies the boundary wetting status (defaults to non-wetting) when KVAL = 2. If Lab = VFRC and
KVAL = 2, a VAL1 setting of 1 indicates a wetted boundary. At a wetted boundary, the fluid upstream keeps
the associated elements full.

6.2. Input Settings


When performing a VOF analysis, you may set the environmental conditions regarding the ambient conditions,
the VFRC tolerances, and the time stepping strategy.
When studying surface tension effects, you need set the proper values for the surface tension coefficient
and the wall static contact angle. Refer to Chapter 9, Specifying Fluid Properties for FLOTRAN (p. 117) for information on these property types.

6.2.1. Ambient Conditions


Set the ambient nodal values outside the fluid region for the following variables:
VX - U velocity
VY - V velocity
VZ - W velocity
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67

Chapter 6: Volume of Fluid (VOF) Analyses


TEMP - Temperature
ENKE - Turbulent Kinetic Energy
ENDS - Turbulent Dissipation Rate
using one of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA36,AMBV, Label,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> VOF Environment> Ambient Condit'n
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> VOF Environment> Ambient Condit'n
When a boundary node with Dirichlet Condition lies outside the fluid region, the assigned ambient values
on this node are ignored. The prescribed Dirichlet Condition will become active once its associate element
becomes partially full or full. Except for pressure, the ambient values are only set for postprocessing purposes.
Pressure acts as an actual boundary condition.
Unlike other FLOTRAN analyses, the pressure field for a VOF analysis will include both the dynamic pressure
and the static pressure and the static pressure will be in balance with the gravitational acceleration terms.
For example, in a VOF analysis, the pressure contours for a parallel uniform flow with gravity will consist of
parallel lines with a gradient balancing gravity, whereas they remain constant for other FLOTRAN analyses.
In a VOF analysis, an outlet can have specified pressures or it can have natural conditions. When outlet
pressures are specified, the values will differ from those in other FLOTRAN analyses by the offsets of the
static pressure (or elevation head). For natural boundary conditions the outlet pressures will adjust automatically. In that case, if a steady state solution exists, the outlet pressures will converge to the correct values.

6.2.2. VFRC Tolerances


Ideally, a VFRC value of one signifies a full or fluid element and a value of zero signifies an empty or void
element. In reality, however, exact values of one and zero are difficult to maintain in the VOF advection algorithm due to various types of error accumulations. Hence, FLOTRAN introduces small cutoff values to determine the full and empty elements. An element is considered full if its VFRC value is greater than or equal
to 1 - VOFU, where VOFU is the upper tolerance for the VOF advection algorithm. An element is considered
empty if its VFRC value is less than or equal to VOFL, where VOFL is the lower tolerance for the VOF advection
algorithm. By default, VOFL and VOFU are both set to 10-5.
In the FLOTRAN solution routines, a nearly empty element adjacent to a nearly full element may introduce
an abrupt change in the locally rescaled meshes. This can make the stiffness matrix more ill-conditioned
and can adversely affect the quality of the desired solution. To avoid this, FLOTRAN introduces another tolerance to not assemble the finite element equations for those elements with VFRC values less than or equal
to LAML for laminar flows and TRBL for turbulent flows, where LAML and TRBL are the lower tolerances for
laminar and turbulent flows, respectively. Similarly, elements with VFRC values greater than or equal to 1 LAMU for laminar flows and 1 - TRBU for turbulent flows are considered full when assembling the finite
element equations. You can set any of these tolerance values. By default, LAML and LAMU are set to 10-2
and TRBL and TRBU are set to 10-1.
To set any of the tolerance values, use one of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA35,VFTOL,Label,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> VOF Environment> VFRC Tolerance
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> VOF Environment> VFRC Tolerance

68

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6.3. Postprocessing

6.2.3. VOF Time Steps


Because the CLEAR-VOF is explicit in time, it must use a time step for the VOF advection algorithm that
corresponds to a CFL number less than one. On the other hand, selecting the time step based on the VOF
constraint may be too restrictive sometimes because the FLOTRAN transient solution algorithm is implicit
in time, and there is no stability restriction on the time step size. Accordingly, FLOTRAN allows multiple VOF
advection steps per solution step. The VOF advection time step is set equal to the solution time step divided
by a factor that you specify. If the VOF advection time step is still too large, FLOTRAN will automatically reduce
the VOF time step by half. This automatic reduction in the VOF time step continues until the local imbalance
of the VFRC field during the VOF advection computations is less than the VOFL tolerance. A good input
parameter guess makes the calculation more efficient by removing some checks on the time step.
To set the number of VOF advection time steps per solution time step, use one of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA4,TIME,NTVF,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> VOF Environment> Time Stepping
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> VOF Environment> Time Stepping
For a VOF analysis, the density is constant. Therefore, mass conservation is equivalent to the conservation
of the total fluid volume (or area in two dimensions). Ideally, the difference between the volume coming
into the problem domain and going out of the domain should be equal to the increase or decrease of the
total volume inside the domain. In an actual finite element analysis, however, continuity satisfaction is expressed in a Galerkin weak form. Therefore, in general, each element has a small mass imbalance. The local
mass imbalance is usually of the order of the discretization error, and this error is a major source of the
global VFRC imbalance introduced in a VOF analysis. Even though this imbalance may be very small compared
to the total volume, it can accumulate exponentially as the number of time steps increases. Hence, FLOTRAN
performs a global adjustment of the VFRC field at each VOF time step. It proportionally increases or decreases
the VFRC values of the partial elements to guarantee the global VFRC balance. It prints the final VFRC imbalance in the Jobname.PFL file.

6.3. Postprocessing
The volume fraction is stored as a non-summable miscellaneous record in the element data section of the
results file. If you want to view the volume fraction, issue the command:
Command(s):
PLESOL,NMISC,1
Since the volume fraction is essentially an element based quantity, it is discontinuous across elements. If
you wish to see a smooth and continuous volume fraction, you should first store the results in an element
table, using one of the following:
Command(s): ETABLE,VFRC,NMISC,1
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> Define Table
You can then plot the results with an averaging operation, using one of the following:
Command(s): PLETAB,VFRC,1
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> Plot Elem Table
However, instead of using the foregoing commands, you can use one of the following:
Command(s): PLVFRC,CONT
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Element Solu
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69

Chapter 6: Volume of Fluid (VOF) Analyses


The PLVFRC macro issues the ETABLE and PLETAB commands. When CONT = 0, PLVFRC uses contour
levels of 0.5 and 1.0 to indicate the free surface and fluid regions. When CONT = 1, it uses the current contour
settings.
You can also animate your results. To obtain an animation over a time sequence by interpolation between
time steps, use the PLVFRC command macro along with one of the following:
Command(s): PLVFRC,CONT ANTIME,NFRAM, DELAY, NCYCL, AUTOCNTRKY, RSLTDAT, MIN, MAX
GUI: Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Animate> Over Time
To produce an animation based on the time steps without interpolation, use the PLVFRC command macro
along with one of the following:
Command(s): PLVFRC,CONT ANDATA,DELAY,NCYCL, RSCLDAT, MIN, MAX, INCR, FRCLST,
AUTOCNTRKY
GUI: Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Animate> Over Results
Note that if CONT = 0, the animation is based on two contour levels of 0.5 and 1.0. If CONT = 1, the animation
is based on AUTOCNTRKY setting.

6.4. VOF Analysis of a Dam


6.4.1. The Problem Described
In this example, two vertical walls confine a rectangular column of stationary water. When the right wall is
removed, the water flows out onto a rigid horizontal plane. The ICE command sets the initial volume fraction
field.

6.4.2. Building and Solving the Model (Command Method)


The following command stream shows all the relevant parameters and solution strategy. All text prefaced
with an exclamation point (!) is a comment.
/BATCH,LIST
/title, broken dam problem by the VOF solution.
/com
/com -----------------------------------------------------------------/com ** Reference: "Part IV: An Experimental Study of the Collapse of
/com **
Liquid Columns on a Rigid Horizontal Plane"
/com **
By Martin and Moyce, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc.
/com **
(London,A244, pp. 312-324, 1952.
/com **
"Volume of Fluid (VOF) Method for the Dynamics of
/com **
Free Boundaries" By C.W. Hirt and B.D. Nichols,
/com **
J. Comput. Physics, Vol. 39, pp. 201-225, 1981.
/com **
/prep7
!!!!!
Define some dimensions and gravity
LX = 5.0
! X length
LY = 2.5
! Y length
DELX = 0.2
! X spacing
DELY = 0.05
! Y spacing
grav = 9.81
! Gravity
et,1,141
!!!! meshing
rect,0,LX,0,LY
lsel,s,,,2,4,2
lesize,all,DELY
lsel,s,,,1,3,2
lesize,all,DELX
amesh,all

70

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6.5.2. Building and Solving the Model (Command Method)


nsel,s,loc,y,0.0
nsel,a,loc,x,0.0
d,all,vx,0.0
d,all,vy,0.0

! Wall boundary conditions

nsel,s,loc,x,0.0,1.0
nsel,r,loc,y,0.0,2.0
esln,s,1
ice,all,vfrc,1.0

! Setup initial VFRC

alls
ic,all,vx,0
ic,all,vy,0
save
fini

! Initial conditions for vx & vy

/solu
!!!! FLOTRAN input
acel,0.0,grav,0
FLDA,NOMI,DENS,1.0e3
FLDA,NOMI,VISC,1.0d-3
FLDA,SOLU,FLOW,T
FLDA,SOLU,TRAN,T
FLDA,SOLU,turb,F
flda,solu,vof,t
flda,time,glob,5
flda,time,numb,70
flda,time,step,0.01
flda,time,appe,0.1
flda,advm,mome,supg
flda,relx,vx,0.5
flda,relx,vy,0.5
flda,relx,pres,1.0
solve
fini
exit,nosa

6.5. VOF Analysis of Open Channel with an Obstruction


6.5.1. The Problem Described
In this example, water flows in an open channel with a semicircular obstruction on the bottom. The computation uses the standard k- turbulence model since the turbulence model is not very important for the
prediction of the free-surface shape. The solution domain extends five cylinder diameters upstream and five
diameters downstream of the obstruction. The fluid starts to fill the domain at the beginning of the simulation.
The SFE and SFL commands set a wetting boundary on the left inlet.

6.5.2. Building and Solving the Model (Command Method)


The following command stream shows all the relevant parameters and solution strategy. All text prefaced
with an exclamation point (!) is a comment.
/BATCH,LIST
/title, initial development of flow over a bump.
/com
/com -----------------------------------------------------------------/com **
Initial development of flow over a semicircular bump
/com **
Reference: "Critical Free-Surface Flow Over a Semi-Circular
/com **
Obstruction" By L.K. Forbes, J. Eng. Math.,
/com **
vol. 22, pp. 3-13, 1998.
/com **
"Computation of free-surface flows using the
/com **
finite-volume method and moving grids",
/com **
By S. Muzaferija and M. Peric, Numerical Heat
/com **
Transfer, Part B, 32:369-384, 1997.
/com -----------------------------------------------------------------!

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71

Chapter 6: Volume of Fluid (VOF) Analyses


!
! Property and parameter input
rho = 1.0e0
! Density
grav = 9.81
! Gravity
mu
= 1.0e-6
! Viscosity
!
R = 0.03
! Bump radius
L = 2*R
H = 0.075
! Inlet height
H0 = R
! Height above the Inlet
outlen = 5.0*R
! Outlet length
inlen = 5.0*R
! Inlet length
ny1 = 8
! Number of elements in line 1
ny2 = 2
! Number of elements in line 2
ny3 = 4
! Number of elements in line 3
ry2 = 1.0
! Ratio of element size in line 2
ry3 = 1.0
! Ratio of element size in line 3
nx1 = 15
! Number of elements in line 13
nx2 = 15
! Number of elements in line 21
nx3 = 20
! Number of elements in line 17
rx1 = 0.5
! Ratio of element size in line 13
rx2 = 1.0
! Ratio of element size in line 25
rx3 = 1.5
! Ratio of element size in line 17
nr1 = 10
! Number of elements in radial direction near bump
!!
/prep7
et,1,141
k,1,-inlen,0.0
! KP 1 - 4 are at the inlet
k,2,-inlen,L
k,3,-inlen,H
k,4,-inlen,H+H0
!
l,1,2
! Lines 1-3 are the inlet line
l,2,3
l,3,4
!
k,5,-L,0.0
! KP 5 - 8 are before the bump
k,6,-L,L
k,7,-L,H
k,8,-L,H+H0
!
l,5,6
! Lines 4-6 before the bump
l,6,7
l,7,8
!
k,9,L,0.0
! KP 9 - 12 are after the bump
k,10,L,L
k,11,L,H
k,12,L,H+H0
!
l,9,10
! Lines 7-9 after the bump
l,10,11
l,11,12
!
k,13,outlen,0.0
! KP 13 - 16 are at the outlet
k,14,outlen,L
k,15,outlen,H
k,16,outlen,H+H0
!
l,13,14
! Lines 10-12 at the outlet
l,14,15
l,15,16
!
l,1,5
! Lines 13-16 are horizontal lines near inlet
l,2,6
l,3,7
l,4,8
!
l,9,13
l,10,14
l,11,15

72

! Lines 17-20 are horizontal lines near outlet

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6.5.2. Building and Solving the Model (Command Method)


l,12,16
!
l,6,10
! Lines 21-23 are horizontal lines near the bump
l,7,11
l,8,12
!
k,17,R,0.0
! KP 17 to 23 are for the semicircular bump
k,18,0.0,0.0
circle,18,R,,17,180,4
lcomb,25,26,0
!
l,19,9
! Lines 26, 28-30 in radial direction near bump
l,20,10
l,22,6
l,23,5
!
!
Select lines and establish line divisions
!
lsel,s,,,1,4,3
lesize,all,,,ny1
!
lsel,s,,,2,11,3
lesize,all,,,ny2,ry2
!
lsel,s,,,3,12,3
lesize,all,,,ny3,ry3
!
lsel,s,,,13,16
lesize,all,,,nx1,rx1
!
lsel,s,,,21,23
lesize,all,,,nx2,1.0/rx2
lsel,s,,,25
lesize,all,,,nx2,rx2
!
lsel,s,,,17,20
lesize,all,,,nx3,rx3
!
lsel,s,,,27
lesize,all,,,ny1
!
lsel,s,,,26
lsel,a,,,28,30
lesize,all,,,nr1
!
!
define the y-direction mesh
lsel,s,,,24
lsel,a,,,7
lsel,a,,,10
lesize,all,,,nx2,1.5
!
alls
!
Create areas....
a,1,5,6,2
! Inlet
a,2,6,7,3
a,3,7,8,4
a,9,13,14,10
! Outlet
a,10,14,15,11
a,11,15,16,12
a,6,10,11,7
! Bump
a,7,11,12,8
a,19,9,10,20
a,20,10,6,22
a,5,23,22,6
alls
amesh,all
!
! Inlet boundary condition
lsel,s,,,1,2
nsll,,1
d,all,vx,0.32

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73

Chapter 6: Volume of Fluid (VOF) Analyses


d,all,vy,0.0
!
nsel,s,loc,x,-inlen
nsel,r,loc,y,0.0
d,all,vx,0.001
!
! boundary volume fraction (SFL and SFE commands)
sfl,1,vfrc,1,,1
sfl,2,vfrc,1,,1
!!
!!!!
The walls
lsel,s,,,13
lsel,a,,,17
lsel,a,,,24,25
lsel,a,,,27
lsel,a,,,26
lsel,a,,,30
nsll,,1
d,all,vx,0
d,all,vy,0
alls
/solu
!!!! FLOTRAN Input
acel,0.0,grav,0.0
FLDA,SOLU,VOF,ON
FLDA,SOLU,FLOW,ON
FLDA,SOLU,TRAN,ON
FLDA,SOLU,TURB,ON
FLDA,TIME,GLOB,3
FLDA,TIME,NUMB,50
FLDA,TIME,STEP,1e-2
FLDA,TIME,APPE,0.1
FLDA,TIME,PRES,1.0E-6
FLDA,ADVM,MOME,SUPG
flda,relx,vx,0.5
flda,relx,vy,0.5
flda,relx,pres,1.0
flda,prot,dens,constant
! Constant density
flda,prot,visc,constant
! Constant viscosity
flda,nomi,dens,rho
! Density set earlier
flda,nomi,visc,mu
! Viscosity set earlier
solve
fini
exit,nosa

6.6. VOF Analysis of an Oscillating Droplet


6.6.1. The Problem Described
This example examines the interesting phenomenon of a liquid droplet oscillating in an dynamically inactive
gas. For small amplitudes, the angular frequency, , is given by the following formula from A. Prosperetti,
("Free Oscillations of Drops and Bubbles: The Initial-Value Problem," Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 100, p.
333, 1980):

2 = [8 - (5 / Re) 2 ]

R F3

where is the density, is the surface tension coefficient, and RF is the radius of the drop at its equilibrium
state. Here, Re is the Reynolds number given by:

Re =

74

R F

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6.6.2. Results
where is the dynamic viscosity of the liquid.
When the oscillation is fully damped by the viscosity, the droplet takes a spherical shape and the droplet
pressure is given by:

Ptheory =

2
RF

The droplet analyzed here is initially elliptical with major and minor semiaxes of 24.69 mm and 18 mm, respectively. This corresponds to a final radius of RF of 20 mm. The time increment, t, is set to 2 x 10-4 ms.
The material properties of the droplet are:

= 109 mg/(m)3

= 106 mg/(m)(ms)

= 0.073 mg/(ms)2

The Prosperetti formula gives an oscillation frequency of 43.0 kHz.

6.6.2. Results
Figure 6.1: Instantaneous Pressure Distributions at 0.001 ms (p. 76) and Figure 6.2: Instantaneous Pressure Distributions at 0.012 ms (p. 76) show the instantaneous pressure distributions at 0.001 ms and 0.012 ms, respectively. Rather than a pressure jump across the interface, the pressure is observed to vary smoothly in a thin
transition region near the interface. Initially, the maximum pressure occurs at the top and bottom portion
of the droplet due to a high local curvature. The resulting pressure gradient forces the fluid inward and redirects it to the sides. As the droplet moves, the pressure starts to rise at the sides due to the increasing
local curvature. This slows down the movement of the droplet and eventually forces the fluid back inward
from the sides. The pressure distribution controls the droplet oscillation by balancing the kinetic energy and
the potential energy due to the surface tension. The simulation produces a free surface profile every 5 time
steps. The frequency is 42.6 kHz (two cycles occur in 0.047 ms). This agrees quite well with the 43.0 kHz
predicted by the Prosperetti formula. The oscillation amplitude decreases with time and damps out at 0.2
ms due to viscosity. Averaging the pressure values on interior nodes attached to only full elements gives
the numerical droplet pressure. The difference between the numerical and the analytical pressure is approximately 1%. There are some noises in the velocity field near the interface due to the so-called parasitic currents
inherent in the CSF formulation.

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75

Chapter 6: Volume of Fluid (VOF) Analyses

Figure 6.1: Instantaneous Pressure Distributions at 0.001 ms

Figure 6.2: Instantaneous Pressure Distributions at 0.012 ms

6.6.3. Building and Solving the Model (Command Method)


The following command stream shows all the relevant parameters and solution strategy. All text prefaced
with an exclamation point (!) is a comment.
/title, oscillating axisymmetric drop problem by the VOF/CSF solution.
/nopr
LX
= 30
!
x length in micrometer (um)
LY
= 30
!
y length in micrometer (um)
RadF = 20
!
radius of the final sphere in micrometer (um)
aRad = 18
!
x radius in micrometer (um)
bRad = RadF**3/aRad**2
!
y radius in micrometer (um)
DELX = 0.1*RadF
!
x spacing in micrometer (um)
DELY = 0.1*RadF
!
y spacing in micrometer (um)

76

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6.6.3. Building and Solving the Model (Command Method)


DELT = 2.0e-4
APPT = DELT*5
NDT = 1000
Sigm = 0.073
rho = 1.0e-9
mu
= 1.0e-6
pexact=2*Sigm/RadF
/prep7
et,1,141,,,1
rect,0,LX,-LY,LY
lsel,s,,,2,4,2
lesize,all,DELY
lsel,s,,,1,3,2
lesize,all,DELX
amesh,all

!
!
!
!
!
!

time increment in millisecond (ms)


append time in millisecond (ms)
total number of time steps
SFTS coefficient in unit of (mg)/(ms)^2
density in unit of (mg)/(um)^3
viscosity in unit of (mg)/(um)(ms)
theoretical pressure in equilibrium

!
!

RY geometry

nsel,s,loc,x,0
d,all,vx,0.0

! symmetry condition

alls
icvf,elpt,0.0,0.0,aRad,bRad
ic,all,vx,0
ic,all,vy,0
save
fini

! initial VFRC
! initial velocity

/solu
flda,solu,tran,t
flda,solu,vof,t
flda,solu,sfts,t
flda,nomi,sfts,sigm
flda,nomi,dens,rho
flda,nomi,visc,mu
flda,time,glob,10
flda,time,numb,NDT
flda,time,step,DELT
flda,advm,mome,supg
flda,mir,mome,1.0
flda,relx,pres,1.0
flda,time,appe,APPT
solve
fini
/post1
set,last
PLVFRC,0
ANDATA,0.1, ,2,1,51,1,0.0,1
set,last
*GET,VFAdvU,FLDA,VFTO,VOFU
VFAdvU=1.0-VFAdvU
alls
*get,elmmax,elem,0,count
*get,elmi,elem,0,num,min
*get,vfval,elem,elmi,nmis,1
*IF,vfval,LE,VFAdvU,then
esel,u,,,elmi
*ENDIF

!
!
!

Get the number of elements


Get the lowest elem number in the set
Get the VFRC for the element
!

Remove elmi from the active set

*do,ilop,2,elmmax
! Loop over selected elements
*get,elmn,elem,elmi,nxth
! Get the next higher elem number in the set
*get,vfval,elem,elmn,nmis,1 ! Get the VFRC for the element
*IF,vfval,LE,VFAdvU,then
esel,u,,,elmn
! Remove elmn from the active set
*ELSE
elmi=elmn
*ENDIF
*enddo
nsle,s,all
nsel,u,ext

!
!

select all node attached to elements


unselect ext. nodes of prev. selected nodes

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77

Chapter 6: Volume of Fluid (VOF) Analyses


pavg=0.0
prms=0.0
*get,nodmax,node,0,count
*do,ilop,1,nodmax
*get,nodi,node,0,num,min
*get,pval,node,nodi,pres
pavg=pavg+pval
prms=prms+(pval-pexact)**2
nsel,u,,,nodi
*enddo
pavg=pavg/nodmax
prms=sqrt(prms/nodmax)/pexact

Get the number of selected nodes


Loop over the number of nodes
! Get the lowest node number in the set
! Get the y
! pressure sum
! pressure rms
! Remove node from the active set
!

/go
*vwrite
(9x,'DelX/Rad ', 3x, 'PRES / Pexact ',3x,'Prms ')
*vwrite,DELX/RadF,pavg/pexact,prms
(3(4x,1pe12.5))
fini
exit,nosa

6.6.4. Where to Find Other Examples


For more examples on the VOF analysis of free surface problems with surface tension, refer to G. Wang,
(Finite Element Simulations of Gas-Liquid Flows with Surface Tension, International Mechanical Engineering
Congress & Exposition, November 5-10, 2000, Orlando, Florida).

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Chapter 7: Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) Formulation for


Moving Domains
Fluid flow problems often involve moving interfaces. The interfaces can be moving internal walls (for example,
a solid moving through a fluid), external walls, or free surfaces. In such problems, the fluid domain changes
with time and the finite element mesh must move to satisfy the boundary conditions at the moving interfaces.
You can use the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation to solve problems of this type.
Figure 7.1: Torsional Mirror at t = 0 Seconds (p. 79) illustrates a typical fluid flow problem requiring the ALE
formulation. It involves a micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) device with a viscous fluid between two
rigid plates. Initially, the plates are parallel and the fluid is at rest.

Figure 7.1: Torsional Mirror at t = 0 Seconds

The top plate begins to oscillate about its centerline setting the fluid in motion. The ALE formulation allows
the fluid domain to change with time and the finite element mesh to move to satisfy the boundary conditions
at the moving plate. Figure 7.2: Torsional Mirror at t = 2.5 Seconds (p. 80) and Figure 7.3: Torsional Mirror at t
= 7.5 Seconds (p. 80) show the finite element mesh at later times.

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Chapter 7: Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) Formulation for Moving Domains

Figure 7.2: Torsional Mirror at t = 2.5 Seconds

Figure 7.3: Torsional Mirror at t = 7.5 Seconds

To perform a transient analysis employing the ALE formulation, you must activate the ALE formulation and
the transient solution algorithm. To activate the ALE formulation, you use one of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA1,SOLU,ALE,TRUE
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Solution Options
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Solution Options
To activate the transient algorithm, you use one of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA1,SOLU,TRAN,TRUE
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options
For more information on transient analyses and the transient algorithm, see Chapter 5, FLOTRAN Transient
Analyses (p. 59).

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7.1. Boundary Conditions


To do an ALE analysis, you need to use one of the following elements:
FLUID141, KEYOPT(3) = 0 (Cartesian coordinates), 1 (axisymmetric about Y-axis), or 2 (axisymmetic about Xaxis).
FLUID142, KEYOPT(3) = 0 (Cartesian coordinates). You cannot use a cylindrical coordinate system (KEYOPT(3)
= 3) with ALE.
You will need to activate KEYOPT(4) to specify boundary motions (displacement DOFs). To define the element
type, use one of the following:
Command(s): ET,ITYPE,Ename,KOP1,KOP2,KOP3,KOP4,KOP5,KOP6 KEYOPT,ITYPE,KNUM,VALUE
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete
Real constants 18 (BDTOL) and 19 (MMFAC) are also used in an ALE analysis.
Currently, free surfaces are not a part of the ALE formulation. However, you can use the Volume of Fluid
(VOF) method in conjunction with the ALE formulation to simulate flows involving free surfaces and moving
walls. (Refer to Chapter 6, Volume of Fluid (VOF) Analyses (p. 65).)
The following ALE topics are available:
7.1. Boundary Conditions
7.2. Mesh Updating
7.3. Remeshing
7.4. Postprocessing
7.5. ALE Analysis of a Simplified Torsional Mirror
7.6. ALE/VOF Analysis of a Vessel with a Moving Wall
7.7. ALE Analysis of a Moving Cylinder

7.1. Boundary Conditions


Generally, either slip or stick boundary conditions apply for moving internal or external walls (See Figure 7.4: Boundary Conditions for Moving Walls (p. 81).)

Figure 7.4: Boundary Conditions for Moving Walls

Slip or stick boundary


conditions for displacements and velocities

Fluid

Moving solid

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Chapter 7: Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) Formulation for Moving Domains


Table 7.1: Interface Boundary Conditions (p. 82) shows the required displacement and velocity specifications
for slip and stick boundary conditions.

Table 7.1 Interface Boundary Conditions


Boundary Condition

Slip[1]

Stick[1]

Displacement

Specify normal component of displacement for fluid


nodes.

Specify all displacement components for


fluid nodes.

That is, specify the


following:

Dn = d n

That is, specify the following:


2-D

3-D

Dn = d n

Dn = d n

D = d

D = d 1

or Dx; Dy

D = d 2
2

or Dx; Dy; Dz
Velocity

Inviscid Flow

Viscous Flow

Specify normal component of velocity


for fluid nodes.

Specify all velocity components for fluid


nodes.

That is, specify the


following:

Vn = n

That is, specify the following:


2-D

3-D

Vn = n

Vn = n

V =

V = 1
1

or Vx; Vy

V = 2
2
or Vx; Vy; Vz

1.

The time derivative of the normal displacement must be equal to the normal velocity, dDn/dt = Vn.

Slip or stick boundary conditions can apply for displacement. For velocity, slip boundary conditions apply
for inviscid flow and stick boundary conditions apply for viscous flow. In all cases, the time derivative of the
normal displacement must be equal to the normal velocity. In FLOTRAN, only stick boundary conditions are
currently valid.
To set displacement or velocity boundary conditions at nodes, you can use either of the following:
Command(s): D
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Displacement (or
Velocity)> On Nodes

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7.2. Mesh Updating


Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Displacement (or Velocity)> On
Nodes
To set boundary conditions on the solid model, you can use any of the following:
Command(s): DL and DA
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Displacement (or
Velocity)> On Lines
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Displacement (or Velocity)> On
Lines
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Displacement (or Velocity)> On Areas
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Displacement (or Velocity)> On
Areas
If a node is part of a distributed resistance or a fan model or part of a solid region composed of FLUID141
or FLUID142 elements, homogenous displacement boundary conditions are automatically applied (that is,
D,ALL,UX,0.0 and D,ALL,UY,0.0 for 2-D and D,ALL,UX,0.0, D,ALL,UY,0.0, and D,ALL,UZ,0.0 for 3-D).
You can specify partial displacement boundary conditions to make external nodes move along a global axis.
For example, D,ALL,UX,0.0 will make a set of nodes slide along the y-axis in a 2-D model. Currently, normal
and tangential components of displacement can not be specified for an external boundary.
You can also specify generalized symmetry boundary conditions. If the ALE formulation is activated, velocity
components are then set equal to the mesh velocity. To do so, use one of the following commands or the
GUI equivalent:
D,NODE,ENDS,-1
DL,LINE,AREA,ENDS,-1,Value2
DA,AREA,ENDS,-1,Value2

7.2. Mesh Updating


The ALE formulation uses the displacement boundary conditions applied by the D, DL, and DA commands
to update the finite element mesh. It determines the displacement at the beginning of each time step relative
to the previous time step. For each time step, an elasticity based morphing algorithm updates the mesh.
The algorithm ensures that boundary layers are retained (that is, nodes in a fine mesh area move less than
nodes in a coarse mesh area).
A transient analysis cannot proceed if morphing fails. If morphing is independent of the fluid flow solution,
you can step through the morphing algorithm before doing a fluid flow analysis to determine whether
morphing will fail. To do so, issue the following command sequence:
/solu
.
.
.
fldata,solu,turb,f
fldata,solu,temp,f
fldata,solu,spec,f
fldata,solu,ale,t
fldata,solu,flow,f
solve

You cannot check for morphing failure in advance if the time step size depends on the fluid flow variables
or the problem involves a free surface.

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Chapter 7: Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) Formulation for Moving Domains


Mesh morphing is currently available for the following element shapes:

Pure quadrilaterals, pure triangles, or a combination for FLUID141

Pure hexahedrals, pure tetrahedrals, pure pyramids, pure wedges, or any combination for FLUID142

Sometimes mesh morphing produces poor quality elements (for example, when a fluid domain is extremely
squeezed by a moving wall). The birth and death feature can then be useful. To implement this feature, you
assign a birth/death tolerance to the candidate elements using the real constant BDTOL. A node is automatically deactivated if the distance from it to the center of any element face on the wall becomes less than
the assigned BDTOL. A element is deactivated if all of its nodes are deactivated. Conversely, a node is reactivated if the distance from it to the center of the closest element face on the wall becomes greater than or
equal to the assigned BDTOL. A element is reactivated if all of its nodes are reactivated.
Setting the MMFAC (mesh morphing multiplier) real constant on the FLUID141 or FLUID142 elements can
affect mesh morphing. If the real constant set number defaults to zero in a third-party mesher, the default
value for the multiplier is set to 0.0. In this case, you will need to either set the real constant set number or
the MMFAC real constant explicitly if you are not satisfied with the 0.0 default value.

7.3. Remeshing
Large fluid domain changes can produce poor quality elements and mesh morphing failure. To avoid element
failure, you must remesh.
To accomplish remeshing, issue one of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA39,REMESH
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Remesh Ctrl
FLDATA39,REMESH will automatically remesh the fluid elements and linearly interpolate the nodal solution
from the old mesh to the new mesh. Use it to specify one of the following three ways of remeshing:

Remesh all defined fluid elements if the quality of the worst defined element falls below any specified
quality requirement listed in Table 7.2: Element Qualities (p. 84).
Whole domain remeshing is suitable when the moving boundary affects all of the fluid elements (all
the fluid elements may become distorted during solution).

Remesh defined fluid elements that have a quality below any specified quality requirement.
Partial domain remeshing is suitable when the distorted elements are locally distributed and the location
of the distorted elements is not known before solution or it changes during solution.

Remesh all grouped fluid elements with a specified component name if the quality of the worst selected
element falls below any specified quality requirement.
Selected component remeshing is suitable when the distorted elements are locally distributed, but the
location of the distorted elements is known before solution and it does not change during solution.

There are three maximum allowable element qualities that you need to specify for remeshing: aspect ratio,
change of element size, and change of element aspect ratio.

Table 7.2 Element Qualities


Element Quality
Generalized Aspect Ratio (AR)
84

Triangles
2

AR = ((lavg) / A) / 2.3

Tetrahedrons
AR = ((lavg)3 / V) / 8.48

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7.3. Remeshing
Element Quality

Triangles

Change of Element Size (VOCH)

VOCH = exp | log (A(t) / A(0)) |

Change of Aspect Ratio (ARCH)

ARCH = exp | log (AR(t) / AR(0)) |

Tetrahedrons
VOCH = exp | log (V(t) / V(0)) |

where:
lavg = average length of the element edges
A = element area
V = element volume
A(t) and V(t) = element area and volume at time t
A(0) and V(0) = element area and volume at time 0
You may also specify the following remeshing inputs:

Elements Excluded
You can exclude all elements connected to boundary nodes from remeshing. For a fluid-structure interaction analysis, you can exclude the elements connected to fluid-solid interfaces.

Element Size
The element remeshing size defaults to 0. The element size at the nearest boundary is then used for
remeshing.

Area Expansion or Contraction


You can size internal elements so that they are approximately the size of the boundary elements times
an expansion or contraction factor.

Checkpoints
You can specify element quality checkpoints in three ways: every time step, every Nth time step, or at
a single time point. The fluid elements will automatically remesh if any quality requirement is not met
at a checkpoint.

After each remesh, new databases and results files are written with the extensions .rfl0n and .dbn, where
n is the remesh file number (Jobname.rfl01, Jobname.rfl02, ... and Jobname.db01, Jobname.db02,...). Use the ANMRES command to create an animation across the results files.

Note
The original database file is Jobname.db0. The Jobname.db01, Jobname.db02, ... files have
elements that are detached from the solid model.
You can use the FLOTRAN remeshing capability in a pure fluid flow analysis or a fluid-solid interaction analysis. For information on fluid-solid interaction analyses, see "Load Transfer Coupled Physics Analysis" and
"The ANSYS Multi-field (TM) Solver - MFS Single-Code Coupling" in the Coupled-Field Analysis Guide.

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Chapter 7: Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) Formulation for Moving Domains


Some important remeshing limitations are listed in the following table.

Table 7.3 Remeshing Limitations


Limitation

Description

Elements

Remeshing supports models meshed with triangular or tetrahedral


elements. It only works for element groups with one element type and
one real constant.

Area/Volume
Changes

Remeshing will not work for extreme area or volume changes.

Domains

2-D problems can have multiple domains; 3-D problems require a single
domain. Do not allow two separate domains without distance (e.g.,
when solving a FSI problem with a beam or shell element, at least one
side elements connected to the beam or shell elements must be excluded from remeshing).

Loads

Remeshing can treat nodal loads on the boundary, but it cannot treat
body loads applied to interior nodes. Fluid-solid interaction is the only
valid element based load.

Boundary Nodes

Nodes on the boundary cannot be remeshed. Therefore, remeshing


will not work if morphing failed on surface nodes.

See ALE Analysis of a Moving Cylinder for a problem using remeshing.

7.4. Postprocessing
For postprocessing, you can use the following contour and vector command sequence for the reference
domain or the current deformed domain:
set,load step,substep
/dscal,,1.0
plns,pres,,0
plve,v,,,,,,,1

!
!
!
!

sets the set number for processing


sets the scaling for display
display pressure contours on deformed domain
display velocity vectors on the deformed domain

To view the deformed mesh , issue the following command sequence:


set,load step,substep
/dscal,,1.0
pldi,2

!
!
!
!

sets the set number for processing


sets the scaling for display
display the deformed mesh overlayed with undeformed
edges

To produce an animated sequence of the results, issue the ANTIME macro with the above commands.

Note
The displacements of non-structural elements are mesh (or grid) displacements to avoid mesh
distortion but have no physical meaning except at the interface between the fluid and the
structure.

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7.5.2. Boundary Conditions

7.5. ALE Analysis of a Simplified Torsional Mirror


7.5.1. The Problem Described
This is an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) analysis of a micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) device.
The device consists of a viscous fluid between two rigid plates. Initially, the plates are parallel and the fluid
is at rest. The top plate begins to oscillate about its centerline setting the fluid in motion. The top plate oscillates with a very small angular amplitude.
You must determine the torque on the moving plate in order to develop a reduced order model for this
device.

Figure 7.5: Torsional Mirror Problem Description


Oscillating plate
= (t)
(Xo, Yo)

Ho = Yo = H

Initial position of
oscillating plate
(at t = 0)

Y
X
Fixed plate
LX

7.5.2. Boundary Conditions


This section derives formulas for the displacement and velocity boundary conditions.
The angle of rotation is: = osint

Differentiating, the angular velocity is: = ocost


The position of any point on the plate is given by:
x(t) = xo + Rcos
y(t) = yo + Rsin
where:
R = xr xo and xr is the x coordinate on the plate at time equals zero.
Therefore, the displacements of the plate are given by:
UX(t) = x(t) x(o) = x xr R
UY(t) = y(t) y(o) = y yo
Substituting the expressions for x and y gives:
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Chapter 7: Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) Formulation for Moving Domains


UX = R(cos 1)
UY = Rsin

Note
As approaches 0, UX approaches 0 and UY approaches R.
Differentiating displacements gives the following velocity equations:
= R sin
UX = UX
= R cos
VY = UY

Note

As approaches 0, VX approaches R o2 and VY approaches R o. Therefore, VX approaches 0 faster than VY.


The command listing in Building and Solving the Model (Command Method) (p. 90) uses the above expressions
for UX, UY, VX, and VY in the boundary condition tables.

7.5.3. Forces and Moments


This section derives formulas for the forces and moments acting on the torsional mirror.

Figure 7.6: Torsional Mirror Problem - Boundary Conditions


Oscillating plate

U = U(x,t)
V = V(x,t)

Dx = Dx (x,t)
Dy = Dy (x,t)

p = po

ho

h = h(x,t)

p = po

Y
X
L

Fixed plate
U=V=0
Dx = Dy = 0

Assuming the flow is 2-D and neglecting inertia terms, the Navier-Stokes equation reduces to the Reynolds
equation for incompressible flow:

3 p
h x = 6 x ( hU) + 12 V

where: h = h (x,t) is the gap height and U and V are the velocity components of the moving plate.

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7.5.3. Forces and Moments


Assuming that the angular displacement of the mirror is small gives:
U 0

V R
R x
Substituting these values in the Reynolds equation and assuming that U variations with x are small gives:

3 p

h x = 12 V = 12 x

Integrating gives:

p = 6

x2

h3

dx +

C1

h3 dx + C 2

where C1 and C2 are constants to be determined.


Substituting ho for h for small angular displacements and completing the integration gives:

p =

6 x 3

h 3 3
o

C x
+ 13 + C 2
ho

Substituting p = po at x = L/2 gives:

po =

3
C L
2 L
+ 1 + C2

h 3o 2
h 3o 2

po = -

3 C
2 L
1
2 - 3
3
ho
ho

L
2 + C2

Solving these two equations for C1 and C2 gives:


C2 = po

C1 = 2 (L/2)2
Substituting the C1 and C2 values into the pressure equation gives:
2

p = po +

2 3 2 L
x x
h 3o
h 3o 2

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Chapter 7: Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) Formulation for Moving Domains


2

L
x x 2 -
2
h 3o

(p - po ) =

Thus, the force and moment on the torsional mirror are given by:
L/2

Fp =

(p - p o ) dx = 0

- L/2
L/2

Mp =

( p - po ) xdx = -

- L/2

1 L5
60 h3o

The flow field at any x coordinate is given by:

U ( x,y,t ) =

1 p
y ( y - h)
2 x

Accordingly, the shear stress on the torsional mirror is:

U
h p

=
=
2 x
y y = h
h o2

L
2
3x -

Thus, the force and moment due to shearing stresses are:


L/2

Fs =

- L/2

U
dx = 0
y y = h

L/2

Ms =

- L/2

U
xdx = 0
y y = h

7.5.4. Building and Solving the Model (Command Method)


The following command stream shows all the relevant parameters and solution strategy. All text prefaced
with an exclamation point (!) is a comment. Please refer to Figure 7.5: Torsional Mirror Problem Description (p. 87).
/BATCH,LIST
/tit,Torque Mirror Problem
/nopr
LX
= 1.0
NDX
= 40
H
= 0.01
NDY
= 10
POUT = 0.0

90

!
!
!
!
!

Plate Length in X direction


Number of X divisions
Gap in Y-direction
Number of Y divisions
Outlet relative pressure

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7.5.4. Building and Solving the Model (Command Method)


RHO
= 1.0000
MU
= 1.00
nts = 40
time = 10.
delta = time/nts
appf = delta
*AFUN,RAD
AMAX = (2*H/LX)/8
OMEGA = 2*3.14159/time
X0 = LX/2
Y0 = H
H0 = H

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

Fluid density
Fluid viscosity
number of time steps
total simulation time
time step size
append results every time step
angles are in radians
adjust angular amplitude << 1
complete 1 cycle in given time
pivot point x-coord
pivot point y-coord

! use function builder/tables (refer to "Using the Function Tool" in the Basic Analysis Guide)
! for displacements/velocities of oscillating plate
*DIM,UXTAB,TABLE,6,4,1
UXTAB(0,0,1) = 0.0,-999, 1, X0 ,AMAX, 0.0, 0.0
UXTAB(0,1,1) = 1.0,-1 , 0, 1.0 , 27 , 2 , 17
! Radius = XR - X0
UXTAB(0,2,1) = 0.0,-2 , 9,OMEGA, 1 , 3 , 18
! Angle=amax*sin(omega*t)
UXTAB(0,3,1) = 0.0,-3 , 10, 1.0 ,-2 , 3 ,-1
! Radius*cos(Angle)
UXTAB(0,4,1) = 0.0,99 , 0, 1.0 ,-3 , 2 ,-1
! Radius*cos(Angle)-Radius
*DIM,UYTAB,TABLE,6,3,1
UYTAB(0,0,1) = 0.0,-999, 1, X0 ,AMAX, 0.0, 0.0
UYTAB(0,1,1) = 1.0,-1 , 0, 1.0 , 27 , 2 , 17
! Radius = XR - X0
UYTAB(0,2,1) = 0.0,-2 , 9,OMEGA, 1 , 3 , 18
! Angle=amax*sin(omega*t)
UYTAB(0,3,1) = 0.0,99 , 9, 1.0 ,-2 , 3 ,-1
! Radius*sin(Angle)
*DIM,VXTAB,TABLE,6,5,1
VXTAB(0,0,1) = 0.0,-999, 1, X0 ,AMAX,OMEGA*AMAX, 0.0
VXTAB(0,1,1) = 1.0,-1 , 0,-1.0 , 27 , 1 , 17
! -Radius = -(XR-X0)
VXTAB(0,2,1) = 0.0,-2 , 9,OMEGA, 1 , 3 , 18
! Angle=amax*sin(omega*t)
VXTAB(0,3,1) = 0.0,-3 , 10,OMEGA, 1, 3 , 19
! Angle speed=
! amax*omega*cos(omega*t)
VXTAB(0,4,1) = 0.0,-4 , 9, 1.0 ,-2 , 3 , -1
! -Radius*sin(angle)
VXTAB(0,5,1) = 0.0,99 , 0, 1.0 ,-4 , 3 , -3 !-Radius*sin(angle)*angle speed
*DIM,VYTAB,TABLE,6,5,1
VYTAB(0,0,1) = 0.0,-999, 1, X0 ,AMAX,OMEGA*AMAX, 0.0
VYTAB(0,1,1) = 1.0,-1 , 0, 1.0 , 27 , 2 , 17
!Radius = XR - X0
VYTAB(0,2,1) = 0.0,-2 , 9,OMEGA, 1 , 3 , 18
!Angle=amax*sin(omega*t)
VYTAB(0,3,1) = 0.0,-3 , 10,OMEGA, 1, 3 , 19
!Angle speed=
!amax*omega*cos(omega*t)
VYTAB(0,4,1) = 0.0,-4 , 10, 1.0 ,-2 , 3 , -1
!Radius*cos(angle)
VYTAB(0,5,1) = 0.0,99 , 0, 1.0 ,-4 , 3 , -3 !Radius*cos(angle)*angle speed
/PREP7 $smrt,off
et,1,141
keyopt,1,4,1
esha,2
rect,,LX,,H
lesize,1,,,NDX,
lesize,3,,,NDX,
lesize,2,,,NDY,-10
lesize,4,,,NDY,-10
alls
amesh,all

! 2-D XY system
! allow disp. DOFs
! Quad elements

lsel,s,,,3
nsll,s,1
d,all,VX,%VXTAB%
d,all,VY,%VYTAB%
d,all,enke,-1
d,all,ux,%UXTAB%
d,all,uy,%UYTAB%

! Moving top plate

lsel,s,,,2
lsel,a,,,4
nsll,s,1
d,all,pres,POUT

! Left & Right Outlets

lsel,s,,,1

! Stationary bottom plate

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91

Chapter 7: Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) Formulation for Moving Domains


nsll,s,1
d,all,vx,
d,all,vy,
d,all,ux,0.0
d,all,uy,0.0
alls
fini
/SOLU
FLDA,NOMI,DENS,RHO
FLDA,NOMI,VISC,MU
FLDA,OUTP,TAUW,T
flda,quad,momd,2
flda,quad,moma,2
flda,quad,moms,2
flda,quad,prsd,2
flda,quad,pres,2
flda,solu,tran,t
flda,time,step,delta
flda,time,numb,nts
flda,time,tend,time
flda,time,glob,25
flda,time,appe,appf
flda,solu,ale,t
save
SOLVE
fini

!
!
!
!
!

Nominal density
Nominal viscosity
Output wall shear stress
increased quadrature for deformed
elements

! Turn ALE on

!do the comparison with analytical solution here


/post1
!moving wall
*dim,RES1,,NDX+1,15
*do,j,1,nts,1
! loop over the time steps
rsys,0
csys,0
set,1,j
! get the results of step j
*get,curtime,active,0,set,time
! get the time of this substep
theta = amax*sin(omega*curtime)
! get the plate angle
thetad = amax*omega*cos(omega*curtime)
! get plate angular speed
nsel,s,loc,y,H
! select moving wall nodes
*do,i,1,NDX+1
! loop over these nodes
*get,XMAX,node,,mxloc,x
n = node(XMAX,H,0)
RES1(i,1) = n
! Node number
RES1(i,2) = NX(n)
! X-coordinate
RES1(i,3) = NY(n)
! Y-coordinate
RES1(i,4) = UX(n)
! UX
Rn = NX(n)-X0
RES1(i,10) = Rn*(cos(theta)-1.0)
! UX exact
RES1(i,5) = UY(n)
! UY
RES1(i,11) = Rn*sin(theta)
! UY exact
RES1(i,6) = VX(n)
! VX
RES1(i,12) = -Rn*sin(theta)*thetad ! VX exact
RES1(i,7) = VY(n)
! VY
RES1(i,13) = Rn*cos(theta)*thetad ! VY exact
RES1(i,8) = PRES(n)
! Pressure
c1 = 2.0*MU*thetad/H0**3
c2 = NX(n) - X0
RES1(i,14) = c1*(c2**3 - c2*(LX/2)**2) ! Exact Pressure
*get,RES1(i,9),node,n,TAUW
! Shear stress
c0 = NX(n) - X0
c1 = H0 + theta*c0
c2 = 3*c0**2 - (LX/2)**2
RES1(i,15) = ABS(c1*mu*thetad*c2/H0**3) ! Exact shear stress
nsel,u,,,n
*enddo
/com Compare disps/velocities/pressures/shears on moving wall(X,H,0)
/com
*status,curtime
*status,theta
*vwrite

92

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7.5.4. Building and Solving the Model (Command Method)


(4x,'NODE',7x,'X COOR',12x,'Y COOR',9x,'UX (FLOTRAN)',5x,'UX (Exact)')
*vwrite,RES1(1,1),RES1(1,2),RES1(1,3),RES1(1,4),RES1(1,10)
(3x,f5.0,4(1pe17.5))
/com
*vwrite
(4x,'NODE',7x,'X COOR',12x,'Y COOR',9x,'UY (FLOTRAN)',5x,'UY (Exact)')
*vwrite,RES1(1,1),RES1(1,2),RES1(1,3),RES1(1,5),RES1(1,11)
(3x,f5.0,4(1pe17.5))
/com
*vwrite
(4x,'NODE',7x,'X COOR',12x,'Y COOR',9x,'VX (FLOTRAN)',5x,'VX (Exact)')
*vwrite,RES1(1,1),RES1(1,2),RES1(1,3),RES1(1,6),RES1(1,12)
(3x,f5.0,4(1pe17.5))
/com
*vwrite
(4x,'NODE',7x,'X COOR',12x,'Y COOR',9x,'VY (FLOTRAN)',5x,'VY (Exact)')
*vwrite,RES1(1,1),RES1(1,2),RES1(1,3),RES1(1,7),RES1(1,13)
(3x,f5.0,4(1pe17.5))
/com
*vwrite
(4x,'NODE',7x,'X COOR',12x,'Y COOR',9x,'PRE (FLOTRAN)',5x,'PRE (Exact)')
*vwrite,RES1(1,1),RES1(1,2),RES1(1,3),RES1(1,8),RES1(1,14)
(3x,f5.0,4(1pe17.5))
/com
*vwrite
(4x,'NODE',7x,'X COOR',12x,'Y COOR',9x,'TAU (FLOTRAN)',5x,'TAU (Exact)')
*vwrite,RES1(1,1),RES1(1,2),RES1(1,3),RES1(1,9),RES1(1,15)
(3x,f5.0,4(1pe17.5))
/com
nsel,s,loc,y,H
! select nodes on moving plate
local,11,0,X0,Y0,0
! setup local coord system for moment calcs
rsys,11
/com compute pressure force/moments on the wall
intsrf,pres
*get,forcex,intsrf,0,item,fx
*get,forcey,intsrf,0,item,fy
*get,forcez,intsrf,0,item,fz
*get,momx,intsrf,0,item,mx
*get,momy,intsrf,0,item,my
*get,momz,intsrf,0,item,mz
*status,forcex
*status,forcey
! should be zero
*status,forcez
*status,momx
*status,momy
*status,momz
! Flotran
Moment = -0.0166*mu*thetad*LX**5/H0**3 ! Exact
*status,moment
/com compute shear force/moments on the wall should be zero
intsrf,tauw
*get,forcex,intsrf,0,item,fx
*get,forcey,intsrf,0,item,fy
*get,forcez,intsrf,0,item,fz
*get,momx,intsrf,0,item,mx
*get,momy,intsrf,0,item,my
*get,momz,intsrf,0,item,mz
*status,forcex
! should be zero
*status,forcey
*status,forcez
*status,momx
*status,momy
*status,momz
! should be zero
*enddo
fini
/exit,nosa

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of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

93

Chapter 7: Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) Formulation for Moving Domains

7.6. ALE/VOF Analysis of a Vessel with a Moving Wall


7.6.1. The Problem Described
This problem involves a moving wall and a free surface. A square vessel is half filled with liquid and at t =
0 the left wall begins to move to the right. The wall stops moving after a short time and the fluid comes to
rest gradually. The total analysis time is 2 seconds. The left wall comes to rest at 0.125 * (time) = 0.125*(2
seconds) = 0.25 seconds. The left wall displacement and velocity are input as tabular boundary conditions
(see Figure 7.8: Left Wall Displacement and Velocity (p. 95)). The simulation uses the Volume of Fluid (VOF)
method in conjunction with the ALE formulation.

Figure 7.7: Square Vessel with a Moving Wall

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Left
Moving Free Surface
Wall

LX

Right
Stationary
Wall

Liquid
= 1.0
= 1.0

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Left
Free Surface
Wall
Stationary

Right
Wall
Stationary

Liquid

LX
t=0

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Free Surface

LXF
t = 0.125 * Time

Steady
Solution

Liquid

t = Time

94

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7.6.3. Building and Solving the Model (Command Method)

Figure 7.8: Left Wall Displacement and Velocity

UX
LX-LXF
0.125 * Time

Time

VX

0.125 * Time

10 -6

(LX-LXF)
0.125 * Time
Time

7.6.2. Results
The initial fluid volume is 1/2 H times LX. Since H and LX are both equal to 1, the initial fluid volume is
0.500000000. The calculated final fluid volume is 0.499999673.

7.6.3. Building and Solving the Model (Command Method)


The following command stream shows all the relevant parameters and solution strategy. All text prefaced
with an exclamation point (!) is a comment.
/BATCH,LIST
/title,ALE-VOF combination - container with moving wall & free surface
/nopr
LX
= 1.0
! Initial width in X direction
NDX
= 10
! Number of X divisions
H
= 1.0
! Height of container
NDY
= 10
! Number of Y divisions
RHO
= 1.0000
! Fluid density
MU
= 1.00
! Fluid viscosity
LXF = 0.750
! Final X-Length
time = 2.
! Total simulation time
nts = 200
! Total number of time steps
delta = time/nts
! Time step size
appf = delta
! Results append frequency
VEL = (LX-LXF)/(0.125*time)
! left wall moves for 12.5% of
! simulation time with velocity VEL
*dim,timutab,table,3,,,time
! left wall displacement history
timutab(1,0)=0,0.125*time,time
timutab(1,1)=0,(LX-LXF),(LX-LXF)
*dim,timvtab,table,4,,,time
! left wall fluid velocity history
timvtab(1,0)=0,0.125*time,0.125*time+0.000001,time
timvtab(1,1)=VEL,VEL,1.e-12,1.e-12

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95

Chapter 7: Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) Formulation for Moving Domains


/PREP7 $smrt,off
et,1,141
keyopt,1,4,1
esha,2
rect,,LX,,H
lesize,1,,,NDX,-10
lesize,3,,,NDX,-10
lesize,2,,,NDY,
lesize,4,,,NDY,
alls
amesh,all

! 2-D XY system
! enable disp DOFs
! Quad elements

lsel,s,,,4
nsll,s,1
d,all,VX,%timvtab%
d,all,VY,
d,all,enke,-1
d,all,ux,%timutab%
d,all,uy,0.0

! Moving left wall

lsel,s,,,1
nsll,s,1
d,all,vx
d,all,vy

! bottom wall

lsel,s,,,3
nsll,s,1
d,all,vx
d,all,vy

! top

lsel,s,,,2
nsll,s,1
d,all,vx,
d,all,vy,
d,all,ux,0.0
d,all,uy,0.0

wall

! Stationary right wall

alls
nsel,s,loc,y,0,0.5*H
esln,s,1
ice,all,vfrc,1.0
allsel

! select lower half elements


! apply vof initial conditions

fini
/SOLU
FLDA,NOMI,DENS,RHO
FLDA,NOMI,VISC,MU
acel,,9.8
flda,step,sumf,1
flda,solu,tran,t
flda,time,step,delta
flda,time,numb,nts
flda,time,tend,time
flda,time,glob,25
flda,time,appe,appf
flda,solu,ale,t
flda,solu,vof,t
save
SOLVE
fini

! Nominal density
! Nominal viscosity
! Apply gravity loading

! Ale on
! Vof on

!do the comparison here for final fluid volume


/post1
set,last
fvol = 0.
! initialize volume to zero
*do,i,1,NDX*NDY
! loop over elements
n1 = nelem(i,1)
! 4 nodes of this element
n2 = nelem(i,2)
n3 = nelem(i,3)
n4 = nelem(i,4)

96

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7.7.1.The Problem Described


x1 = nx(n1)+ux(n1)
! current coords of the 4 nodes
y1 = ny(n1)+uy(n1)
x2 = nx(n2)+ux(n2)
y2 = ny(n2)+uy(n2)
x3 = nx(n3)+ux(n3)
y3 = ny(n3)+uy(n3)
x4 = nx(n4)+ux(n4)
y4 = ny(n4)+uy(n4)
evol1 =
x1*y2+y1*x3+y3*x2 ! compute volume of triangle 123
evol1 = evol1-y2*x3-y1*x2-x1*y3
evol1 = abs(0.5*evol1)
! first triangle volume
evol2 =
x1*y4+y1*x3+y3*x4 ! compute volume of triangle 143
evol2 = evol2-y4*x3-y1*x4-x1*y3
evol2 = abs(0.5*evol2)
! second triangle volume
*get,frac,elem,i,nmisc,1
! get VOF of this quad
fvol = fvol + (evol1+evol2)*frac!increment the total fluid volume
*enddo
*status,fvol
! print the final fluid volume
target = 0.5*H*LX
*status,target
! print the expected fluid volume
/com
fini
/exit,nosa

7.7. ALE Analysis of a Moving Cylinder


7.7.1. The Problem Described
This problem involves a cylinder passing through a channel with a constant velocity VX = 1.0. FLUID141 triangle elements model the fluid. The simulation uses the ALE formulation and remeshing.
FLDATA39,REMESH,Label,Value specifies the quality requirements shown in the following table.

Table 7.4 Quality Requirements


Element Quality

FLDATA39,REMESH,Label,Value Command

Aspect Ratio (AR)

FLDATA39,REMESH,ARMA,5.0

Change of Element Size (VOCH)

FLDATA39,REMESH,VOCH,3.0

Change of Aspect Ratio (ARCH)

FLDATA39,REMESH,ARCH,3.0

FLDATA39,REMESH,ELEM,ALL sets the remeshing to all defined fluid elements if the quality of the worst
defined element falls below any quality requirement. The total analysis time is 44 seconds.

Figure 7.9: Moving Cylinder


UX = 0
UY = 0
VX = 0
VY = 0

UX = 0, UY = 0, VY = 0
VX = 1.0
UX = t

= 1.0
= 1.0

y
x
12.5

UX = 0
UY = 0
P=0

UX = 0, UY = 0, VY = 0
47.5
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97

Chapter 7: Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) Formulation for Moving Domains

7.7.2. Results
The ten results files are file.rfl01 through file.rfl10. They were created when one of the remeshing criteria
were met. The following figures display the remeshed elements at 0, 22, and 44 seconds.

Figure 7.10: Elements at 0 Seconds

Figure 7.11: Elements at 22 Seconds

Figure 7.12: Elements at 44 Seconds

7.7.3. Building and Solving the Model (Command Method)


The following command stream shows all the relevant parameters and solution strategy. All text prefaced
with an exclamation point (!) is a comment.
/batch,list
/verify,dv-1101c
/title, dv-1101c, Flotran Remeshing: Cylinder pass through a channel
/COM,****************************************************
/COM,* Cylinder pass through a channel (pure fluid flow)
/COM,* Verify partial domain re-meshing
/COM,****************************************************
r1 = 2.5
l1 = 5.0
l2= 20.0
l3=60.0
h = 10.0

98

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7.7.3. Building and Solving the Model (Command Method)


rx0= l1+(l2-l1)/2.0
ry0 = h/2.0
nl1 = 5
nl3 = 10
nr=8
nc=8
/PREP7

*DEL,_FNCNAME
*DEL,_FNCMTID
*DEL,_FNC_C1
*SET,_FNCNAME,'DIS'
*DIM,_FNC_C1,,1
*SET,_FNC_C1(1),1.0
! /INPUT,force.func
*DIM,%_FNCNAME%,TABLE,6,3,1
!
! Begin of equation: a*{TIME}
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,0,1), 0.0, -999
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(2,0,1), 0.0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(3,0,1), %_FNC_C1(1)%
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(4,0,1), 0.0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(5,0,1), 0.0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(6,0,1), 0.0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,1,1), 1.0, -1, 0, 1, 17, 3, 1
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,2,1), 0.0, 99, 0, 1, -1, 0, 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,3,1),
0
! End of equation: a*{TIME}
!-->
RECTNG,0,l1,0,h,
RECTNG,l1,l2,0,h,
RECTNG,l2,l3,0,h,
aglue,all
CYl4,rx0,ry0,0,45,r1,135
CYl4,rx0,ry0,0,135,r1,225
CYl4,rx0,ry0,0,225,r1,315
CYl4,rx0,ry0,0,315,r1,405
asel,s,,,2
asel,a,,,3
asel,a,,,6
asel,a,,,7
allsel,below,area
aglue,all
allsel
FLST,3,4,5,ORDE,3
FITEM,3,2
FITEM,3,8
FITEM,3,-10
ASBA,
4,P51X
aplot
et,1,141
KEYOPT,1,4,1
type,1
mat,1
asel,s,,,1
esize,.5
mshape,1,2d
mshkey,0
amesh,all
et,2,141
KEYOPT,2,4,1
type,2
mat,1
asel,s,,,3
esize,.5
mshape,1,2d
mshkey,0

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99

Chapter 7: Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) Formulation for Moving Domains


amesh,all
et,3,141
KEYOPT,3,4,1
type,3
mat,1
asel,s,,,5
esize,2.0
mshape,1,2d
mshkey,0
amesh,all
nsel,s,loc,x,0
D,ALL,VX,0.0,
D,ALL,VY, 0.0
D,ALL,UX,0.0,
D,ALL,UY, 0.0
nsel,s,loc,x,l3
D,ALL,pres,0.0
D,ALL,UX,0.0,
D,ALL,UY, 0.0
nsel,s,loc,y,0
D,ALL,vy,0.0
D,ALL,UX,0.0,
D,ALL,UY, 0.0
nsel,s,loc,y,h
D,ALL,vy,0.0
D,ALL,UX,0.0,
D,ALL,UY,0.0,
lsel,s,,,5
lsel,a,,,23
lsel,a,,,25
lsel,a,,,27
nsll,s,1
d,all,UX,%DIS%
d,all,UY,0.0
d,all,VX,1.0
d,all,VY,0.0
allsel
cdwrite,db,fluid,cdb,
fini
! Flotran Setup
/solu
FLDATA30,QUAD,MOMD,2,
FLDATA30,QUAD,MOMS,2,
FLDATA30,QUAD,PRSD,2,
FLDATA30,QUAD,PRES,2,
FLDATA30,QUAD,THRD,0,
FLDATA30,QUAD,THRS,0,
FLDATA30,QUAD,TRBD,0,
FLDATA30,QUAD,TRBS,2,
/solu
FLDATA4,TIME,NUMB,100000,
FLDATA4,TIME,TEND,44.0,
FLDA,SOLU,ALE,T
FLDATA1,SOLU,FLOW,1
FLDATA1,SOLU,TRAN,1
!FLDATA1,SOLU,TURB,1
FLDATA2,TIME,GLOB,5

! ALE solution

FLDATA7,PROT,DENS,CONSTANT
FLDATA8,NOMI,DENS,1.0
FLDATA7,PROT,VISC,CONSTANT
FLDATA8,NOMI,VISC,1.0
!FLDA,BULK,BETA,1.0e5
FLDA,TIME,STEP, 2.0
!
!!! Newmark method
!
FLDATA,OUTP,TAUW,T
FLDATA,TIME,METH,NEWM
FLDATA,TIME,DELT,0.5

100

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7.7.3. Building and Solving the Model (Command Method)


!
!! Set ANSYS-STRUCTURE commands
SAVE
/COM
/COM Re-meshing Commands
/COM
FLDATA,REMESH,ELEM,ALL
!
FLDATA,REMESH,ARMA,10.0
!
FLDATA,REMESH,VOCH,5.0
!
FLDATA,REMESH,ARCH,5.0
!
SOLVE
SAVE
finish

all defined element re-meshing


maximum aspect ratio
maximum volume change
maximum aspect ratio change

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of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

101

102

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of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 8: FLOTRAN Compressible Analyses


As is true with turbulence, activating the compressible algorithm is at your discretion. You should activate
turbulence for virtually all compressible analyses, (although in principle the Reynolds number can be in the
laminar range for high Mach numbers). Differences in results (pressure, density, velocity distributions) between
the incompressible and compressible algorithms can exist at Mach numbers as low as 0.3, and are quite
pronounced when the Mach number is as high as 0.7.
The speed of sound is a function of the equation of state of the fluid and its absolute temperature. For a
constant density fluid, the speed of sound is infinite. For an ideal gas, regardless of whether the incompressible
or compressible solution algorithm is used, the relationship is:

C=

RT

In the preceding equation:

R is the Universal Gas Constant

is the ratio of specific heats (Cp/Cv)

T is the absolute temperature

For 2-D compressible analyses, meshes using quadrilateral elements are highly recommended. Hexagonal
elements are recommended for 3-D cases. For more information, see Structured vs. Unstructured Mesh (p. 105).
The following compressible analysis topics are available:
8.1. Property Calculations
8.2. Boundary Conditions
8.3. Structured vs. Unstructured Mesh
8.4. Solution Strategies
8.5. Example of a Compressible Flow Analysis
8.6. Doing the Example Compressible Flow Analysis (GUI Method)
8.7. Doing the Example Compressible Flow Analysis (Command Method)

8.1. Property Calculations


The compressible algorithm takes into account the kinetic energy changes of the fluid as it accelerates. The
formulation is in terms of the total temperature.
In an adiabatic analysis, the total temperature remains constant throughout the problem domain. You specify
the temperature using either of the following methods:
Command(s): FLDATA14,TEMP,TTOT,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions
The conservation of energy is then a balance between thermal storage (static temperature) and kinetic energy.

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Chapter 8: FLOTRAN Compressible Analyses


The total (stagnation) temperature is the temperature of the fluid after it has been brought isentropically
to a zero velocity. Typically, you choose the conditions at the inlet. Knowledge of the static temperature
and the velocity magnitude |V| at the inlet enables you to calculate the total temperature via the following
equation,

To = Tstatic +

V2
2Cp

This relationship is sometimes useful when cast in terms of the Mach number (M):

To = T (1 +

1 2
M )
2

You must specify the specific heat and the ratio of specific heats . (To enter this ratio, use one of the following:)
Command(s): FLDATA17,GAMM,COMP,
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions
The ANSYS program uses the resulting static temperature and the absolute pressure to calculate the density
from the equation of state.

Note
Unlike incompressible analyses, where freezing the density calculation for the early global iterations
can be an advantage, compressible analyses automatically involve the variable density option.
Another difference between these types of analysis is that for compressible analyses, initial
properties are calculated from the calculated static temperature, not from the nominal temperature.

8.2. Boundary Conditions


Typically, you will know the Mach number or the velocity or the mass flow along with the static temperature
for the inlet. Knowing the velocity or Mach number enables you, using the above equations, to calculate of
the appropriate total temperature. If you know only the mass flow rate, you can approximate the pressure
at the inlet by the reference pressure and use it with the equation of state to approximate the inlet density
and thus the velocity.
For subsonic problems, the boundary condition strategy is similar to that used for incompressible flow
problems, that is, velocity or pressure at the inlet and pressure at the outlet. For supersonic problems,
however, the nature of the equations changes and the effects of downstream boundary conditions cannot
propagate upstream. It is common in such cases to apply both pressure and velocity to upstream locations.
Leave the downstream boundary unspecified.
Free stream conditions are often applied as far field boundary conditions for external flow problems. Often
specification of pressure at these boundaries helps. However, as the solution develops, phenomena such as
shock waves propagate to these boundaries. In this case, you should remove the boundary conditions.
Failure to do so could adversely affect the resultant mass balance. Also, if the boundary is too close to the
region of interest (e.g. the airfoil the flow is moving past), the velocity solution near the boundary will tend

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8.4. Solution Strategies


to be greater than the free stream velocity. In such cases, a better choice for the velocity boundary conditions
is the symmetry condition (only specify the velocity normal to the boundary as zero).
If the problem is thermal, ANSYS takes all of the applied boundary conditions to be total temperature, not
static temperature. Conversely, if a problem is adiabatic, thermal boundary conditions are ignored.
If you use a thermal incompressible solution as a starting point for a thermal compressible problem, you
must change the boundary conditions so that they are specified in terms of total temperature.

8.3. Structured vs. Unstructured Mesh


As noted at the beginning of this chapter, for 2-D compressible flow problems, quadrilateral mesh is the
best to use. Consider Figure 8.1: Three Types of Meshing (p. 105):

Figure 8.1: Three Types of Meshing

(a) Quadrilateral mesh, (b) Triangular mesh with a random pattern, (c) Triangular mesh with
a symmetrical pattern
In 2-D compressible analyses, mesh (a), the quadrilateral mesh, produces the most accurate results. Mesh
(b) yields 2-D, not 1-D results, and mesh (c) yields 1-D results.
Similarly, in a 3-D compressible analysis, a hexagonal mesh (the equivalent of quadrilateral mesh in 2-D)
produces the best results. A tetrahedral mesh with a random pattern (the 3-D equivalent of mesh (b)) yields
only 3-D results, not 1-D. And a tetrahedral symmetric mesh, the 3-D equivalent of mesh (c), gives you 1-D
results.

8.4. Solution Strategies


You must solve compressible analyses as pseudo-transient or transient problems. This is due to the non-elliptic nature of supersonic problems. The pseudo-transient approach is quite adequate when the time-history
of the developing transient is not of interest. In that approach, you apply inertial relaxation to the pressure
equation (see Inertial Relaxation (p. 106)).
For an ideal gas, the density is always calculated from an equation of state involving the absolute pressure
and the absolute temperature. Because of this, you must prevent negative values of absolute pressure and
absolute static temperature from being encountered during the iterative process, as these would lead to a
negative density. One way to do this is to use a converged incompressible solution as a starting point. Another way is to use capping to specify a minimum FLOTRAN (relative) pressure. For example, to keep the
absolute pressure at a minimum of 1 psi, you would cap the relative pressure at -13.7 psi for a reference
pressure of 14.7 psi. Capping is not a stability control and by itself it will not control the solution progression.
It only helps prevent negative properties.
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Artificial viscosity helps to prevent negative temperatures. You set it at the beginning of the analysis, and
must reduce it slowly for subsequent continuations of the analysis. You will probably encounter divergence
if you increase the viscosity between runs. The magnitude of the artificial viscosity required can vary greatly.
The smaller the starting value, the fewer the global iterations required. But if it is not large enough, you may
encounter negative static temperatures. You can use the laminar and effective viscosities to gauge a good
starting value. It is typically a couple orders of magnitude higher than the effective viscosity, which in turn
is initialized as a multiple of the laminar value. Generally, a value 3 or 4 orders of magnitude higher than
the laminar viscosity is a good approximate starting point.
In a compressible problem, the final answer would be a function of the artificial viscosity if it were not removed. Therefore, after stability has been achieved, gradually remove the artificial viscosity during repeated
analysis continuations.

8.4.1. Inertial Relaxation


Inertial relaxation helps to stabilize a solution by increasing the magnitude of the main diagonal of the
matrix equation along with a corresponding increase in the forcing function. Values used are generally
between 1.0 x 10-3 (less relaxation) and 1.0 x 10-6 (more relaxation) for pressure. The smaller values provide
more diagonal dominance and thus equation stability. The cost of this is slower convergence since it deemphasizes the influence of the cross-coupling terms present in the equations.
Unlike artificial viscosity, the inertial relaxation does not affect the answer if the problem is converged and
thus does not have to be removed. It is best to reduce the magnitude to the range of 1 x 10-4 later in the
analysis. You can measure the effectiveness of the relaxation by observing the performance of the parameter
RTR in the Jobname.DBG file.
All the techniques discussed so far involve the steady state algorithm. It is common for supersonic problems,
even if they are posed as steady state to be solved with the transient algorithm. An initial velocity field can
be imposed as a first guess. The inertial relaxation acts similarly to the transient algorithm and its use is
considered redundant in transient analyses. Do note that problems involving moving shocks may lead to
inaccurate solutions when using the transient algorithm. With the current set of governing partial differential
equations and the discretization techniques used, the transient algorithm has demonstrated solutions that
are qualitatively correct but may yield quantitatively inaccurate results.

8.5. Example of a Compressible Flow Analysis


8.5.1. The Example Described
This example evaluates compressible flow in a converging-diverging nozzle. The nozzle is axisymmetric with
inlet, throat, and outlet radii of 2.432 cm, 0.5 cm and 0.80 cm, respectively. The nozzle inlet pressure is given
as 6.13769e+6 dynes/cm2.

8.5.1.1. Fluid Properties


The analysis uses density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and specific heat properties for air in units of cmg-sec.

8.5.1.2. Approach and Assumptions


The compressible flow analysis is a turbulent analysis that uses the FLUID141 2-D Fluid-Thermal element.
The analysis assumes atmospheric pressure conditions at the outlet. It assumes a stagnation temperature
of 550 K.
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Step 4: Create Lines


Inlet and outlet pressure boundary conditions are set to 6.13769e+6 dynes/cm2 and 0, respectively. The VY
velocity component is set to 0 along the axis of symmetry and the VX and VY velocity components are set
to 0 along the outer surface.
The analysis starts with 20 iterations at an artificial viscosity of 10. It then continues for 20 iterations at artificial viscosity values of 1, .1, .01, .001, .0001, and .00001 to give a total of 140 iterations. The analysis then
continues for another 160 iterations at an artificial viscosity of 0. After 300 iterations of slowly reducing the
viscosity to 0, the analysis continues for 100 iterations with increased momentum and pressure inertial relaxation factors. Finally, the analysis converges to a final solution with the momentum and pressure inertial
relaxation factors increased to higher values for 400 iterations.

8.6. Doing the Example Compressible Flow Analysis (GUI Method)


You perform the following steps to analyze the converging diverging nozzle using the GUI Method.

Step 1: Establish an Analysis Title and Preferences


1.

Choose Utility Menu> File> Change Title. The Change Title dialog box appears.

2.

Enter the text "Compressible Flow in a Converging Diverging Nozzle."

3.

Click on OK.

4.

Choose Main Menu> Preferences. The Preferences for GUI Filtering dialog box appears.

5.

Click the button for FLOTRAN CFD to "On."

6.

Click on OK.

Step 2: Define Element Types


1.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete. The Element Types dialog box
appears.

2.

Click on Add. The Library of Element Types dialog box appears.

3.

In the two scrollable lists, highlight (click on) "FLOTRAN CFD" and "2D FLOTRAN 141."

4.

Click on OK. ANSYS returns you to the Element Types dialog box.

5.

Click on Close.

Step 3: Create Keypoints


1.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Keypoints> In Active CS. The Create Keypoints in Active Coordinate System dialog box appears.

2.

In the "Keypoint number (NPT)" field enter 1 and in the "Location in active CS (X and Y)" fields enter
0 and 2.432, respectively. Click on Apply.

3.

Repeat the previous substep for the following sets of keypoint numbers and (X, Y) locations: 2 (0, 0),
3 (1, 2.432), 4 (1, 0), 5 (2, 2.232), 6 (2, 0), 7 (5, 0), 8 (5, 0.7), 9 (6, 0), 10 (6, 0.5), 11 (14, 0), 12 (14, 0.8).
After entering each set, click on Apply. After entering the last set, click on OK.

4.

Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar.

Step 4: Create Lines


1.

Choose Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Numbering. The Plot Numbering Controls dialog box appears.

2.

Click the button for "Line Numbers (LINE)" to "On" and click OK.
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Chapter 8: FLOTRAN Compressible Analyses


3.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Lines> Lines> In Active Coord. The Lines
in Active Coord picking menu appears.

4.

Pick the keypoint numbers 2 and 4 and click on Apply.

5.

Repeat steps 3 and 4 for the following sets of keypoint numbers: 3 and 4; 1 and 3; 1 and 2; and 5 and
8. After entering each set, click on Apply. After entering the last set, click on OK.

6.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Lines> Lines> Tan to 2 Lines. The Line
Tangent to 2 Lines picking menu appears.

7.

Pick line number 3 and click on Apply. The Line Tangent to 2 Lines picking menu reappears.

8.

Pick keypoint number 3 and click on Apply. The Line Tangent to 2 Lines picking menu reappears.

9.

Pick line number 5 and click on Apply. The Line Tangent to 2 Lines picking menu reappears.

10. Pick keypoint number 5 and click on OK.


11. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Lines> Lines> In Active Coord. The Lines
in Active Coord picking menu appears.
12. Pick the keypoint numbers 10 and 12 and click on OK.
13. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Lines> Lines> Tan to 2 Lines. The Line
Tangent to 2 Lines picking menu appears.
14. Pick line number 5 and click on Apply. The Line Tangent to 2 Lines picking menu reappears.
15. Pick keypoint number 8 and click on Apply. The Line Tangent to 2 Lines picking menu reappears.
16. Pick line number 7 and click on Apply. The Line Tangent to 2 Lines picking menu reappears.
17. Pick keypoint number 10 and click on OK.
18. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Lines> Lines> In Active Coord. The Lines
in Active Coord picking menu appears.
19. Pick the keypoint numbers 4 and 6 and click on Apply.
20. Enter the following sets of keypoint number by repeating steps 18 and 19: 6 and 7; 7 and 9; and 9
and 11. After entering each set, click on Apply. After entering the last set, click on OK.

Step 5: Create Areas


1.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Areas> Arbitrary> Through KPs. The Create
Area thru KPs picking menu appears.

2.

Pick the keypoint numbers (2, 4, 3, 1) and click on Apply.

3.

Repeat the previous substep for the following sets of keypoint numbers: (4, 6, 5, 3), (6, 7, 8, 5), (7, 9,
10, 8), and (9, 11, 12, 10). After entering each set, click on Apply. After entering the last set, click on
OK.

4.

Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar.

Step 6: Define Scalar Parameters


1.

Choose Utility Menu> Parameters> Scalar Parameters. The Scalar Parameters dialog box appears.

2.

Type in the parameter values shown below. (Press ENTER after entering each value.)
ntran = 24
rtran = 10
na = 10

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Step 7: Mesh the Model


nb = 10
nc = 25
nd = 10
ne = 100
re = -1.5
3.

Click on Close to close the dialog box.

Step 7: Mesh the Model


1.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Size Cntrls> Lines> Picked Lines. The Element Size
on Picked Lines picking menu appears.

2.

Pick line number 4 and click on Apply. The Element Sizes on Picked Lines dialog box appears.

3.

In the "No. of element divisions (NDIV)" field, enter ntran, and in the "Spacing ratio (SPACE)" field enter
rtran. Click on Apply.

4.

Repeat steps 2 and 3 for line number 2.

5.

Pick line number 13 and click on Apply. The Element Sizes on Picked Lines dialog box appears.

6.

In the "No. of element divisions (NDIV)" field, enter ntran, and in the "Spacing ratio (SPACE)" field enter
1/rtran. Click on Apply.

7.

Repeat steps 5 and 6 for line numbers 14, 15, and 16.

8.

Pick line number 1 and click on Apply. The Element Sizes on Picked Lines dialog box appears.

9.

In the "No. of element divisions (NDIV)" field, enter na, and in the "Spacing ratio (SPACE)" field enter
1. Click on Apply.

10. Repeat steps 8 and 9 for line number 3.


11. Pick line number 6 and click on Apply. The Element Sizes on Picked Lines dialog box appears.
12. In the "No. of element divisions (NDIV)" field, enter nb, and in the "Spacing ratio (SPACE)" field enter
1. Click on Apply.
13. Repeat steps 11 and 12 for line number 9.
14. Pick line number 5 and click on Apply. The Element Sizes on Picked Lines dialog box appears.
15. In the "No. of element divisions (NDIV)" field, enter nc, and in the "Spacing ratio (SPACE)" field enter
1. Click on Apply.
16. Repeat steps 14 and 15 for line number 10.
17. Pick line number 8 and click on Apply. The Element Sizes on Picked Lines dialog box appears.
18. In the "No. of element divisions (NDIV)" field, enter nd, and in the "Spacing ratio (SPACE)" field enter
1. Click Apply.
19. Repeat steps 17 and 18 for line number 11.
20. Pick line number 7 and click on Apply. The Element Sizes on Picked Lines dialog box appears.
21. In the "No. of element divisions (NDIV)" field, enter ne, and in the "Spacing ratio (SPACE)" field enter
re. Click on Apply.
22. Repeat steps 20 and 21 for line number 12 but this time click OK.
23. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh> Areas> Mapped> 3 or 4 sided. A picking
menu appears.
24. Click on Pick All. The meshed model appears.

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Chapter 8: FLOTRAN Compressible Analyses

Step 8: Compress Numbers


1.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Numbering Ctrls> Compress Numbers. The Compress Numbers
dialog box appears.

2.

Select Nodes as the "Item to be compressed" and click on Apply.

3.

Select Elements as the "Item to be compressed" and click on OK.

Step 9: Apply Boundary Conditions


1.

Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Select Entities dialog box appears.

2.

Choose "Lines" and "By Num/Pick," then click on OK. A Select Lines picking menu appears.

3.

Choose Utility Menu> Plot>Lines.

4.

Pick lines 1, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and click on OK.

5.

Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Select Entities dialog box appears.

6.

Choose "Nodes" and "Attached to," click on Lines, all, and then click on OK.

7.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Velocity> On Nodes.
The Apply V on Nodes picking menu appears.

8.

Click on Pick All. The Velocity Constraints on Nodes dialog box appears.

9.

In the "Velocity component (VY)" field, enter 0, and click on OK.

10. Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Select Entities dialog box appears.
11. Choose "Lines" and "By Num/Pick," then click on the Sele All button. Click on OK. The Select Lines
picking menu appears.
12. Pick line number 4 and click on OK.
13. Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Select Entities dialog box appears.
14. Choose "Nodes" and "Attached to," click on Lines, all, and then click on OK.
15. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Pressure DOF> On
Nodes. The Apply PRES on Nodes picking menu appears.
16. Click on Pick All. The Pressure Constraint on Nodes dialog box appears.
17. In the "Pressure value (PRES)" field, enter 6.13769e+6, and click on OK.
18. Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities.
19. Choose "Lines" and "By Num/Pick," then click on the Sele All button. Click on OK. The Select Lines
picking menu appears.
20. Pick line numbers 3, 5, 6, 7, and 8 and click on OK.
21. Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities.
22. Choose "Nodes" and "Attached to," click on Lines, all, and then click on OK.
23. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Velocity> On Nodes.
The Apply V on Nodes picking menu appears.
24. Click on Pick All. The Velocity Constraints on Nodes dialog box appears.
25. In the "Velocity component (VX)" field and in the "Velocity component (VY)" enter 0, and click on OK.
26. Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Select Entities dialog box appears.

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Step 13: Solve


27. Choose "Lines" and "By Num/Pick," click on the Sele All button, and then click on OK. The Select Lines
picking menu appears.
28. Pick line number 16 and click on OK.
29. Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Select Entities dialog box appears.
30. Choose "Nodes" and "Attached to," click on Lines, all, and then click on OK.
31. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Pressure DOF> On
Nodes. The Apply PRES on Nodes picking menu appears.
32. Click on Pick All. The Pressure Constraint on Nodes dialog box appears.
33. In the "Pressure value (PRES)" field, enter 0, and click on OK.

Step 10: Set Fluid Properties


1.

Choose Utility Menu> Select> Everything.

2.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties. The Fluid Properties dialog
box appears.

3.

Set the "Density (DENS)," "Viscosity (VISC)," "Conductivity (COND)," and "Specific heat (SPHT)" fields to
AIR-CM.

4.

Set the "Allow density variations?" field to yes.

5.

Click on Apply. The CFD Flow Properties dialog box appears.

6.

Read the information about how coefficients will be calculated, and click on OK.

Step 11: Set Flow Environment Parameters


1.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions. The
Reference Conditions dialog box appears.

2.

Set the "Reference pressure (REFE)" field to 1.01325e+6 and the "Nominal temperature (NOMI)" and
"Stagnation (total) temperature (TTOT)" fields to 550, and then click on OK.

Step 12: Set Solution Options and CFD Solver Controls


1.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options. The FLOTRAN Solution
Options dialog box appears.

2.

Set the "Laminar or turbulent (TURB)" field to Turbulent and the "Incompress or compress (COMP)"
field to Compressible. Click OK.

3.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Contr> PRES Solver CFD. The
PRES Solver CFD dialog box appears.

4.

Choose Precond conj res.

5.

Click on OK. The Semi Direct Solver Options for Pressure dialog box appears.

6.

In the "Convergence criterion" field, enter 1.e-12, and click on OK.

Step 13: Solve


1.

Choose Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Prop Relaxation. The Property
Relaxation dialog box appears.

2.

Set the "Density relaxation" field to 1.0 and click on OK.


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Chapter 8: FLOTRAN Compressible Analyses


3.

Choose Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> MIR Stabilization. The Modified
Inertial Relaxation (MIR) dialog box appears.

4.

Set the MIR values for the momentum and turbulence equations to 0.2

5.

Choose Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms. The Stability
Parameters dialog box appears.

6.

Set the "Momentum inertia" field to 1.0, the "Pressure inertia" field to 1.e-4, and the "Artificial viscosity"
field to 10, and then click on OK.

7.

Choose Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl. The Steady State Control Settings
dialog box appears.

8.

Set the "Global iterations (EXEC) field to 20 and click on OK.

9.

Choose Main Menu> Solution> Run FLOTRAN.

10. After 20 iterations finish, the Solution is done message appears. Close it. Choose Main Menu> Solution>
FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms. The Stability Parameters dialog box appears.
11. Set the "Artificial viscosity" field to 1 and click on OK.
12. Choose Main Menu> Solution> Run FLOTRAN.
13. Repeat the previous 3 substeps and continue to reduce the "Artificial viscosity" to .1, .01, .001, .0001,
and .00001.
14. After 140 total iterations finish, the Solution is done message appears. Close it. Choose Main Menu>
Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms. The Stability Parameters dialog box
appears.
15. Set the "Artificial viscosity" field to 0 and click on OK.
16. Choose Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl. The Steady State Control Settings
dialog box appears.
17. Set the "Global iterations (EXEC) field to 160 and click on OK.
18. Choose Main Menu> Solution> Run FLOTRAN.
19. After 300 total iterations finish, the Solution is done message appears. Close it. Choose Main Menu>
Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms. The Stability Parameters dialog box
appears.
20. Set the "Momentum inertia" field to 10, the "Pressure inertia" field to 1.e-2, and then click on OK.
21. Choose Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl. The Steady State Control Settings
dialog box appears.
22. Set the "Global iterations (EXEC) field to 100 and click on OK.
23. Choose Main Menu> Solution> Run FLOTRAN.
24. After 400 total iterations finish, the Solution is done message appears. Close it. Choose Main Menu>
Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms. The Stability Parameters dialog box
appears.
25. Set the "Momentum inertia" field to 1e+15, the "Pressure inertia" field to 1.e+15, and then click on OK.
26. Choose Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl. The Steady State Control Settings
dialog box appears.
27. Set the "Global iterations (EXEC) field to 400 and click on OK.
28. Choose Main Menu> Solution> Run FLOTRAN. When the Solution is done message appears, close
it.
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8.7. Doing the Example Compressible Flow Analysis (Command Method)


29. Click QUIT on the ANSYS Toolbar. Choose an exit option and click OK.

8.7. Doing the Example Compressible Flow Analysis (Command Method)


You issue the following ANSYS commands to perform a compressible flow analysis of the converging diverging
nozzle. Text preceded by an exclamation point (!) is a comment.
/title, Compressible Flow in a Converging Diverging Nozzle
/prep7
!
! Assign Element Type
!
et,1,141
!
! Create the Model Geometry
!
/pnum,line,1
k,1,0,2.432
k,2,0,0
k,3,1,2.432
k,4,1,0
k,5,2,2.232
k,6,2,0
k,7,5,0
k,8,5,.7
k,9,6,0
k,10,6,.5
k,11,14,0
k,12,14,.8
l,2,4
l,3,4
l,1,3
l,1,2
l,5,8
l2tan,3,5
l,10,12
l2tan,5,7
l,4,6
l,6,7
l,7,9
l,9,11
a,2,4,3,1
a,4,6,5,3
a,6,7,8,5
a,7,9,10,8
a,9,11,12,10
!
! !Mesh the Model and Compress Numbers
!
ntran=24
rtran=10
na=10
nb=10
nc=25
nd=10
ne=100
re=-1.5
lesize,4,,,ntran,rtran
lesize,2,,,ntran,rtran
lesize,13,,,ntran,1/rtran
lesize,14,,,ntran,1/rtran
lesize,15,,,ntran,1/rtran
lesize,16,,,ntran,1/rtran
lesize,1,,,na
lesize,3,,,na
lesize,6,,,nb
lesize,9,,,nb
lesize,5,,,nc
lesize,10,,,nc
lesize,8,,,nd

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Chapter 8: FLOTRAN Compressible Analyses


lesize,11,,,nd
lesize,7,,,ne,re
lesize,12,,,ne,re
amesh,all
numcmp,node
numcmp,elem
!
! Apply Boundary Conditions
!
lsel,s,,,1
lsel,a,,,9,12,1
nsll,,1
d,all,vy,0
lsel,all
lsel,s,,,4
nsll,,1
d,all,pres,6.13769e+6
lsel,all
lsel,s,,,3
lsel,a,,,5,8,1
nsll,,1
d,all,vx,0
d,all,vy,0
lsel,all
lsel,s,,,16
nsll,,1
d,all,pres,0
!
! Set Fluid Properties
!
alls
/solu
flda,prot,dens,air-cm
flda,prot,visc,air-cm
flda,prot,cond,air-cm
flda,prot,spht,air-cm
flda,vary,dens,t
!
! Set Flow Environment Parameters
!
flda,pres,refe,1.01325e+6
flda,temp,ttot,550
flda,temp,nomi,550
!
! Set Solution Options and CFD Solver Controls
!
flda,solu,turb,t
flda,solu,comp,t
flda,meth,pres,3
flda,conv,pres,1e-12
!
! Solve
!
flda,relx,dens,1
flda,mir,mome,0.2
flda,mir,turb,0.2
flda,stab,mome,1
flda,stab,pres,1e-4
flda,stab,visc,10
flda,iter,exec,20
solve
flda,stab,visc,1
solve
flda,stab,visc,.1
solve
flda,stab,visc,.01
solve
flda,stab,visc,.001
solve
flda,stab,visc,.0001
solve
flda,stab,visc,.00001

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8.7. Doing the Example Compressible Flow Analysis (Command Method)


solve
flda,stab,visc,0
flda,iter,exec,160
solve
flda,stab,mome,10
flda,stab,pres,1e-2
flda,iter,exec,100
solve
flda,stab,mome,1e+15
flda,stab,pres,1e+15
flda,iter,exec,400
solve

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115

116

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Chapter 9: Specifying Fluid Properties for FLOTRAN


Every flow analysis requires the fluid properties density and viscosity. Thermal analyses, in addition, require
the fluid's thermal conductivity as well as specific heat. Volume of Fluid (VOF) analyses, in addition, might
require the fluid properties surface tension coefficient and wall static contact angle. You specify fluid properties using one of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA7,PROT,Label,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties
The command shown above simply sets the fluid property type. After choosing the property type, you may
have to set values.
To specify non-fluid properties (density, specific heat, and thermal conductivity), use one of the following:
Command(s): MP
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Other> Change Mat Props> Polynomial
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> Thermal> Density
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> Thermal> Specific Heat
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> Thermal> Conductivity> Isotropic
Main Menu> Solution> Other> Change Mat Props> Polynomial
Non-fluid thermal conductivities can vary with temperature. Orthotropic variation of non-fluid thermal conductivity also is supported. For further information, see the descriptions of the MP and MPDATA commands,
and related commands.
ANSYS provides no default values for density or viscosity properties. This prevents default properties from
putting the analysis into an unexpected flow regime.
A value of -1 will appear in the user interface for properties that must be set. If you submit an analysis
without setting these properties, an error message results and you will be reminded that you must specify
properties.
The following fluid property topics are available:
9.1. Fluid Property Types
9.2. Initializing and Varying Properties
9.3. Modifying the Fluid Property Database
9.4. Using Reference Properties
9.5. Using the ANSYS Non-Newtonian Flow Capabilities
9.6. Using User-Programmable Subroutines

9.1. Fluid Property Types


A "fluid property type" defines how the particular fluid property will vary with temperature (and pressure,
in the case of density for a gas). You choose the fluid property type separately for density, viscosity, thermal
conductivity, specific heat, surface tension coefficient, and wall static contact angle.

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117

Chapter 9: Specifying Fluid Properties for FLOTRAN


You must use a consistent set of units for all the data that you enter. All thermal quantities must have the
same energy unit as shown in the following table:

Table 9.1 Units for Thermal Quantities


Thermal Quantity

Units

Thermal Conductivity

energy/length-temperature-time

Specific Heat

energy/mass-temperature

Heat Flux

energy/length2-time

Volumetric Heat Source

energy/length3-time

Heat Transfer Coefficient

energy/length2-temperature-time

Except for incompressible flow analyses including viscous heating, you can use any energy unit as long as
you use the same unit for all thermal quantities. The metric and English property types defined below use
joules and BTUs, respectively, as the energy unit for thermal conductivity and specific heat. For an incompressible analysis including viscous heating, you must use the energy unit for the system as shown in the
following table:

Table 9.2 Energy Units for Incompressible Analyses with Viscous Heating
System

Energy Unit[1]

SI (meter-kg-sec)

Joule

CGS (cm-g-sec)

Erg

mm-g-sec

Centi-erg

U. S. Customary (ft-slugsec)

lbf-ft

PSI

lbf-in

1.

1 Joule = 1.0E9 Centi-ergs; 1 BTU = 778.26 lbf-ft.

The following property type topics are available:


9.1.1. Property Types for Specific Heat
9.1.2. Property Types for Density and Thermal Conductivity
9.1.3. Property Types for Viscosity
9.1.4. Property Types for Surface Tension Coefficient
9.1.5. Property Types for Wall Static Contact Angle
9.1.6. General Guidelines for Setting Property Types
9.1.7. Density
9.1.8. Viscosity
9.1.9. Specific Heat
9.1.10.Thermal Conductivity
9.1.11. Surface Tension Coefficient
9.1.12. Wall Static Contact Angle

9.1.1. Property Types for Specific Heat


For specific heat, you can choose among the following property types: CONSTANT, CMIX, TABLE, user-defined
through a file (floprp.ans), user-programmable subroutine (USER), and the variations of AIR shown below
in Table 9.3: Units for the AIR Property Type (p. 119).

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9.1.6. General Guidelines for Setting Property Types

9.1.2. Property Types for Density and Thermal Conductivity


For density and thermal conductivity, the property types you can choose are CONSTANT, CMIX, TABLE, GAS,
LIQUID, user-defined through a file (floprp.ans), and the variations of AIR shown below. (To learn how
to add more, see Modifying the Fluid Property Database (p. 126).) A user-programmable subroutine (USER)
also is available. For density only, you have one other property type option: CGAS.

Table 9.3 Units for the AIR Property Type


PROT
AIR

Units
meter-kg-sec

AIR-SI
AIR-CM
AIR-MM
AIR-FT
AIR-IN

meter-kg-sec
cm-g-sec

Pascals
Pascals
dynes/cm

mm-g-sec
ft-slug-sec
2

Pressure Units

in-(lbf-s /in)-sec

Pascals
lbf/ft

psi

Density Units

Viscosity Units

kg/m

kg/m-sec

kg/m

kg/m-sec

g/cm-sec (poise)

g/cm

g/mm

slugs/ft

g/mm-sec
3

lbf-sec /in

slug/ft-sec
4

lbf-s/in2

ANSYS automatically supplies for you, in the property database, the relevant input for the AIR property types.

9.1.3. Property Types for Viscosity


For viscosity, you can choose the property types CMIX, TABLE, CONSTANT, LIQUID, GAS, Power Law (POWL),
Bingham (BING), Carreau (CARR), user-defined through a file (floprp.ans), and a user-programmable
subroutine (USER or USRV). The AIR and GAS property types assume that the fluid is an ideal gas with constant
specific heat. The viscosity and thermal conductivity variations with temperature are assumed to follow
Sutherland's laws for gases, the form of which is shown below. A LIQUID assumes up to a second order
polynomial for the variation of density with temperature, a constant value for specific heat, and Sutherland's
laws for a liquid for viscosity and thermal conductivity.
Viscosity as a function of the velocity gradient is represented by the non-Newtonian viscosity types: Power
Law, Bingham, and Carreau. Refer to Using the ANSYS Non-Newtonian Flow Capabilities (p. 129) for more information.

9.1.4. Property Types for Surface Tension Coefficient


For surface tension coefficient, you can choose among the following property types: CONSTANT, LIQUID,
and user-programmable subroutine (USER).

9.1.5. Property Types for Wall Static Contact Angle


For wall static contact angle, CONSTANT is the only valid property type.

9.1.6. General Guidelines for Setting Property Types


You must use a consistent set of units (the gravitational constant gc must be unity.) Of course, the proper
length unit must be assumed when building the finite element model. Additional choices are available for
air as per the table shown below. Units for density are simply mass/volume; the table omits them.
Set the property type using the following:
Command(s): FLDATA7,PROT,Label,Value
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Chapter 9: Specifying Fluid Properties for FLOTRAN


GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties
For Label, you specify one of the following: DENS (density), VISC (viscosity), COND (thermal conductivity),
SPHT (specific heat), or SFTS (surface tension coefficient).
For Value, you specify any of the property types listed in Table 9.4: Property types for Value (p. 120), or you
can specify a table of fluid properties. To specify a table, enclose the table name in percent signs (%) (for
example, FLDATA7,PROT,DENS,%Table%).

9.1.6.1. Using a Fluid Property Table


If working interactively, you define a new table prior to using the table to apply loads. You can define a
table interactively via the Utility Menu> Parameters> Array Parameters> Define/Edit menu path, or in
batch mode via the *DIM command. If working interactively, you will be asked to define the table through
a series of dialog boxes. If working in batch mode, you need to define the table before issuing any of the
loading commands.
For more information on defining tables, see the discussion of table array parameters in the ANSYS Parametric
Design Language Guide.
When you define the table, you can define the following primary variables:

Temperature (TEMP)

Pressure (PRESSURE)

Time (TIME)

X-coordinate (X)

Y-coordinate (Y)

Z-coordinate (Z)

Velocity (VELOCITY)

Reference X-coordinate (Xr) (ALE formulation only)

Reference Y-coordinate (Yr) (ALE formulation only)

Reference Z-coordinate (Zr) (ALE formulation only)

The valid labels used by the *DIM command are shown in parentheses.
If you need to specify a variable other than one of the primary variables listed, you can do so by defining
an independent variable. To specify an independent variable, define an additional table for the independent
variable. That table must have the same name as the independent variable and can be a function of either
a primary variable or another independent variable.

9.1.6.2. Specifying Property Types


The following table describes the property types that you can specify.

Table 9.4 Property types for Value


Property Type
Constant properties

120

Argument
CONSTANT

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9.1.6. General Guidelines for Setting Property Types


Property Type

Argument

Gas properties

GAS

Liquid properties

LIQUID

Table of property values and corresponding temperature values (which you


enter using the MPDATAand MPTEMP commands)

TABLE

Air properties in units of meter-kg-sec

AIR or AIR-SI

Air properties in units of meter-kg-sec, with pressure set to the reference


pressure for the evaluation of density

AIR_B or AIRSI_B

Air properties in units of cm-g-sec

AIR-CM

Air properties in units of cm-g-sec, with pressure set to the reference pressure AIR-CM_B
for the evaluation of density
Air properties in units of mm-g-sec

AIR-MM

Air properties in units of mm-g-sec, with pressure set to the reference pressure AIR-MM_B
for the evaluation of density
Air properties in units of fl-slug-sec

AIR-FT

Air properties in unites of fl-slug-sec, with pressure set to the reference pressureAIR-FT_B
for the evaluation of density
Air properties in units of in-(lbf-s**2/in)-sec (results in units of psi for pressure) AIR-IN
Air properties in units of in-(lbf-s**2/in)-sec (results in units of psi for pressure), AIR-IN_B
with pressure set to the reference pressure for the evaluation of density
Power Law non-Newtonian viscosity type

POWL

Carreau non-Newtonian viscosity type

CARR

Bingham non-Newtonian viscosity type

BING

Property is mass fraction average of the species component

CMIX

User-programmable via subroutines:UserVisLaw for viscosityUserSpht for specific heatUserDens for densityUserCond for conductivityUserSfts for surface
tension

USER

A variation of ideal gas law based on species mass fractions. Available for
density only.

CGAS

Once you choose property types, you do not need to specify any coefficients for the properties. If the characters _B are added to these property types (as in the AIR types listed above), the pressure in the ideal gas
law calculation is at a constant density corresponding to atmospheric pressure. The length and time units
of conductivity and specific heat must be consistent with the rest of the properties. The energy units in
these quantities are unrestricted.
If using property types CONSTANT, GAS, or LIQUID, you must specify property coefficients. To do so, either
issue the commands shown below or choose one of the following menu paths:
Command(s): FLDATA8,NOMI,Label,Value FLDATA9,COF1,Label,Value FLDATA10,COF2,Label,Value FLDATA11,COF3,Label,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties
If you use the commands, you enter the property in the Label field of each command and enter the value
itself in each command's Value field.

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The format of the equations for GAS and LIQUID input is oriented towards calculating constants based on
chosen data points. All cases take COF1 to be the absolute temperature at which the chosen property has
the value set by NOMI. (Using Reference Properties (p. 129) discusses the use of relative temperatures and an
offset temperature to calculate absolute temperatures.) This is not used in the COF1 specification; COF1
should always be an absolute temperature.
Once values are inserted into the relationships below for NOMI and COF1, the values of COF2 and COF3, if
necessary, follow from knowledge of one or two additional data points, respectively. When calculating COF2
and COF3 for GAS and LIQUID property types, you must use absolute temperatures and pressures in these
relationships. If COF1 is set to zero, the property will become constant at the value set by NOMI. For GAS
and LIQUID property types, the specific heat is constant and therefore the parameters COF1, COF2 and COF3
are not needed. For viscosity types Power Law, Bingham, and Carreau, NOMI, COF1, COF2, and COF3 have
different interpretations. This is discussed in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical
Applications and in Viscosity (p. 123).

9.1.7. Density
If the property type choice is CONSTANT, then set the constant value of the property using the FLDATA8,NOMI
command or the equivalent menu path. For example, you set the density to 1.205 via:
Command(s):
FLDATA8,NOMI,DENS,1.205
If the property type is GAS, the ideal gas law is used for the density. You specify density for this choice as:
Density = NOMI * (P/COF2) / (T/COF1)
If the choice is LIQUID, then a second order polynomial as a function of temperature is used for density.
Density = NOMI + COF2*(T - COF1) + COF3*(T - COF1)2
If the property type is CMIX, then:
N

Density = Yi i
i=1

In the equation shown above, N is the defined number of species, Yi is the mass fraction of the ith species,
and i is the density of the ith species.
If the property is CGAS, then:
Density =

P
N

RT ( Yi /Mi )
i

In the CGAS equation shown above, N is the defined number of species, Yi is the mass fraction of the ith
species, Mi is the molecular weight of the ith species, R is the universal gas constant, and P is the absolute
pressure.
If the property type is TABLE, the density is interpolated linearly between the data points provided via the
MPTEMP or MPDATA commands (or their GUI equivalents).

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9.1.8. Viscosity
If the choice is USER, the density is computed in the user-programmable subroutine UserDens. The four
coefficients NOMI, COF1, COF2, and COF3 are available in this routine.

9.1.8. Viscosity
If the property type choice is CONSTANT, then set the constant value of the property using the FLDATA8,NOMI
command or the equivalent menu path. For example, you set the viscosity to 1.205 via:
Command(s):
FLDATA8,NOMI,VISC,1.205
If the choice is GAS, Sutherland's law for gases is used for viscosity. You can enter the parameters NOMI,
COF1, and COF2.
The ideal gas constant R is defined as (COF2/NOMI*COF1)
Viscosity ("Property"):
Property/NOMI = (T/COF1)1.5 * (COF1 + COF2)/(T + COF2)
As an example of using this relationship, suppose that there are two data points available for the calculation
of viscosity as a function of temperature:
Viscosity = 4.18 x 10-5 at T = 760
Viscosity = 5.76 x 10-5 at T = 1010
Consider the first data point as the nominal value. This means that NOMI = 4.18 x 10-5 and COF1 = 760. Using
these in the Sutherland relationship yields:
Property/4.18 x 10-5 = (T/760)1.5 (760 + COF2)/(T + COF2)
Use the remaining data point to calculate COF2 by setting "Property" to 5.76 x 10-5 and T = 1010. Thus, the
constants are calculated from the data points.
If the choice is LIQUID, then Sutherland's liquid law is used for the viscosity.
Viscosity ("Property"):
Property/NOMI = EXP{COF2*(1/T - 1/COF1) + COF3(1/T - 1/COF1)2}
If the choice is POWL, then the non-Newtonian Power Law model is used for the viscosity:

NOMI*COF2*D(COF3-1)
Viscosity =
(COF3-1)
NOMI*COF2*COF1

,D>COF1
,D COF1

If the choice is BING, then the non-Newtonian Bingham model is used for the viscosity:
COF1

NOMI+ D
Viscosity =
COF2

,D
,D<

COF1
COF2 NOMI
COF1
COV2 -NOMI

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Chapter 9: Specifying Fluid Properties for FLOTRAN


If the choice is CARR, the non-Newtonian Carreau model is used for the viscosity:
COF3-1
2 2
Viscosity =COF1+(NOMI- COF1)*(1+(COF2*D) )

If the property type is CMIX, then:


N

Viscosity = Yi i
i=1

In the equation shown above, N is the defined number of species, Yi is the mass fraction of the ith species,
and i is the viscosity of the ith species.
If the property type is TABLE, the density is interpolated linearly between the data points provided via the
MPTEMP or MPDATA commands (or their GUI equivalents).
If the choice is USRV or USER, then the viscosity is computed in the user programmable subroutine UserVisLaw.
The four coefficients NOMI, COF1, COF2, and COF3 are available in this routine.

9.1.9. Specific Heat


If the property type choice is CONSTANT, then set the constant value of the property using the FLDATA8,NOMI
command or the equivalent menu path. For example, you set the specific heat to 1.205 via:
Command(s):
FLDATA8,NOMI,SPHT,1.205
If the choice is USER, specify specific heat via user-programmable subroutine UserSpht. For specific heat,
NOMI, COF1, COF2, and COF3 are available in the user-programmable subroutine UserSpht.
If the property type is CMIX, then:
N

Specific Heat = Y i Cpi


i =1

In the equation shown above, N is the defined number of species, Yi is the mass fraction of the ith species,
Cp
i is the specific heat of the ith species.
and
If the property type is TABLE, the specific heat is interpolated linearly between the data points provided via
the MPTEMP or MPDATA commands (or their GUI equivalents).

9.1.10. Thermal Conductivity


If the property type choice is CONSTANT, then set the constant value of the property using the FLDATA8,NOMI
command or the equivalent menu path. For example, you set the thermal conductivity to 1.205 via:
Command(s):
FLDATA8,NOMI,COND,1.205
If the choice is GAS, Sutherland's law for gases is used for conductivity. You can enter the parameters NOMI,
COF1, and COF2.
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9.1.12. Wall Static Contact Angle


The ideal gas constant R is defined as (COF2/NOMI*COF1)
Thermal Conductivity ("Property"):
Property/NOMI = (T/COF1)1.5 * (COF1 + COF2)/(T + COF2)
If the choice is LIQUID, then Sutherland's liquid law is used for conductivity.
Thermal Conductivity ("Property"):
Property/NOMI = EXP{COF2*(1/T - 1/COF1) + COF3(1/T - 1/COF1)2}
If the property type is CMIX, then:
N

Conductivity = Y i K i
i =1

In the equation shown above, N is the defined number of species, Yi is the mass fraction of the ith species,
and Ki is the conductivity of the ith species.
If the property type is TABLE, the density is interpolated linearly between the data points provided via the
MPTEMP or MPDATA commands (or their GUI equivalents).
If the choice is USER, then the thermal conductivity is computed in the user programmable subroutine
UserCond. The four coefficients NOMI, COF1, COF2, and COF3 are available in this routine.

9.1.11. Surface Tension Coefficient


If the property type choice is CONSTANT, then set the constant value of the property using the FLDATA8,NOMI
command or the equivalent menu path. For example, you set the surface tension coefficient to 73.0 via:
Command(s):
FLDATA8,NOMI,SFTS,73.0
If the choice is LIQUID, then a second order polynomial as a function of temperature is used for surface
tension coefficient.
Surface tension coefficient = NOMI + COF2*(T - COF1) + COF3*(T - COF1)2
If the choice is USER, the surface tension coefficient is computed in the user-programmable subroutine
UserSfts. The four coefficients NOMI, COF1, COF2, and COF3 are available in this routine.

9.1.12. Wall Static Contact Angle


To set the constant value use the FLDATA8,NOMI command or the equivalent menu path. For example, set
the wall static contact angle to 120.0 degrees via:
Command(s):
FLDATA8,NOMI,WSCA,120.0
The wall static contact angle defaults to 90 degrees. Angles less than 90 degrees describe an adhesive wall
condition and angles between 90 and 180 degrees describe a nonadhesive wall condition. In reality, the
angle is not only a material property of the fluid, but also depends on the local fluid and wall conditions.
FLOTRAN treats it as a single input constant for simplicity.
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Chapter 9: Specifying Fluid Properties for FLOTRAN

9.2. Initializing and Varying Properties


When an analysis begins, ANSYS calculates properties based on the specified property type and the appropriate constants. To set the initial temperature, choose one of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA14,TEMP,NOMI,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions
You can choose to treat this temperature as an absolute or a relative temperature. If it is a relative temperature, the difference between the relative and the absolute temperature is the offset from absolute zero set
by one of the following:
Command(s): TOFFST,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions
Either way, FLOTRAN initializes the absolute nominal temperature as the sum of the values set by the
FLDATA,TEMP,NOMI and TOFFST commands or their equivalent menu paths.
Unless otherwise specified through boundary or initial condition commands, the initial relative pressure is
zero. In the absence of gravity and rotation the absolute pressure is the sum of the reference and relative
pressures. Therefore, the initial absolute pressure is the reference pressure.
For specific heat, density, surface tension coefficient, and thermal conductivity, the ANSYS program uses
initial values of absolute nominal temperature and absolute pressure to calculate the initial properties.
However, for non-Newtonian viscosity, you specify initial properties using either the command
FLDATA12,PROP,IVISC,Value (Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties). If you
specify a value less than or equal to zero, the NOMI coefficient described in the previous section is used to
initialize the viscosity.

9.2.1. Activating Variable Properties


Once the analysis begins, the properties will vary only between global iterations as the temperature and
pressure change if the property variations are activated. This is accomplished with the
FLDATA13,VARY,Label,Value command with the labels SPHT, DENS, VISC, SFTS, and COND. Allowable
Values are TRUE and FALSE (T or F). The VARY setting has no effect if the property type are set to CONSTANT
or COF1 is zero for a GAS or LIQUID.

9.3. Modifying the Fluid Property Database


Choices other than CGAS, CMIX, TABLE, USER, GAS, LIQUID, CONSTANT or AIR for density, thermal conductivity, viscosity, and specific heat imply that all the properties will be obtained from the information in the
floprp.ans file (a text file), where the data for AIR resides. This file is provided with ANSYS, and you
should make a local copy if you plan additions to it. You can make the copy at the system level with a text
editor. The procedure for making additions requires you to:
1.

Choose a property name.

2.

Specify functional form and constants.


id Integer equation identifier (two digit number)
n Number of coefficients
Ci Equation coefficients

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9.3. Modifying the Fluid Property Database


You can access the following forms through the property database by specifying the appropriate ID. The
variable "y" refers to the value of the property of interest, T is the absolute temperature, and P is the absolute
pressure.
Polynomial ID: 01
y = C1 + C2T + C3T2 + ... + CnTn-1
Inverse Polynomial ID: 02

C
C
C
y = C1 + 2 + 3 +
+ n
2
T T
Tn1
Exponential Polynomial ID: 03
In(y) = C1 + C2T + C3T2 + ... + CnTn-1
Exponential Inverse Polynomial ID: 04

C
C
C
In( y ) = C1 + 2 + 3 +
+ n
T T2
Tn 1
Power Law ID: 05
y = C1TC2
Ideal Gas Law ID: 11

y=

C1T

Sutherland's Formula ID: 12


3

y=

C1T 2
T + C2

Pressure based variation ID: 15

C + C2PC3
y= 1
C4 + C5PC6
Non-Newtonian Power Law ID: 16 (applies to viscosity only)

y = C1C3D(C4 1) ,

D > C2

y = C1C3C2(C4 1) , D C2

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Chapter 9: Specifying Fluid Properties for FLOTRAN

where

D=

I2

, I2 is the second invariant of the strain rate tensor.

Non-Newtonian Bingham Model ID: 17 (applies to viscosity only)

C
C2
y = C1 + 2 , D
D
C3 C1
y = C3 ,

D<

C2
C3 C1

Carreau Model ID: 18 (applies to viscosity only)


C 4 1

y = C2 + (C1 C2 ) * (1+ (C3D) )

User-programmable subroutine: 19
y = y (C1, C2, C3, C4)
Because you can use the subroutine to describe property variations, you can use the four coefficients in any
way within the subroutine.
The format of the property database file floprp.ans is provided in the table below:

Table 9.5 Property Database Format


Line

Description

Fluid Name [A8] and optional comments

nLines [I6]

nLines

Proplab, tProp, nProp


(PropCF(i)=1,nProp)
[A4, 1x, 2I6, 5E12.5/6E 12.5]
Fluid Name=Fluid property type
nLines=Number of properties to be read
Proplab=Property label (one of the following):
SPHT - Specific heat
DENS - Density
VISC - Viscosity
COND - Conductivity
GAMM - Gamma
tProp - Equation identifier for property
nProp - Number of coefficients for property
PropCF - Coefficients for property calculation

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9.5. Using the ANSYS Non-Newtonian Flow Capabilities

9.4. Using Reference Properties


The following properties are part of the flow environment:

The ratio of specific heats, Cp/Cv, known as gamma, is a reference property that applies only to compressible problems. Currently it is a constant. Specify this property using one of these methods:
Command(s): FLDATA17,GAMM,COMP,VALUE
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions
File:
Edit the file floprp.ans and set the value of GAMM.

The pressures FLOTRAN calculates are relative pressures. A reference pressure is added to the relative
pressure to calculate the absolute pressure. Rotational and gravitational terms also are added as needed.
For more information, see Chapter 10, FLOTRAN Special Features (p. 133).
To specify the reference pressure, use one of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA15,PRES,REFE,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions

You can use a relative temperature (for example, degrees Fahrenheit rather than degrees Rankine). In
this case, an offset temperature is set so that property calculations include absolute temperatures. This
is necessary, for instance, for calculating densities from the ideal gas law. ANSYS automatically adds the
offset temperature to all of the boundary condition temperatures applied.
To set the offset temperature, use one of the following
Command(s): TOFFST,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions

The nominal temperature is that at which the properties initialize. It may be a relative temperature if
you use the TOFFST command or an equivalent menu path. If the viscosity is not stored in the results
file (the default condition) and is now allowed to vary, ANSYS recalculates it when the analysis continues
at the nominal temperature.
To specify the nominal temperature, use one of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA14,TEMP,NOMI,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions

You can specify gravitational accelerations using one of the following:


Command(s): ACEL,ACELX,ACELY,ACELZ
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Gravity
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Gravity

The sign convention of the gravitational acceleration denotes as positive the direction of the reaction force.

9.5. Using the ANSYS Non-Newtonian Flow Capabilities


The ANSYS program enables you to specify viscosity for non-Newtonian fluid flows. (You can use this capability only with FLUID141 and FLUID142 elements.) You can choose among four types of models:
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Chapter 9: Specifying Fluid Properties for FLOTRAN

The Power Law model, useful for modeling polymers, blood, rubber solutions, etc.

The Carreau model, which removes some of the deficiencies associated with the Power Law model. Use
this model when fluid has intermediate values of shear rate but remains bounded for zero/infinite shear
rates.

The Bingham model, useful for modeling slurries and pastes.

A user-programmable subroutine UserVisLaw, which gives you greater flexibility in choosing viscosity
models.

Typically, you select one of these models after you have built and meshed the model for your problem and
after you have applied the boundary conditions.

9.5.1. Activating the Power Law Model


To activate the Power Law viscosity model, issue the command or use one of the menu paths shown below:
Command(s): FLDATA7,PROT,VISC,POWL
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties
Choosing any of the above automatically issues other commands which set output and storage controls
and the property variation flag. For details, see the descriptions of the FLDATA commands in the Command
Reference.
To specify the four coefficients associated with the Power Law model, choose either of the menu paths
shown above (and specify the appropriate coefficients), or issue the following commands:
Command(s):
FLDATA8,NOMI,VISC,Value (specifies nominal viscosity)
FLDATA9,COF1,VISC,Value (specifies the cutoff shear rate)
FLDATA10,COF2,VISC,Value (specifies the consistency coefficient)
FLDATA11,COF3,VISC,Value (specifies the power)
The Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications describes these coefficients.
Once you have specified the coefficients, you can issue the SOLVE command or choose menu path Main
Menu> Solution> Run FLOTRAN.

9.5.2. Activating the Carreau Model


To activate the Carreau viscosity model, issue the command or use one of the menu paths shown below:
Command(s): FLDATA7,PROT,VISC,CARR
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties
Choosing one of the above automatically issues commands which set output and storage controls and the
property variation flag. For more information about the FLDATA commands, see the Command Reference.
You need to specify the four coefficients associated with the Carreau model, using either of the menu paths
shown above or the following commands:

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9.6. Using User-Programmable Subroutines


Command(s):
FLDATA8,NOMI,VISC,Value (specifies the zero shear viscosity)
FLDATA9,COF1,VISC,Value (specifies the infinite shear viscosity)
FLDATA10,COF2,VISC,Value (specifies the time constant)
FLDATA11,COF3,VISC,Value (specifies the power)
The Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications describes these coefficients. Once
you have specified them, you can issue the SOLVE command or choose menu path Main Menu> Solution>
Run FLOTRAN.

9.5.3. Activating the Bingham Model


To activate the Bingham viscosity model, issue the command or choose one of the menu paths shown below:
Command(s): FLDATA7,PROT,VISC,BING
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties
Choosing one of the items shown above automatically issues commands that set output and storage controls
and the property variation flag.
To set the coefficients associated with the Bingham model, either use one of the menu paths shown above
or issue the following commands:
FLDATA8,NOMI,VISC,Value (specifies the plastic viscosity)
FLDATA9,COF1,VISC,Value (specifies the plastic/yield stress)
FLDATA10,COF2,VISC,Value (specifies the Newtonian viscosity)
The Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications describes these coefficients.
You can also specify an initial viscosity to accelerate convergence. Typically, you can set this to be the
Newtonian viscosity (that is, COF2) via one of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA12,PROP,VISC,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties

9.6. Using User-Programmable Subroutines


User-programmable subroutines are available for specific heat, density, viscosity, surface tension coefficient,
and thermal conductivity of fluid regions. Since the procedures are quite similar, only one property will be
described in depth here.
If you wish to use the user-programmable viscosity subroutine, UserVisLaw, you will need to customize it
for the particular model you are analyzing. You compile the subroutine, link it with the ANSYS libraries, and
make an executable copy available. Then, you can resume the model to be analyzed and activate the viscosity
model you have defined. To do so, use one of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA7,PROT,VISC,USRV (or USER)
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties

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Chapter 9: Specifying Fluid Properties for FLOTRAN


At this point, you may want to specify that properties are updated every iteration and that you want viscosity
output to go to the results file. To do so, issue the following commands or use the following menu paths:
Command(s): FLDATA12,PROP,UFRQ,1 and FLDATA5,OUTP,VISC,T
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties
Next, you need to specify the four coefficients associated with the user-defined viscosity model. To do so,
use either of the menu paths shown above or issue the following commands:
Command(s):
FLDATA7,NOMI,VISC,Value (specifies coefficient 1)
FLDATA6,COF1,VISC,Value (specifies coefficient 2)
FLDATA9,COF2,VISC,Value (specifies coefficient 3)
FLDATA10,COF3,VISC,Value (specifies coefficient 4)
These coefficients are available within the UserVisLaw subroutine. By default, this subroutine produces a
Power Law viscosity model using the coefficients you define. To see a copy of the subroutine, see the Guide
to ANSYS User Programmable Features.
You can also specify an initial viscosity to accelerate convergence, via one of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA12,PROP,IVISC,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties
Once you have specified the coefficients, and, optionally, an initial viscosity, you can solve your model by
issuing the SOLVE command or choosing Main Menu> Solution> Run FLOTRAN.

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Chapter 10: FLOTRAN Special Features


The following FLOTRAN special features are available:
10.1. Coordinate Systems
10.2. Rotating Frames of Reference
10.3. Swirl
10.4. Distributed Resistance/Source

10.1. Coordinate Systems


You set the coordinate system via one of the following:
Command(s): KEYOPT
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> FLOTRAN Coor Sys
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> FLOTRAN Coor Sys
The table below shows you how to select various coordinate systems and describes the velocities represented
by DOFs VX, VY, and VZ in these systems. The default value of the KEYOPT is zero, which selects Cartesian
coordinates.

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Chapter 10: FLOTRAN Special Features

Figure 10.1: Direction of Positive Swirl Velocity VZ for Axisymmetric Models

+VZ
Y

Y
X

Z
X
Z

+VZ
(a)

Y-axis axisymmetric
(VZ positive "into the page")

(b)

X-axis axisymmetric
(VZ positive "out of page")

Table 10.1 Coordinate System Specification


Coordinate System

KEYOPT(3)

VX

VY

VZ

Cartesian

2-D - Axisymmetric about Y axis

radial

axial

swirl

2-D - Axisymmetric about X axis

axial

radial

swirl

2-D - Polar Coordinates

radial

theta

N/A

3-D - Cylindrical Coordinates

radial

theta

axial

For axisymmetric problems, the sign convention for the swirl (VZ) component conforms to positive rotation
about the axis of symmetry, as defined by the right hand rule. Thus, for a model that is axisymmetric about
the Y axis, a nonnegative swirl velocity VZ is considered to be pointing "into the page." Similarly, for a
model that is axisymmetric about the X axis, a nonnegative swirl velocity VZ is considered to be pointing
"out of the page." This should be accounted for when you apply boundary conditions in rotating coordinates.

Note
Based on the definition of directions for the cylindrical coordinate system, gravity is only appropriate for the Z direction when KEYOPT(3) is set to 3.

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10.2. Rotating Frames of Reference

10.2. Rotating Frames of Reference


You can choose to solve your problem in a rotating reference frame. In this case, the velocities are calculated
and specified with respect to a coordinate system which is rotating at constant angular velocity. Such an
approach is useful for pump blade passage analysis. Figure 10.2: Rotating Flow Problem (p. 135) shows a
schematic of a rotating problem which requires moving coordinate systems. Figure 10.3: Problem Schematic
with Rotating Coordinate (p. 136) shows the problem schematic in the rotating coordinate system.
The pressures specified by boundary conditions are in terms of the static pressure observable by the stationary
analyst, not in terms of the rotating coordinate system. The transformations necessary to solve the equations
in the rotating coordinate frame are done internally.
You can set rotational speeds using any of the following:
Command(s): CGOMGA
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Rotating Coords
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Rotating Coords
For all but 3-D Cartesian coordinate systems, you must specify the axis of rotation as being about the Z axis.
For 2-D axisymmetric systems, the ANSYS program automatically interprets the specified Z-axis rotation as
actually acting about the correct axis of symmetry (that is, about either the X or Y axis). For 3-D Cartesian
geometries, the rotational axis need not be in the same direction as one of the principal axes of the global
coordinate system, and may be offset from the origin of the global coordinate system.
To specify offsets for the axis of rotation, use one of the following:
Command(s): CGLOC
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Rotating Coords
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Rotating Coords

Figure 10.2: Rotating Flow Problem

Rotating shaft with


angular speed

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Chapter 10: FLOTRAN Special Features

Figure 10.3: Problem Schematic with Rotating Coordinate

System rotates at

v=0
v = R

10.3. Swirl
Swirl applies only to axisymmetric problems and refers to motion perpendicular to the X-Y plane. To activate
swirl, choose one of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA1,SOLU,SWIRL,TRUE
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options
Either a moving wall (for instance, a rotating shaft) or a component of swirl at an inlet can cause the motion
in the swirl direction (with velocity component VZ).
In a swirl problem, there are no changes in the "theta" direction since it is axisymmetric.
The swirl component is calculated through solution of the momentum equation in the swirl direction. With
no pressure gradient in the swirl direction, nothing contributes to the swirl velocity directly from the velocity
update step in the segregated solution algorithm. It is thus sometimes useful to accelerate the convergence
of swirl problems by solving the momentum in the swirl direction equation with a relaxation factor of 1.0
for a few global iterations.

10.4. Distributed Resistance/Source


Distributed resistances are macroscopic representations of geometric features not directly concerned with
the region of interest and considered too detailed for exact representation. A typical example is pipe flow
which encounters a screen.
You apply distributed resistance on an element basis through the use of real constants. See the Element
Reference for the formulation and the list and meaning of the real constants.
Since the distributed resistance parameters will describe the known behavior of the flow in the region, the
use of the turbulence model is redundant. You should deactivate it in the distributed resistance region by
setting ENKE to 0.0 and ENDS to 1.0.
To do so, choose one of the following:
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10.4. Distributed Resistance/Source


Command(s): D
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Turbulence> On Nodes
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Turbulence> On Nodes
The distributed resistances referred to above are used to describe losses to the system. You can model momentum sources in similar fashion. Such sources can be used to represent fans or pumps in a system. Typical characterization of these components is a "Head-Capacity Curve," representing the pressure rise as a
function of flow for a constant speed pump. The fan or pump model is not intended to describe the details
of the flow in the pump region, but rather to approximate its effects on the rest of the system. You can use
any coordinate system or FLOTRAN element shape, but Cartesian coordinate systems with hex shaped elements
in three dimensions and quadrilateral elements in two dimensions tend to give more stable results.
The fan model input takes the form of element real constants, and is described in detail in the Element Reference.
The ANSYS program supports two types of fan model. A "Type Four" fan model acts only along a specific
coordinate direction, while a "Type Five" model enables the user to align the fan or pump in an arbitrary
direction. Coefficients are assigned for each coordinate direction.
The equation for the fan model is in terms of a pressure gradient applied in the direction of flow. You
therefore must know over what length the fan model is to be applied in order to achieve the correct total
pressure rise. The relationship defining the momentum source for an arbitrary direction "s" is as follows:

dP
= C1 + C2 V + C3 V 2
ds
In the above equation, V is the velocity through the fan. If the given data is in terms of volumetric flow, you
must know the area of the actual pump. The actual velocity at the outlet of the pump as well as the volumetric flow rate should be preserved. Consistent units must be used, that is, the gravitational conversion
constant must be 1.0. If, for example, the pressure drop is in psi, the velocity units are in/sec.
Generally, you determine the fan or pump coefficients by taking three pairs of pressure-velocity points on
the "fan curve" and solving for the coefficients. If the flow is to be in the negative direction, the signs of all
the coefficients change.
The type 5 model is used for pumps not aligned with one of the coordinate directions. Given V as the velocity
in the S arbitrary direction and the pump constants C1, C2, and C3; the directional coefficients can be calculated.
If x is the angle between the arbitrary direction S and the x coordinate direction, the directional constants
are:

C1x = C1 cos x
C2 x = C2
C3 x =

C3
cos x

Similarly, if y and z are defined as the angles between the fan direction and the y and z coordinate direction
respectively:

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Chapter 10: FLOTRAN Special Features

C1y = C1 cos y
C2 y = C2
C3 y =

C3
cos y

C1z = C1 cos z
C2z = C2
C3z =

138

C3
cos z

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Chapter 11: FLOTRAN CFD Solvers and the Matrix Equation


In the sequential solution algorithm, you have three options for solving equations sets for degrees of freedom:
1.

A fast, approximate solver


This solver, the Tri-Diagonal Matrix Algorithm (TDMA), performs a user-specified number of iterations
through the problem domain.

2.

"Exact" solvers
The "exact" methods are semi-direct conjugate direction methods that iterate to a specified convergence
criterion.
These methods are:

3.

The Conjugate Residual (CR), Preconditioned Conjugate Residual (PCCR), Preconditioned Generalized
Minimum Residual (PGMR), and Preconditioned BiCGStab (PBCGM) methods for non-symmetric
matrix equations.

The preconditioned conjugate gradient method for the incompressible pressure equation.

Sparse Direct solver


This solver uses Gaussian elimination to factorize the matrix and then uses backward/forward substitution
to solve for the unknowns.

You choose the method for each DOF via one of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA18,METH,Label,Value (Label = DOF)
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> PRES Solver CFD
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> PRES Solver CFD
Valid choices are: 1 (TDMA), 2 (conjugate residual), 3 (preconditioned conjugate residual or gradient), 4
(preconditioned generalized minimum residual), 5 (sparse direct), or 6 (preconditioned BiCGStab). A choice
of 0 indicates that the equation set is not to be solved. The preconditioned conjugate gradient method
automatically applies to the incompressible pressure equation for choices 2 or 3.
The default solver (TDMA) for the velocities and the turbulence equations is adequate for virtually every
problem encountered. The number of sweeps (iterations) for the velocity is 1. Do not change this value. Experience has shown that the default number of 10 sweeps for the turbulence equations is most efficient
although you can increase this number to see if better convergence is attained for a particular application.
In general, the solution of the pressure equation must be accurate and conjugate direction methods are
used. However, the TDMA method can be successful for natural convection flows. The sections for the various
types of analyses discuss where to use solvers other than the default choices.
The following FLOTRAN CFD solver topics are available:
11.1.Tri-Diagonal Matrix Algorithm
11.2. Semi-Direct Solvers
11.3. Sparse Direct Method
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Chapter 11: FLOTRAN CFD Solvers and the Matrix Equation

11.1. Tri-Diagonal Matrix Algorithm


You set the number of sweeps for the TDMA solver using one of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA19,TDMA,Label,Value (Label = DOF)
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver
In the GUI, you do not have access to this command unless the TDMA method has been requested for that
DOF. It is not available in the GUI at all for velocities.

11.2. Semi-Direct Solvers


You can gauge the performance of the semi-direct solvers by the behavior during the solution process of
the inner product of the residuals, referred to as RTR (or ZTR for the incompressible pressure equation.) RTR
should be reduced during the global iteration to a fraction, typically 1.0 x 10-7 of its initial value.
The fraction is the convergence criterion for the semi-direct methods, set with one of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA21,CONV,Label,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver
To set the maximum number of iterations allowed during a global iteration, choose one of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA22,MAXI,Label,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver
Data concerning how the semi-direct solvers are performing appears in the text file Jobname.DBG for every
DOF for which they are used, generally PRES, TEMP, or both.
The semi-direct algorithms may conclude in three different ways: convergence is achieved, the maximum
number of iterations has been reached without convergence, or the solution has stalled.
If the maximum number has been reached without convergence, more iterations may be required (for example,
in a large or ill-conditioned problem). If so, increase the maximum number of iterations. The maximum
number also may be reached if the convergence criterion has been set to a very small value (for example,
less than 1.0 x 10-15), in which case the convergence criterion should be eased. It may also, however, mean
that the solution is diverging. If so, large values of RTR or ZTR (perhaps above 1.0 x 1020) will appear in the
debug file; but increasing the number of iterations will not help.
Stall occurs when the new iteration makes no progress towards the solution but the convergence criterion
has not been achieved. If the rate of change is small enough the solution process stops.

Note
You specify the rate of change which leads to termination of the solver by using one of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA23,DELT,Label,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver
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11.2.1. Preconditioned Generalized Minimum Residual (PGMR) Solver


The label refers to the DOF being solved. Stall can occur in the solution of the compressible pressure equation
or in the solution of the temperature equation of some conjugate heat transfer problems. The value of RTR
does not decrease significantly and at the last iteration the value of DelMax is less than the value you specified.
This means that the solution is essentially not changing, and further computational effort is wasted.
You can resolve a stall situation by increasing the number of search directions or using inertial relaxation.
To increase search directions, either use one of the menu paths described above (with the FLDATA23,DELT
command), or issue the following command:
Command(s):
FLDATA20,SRCH,Label,Value
The default value is 2, appropriate for well conditioned problems. The number of search directions required
may vary widely among problems. Values of 20 may be required, but be aware that each search direction
specified requires N compute storage locations in memory. (N is the number of finite element nodes in the
problem). The computer storage required for large values of SRCH could exceed the computational resources
available, in which case inertial relaxation should be used.
Figure 11.1: Typical Debug Files (p. 141) shows typical debug files.

Figure 11.1: Typical Debug Files

11.2.1. Preconditioned Generalized Minimum Residual (PGMR) Solver


The PGMR method uses fill-in when constructing the L and U decomposition matrices. The PGMR method
is a version of the generalized minimum residual method that uses an LU preconditioning to transform the
system of equations into a set easier to solve. As with the PCCR method, the coefficient matrix is decomposed
into an approximate LU product. In the PCCR method, the sparsity pattern of the original matrix is preserved
in the L and U matrices.
Accordingly, when you are using the Preconditioned Generalized Minimum Residual (PGMR) solver, you need
to specify the amount of fill-in. You must also specify the number of search vectors.
The fill-in value represents the number of extra elements allowed in each row of the L and U decomposition
matrices. An extra element is defined as being in addition to the number of nonzero elements in the row
of the original matrix.
There are two PGMR algorithms available for FLOTRAN. The choice is automatically made by the program.
The difference lies in the "fill-in". It is only required and only available for the PRES and TEMP degrees of
freedom.
To specify the amount of fill-in, use either of these methods:
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Command(s): FLDATA20A,PGMR,Label,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver
The allowable range for fill-in is 1 to 10. The default value is 6. A single fill-in value is input for all applicable
DOF.
For some problems, it is unnecessary to obtain an exact solution to the energy equation every global iteration.
To save some time, you can then employ the foregoing command with a Label of MODP. You use it to
specify a number of global iterations performed using the TDMA method between global iterations performed
using the PGMR method for the temperature DOF.
The number of search directions required may vary widely among problems. If large values of SRCH result
in the required computer storage exceeding the computational resources, inertial relaxation should be used.
To specify the number of search vectors, use either of these methods:
Command(s): FLDATA20,SRCH,Label,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver
For the PGMR solver, the allowable range of search vectors is 12 to 20. The default value is 12.
The PGMR method is not recommended for velocity DOF.
The output associated with the solver is recorded in the Jobname.OUT file for non-FLOTRAN analyses. The
FLOTRAN iterative solver output is recorded in the jobname.dbg file.
The fact that the PGMR solver is being used is indicated in the Jobname.DBG file. The file shows if convergence is reached, the maximum number of iterations is reached without convergence, or the solution is
stalled.
The PGMR method output is in the same form as that provided in the jobname.out file for non-FLOTRAN
analyses. The NORM referred to in the Jobname.OUT file is the square root of the convergence criterion
specified in the FLOTRAN input. For example, a EQSLV command solver tolerance value of 1.E-5 corresponds
to the FLOTRAN default convergence criterion value of 1.E-10.
The PGMR method can fail for the following reasons:

The problem is ill-conditioned.

The problem is improperly formulated.

The specified convergence criterion is too tight.

An insufficient number of iterations is specified.

If the PGMR method stalls, it may be because the problem is ill-conditioned or improperly formulated. If the
problem is ill-conditioned, you can control several parameters to enhance performance. You can increase
the amount of fill-in or the number of search vectors. You can also use inertial relaxation. If the problem is
improperly formulated, there may be an input error or the boundary conditions may be applied incorrectly.
You need to check the input parameters and boundary conditions to ensure that they are accurate.
FLOTRAN does not allow a convergence criterion less restrictive than the default value. You can enter a
higher value, but FLOTRAN issues a warning message and changes it to the default value.

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11.3. Sparse Direct Method


If the maximum number of iterations has been reached without convergence, it may mean more iterations
are required. This could be the case if you see that the Norm has been lowered, but it is not quite to the
target. If so, you can try increasing the maximum number of iterations.
If the PGMR method converges and the results are questionable, reduce the convergence criterion below
the default value of 1.E-10. A convergence criterion as low as 1.E-20 may be necessary for some problems.

11.2.2. Preconditioned BiCGStab (PBCGM) Solver


The PBCGM method is a version of the generalized bi-conjugate gradient method that uses two sets of
vectors constructed from both the coefficient matrix and its real transpose matrix by making them orthogonal
to each other. At each iteration, a new vector is first generated orthogonal to some user-specified number
of previous vectors (search directions) from the basis of the real transpose matrix. A minimization procedure
is then used to stabilize the numerical procedure. Similar to PGMR, the PBCGM method uses fill-in when
constructing the L and U decomposition matrices. This preconditioning procedure transforms the system of
equations into a set easier to solve by decomposing the coefficient into an approximate LU product.
Accordingly, when you are using the Preconditioned BiCGStab (PBCGM) solver, you need to specify the
amount of fill-in. You must also specify the number of search vectors.
The fill-in value represents the number of extra elements allowed in each row of the L and U decomposition
matrices. An extra element is defined as being in addition to the number of nonzero elements in the row
of the original matrix.
There are two PBCGM algorithms available for FLOTRAN. The difference lies in the fill-in value. When it is
specified to be zero, the algorithm is parallelized except the LU preconditioning part. For other fill-in values,
the algorithm is not parallelized at all.
To specify the amount of fill-in, use the following command or menu path:
Command(s): FLDATA20B,PBCGM,Label,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver
The allowable range for fill-in is 0 to 10. The default value is 6. A single fill-in value is input for all applicable
DOF.
The number of search directions required may vary widely among problems. If large values of SRCH result
in the required computer storage exceeding the computational resources, use inertial relaxation. In practice,
you should usually use a value of 1 or 2 in order to save the memory storage. To specify the number of
search vectors, use the following command or menu path:
Command(s): FLDATA20,SRCH,Label,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver
For the PBCGM solver, the allowable range of search vectors is 1 to 8. The default value is 2.

11.3. Sparse Direct Method


The Sparse Direct method is memory intensive and you should only use it if all other methods have failed.
This method produces intermediate files during matrix factorization and it is difficult to predict the memory
required. Ensure enough hard disk space exists for intermediate files.

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Chapter 11: FLOTRAN CFD Solvers and the Matrix Equation


If you choose the Sparse Direct method for the VX, VY, or VZ DOFs, FLOTRAN will reset the method to Preconditioned Conjugate Residual (PCCR). The Sparse Direct method is not suitable for the velocity degrees
of freedom.

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Chapter 12: Coupling Algorithms


Chapter 11, FLOTRAN CFD Solvers and the Matrix Equation (p. 139) describes the linear solvers available to solve
each individual equation. To obtain a final solution, you must usually account for the coupling between the
individual equations. In FLOTRAN, this nonlinear coupling is handled in a segregated or decoupled manner.
The coupling algorithms belong to a general class referred to as the Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure Linked
Equations (SIMPLE). For more information on this general class of algorithms, see S.V. Patankar, D.B. Spalding,
("A calculation procedure for heat, mass and momentum transfer in 3-D parabolic flows," International
Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol 15, pp. 1787-1806, 1972).
To handle the coupling between the pressure and momentum equations, there are two segregated solution
algorithms: SIMPLEF and SIMPLEN. For many years, SIMPLEF was the sole pressure-velocity coupling algorithm.
It was developed by R.J. Schnipke and J.G. Rice ("Application of a new finite element method to convection
heat transfer," Fourth International Conference on Numerical Methods in Thermal Problems, Swansea, U.K.,
July 1985). The SIMPLEF algorithm has been improved by utilizing some ideas from the SIMPLEC algorithm
developed by J.P. Van Doormaal and G.D. Raithby ("Enhancements of the SIMPLE method for predicting incompressible fluid flows," Numerical Heat Transfer, Vol. 7, pp. 147-163, 1984). To improve the rate of convergence, the SIMPLEN algorithm has been added to FLOTRAN. It was developed by G. Wang ("A fast and robust
variant of the SIMPLE algorithm for finite-element simulations of incompressible flows," Computational Fluid
and Solid Mechanics, Vol. 2, pp. 1014-1016, Elsevier, 2001).
SIMPLEF is the default algorithm. To activate the SIMPLEN algorithm, use one of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA37
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Algorithm Control
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Algorithm Control
The following coupling algorithm topics are available:
12.1. Algorithm Settings
12.2. Performance

12.1. Algorithm Settings


In general, FLOTRAN automatically set defaults suited for the two segregated algorithms. However, for some
problems, you may need to reset the advection scheme, solver choice, or relaxation factors.

12.1.1. Advection Scheme


You can discretize the advection term using three approaches: Monotone Streamline Upwind (MSU),
Streamline Upwind/Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG), or Collocated Galerkin (COLG). Refer to Chapter 14, Advection
Discretization Options (p. 161) for information on how to select a proper advection scheme.

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145

Chapter 12: Coupling Algorithms


Refer to the following table for a list of the defaults.

Table 12.1 Advection Scheme Defaults


Transport Equation

SIMPLEF Algorithm

SIMPLEN Algorithm

Momentum

SUPG

SUPG

Turbulence

SUPG

MSU

Pressure

MSU

MSU

Energy

SUPG

SUPG

Species

SUPG

SUPG

12.1.2. Solver
For the SIMPLEF algorithm, the TDMA solver is the default for the momentum and turbulence equations.
None of the other solvers will improve the overall rate of convergence. Even when exact solutions are obtained
on those individual equations, the overall rate of convergence will not improve. This is due to weak coupling
between the pressure and momentum equations.
For the SIMPLEN algorithm, the overall rate of convergence can be improved considerably when more exact
solutions are obtained for each individual equation. Therefore, when SIMPLEN is activated, FLOTRAN automatically resets the solver option to the preconditioned BiCGStab method (PBCGM) for the momentum,
turbulence and energy equations. Furthermore, it will reset the fill-in parameter for PBCGM to zero for
computational efficiency.

12.1.3. Relaxation Factors


Due to the nonlinear coupling between equations, in order to stabilize the overall solution procedure, relaxation is usually necessary to moderate changes from one global iteration to the next. Experience indicates
that relaxation factors greater than 0.5 for the velocity and pressure degrees of freedom will generally cause
instability and divergence for the SIMPLEF algorithm. On the other hand, the SIMPLEN algorithm provides
more consistent coupling between the pressure and velocity degrees of freedom. For incompressible flow
problems, SIMPLEN removes the need for relaxation for the pressure equation and allows a relaxation factor
close to 1.0 for the momentum equations. For compressible flow problems, relaxation is usually needed for
the pressure equation in order to obtain a convergent solution. The default for SIMPLEF is 0.5 for the pressure
and velocity degrees of freedom. When SIMPLEN is activated, FLOTRAN automatically resets the relaxation
factor to 1.0 for the incompressible pressure equation, 0.5 for the compressible pressure equation, and 0.8
for the momentum equations.

12.2. Performance
Table 12.2: SIMPLEF and SIMPLEN Performance Results (p. 146) presents results for laminar flow in a 2-D square
cavity. The Reynolds number is 100 based on the length of the cavity side and the velocity at the top. The
uniform grid consists of 322 = 1024 elements.

Table 12.2 SIMPLEF and SIMPLEN Performance Results


SIMPLEF

SIMPLEN

RELX

0.5

0.8

0.9

0.95

0.98

0.99

Iter. No.

325

153

81

66

114

176

CPU (sec)

12.9

7.2

4.0

3.3

5.7

8.9

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12.2. Performance
For the SIMPLEN algorithm , the total number of global iterations and the computational time decrease as
the relaxation factor (RELX) increases from 0.8 to 0.95. As RELX increases above 0.95, the iteration number
and computational time increase. The optimal RELX value is 0.95. At this value, the SIMPLEN convergence
rate is about 4 times faster than SIMPLEF. The SIMPLEN computational time is about 1/4 of the SIMPLEF
computational time.
Results for a finer mesh of 1282 = 16,384 elements show an even better SIMPLEN performance. At an optimal
RELX value of 0.99, the SIMPLEN computational time is about 1/40 of the SIMPLEF computational time.
SIMPLEN significantly improves the rate of convergence if pressure-velocity coupling dominates the convergence. If other factors affect the overall rate of convergence, SIMPLEN will not increase the rate of convergence
as significantly. However, for those problems, SIMPLEN will generally be more robust than SIMPLEF, and it
will usually give a better convergence behavior. For more comparisons, see Wang G., "A fast and robust
variant of the SIMPLE algorithm for finite-element simulations of incompressible flows," Computational Fluid
and Solid Mechanics, vol. 2, pp. 1014-1016, Elsevier, 2001.
Below is the command input listing used to perform this analysis. All text preceded by an exclamation point
(!) is a comment.
/title, Lid driven cavity flow analysis using SIMPLEF/SIMPLEN algorithms
NDL = 32
! Number of line divisions
MU
= 0.010
! Fluid viscosity
RHO = 1.0
L
= 1.0
sL
= 1.0e-8
Vel = 1.000
niter = 10000
/PREP7
et,1,141
esha,2
rect,,L,,L
lesi,all,,,NDL
amesh,1
alls
! Apply Boundary Conditions
nsel,s,ext
d,all,vx
d,all,vy
nsel,r,loc,y,L-sL,L+sL
d,all,vx,vel
d,all,vy
d,all,enke,-1
alls
d,1,PRES
fini
save
/SOLU
flda,iter,exec,niter
flda,nomi,visc,MU
flda,nomi,dens,RHO
flda,term,pres,1.e-6
solve
fini
/delete,,rfl
/SOLU
flda,algr,segr,simplen
solve
fini
/delete,,rfl

! 2-D XY system
! Quad elements

! Wall boundary conditions

!top

! SIMPLEF algorithm
! No. of global iterations

! SIMPLEN algorithm

/SOLU
flda,relx,vx,0.9
flda,relx,vy,0.9

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Chapter 12: Coupling Algorithms


solve
fini
/delete,,rfl
/SOLU
flda,relx,vx,0.95
flda,relx,vy,0.95
solve
fini
/delete,,rfl
/SOLU
flda,relx,vx,0.98
flda,relx,vy,0.98
solve
fini
/delete,,rfl
/SOLU
flda,relx,vx,0.99
flda,relx,vy,0.99
solve
fini

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Chapter 13: Multiple Species Transport


The multiple species transport capability enables you to track several different fluids at once, subject to the
limitation that a single momentum equation is solved for the flow field. Transport equations are solved for
each species. The properties used in the momentum equation can be those of a "main" fluid, a "bulk" fluid
(dilute mixture analysis), or a combination of component fluids. Momentum effects such as advection and
diffusion cause the fluid transport.
The following restrictions apply to this type of analysis:

Currently, no reactions are modeled among the species.

Solid model boundary /initial conditions are not supported for species mass fractions.

Also, you must postprocess multiple species results by issuing commands instead of via the GUI.

The following multiple species transport topics are available:


13.1. Mixture Types
13.2. Doing a Multiple Species Analysis
13.3. Doing a Heat Exchanger Analysis Using Two Species
13.4. Example Analysis Mixing Three Gases

13.1. Mixture Types


In terms of property variations, the strategies for solving multiple species problems parallel those for thermal
problems. The key issue is determining how large a mass fraction of the overall flow field the species to be
traced represents. You can choose among three mixture types for analysis: dilute mixture, composite mixture,
and composite gas. For each mixture type, the properties may be a function of temperature.

13.1.1. Dilute Mixture Analysis


In a dilute mixture analysis, small mass fractions of species fluids are tracked in a flow field, and the species
properties do not significantly influence the flow field. The fluid properties are set and the bulk fluid analysis
proceeds as in any other FLOTRAN analysis. You solve the transport equations for species using the bulk
density and the velocities from the bulk fluid analysis.
If the analysis problem is isothermal or the properties are assumed not to vary with temperature, you can
converge the flow field completely before the species transport option is activated. The number of species
to be solved is a feature of the element and is controlled via a key option on the element. The appropriate
KEYOPT setting must be defined during the PREP7 phase of the analysis. Once the element type and number
of species has been set, the multiple species input commands (e.g., MSSPEC) can be issued from either
PREP7 or SOLUTION phases. However, the multiple species menus are accessible only from PREP7.
To activate multiple species transport, use one of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA1,SOLU,SPEC,T
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options

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Chapter 13: Multiple Species Transport

13.1.2. Composite Mixture Analysis


A composite mixture analysis calculates the properties used in the solution from a linear combination of the
species, weighted by mass fraction as a function of space. The solution of the momentum equation depends
on the species distribution, so the momentum and transport equations are strongly coupled.
You initialize the species mass fractions using either the MSNOMF command (which has no GUI menu
equivalent) or (typically for a transient analysis) one of the following:
Command(s): IC,Label,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Analysis Type> Analysis Options
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Initial Condit'n> Define
The mass fractions specified must add up to 1.0. To activate the composite mixture option for an individual
property, use one of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA7,PROT,Label,CMIX
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties

13.1.3. Composite Gas Analysis


In a composite gas analysis, at each node the fluid density is calculated as a function of the mass fractions
and molecular weights of the gases:

P
N

Yi
i =1 Mi

RT

In the equation above:

R is the Universal Gas constant. You can set it using one of the following:
Command(s): MSDATA
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species

Mi is the molecular weight of the ith species. You set this weight using one of the following:
Command(s): MSSPEC
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species

N is the total number of species defined.

P is pressure degree of freedom (PRES).

T is the absolute temperature (TEMP).

To invoke the composite gas option for the bulk fluid, use one of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA7,PROT,DENS,CGAS
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties

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13.2.3. Adjust Output Format

13.2. Doing a Multiple Species Analysis


The procedure for a multiple species analysis has six steps:
1.

Establish the number of species to model and assign species names.

2.

Designate an algebraic species.

3.

Adjust output format if desired.

4.

Set properties.

5.

Specify boundary conditions and nominal mass fractions.

6.

Set relaxation and solution parameters for the solution of the transport equations (if necessary).

13.2.1. Establish the Species


To set the number of species, use one of these methods:
Command(s): KEYOPT,1,1,n (n = number of species (at least 2, but no more than 6))
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species
To name each species, use the menu paths shown above or the following command:
Command(s):
MSSPEC
FLOTRAN uses these names for assigning boundary conditions and in postprocessing listings and plots. The
default names for species are SP01, SP02, and so on.

13.2.2. Choose an Algebraic Species


The transport equations solve for the mass fractions of each species. You must choose one as the algebraic
species, using the value set by the ALGEB argument or one of the following:
Command(s): MSDATA
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species
The transport equation for the algebraic species is not solved, but its concentration as a function of space
is calculated by ensuring that the mass fractions of all the species add up to 1.0 everywhere.

Note
The MSDATA command also sets the universal gas constant. Every issuance of the command sets
both numbers.

13.2.3. Adjust Output Format


You can set the format of the convergence monitors on the file Jobname.PFL to list columns of values for
all the degrees of freedom for a single iteration. (This also affects the ANSYS output file.) To adjust output,
use one of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA6
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Additional Out> Print Controls
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Additional Out> Print Controls
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Chapter 13: Multiple Species Transport

13.2.4. Set Properties


For a dilute mixture analysis, set the bulk property type as appropriate (CONSTANT, Liquid, etc.).
If the bulk properties are to be a linear combination of the species properties, set the bulk property type to
CMIX. For example, you would use the following command:
Command(s):
FLDATA7,PROT,Label,Type
In the preceding command, Label can be DENS, VISC, COND, or SPHT, and Type is CMIX. If Label = DENSE,
Type may be CGAS. Using CGAS requires you to enter a molecular weight for the gas via the MSSPEC
command or its equivalent GUI path.
You handle individual species property variations the same way, and with the same options as, the bulk
fluid. The CONSTANT, LIQUID, and GAS fluid types are available. Specify them, along with coefficients, using
one of the following:
Command(s): MSPROP
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species
For all analyses, you must enter the mass diffusion coefficient data for each species. For a dilute mixture,
the density is the only other relevant property because the bulk or main fluid properties govern the solution
of the momentum equation. For the CMIX and CGAS options, you need to specify density and viscosity using
MSPROP or an equivalent menu path. Also specify conductivity if the energy equation is to be solved.
The form of the diffusion term is:

(Dmi Y i)
The value Dmi is the diffusion coefficient, and Yi is the mass fraction being solved.
Sometimes, the available data is expressed as a Schmidt number. The following equality enables expression
of the diffusion portion of transport in terms of laminar viscosity , the density , and the Schmidt number:

Dmi Y i =

Y i
SCi

Note
The input must be in terms of the mass diffusion coefficient, not the Schmidt number. The Schmidt
number relating the diffusion coefficient to the density and viscosity differs from the turbulent
Schmidt number discussed below.
In addition, the flow field may be turbulent. Another representation of the diffusion term, this time including
the effect of the turbulent viscosity , is:




+ t Y i
SCi SCTi
The quantity SCTi is the turbulent Schmidt number, which you specify via one of the following:
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13.2.6. Set Relaxation and Solution Parameters


Command(s): MSSPEC
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species
The normal default value of 1.0 is sufficient unless you want to regulate explicitly the effect of turbulence
on the transport.

13.2.5. Specify Boundary Conditions


The default boundary condition is zero gradient of the mass fraction at the boundaries. You can specify the
mass fraction at a boundary, such as the inlet, by entering the species name in the LAB field of one of the
following:
Command(s): D
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Displacement> On
Nodes
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Displacement> On Nodes
Initialize the mass fractions for every species, including the algebraic species. The fractions must sum to 1.0.

13.2.6. Set Relaxation and Solution Parameters


Relaxation factors for the property calculations and the mass fraction update default to 0.5. To change the
factors, use one of the following:
Command(s): MSRELAX
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species
You can set modified inertial relaxation factors for multiple species. To do so, use one of the following:
Command(s): MSMIR,SPNUM,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species
A larger modified inertial relaxation factor gives a more robust scheme, but it may yield a slower convergence.
The recommended range is 0.1 to 1.0.
You can change parameters for the algebraic solvers for the transport equation and choose a solver by using
one of the following commands or menu paths:
Command(s): MSSOLU, MSMETH
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species
Activating mass fraction capping is recommended to prevent intermediate calculations from producing unrealistic results. Use either of the following for each species:
Command(s): MSCAP
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species
Finally, you activate the multiple species option using one of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA1,SOLU,Spec,T
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options

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Chapter 13: Multiple Species Transport

13.3. Doing a Heat Exchanger Analysis Using Two Species


Although FLOTRAN permits only one fluid region to correspond to material number 1 (using the command
MAT,1 or an equivalent GUI path), you can simulate multiple fluids within this restriction. To do so, you set
all fluid property types to CMIX, then set the appropriate species mass fraction to 1.0 in a particular region.
These settings enable all properties in that region to correspond to that of species with mass fraction 1.0.
For such multiple fluid simulations, the mass fractions must remain constant throughout the analysis; that
is, the analysis should not turn on the species solution.
A typical heat exchanger analysis consists of two fluids flowing in opposite directions, separated by a wall
as shown in Figure 13.1: Environment for a Typical Heat Exchanger Analysis (p. 154):

Figure 13.1: Environment for a Typical Heat Exchanger Analysis


LX
Fluid region 2 (MAT,1)
(Mass fraction: species 1 = 0.0,
species 2 = 1.0)

Pressure
LY3 specified
on outlet

Solid region (MAT,2)

LY2
Pressure
LY1 and
temperature Y
specified on
inlet
YOFFSET

Fluid region 1 (MAT,1)


(Mass fraction: species 1 = 1.0,
species 2 = 0.0)

Pressure
and
temperature
specified on
inlet
Pressure
specified
on outlet

X
Symmetry surface
T
Vy = 0,
=0
y

The sample command stream that follows shows you how to set up the model shown in Figure 13.1: Environment for a Typical Heat Exchanger Analysis (p. 154), apply boundary conditions, set up appropriate properties,
etc. It is important to note that, although two species are defined, the species transport has not been activated.
In addition, all fluid properties must be declared variable so that the initial value (the same in regions 1 and
2) is reset based on the mass fraction.
/BATCH,LIST
/tit,heat exchanger problem
!two different fluids separated by a solid wall
!cartesian geometry, pressure-driven flow
!solve by 2 species
LX
= 10
! Length in X direction
NDX
= 10
! Number of X divisions
LY1
= 2
! fluid 1 width
LY2
= 0.1
! solid width
LY3
= 1.0
! fluid 2 width
NDY1 = 10
NDY2 = 3
NDY3 = 10
YOFFSET = 0
!offset from X-axis
/prep7 $smrt,off
et,1,141
! 2-D XY system
!species
keyopt,1,1,2
! 2 species
!axisymm

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13.3. Doing a Heat Exchanger Analysis Using Two Species


!keyopt,1,3,2
!use for axisymm RY system only
esha,2
!Quad elements
rect,,LX,YOFFSET,YOFFSET+LY1
!fluid 1 area
rect,,LX,YOFFSET+LY1,YOFFSET+LY1+LY2
!solid area
rect,,LX,YOFFSET+LY1+LY2,YOFFSET+LY1+LY2+LY3` !fluid 2 area
nummrg,all
numcmp,all
lsel,s,,,3,9,3
lsel,a,,,1
lesi,all,,,NDX,
lsel,s,,,2,4,2
lesi,all,,,NDY1,-5.0
lsel,s,,,5,7,2
lesi,all,,,NDY2,-5.0
lsel,s,,,8,10,2
lesi,all,,,NDY3,-5.0
allsel
mat,1
!for fluids material must be 1
amesh,1
!mesh fluid 1 region
amesh,3
!mesh fluid 2 region
mat,2
!for solid set material to 2
amesh,2
!mesh solid region
!inner region 1
!bc inlet
lsel,s,,,4
nsll,s,1
d,all,pres,10
!inlet pressure & temp specified for fluid 1
d,all,temp,100
!bc outlet
lsel,s,,,2
nsll,s,1
d,all,pres,0.
!outlet pressure specified for fluid 1
!symm
lsel,s,,,1
nsll,s,1
d,all,vy,0
!symmetry surface for fluid 1 only
!region 2
!bc inlet
lsel,s,,,8
nsll,s,1
d,all,pres,10.
!inlet pressure & temp specified for fluid 2
d,all,temp,400
!bc outlet
lsel,s,,,10
nsll,s,1
d,all,pres,0.
!outlet pressure specified for fluid 2
!top wall
lsel,s,,,9
nsll,s,1
d,all,vx,0
!wall boundary conditions
d,all,vy,0
allsel
!solid properties
mp,dens,2,5.
!specify solid region 3 properties
mp,kxx,2,100
mp,c,2,13
/SOLU
!ic for species
nsel,s,loc,x,,lx
!select nodes for fluid 1
nsel,s,loc,y,o,ly1
ic,all,sp01,1.0
!set mass fraction for fluid 1
ic,all,sp02,0.0
nsel,s,loc,x,,lx
nsel,s,loc,y,ly1+ly2,ly1+ly2+ly3 !select nodes for fluid 2
ic,all,sp01,0.0
!set mass fraction for fluid 2
ic,all,sp02,1.0
allsel
FLDA,ITER,EXEC,200
FLDA,PROT,DENS,CMIX
! Fluid density
FLDA,PROT,VISC,CMIX
! Fluid viscosity
FLDA,PROT,COND,CMIX
! Fluid conductivity

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Chapter 13: Multiple Species Transport


FLDA,PROT,SPHT,CMIX
flda,vary,dens,t
flda,vary,visc,t
flda,vary,cond,t
flda,vary,spht,t
FLDA,NOMI,DENS,1.0
FLDA,NOMI,VISC,2.0
FLDA,NOMI,COND,3.0
FLDA,NOMI,SPHT,4.0
msprop,1,spht,constant,1
msprop,2,spht,constant,2
msprop,1,dens,constant,1
msprop,2,dens,constant,2
msprop,1,visc,constant,1.0
msprop,2,visc,constant,2.0
msprop,1,cond,constant,.1
msprop,2,cond,constant,.2
FLDA,CONV,PRES,1.0E-10
FLDA,TERM,PRES,1.E-09
FLDA,OUTP,SP01,T
FLDA,OUTP,SP02,T
save
SOLVE
FLDA,SOLU,ENRG,T
FLDA,SOLU,FLOW,F
FLDA,METH,ENRG,3
FLDA,ITER,EXEC,50
FLDA,RELX,TEMP,1.
SOLVE
fini
/exit,nosa

! Fluid specific heat


!all properties MUST be variable

! initial density for all fluid region


! initial viscosity for all fluid region
! initial conductivity for all fluid region
! initial specific heat for all fluid region
!sp heat for fluid 1
!sp heat for fluid 2
!density for fluid 1
!density for fluid 2
!viscosity for fluid 1
!viscosity for fluid 2
!conductivity for fluid 1
!conductivity for fluid 2
! PCCR convergence criterion

!solve for flow only

!solve for temperature only

13.4. Example Analysis Mixing Three Gases


The following example analysis mixes three gases: oxygen (O2), nitrogen (N2), and hydrogen (H2). The mass
fractions of the gases are set at each inlet along with the velocity. For the three inlets:
Top:

Left:

Bottom:

VX = 0

VX = 0.1

VX = 0

VY = -0.1

VY = 0

VY = 0.1

TEMP = 300

TEMP = 400

TEMP = 300

O2 = 1.0

O2 = 0.0

O2 = 0.0

N2 = 0.0

N2 = 1.0

N2 =0.0

H2 = 0.0

H2 = 0.0

H2 = 1.0

The command stream for the example (shown below) shows all the relevant properties and the solution
strategy.
/batch,list
/filename,spec
/com ** Analysis Types Laminar and Turbulent, Incompressible
/com
2-D - quadrilateral and triangular elements
/com ** Features
Thermal, Multiple Species Transport
/com ** Options
Dilute mixtures, composite property types (CGAS, CMIX)
/com ** Variable laminar properties
/com ** Turbulence
/com ** Construction of geometry
/prep7
!!!!!!! Define some dimensions - SI units are used
lenin=.3

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13.4. Example Analysis Mixing Three Gases


half=lenin/2.
width=.1
hfwid=width/2.
outlen=1.2
!!!!!!! Define inlet and outlet rectangles
rect,-lenin,0,-hfwid,hfwid
rect,.2,.3,.25,.25+lenin
rect,.2,.3,-.25,-.25-lenin
rect,.4,.4+outlen,-.15,.15
!!!!!!! Lines that border the mixing area
l2tan,-3,-8
l2tan,-6,-15
l2tan,-13,-10
l2tan,-12,-1
!!!!!!! Parameters defined for meshing
nlcurv=16
rlcurv=1
nscurv=9
rscurv=1
nispan=8
rispan=-1.5
nospan=13
rospan=-2
nilen=10
rilen=-2
nolen=24
rolen=4
!!!!!!!
!flst,2,2,4,orde,2
!fitem,2,17
!fitem,2,20
lsel,s,,,17,20,3
lesize,all,,,nlcurv,rlcurv
lsel,s,,,18,19
!fitem,2,18
!fitem,2,-19
lesize,19,,,nscurv,rscurv
!flst,2,3,4,orde,3
!fitem,2,2
!fitem,2,5
!fitem,2,11
lsel,s,,,2,5,3
lsel,a,,,11
lesize,all,,,nispan,1
!flst,2,3,4,orde,3
!fitem,2,4
!fitem,2,7
!fitem,2,9
lsel,s,,,4,7,3
lsel,a,,,9
lesize,all,,,nispan,rispan
!flst,2,6,4,orde,6
!fitem,2,1
!fitem,2,3
!fitem,2,6
!fitem,2,8
!fitem,2,10
!fitem,2,12
lsel,s,,,1,3,2
lsel,a,,,6,12,2
lesize,all,,,nilen,rilen
lsel,s,,,13,16
lesize,13,,,nolen,rolen
lesize,15,,,nolen,1./rolen
lesize,16,,,nospan,rospan
lesize,14,,,nospan,rospan
alls
!!!!!!! Define the mixing area...
!flst,2,8,3
!fitem,2,2
!fitem,2,12
!fitem,2,11

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157

Chapter 13: Multiple Species Transport


!fitem,2,13
!fitem,2,16
!fitem,2,6
!fitem,2,5
!fitem,2,3
a,2,12,11,13,16,6,5,3
alls
/com ** CONSTRUCTION OF THE MESH
!!!!!!! Put triangles in the mixing area (5)
asel,s,,,5
et,1,141
mshape,1,2d
amesh,5
!!!!!!! Put a mapped mesh in the rectangles (quads)
asel,s,,,1,4
mshape,0,2d
mshkey,1
amesh,all
/com ** BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
!!!!!!! Wall boundary conditions
lsel,s,,,1,3,2
lsel,a,,,6,12,2
lsel,a,,,13,17,2
lsel,a,,,18,20
nsll,,1
d,all,vx,0
d,all,vy,0
!!!!!!! Define velocities, temperature at top, bottom, left
vtop=.1
vbot=.1
vlef=.1
lsel,s,,,7
nsll
d,all,vx,0
d,all,vy,-vtop
nsll,,1
d,all,temp,300
lsel,s,,,4
nsll
d,all,vx,vlef
d,all,vy,0
nsll,,1
d,all,temp,400
lsel,s,,,9
nsll
d,all,vx,0
d,all,vy,vbot
nsll,,1
d,all,temp,300
lsel,s,,,14
nsll,,1
d,all,pres,0
flda,conv,iter,5
save
finish
alls
/solu
/com ** FLOTRAN INPUT
flda,iter,exec,40
flda,temp,nomi,300
! Initial temperature field is 300K
flda,prot,dens,air-si
! Initial solution will be for AIR
flda,vary,dens,true
flda,prot,visc,air-si
flda,vary,visc,true
flda,prot,cond,air-si
flda,vary,cond,true
flda,prot,spht,air-si
save
solve
! Solve 40 iterations with air at 300K
finish
! Prepare for species transport ...
/prep7
flda,prot,dens,cmix
! Composite mixture for density

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13.4. Example Analysis Mixing Three Gases


flda,prot,visc,cmix
keyopt,1,1,3

! Composite mixture for viscosity


! Specify that there are 3 species

flda,solu,spec,t
! Turn on solution for multiple species transport
msdata,2
! Specify species 2 (N2) as the algebraic species
!
!!!!!!! Species Property Input
msspec,1,o2,31.999
msprop,1,DENS,GAS,1.2998,300,1.01325E+5
msvary,1,dens,t
msnomf,1,.3
msprop,1,VISC,CONSTANT,1.2067E-5
msprop,1,mdif,CONSTANT,2.149E-5
msprop,1,cond,CONSTANT,.02674
mscap,1,1
!
msspec,2,n2,28.018
msprop,2,DENS,GAS,1.1381,300,1.01325E+5
msvary,2,dens,t
msnomf,2,.3
msprop,2,VISC,CONSTANT,1.786E-5
msprop,2,mdif,CONSTANT,1.601E-5
msprop,2,cond,CONSTANT,.02598
mscap,2,1
!
msspec,3,h2,2.016
msprop,3,DENS,GAS,0.0819,300,1.01325E+5
msvary,3,dens,t
msnomf,3,.4
msprop,3,VISC,CONSTANT,8.94E-6
msprop,3,mdif,CONSTANT,4.964E-5
msprop,3,cond,CONSTANT,.1815
mscap,3,1
!
msrelx,1,1.0
msrelx,3,1.0
msmeth,1,3
mssolu,1,,,2,1.e-8
msmeth,3,3
mssolu,3,,,2,1.e-8
alls
!!!!!!! Species boundary conditions
lsel,s,,,7
nsll,,1
d,all,o2,1.0
d,all,n2,0.0
d,all,h2,0.0
lsel,s,,,4
nsll,,1
d,all,o2,0.0
d,all,n2,1.0
d,all,h2,0.0
lsel,s,,,9
nsll,,1
d,all,o2,0.0
d,all,n2,0.0
d,all,h2,1.0
alls
!!!!!!! End of species boundary conditions
flda,iter,exec,20
! Ask for 20 global iterations
flda,conv,outp,land
! Adjust convergence monitor output style
save
finish
/solu
solve
! 20 iterations with species activated
!
!Prepare for energy solution
flda,solu,temp,t
! Achieve a constant flow temperature solution
flda,solu,flow,f
! Freeze the flow field
flda,meth,temp,3
! Activate PCCR solver
flda,conv,temp,1.e-10
! Convergence criterion for PCCR
flda,iter,exec,5
! Need only a few iterations for solution...

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159

Chapter 13: Multiple Species Transport


flda,relx,temp,1.0
! no relaxation on temperature
save
solve
!! Prepare for coupled solution
flda,iter,exec,35
flda,solu,flow,t
solve
flda,iter,exec,50
save
solve

160

! Achieve a flow and thermal solution

! Run 50 more iterations to refine solution

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Chapter 14: Advection Discretization Options


When momentum, energy, species transport, turbulence or the compressible pressure equations are solved,
the advection term plays a significant role in the solution. When the advection term dominates over other
terms in the governing equations, it can lead to numerical instabilities. Accordingly, you must be careful
with the discretization of this particular term.
You can discretize the advection term using three approaches: monotone streamline upwind (MSU),
streamline upwind/Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG), or collocated Galerkin (COLG). For the momentum, energy, turbulence or compressible pressure equations, you specify the approach using one of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA33,ADVM,Label,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Advection
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Advection
For the species transport equation, you specify the approach using one of the following:
Command(s): MSADV,SPNUM,MTHA
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species
MSU tends to be first order accurate while SUPG and COLG are second order accurate. MSU produces diagonally dominant matrices and is generally quite robust. SUPG and COLG provide less diagonal dominance,
but are generally more accurate. COLG provides an exact energy balance for incompressible flows, even
with a coarse mesh. Special techniques may be required to achieve convergence using SUPG or COLG.
For more information on the approaches, consult the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications.
The following advection topics are available:
14.1. Using SUPG and COLG
14.2. Strategies for Difficult Solutions

14.1. Using SUPG and COLG


For simple geometries and simple flows, the SUPG or COLG approach provides a convergent solution in a
straight forward fashion.
For laminar flow past obstacles, which generally produce regions of recirculation in the wake, you may need
to turn on modified inertial relaxation in the momentum equation using one of the following:
Command(s): FLDATA34,MIR,MOME,Value
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> MIR Stabilization
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> MIR Stabilization
For turbulent problems, FLOTRAN will sometimes display a message stating that the coefficient matrix has
a negative diagonal and the solution is probably divergent. You should then try turning on modified inertial
relaxation in the momentum equation or turbulence equation.
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161

Chapter 14: Advection Discretization Options


Command(s):
FLDATA34,MIR,MOME,Value or FLDATA34,MIR,TURB,Value
The modified inertial relaxation Value should be between 0.1 and 1.0. A larger Value leads to more relaxation. To achieve a faster convergence rate, use the smallest Value possible.
For complex geometries with turbulence and complex flow fields, you can employ the following techniques
to achieve a convergent solution with SUPG or COLG.

Set the turbulence ratio to a high value of 1 x 106 and the effective viscosity relaxation factor to a low
value of 0.1 using the following commands. These conditions provide the necessary diagonal dominance
until the solution enters the radius of convergence.
Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,RATI,1.0E6
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Turbulence> Turbulence Model
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Turbulence> Turbulence Param
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Turbulence Model
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Turbulence Param
Command(s): FLDATA25,RELX,EVIS,0.1
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Prop Relaxation
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Prop Relaxation

Achieve a convergent solution using MSU on all variables. Then, using the following command, perform
a restart employing SUPG or COLG on the momentum variables only. After achieving a convergent
solution, you can perform a restart again employing SUPG or COLG on the turbulence, pressure, temperature and species variables.
Command(s): FLDATA33,ADVM,MOME,SUPG FLDATA33,ADVM,MOME,COLG
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Advection
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Advection

Although the foregoing techniques might work on a coarse mesh, both may fail on a fine mesh. In this
case, you may have to resort to a transient algorithm which has the necessary diagonal dominance due
to the inertia term.

14.2. Strategies for Difficult Solutions


Although SUPG and COLG are more accurate than MSU, they may lead to spurious oscillations in the solution.
This may lead to nonphysical solutions or convergence difficulties. You may encounter negative temperatures
in the energy equation solution. In this case, you should refine the mesh in that region. You may also encounter negative turbulence values. Internally, FLOTRAN tries to reset these values to some realistic numbers,
but this may lead to a situation where the solution stalls. In this situation, you should try using MSU on
turbulence variables while retaining SUPG or COLG on momentum variables. The solution to the species
transport equation must be bounded between 0 and 1.0, and oscillations in the SUPG or COLG solution may
make this difficult to achieve even though capping has been turned on. If convergence is not achieved, you
should then refine the mesh.
A poor mesh, recirculating regions, or a strong swirl might cause the SUPG technique to have strong oscillations in an axisymmetric analysis. Temperatures (or species concentrations) could be higher or lower than
any applied boundary conditions. The mesh should be refined or another advection discretization method
should be used.

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Part II, Acoustics

Chapter 15: Acoustics


Acoustics is the study of the generation, propagation, absorption, and reflection of sound pressure waves
in a fluid medium. Applications for acoustics include the following:

Sonar - the acoustic counterpart of radar

Design of concert halls, where an even distribution of sound pressure is desired

Noise minimization in machine shops

Noise cancellation in automobiles

Underwater acoustics

Design of speakers, speaker housings, acoustic filters, mufflers, and many other similar devices.

Geophysical exploration

Types of Acoustic Analysis


An acoustic analysis, available in the ANSYS Multiphysics and ANSYS Mechanical programs only, usually involves modeling the fluid medium and the surrounding structure. Typical quantities of interest are the
pressure distribution in the fluid at different frequencies, pressure gradient, particle velocity, the sound
pressure level, as well as, scattering, diffraction, transmission, radiation, attenuation, and dispersion of
acoustic waves. A coupled acoustic analysis takes the fluid-structure interaction into account. An uncoupled
acoustic analysis models only the fluid and ignores any fluid-structure interaction.
The ANSYS program assumes that the fluid is compressible, but allows only relatively small pressure changes
with respect to the mean pressure. Also, the fluid is assumed to be non-flowing and inviscid (that is, viscosity
causes no dissipative effects). Uniform mean density and mean pressure are assumed, with the pressure
solution being the deviation from the mean pressure, not the absolute pressure.
The following acoustics topics are available:
15.1. Solving Acoustics Problems
15.2. Building the Model
15.3. Meshing the Model
15.4. Applying Loads and Obtaining the Solution
15.5. Reviewing Results
15.6. Fluid-Structure Interaction
15.7. Sample Applications
15.8. Example 1: Fluid-Structure Coupled Acoustic Analysis (Command Method)
15.9. Example 2: Room Acoustic Analysis (Command Method)

15.1. Solving Acoustics Problems


You can solve many acoustics problems by performing a harmonic response analysis. The analysis calculates
the pressure distribution in the fluid due to a harmonic (sinusoidally varying) load at the fluid-structure interface. By specifying a frequency range for the load, you can observe the pressure distribution at various
frequencies. You can also perform modal and transient acoustic analyses. (See the Structural Analysis Guide
for more information on these types of analyses.)
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165

Chapter 15: Acoustics


The procedure for a harmonic acoustic analysis consists of three main steps:

Build the model.

Apply boundary conditions and loads and obtain the solution.

Review the results.

15.2. Building the Model


In this step, you specify the jobname and analysis title and then use the PREP7 preprocessor to define the
element types, element real constants, material properties, and the model geometry. These tasks, common
to most analyses, are described in the Basic Analysis Guide.

15.2.1. Harmonic Acoustic Analysis Guidelines


For a harmonic acoustic analysis, consider the following points:
Element Types - Four ANSYS element types are specifically designed for acoustic analyses: FLUID29 and
FLUID30 are used to model the fluid portion of 2-D and 3-D models respectively. FLUID129 and FLUID130,
companion elements to FLUID29 and FLUID30, are used to model an infinite envelope around the FLUID29
and FLUID30 elements. Use these element types to model the fluid portion, and then use a corresponding
structural element (PLANE42, SOLID45, etc.) for the solid. Only FLUID29 and FLUID30 elements can be in
contact with structural elements (either on the inside or outside of the structure); FLUID129 and FLUID130
can contact only the FLUID29 and FLUID30 elements, and not the structural elements directly.

15.2.1.1. FLUID29 and FLUID30


For acoustic elements that are in contact with the solid, be sure to use KEYOPT(2) = 0, the default setting
that allows for fluid-structure interaction. This results in unsymmetric element matrices with UX, UY, UZ, and
PRES as the degrees of freedom. For all other acoustic elements, set KEYOPT(2) = 1, which results in symmetric
element matrices with the PRES degree of freedom. (See Figure 15.1: Example of a 2-D Acoustic Model (Fluid
Within a Structure) (p. 166).) Symmetric matrices require much less storage and computer time, so use them
wherever possible. For more information on fluid-structure interaction, see Acoustics Fluid-Structure Coupling
in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications.

Figure 15.1: Example of a 2-D Acoustic Model (Fluid Within a Structure)


Structural elements

Acoustic elements
(FLUID29, FLUID30),
KEYOPT(2) = 0
Acoustic elements
(FLUID29, FLUID30),
KEYOPT(2) = 1

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15.2.1. Harmonic Acoustic Analysis Guidelines

15.2.1.2. FLUID129 and FLUID130


These infinite acoustic elements absorb the pressure waves, simulating the outgoing effects of a domain
that extends to infinity beyond the FLUID29 and FLUID30 elements. FLUID129 and FLUID130 provide a
second-order absorbing boundary condition so that an outgoing pressure wave reaching the boundary of
the model is absorbed with minimal reflections back into the fluid domain.
FLUID129 is used to model the boundary of 2-D fluid regions and as such is a line element. FLUID130 is used
to model the boundary of 3-D fluid regions and as such is a plane surface element.
Material Properties - The acoustic elements require density (DENS) and speed of sound (SONC) as material
properties (FLUID129 and FLUID130 require only SONC). If sound absorption at the fluid-structure interface
exists, use the label MU to specify boundary admittance (absorption coefficient). Values of are usually
determined from experimental measurements. For the structural elements, specify the Young's modulus
(EX), density (DENS), and Poisson's ratio (PRXY or NUXY).
Real Constants - When using FLUID129 and FLUID130, the boundary of the underlying finite element mesh
must be circular (2-D and axisymmetric) or spherical (3-D), and the radius of the circular or spherical
boundary of the finite domain must be specified as real constant RAD. (See Figure 15.2: Example of Absorption
Element Application (p. 167).) The center of the circle or sphere is also specified using real constants:
R,3,RAD,X0,Y0!REAL set 3 for FLUID129
R,3,RAD,X0,Y0,Z0!REAL set 3 for FLUID130

If the coordinates (X0, Y0) for the 2-D and axisymmetric cases or (X0, Y0, Z0) for the 3-D case of the center
of the circle or sphere are not specified via real constants, ANSYS assumes the center to be the origin of the
global coordinate system.

Figure 15.2: Example of Absorption Element Application

r
y

x
SOLID42
(vibrating beam)
FLUID29
(surrounding air)
FLUID129
(absorption surface to
simulate infinite extent of air)
REAL set for FLUID129; R,3,RAD,0,0

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Chapter 15: Acoustics

Figure 15.3: Submerged Cylindrical Shell

rs

( (
( (
(((
(
(

ts

water

cylindrical shell
vacuum

15.3. Meshing the Model


A typical meshing procedure using the 2-D infinite acoustic elements follows. The procedure is the same
with 3-D elements. If you have a structural component as well, the structural elements must lie next to the
FLUID29 elements, and cannot lie next to the infinite fluid elements (FLUID129).
This process automatically adds the FLUID129 elements on the boundary of the finite domain. Here an annular structural ring is meshed with PLANE42 structural elements. The layer of fluid elements in touch with
PLANE42 elements is modeled using FLUID29 with UX and UY DOFs and with the fluid-structure interface
turned on. The outer layers of fluid are modeled using FLUID29 without the UX and UY DOFs. The radius
for placing FLUID129 is 0.31242 (see Step 2: Generate the Infinite Acoustic Elements (p. 169)) with X0 = Y0 = 0.
You define the FLUID129 elements using:
Command(s): ESURF
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Inf Acoustic

15.3.1. Step 1: Mesh the Interior Fluid Domain


Mesh the interior fluid domain that is bounded by a circular or spherical boundary (PLANE42) with FLUID29
elements.

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15.3.2. Step 2: Generate the Infinite Acoustic Elements

Figure 15.4: Mesh the Fluid Domain


FLUID29
PLANE42
(structural
component)
y

circular boundary

15.3.2. Step 2: Generate the Infinite Acoustic Elements


Follow these steps:
1.

Select the nodes on the circular or spherical boundary.


Command(s): NSEL
GUI: Utility Menu> Select> Entities

2.

Specify FLUID129 as the infinite fluid element type associated with the FLUID29 element.
Command(s): TYPE, REAL
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh Attributes> Default Attribs
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Real Constants> Add/Edit/Delete
The infinite elements perform well for low as well as high frequency excitations. Numerical experiments
have determined that the placement of the absorbing elements at a distance of approximately 0.2
beyond the region occupied by the structure or source of vibration can produce accurate solutions.
Here = c/f is the dominant wavelength of the pressure waves. c is the speed of sound (SONC) in the
fluid and f is the dominant frequency of the pressure wave. For example, in the case of a submerged
circular or spherical shell of diameter D, the radius of the enclosing boundary, RAD, should be at least
(D/2) + 0.2 . Also, for acoustic analysis in general, the mesh must be fine enough to resolve the
smallest dominant frequency.

3.

Generate the absorption elements (FLUID129) on the boundary.


Command(s): ESURF
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Inf Acoustic

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Chapter 15: Acoustics

Figure 15.5: Add the Absorption Element on the Boundary


Select nodes on the
circular boundary
CSYS,2

rb

NSEL,s,loc,x,rb
ESURF

15.3.3. Step 3: Specify the Fluid-Structure Interface


Specify the fluid-structure interface:
1.

Select all nodes on the interface.


Command(s): NSEL
GUI: Utility Menu> Select Entities

2.

Select the fluid elements attached to this set of nodes.


Command(s): ESEL
GUI: Utility Menu> Select> Entities

3.

Specify the selected nodes as fluid-structure interface nodes.


Command(s): SF
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid-Struct Intr> On Nodes

Note
Be sure to reselect all nodes before solving your analysis.

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15.4.3. Step 3: Define Analysis Options

Figure 15.6: Specify Fluid-Structure Interface

SOLID42
(type-1)
y
FLUID29
(type-2)

rst ts
x
Fluid-structure interface
NSEL,s,x,loc,x,(rst ts)
ESLN,s,0
ESEL,r,type,,2
SF,all,FSI

15.4. Applying Loads and Obtaining the Solution


In this step, you define the analysis type and options, apply loads, specify load step options, and initiate the
finite element solution. The next few sections explain how to do these tasks.

15.4.1. Step 1: Enter the SOLUTION Processor


Enter the SOLUTION processor by choosing GUI path Main Menu> Solution or by executing the /SOLU
command.

15.4.2. Step 2: Define the Analysis Type


Using either the GUI or a set of commands, define the analysis type and analysis options.
To define the analysis type, use one of the following:
Command(s): ANTYPE,HARMIC
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis
You must choose New Analysis because restarts are not valid in a harmonic response analysis. If you need
to apply additional harmonic loads, do a new analysis each time (or use the "partial solution" procedure
described in the Basic Analysis Guide).

15.4.3. Step 3: Define Analysis Options


To specify the solution method, use one of the following:
Command(s): HROPT
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Options
Although full, reduced, or mode superposition methods are options, choose the full method because it alone
can handle unsymmetric matrices.

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171

Chapter 15: Acoustics


To define the solution listing format, use one of the following:
Command(s): HROUT
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Options
This option determines how ANSYS lists the harmonic degree-of-freedom solution in the printed output
(Jobname.OUT).
To specify the equation solver to be used, use one of the following:
Command(s): EQSLV
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Options
You can choose the sparse direct solver (default), the Jacobi Conjugate Gradient (JCG) solver, or the Incomplete
Cholesky Conjugate Gradient (ICCG) solver. The JCG solver is recommended for most models.

15.4.4. Step 4: Apply Loads on the Model


A harmonic analysis, by definition, assumes that any applied load varies harmonically (sinusoidally) with
time. To completely specify a harmonic load in an acoustic analysis, two pieces of information are usually
required: the amplitude and the forcing frequency. The amplitude is the maximum value of the load, which
you specify using the commands shown in Table 15.2: Commands for Applying Loads in Acoustic Analysis (p. 173).
The forcing frequency is the frequency of the harmonic load (in cycles/time). You specify it later as a load
step option with the HARFRQ command (Main Menu> Solution> Time/Frequenc> Freq & Substeps). Step
5: Specify Load Step Options (p. 175) describes this task.
Table 15.1: Loads Applicable in an Acoustic Analysis (p. 172) shows all possible loads for a harmonic acoustic
analysis and the commands to define, list, and delete them. Notice that except for inertia loads, you can
define loads either on the solid model (keypoints, lines, and areas) or on the finite element model (nodes
and elements). For a general discussion of solid-model loads versus finite-element loads, see "Loading" and
"Solution" in the Basic Analysis Guide.

Table 15.1 Loads Applicable in an Acoustic Analysis


Load Type

Category

Cmd Family

GUI Path

Displacement
(UX,UY,UZ),

Constraints

Main Menu> Preprocessor> Define


Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement or Potential
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads>
Apply> Structural> Displacement

Forces

Main Menu> Preprocessor> Define


Loads> Apply> Force/Moment
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads>
Apply> Force/Moment

Surface
Loads

SF

Main Menu> Preprocessor> Define


Loads> Apply> load type
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads>
Apply> load type

Pressure (PRES)
Force (FX,FX,FZ),
Moment (MX,MY,MZ),
Flow loading
Pressure (PRES)
Impedance boundary
flag (IMPD)
Fluid-structure interaction flag (FSI)

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15.4.4. Step 4: Apply Loads on the Model


Load Type

Category

Cmd Family

GUI Path

Gravity, Spinning, etc.

Inertia Loads

ACEL,
OMEGA,
DOMEGA,
CGLOC,
CGOMGA,
DCGOMG,
IRLF

Main Menu> Preprocessor> Define


Loads> Apply> load type
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads>
Apply> load type

In an analysis, you can apply, remove, operate on, or list loads.

15.4.4.1. Applying Loads Using the GUI


You access all loading operations except List (see below) through a series of cascading menus. From the
Solution menu, you choose the operation (apply, etc.), then the load type (displacement, force, etc.), and
then the object (keypoint, etc.) to which you are applying the load.
For example, to apply a displacement load to a line, follow this GUI path: Main Menu> Solution> Define
Loads> Apply> Displacement> On Lines
To list loads, use this GUI path: Utility Menu> List> Loads> load type

15.4.4.2. Applying Loads Using Commands


Table 15.2: Commands for Applying Loads in Acoustic Analysis (p. 173) lists all the commands you can use to
apply loads in an acoustic analysis.

Table 15.2 Commands for Applying Loads in Acoustic Analysis


Load Type

Solid
Model or
FE

Entity

Displacement,
Pressure

Solid
Model

Keypoints

DK

DKDELE

DKLIST

DTRAN

Solid
Model

Lines

DL

DLDELE

DLLIST

DTRAN

Solid
Model

Areas

DA

DADELE

DALIST

DTRAN

Finite
Elem

Nodes

DDELE

DLIST

DSCALE

Solid
Model

Keypoints

FK

FKDELE

FKLIST

FTRAN

Finite
Elem

Nodes

FDELE

FLIST

FSCALE

FCUM

Solid
Model

Lines

SFL

SFLDELE

SFLLIST

SFTRAN

SFGRAD

Solid
Model

Areas

SFA

SFADELE

SFALIST

SFTRAN

SFGRAD

Force, Moment

Pressure, Impedance
boundary flag,
Fluid-Structure

Apply

Delete

List

Operate

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Apply
Settings

DCUM
-

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Chapter 15: Acoustics


Load Type

Interaction
Flag

Inertia

Solid
Model or
FE

Entity

Apply

Delete

List

Operate

Apply
Settings

Finite
Elem

Nodes

SF

SFDELE

SFLIST

SFSCALE

SFCUM ,
SFGRAD

Finite
Elem

Elements

SFE

SFEDELE

SFELIST

SFSCALE

SFBEAM,
SFCUM,
SFFUN,
SFGRAD

ACEL, CGLOC,
CGOMGA,
DCGOMG,
OMEGA,
DOMEGA,
IRLF

15.4.4.3. Load Types


Displacements (UX, UY, UZ) and pressures (PRES)
These are DOF (degree-of-freedom) constraints. For example, you specify zero displacements at a rigid fluidstructure interface. You may also specify nonzero displacements, but remember that they are assumed to
be harmonic. You usually specify zero pressures at free fluid boundaries (where the fluid is not enclosed,
such as at an opening).
Forces (FX, FY, FZ) and moments (MX, MY, MZ)
Usually, you specify these loads on the solid portion of the model to "excite" the fluid.
Flow Load
This is a mass flow rate per unit time (for example, kg/sec/sec in SI units). It represents a pulsating mass
flow rate at a node. Specify it using the FLOW force label:
Command(s): F,,FLOW
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Force/Moment> On Nodes
Pressure (PRES)
You can specify surface loads on the solid portion instead of forces and moments.
Impedance boundary flag(IMPD)
These are not really loads but indicate surfaces that absorb sound. Specify the degree of sound absorption
as the material property MU (boundary admittance or absorption coefficient).
Fluid-structure interaction flag (FSI)
This denotes an interface surface between the fluid and structure part of the model.

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15.4.5. Step 5: Specify Load Step Options


For problems with fluid-structure interaction on both sides of a structure (e.g., a submerged plate), mesh
the structure with solid elements to provide two distinct fluid-interaction surfaces. For problems with fluidstructure interaction on only one side of a structure, mesh the structure with shell or solid elements.

15.4.5. Step 5: Specify Load Step Options


You have the following options for a harmonic acoustic analysis:

Table 15.3 Load Step Options for a Harmonic Acoustic Analysis


Option

Command

GUI Path

Dynamics Options
Forcing frequency
range

HARFRQ

Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Freq & Substeps

General Options
Number of harmonic
solutions

NSUBST Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Freq & Substeps

Stepped or ramped
loads

KBC

Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Freq & Substeps

Control of printed
output

OUTPR

Main Menu> Solution> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout

Database and results


file output

OUTRES Main Menu> Solution> Output Ctrls> DB/Results File

Extrapolation of results

ERESX

Output Controls

Main Menu> Solution> Output Ctrls> Integration Pt

15.4.5.1. Dynamics Options


The only valid option in this category is the forcing frequency range, which must be defined (in cycles/time)
for a harmonic analysis. Within this range, you then specify the number of solutions to be calculated. (See
"General Options.")

15.4.5.2. General Options


You can request any number of harmonic solutions (via the NSUBST command or its equivalent GUI path)
to be calculated. The solutions (or substeps) will be evenly spaced within the previously specified frequency
range. For example, if you specify 10 solutions in the range 30 to 40 Hz, the program will calculate the response at 31, 32, 33, ..., 39, and 40 Hz. No response is calculated at the lower end of the frequency range.
The loads may be stepped or ramped (via KBC or its GUI counterpart). By default, they are ramped; that is,
the load value increases gradually with each substep. By stepping the loads, you maintain the same load
value for all substeps in the frequency range.

15.4.5.3. Output Controls


Use OUTPR or its GUI equivalent if you want to include any results data on the printed output file (Jobname.OUT). OUTRES and its GUI counterpart control the data on the results file (Jobname.RST). ERESX

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Chapter 15: Acoustics


and its GUI path allow you to review element integration point results by copying them to the nodes instead
of extrapolating them (default).

Note
By default, the program writes only the last substep of each load step to the results file. If you
want all substeps (the solution at all frequencies) on the results file, be sure to set the FREQ field
on OUTRES to ALL (or 1).

15.4.6. Step 6: Back Up Your Database


Save a backup copy of the database on a named file using Utility Menu> File> Save as or the SAVE command. Doing so enables you to retrieve your model should your computer abort during the solution. (To
retrieve a model, reenter ANSYS and then issue the RESUME command or choose Utility Menu> File> Resume.)

15.4.7. Step 7: Apply Additional Load Steps (Optional)


If you wish to apply additional load steps, repeat steps 5 and 6.

15.4.8. Step 8: Finish the Solution


Solve the analysis and then finish.
Command(s): SOLVE
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS
Command(s): FINISH
GUI: Main Menu> Finish

15.5. Reviewing Results


The ANSYS program writes results from a harmonic acoustic analysis to the structural results file, Jobname.RST. Results consist of the following data, all of which vary harmonically at each forcing frequency
for which the solution was calculated:

Primary data

Nodal pressures

Nodal displacements

Derived data

Nodal and element pressure gradients

Nodal and element stresses

Element forces

Nodal reaction forces

You can review this information using POST1 or POST26.

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15.8. Example 1: Fluid-Structure Coupled Acoustic Analysis (Command Method)

15.6. Fluid-Structure Interaction


The interaction of the fluid and the structure at a mesh interface causes the acoustic pressure to exert a
force applied to the structure and the structural motions produce an effective "fluid load." The governing
finite element matrix equations then become:

} + [K s ] {U} = {Fs } + [R] {P}


[Ms ] {U
} + [K f ] {P} = {Ff } o [R]T {U
}
[Mf ] {P
[R] is a "coupling" matrix that represents the effective surface area associated with each node on the fluidstructure interface (FSI). The coupling matrix [R] also takes into account the direction of the normal vector
defined for each pair of coincident fluid and structural element faces that comprises the interface surface.
The positive direction of the normal vector, as the ANSYS program uses it, is defined to be outward from
the fluid mesh and in towards the structure. Both the structural and fluid load quantities that are produced
at the fluid-structure interface are functions of unknown nodal degrees of freedom. Placing these unknown
"load" quantities on the left hand side of the equations and combining the two equations into a single
equation produces the following:

Ms

T
oR

O U
K s
+
Mf P O

R
K f

U Fs
=
P Ff

The foregoing equation implies that nodes on a fluid-structure interface have both displacement and pressure
degrees of freedom.

15.7. Sample Applications


The two example problems presented here illustrate the application of the acoustic elements. The first example
shows the use of the acoustic absorption elements in modeling far-field problems. The second example is
a near-field problem showing the use of standing wave prediction in an enclosed space.

15.8. Example 1: Fluid-Structure Coupled Acoustic Analysis (Command


Method)
In this problem you will determine the first flexural mode (egg mode) frequency of an annular ring submerged
in water which extends to infinity. You will perform a harmonic analysis using a frequency sweep between
34 and 38 Hz. The distance from the center of the ring to the infinite elements will at least be equal to (D/2)
+ 0.2 where D is the outer diameter of the ring and = c/f is the dominant wavelength of the pressure
waves. Using 0.26035 for the outer radius of the ring, 1460 for the speed of sound (c), and 36 for the estimated
dominant frequency (f ), gives (D/2) + 0.2 = 0.26035 + (0.2)(1460)/36 = 8.37146. However, this is much
greater than the distance required when using the acoustic infinite element and a distance of 2 times the
outer radius of the ring will be used ( 2 x .26035 = .5207), as shown in the command listing.
/BATCH,LIST
/VERIFY,EV129-1S
/PREP7
/TITLE,AMA,EV129-1S,FLUID129,HARMONIC ANALYSIS
ET,1,PLANE42
! structural element
ET,2,FLUID29
! acoustic fluid element with ux & uy
et,3,129
! acoustic infinite line element
r,3,0.5207,0,0
ET,4,FLUID29,,1,0
! acoustic fluid element without ux & uy
! material properties

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Chapter 15: Acoustics


MP,EX,1,2.068e11
MP,DENS,1,7929
MP,NUXY,1,0
MP,DENS,2,1030
MP,SONC,2,1460
! create inner and outer quarter circles
CYL4,0,0,0.254,0,0.26035,90
CYL4,0,0,0.26035,0,0.5207,90
! select, assign attribute to and mesh area 1
ASEL,S,AREA,,1
AATT,1,1,1,0
LESIZE,1,,,16,1
LESIZE,3,,,16,1
LESIZE,2,,,1,1
LESIZE,4,,,1,1
MSHKEY,1
MSHAPE,0,2D
! mapped quad mesh
AMESH,1
! select, assign attribute to and mesh area 2
ASEL,S,AREA,,2
AATT,2,1,2,0
LESIZE,5,,,16,1
LESIZE,7,,,16,1
LESIZE,6,,,5
LESIZE,8,,,5
MSHKEY,0
MSHAPE,0,2D
! mapped quad mesh
AMESH,2
! reflect quarter circle into semicircle about x-axis
nsym,x,1000,all
! offset node number by 1000
esym,,1000,all
! reflect semicircle into full circle about y-axis
nsym,y,2000,all
! offset node number by 2000
esym,,2000,all
NUMMRG,ALL
! merge all quantities
! modify outer 2 layers of el29 into type 4
esel,s,type,,1
nsle,s
esln,s,0
nsle,s
esel,inve
nsle,s
emodif,all,type,4
esel,all
nsel,all
! define el129 line element
csys,1
nsel,s,loc,x,0.5207
type,3
real,3
mat,2
esurf
esel,all
nsel,all
! flag interface as fluid-structure interface
nsel,s,loc,x,0.26035
esel,s,type,,2
sf,all,fsi,1
nsel,all
esel,all
FINISH
! enter solution module
/SOLU
ANTYPE,harmic
! select harmonic analysis
hropt,full
f,19,fx,1000.
f,1019,fx,-1000.
harfrq,34.,38.
nsubst,100
kbc,1
SOLVE
FINISH

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15.9. Example 2: Room Acoustic Analysis (Command Method)


! postprocess
/post26
plcplx,0
nsol,2,1,u,x,d1ux
store
conjug,3,2
prod,4,2,3
sqrt,5,4
*get,uxmx,vari,5,extrem,tmax
/COM ------------------------------------------------------------/COM
Expected Result:
/COM
/COM The following "uxmx" should equal 35.24 Hz.
/COM ------------------------------------------------------------*status,uxmx
finish

15.9. Example 2: Room Acoustic Analysis (Command Method)


This sample problem demonstrates the use of FLUID30 to predict the acoustic standing wave pattern of a
typical enclosure representing a room. A sound-absorption material is located at the bottom surface of the
enclosure and a vibrating structure with a cylindrical surface is located at the top right hand corner of the
enclosure. This problem will determine the acoustic pressure wave pattern when the structure vibrates at
an excitation frequency of 80 HZ.
/batch,list
/com, Harmonic Analysis - Room Acoustics
/PREP7
/TITLE,Room Acoustic Analysis
ANTYPE,HARM
ET,1,30
! Acoustic elements in contact with walls and vibrating surface
ET,2,30,,1 ! Acoustic elements in interior (not in contact with walls)
! Set parameters for mesh generation
XDIV=29
YDIV=19
ZDIV=1
CDIV=2

!
!
!
!

Number
Number
Number
Number

of
of
of
of

divisions
divisions
divisions
divisions

along
along
along
along

x-axis
y-axis
z-axis
radius

! Dimensions of the room


LEN=27
HGT=20
RAD=0.9
! Mesh generation
K,1
K,2,LEN
K,3,LEN,HGT
K,4,,HGT
K,5,,,-1
K,6,LEN,,-1
K,7,LEN,HGT,-1
K,8,,HGT,-1
L,1,5,1
L,2,6,1
L,3,7,1
L,4,8,1
CIRC,3,RAD,7,2,90,2
ADRAG,5,6,,,,, 3
PIO4=ATAN(1)
LENC=COS(PIO4)
LENC=LENC*RAD
HGTC=HGT-LENC
LENC=LEN-LENC
K,15,,HGTC

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Chapter 15: Acoustics


K,16,,HGTC,-1
K,17,LENC
K,18,LENC,,-1
L,1 ,17,XDIV
L,10,15,XDIV
L,11,4 ,XDIV
L,17,10,YDIV
L,15, 1,YDIV
L,2 ,9 ,YDIV
L,5 ,18,XDIV
L,13,16,XDIV
L,14,8 ,XDIV
L,18,13,YDIV
L,16,5 ,YDIV
L,6 ,12,YDIV
ESIZE,,CDIV
V,1 ,17,10,15, 5,18,13,16
V,15,10,11,4 ,16,13,14,8
V,17,2 ,9 ,10,18,6 ,12,13
VMESH,ALL
! Material properties
MP,DENS,1,2.35E-3
MP,SONC,1,1100.0
MP,MU,1,0.04
MP,DENS,2,2.35E-3
MP,SONC,2,1100.0
MP,MU,2,0.70

!
!
!
!

(Rho) density of air (lb/ft**3)


(C) speed of sound in air (ft/sec)
(Beta) absorption coefficient of the walls
('Beta' should be between 0 - 1)

! (Beta) absorption coefficient of


! the absorbing material on the floor
! ('Beta' should be between 0 -1)

MP,DENS,3,2.35E-3
MP,SONC,3,1100.0
MP,MU,3,0.0
! (Beta) zero absorption coefficient for interior elements
NSEL,S,LOC,Y,0.0
NSEL,R,LOC,X,12,15
ESLN
MAT,2
EMODIF,ALL
! Elements which have the absorbing material on the floor
! Boundary conditions
ALLS
NSEL,S,LOC,X,0.0
NSEL,A,LOC,Y,0.0
NSEL,A,LOC,X,LEN
NSEL,A,LOC,Y,HGT
D,ALL,UX,,,,,UY,UZ! Constrain all displacements to zero at the walls
LOCAL,11,1,27,20
NSEL,A,LOC,X,RAD
ESLN
ESEL,INVE
TYPE,2
MAT,3
EMODIF,ALL
! Interior elements are specified as Type=2 & material=3
ALLS
! Fluid-Structure Interface (FSI)
NSEL,S,LOC,X,RAD
ESLN
SF,ALL,FSI
NROTAT,ALL
D,ALL,UX,.01
D,ALL,UY,,,,,UZ

! Select interface (FSI) surface nodes


! Select elements attached to interface surface
! Specify vibrating surface as Fluid-structure interface
! Radial vibration amplitude of Vibrating surface

! Impedance Surface (IMPD)


CSYS,0
ALLS
NSEL,S,LOC,X,0.0

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15.9. Example 2: Room Acoustic Analysis (Command Method)


NSEL,A,LOC,X,LEN
NSEL,A,LOC,Y,0.0
NSEL,A,LOC,Y,HGT
SF,ALL,IMPD,1
! Specify the walls as Impedance Surface flag
! to activate absorption
ALLS
FINISH
/SOLU
! Excitation Frequency for Harmonic Analysis
HARF,80,80
SOLVE
FINISH

! Frequency of excitation = 80 Hz

! Plot the Standing Wave Pattern (f = 80 Hz)


/POST1
/SHOW,ENCL1,GRPH,1
SET,1,1
! plot the real part of pressure response
EPLOT
/EDGE,1
/TITLE,-ROOM ACOUSTICS- * REAL PART OF PRESSURE
PLNS,PRES
SET,1,1,,1
! plot the imag. part of pressure response
/TITLE,-ROOM ACOUSTICS- * IMAG. PART OF PRESSURE
PLNS,PRES
FINISH

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181

182

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Part III, Thin Film

Chapter 16: Thin Film Analysis


A thin film is a small gap of fluid between moving surfaces. This thin layer of fluid can alter the structural
response of the structure by adding stiffness and/or damping to the system. Movement normal to the gap
produces a squeeze film effect. Movement tangential to the gap produces a slide film effect.
Thin film effects are important in macrostructures, but they are particularly critical in microstructures where
the damping and stiffening effects of thin layers of air can significantly affect the behavior of devices used
in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). Squeeze film effects are important in devices such as accelerometers and micromirrors. Slide film effects are important in devices such as comb drives.
One method for assessing the effect of thin films is to use thin film fluid elements based on the Reynolds
number (which is known from lubrication technology and rarified gas physics) to calculate the stiffening
and damping effects. These effects can then be added to the overall system model. Separate element types
are used to assess squeeze and slide film effects.
The governing Reynolds equation limits the application of thin film analyses to structures with lateral dimensions much greater than the gap separation. In addition, the pressure change across the gap must be much
smaller than the ambient (i.e., surrounding) pressure, and any viscous heating effects must be ignored. If
these three conditions are not satisfied, then the effects of the thin film cannot be assessed using thin film
elements. For those situations, the Navier Stokes equations must be solved using FLOTRAN to assess the
effect of the fluid.
The following thin film topics are available:
16.1. Elements for Modeling Thin Films
16.2. Squeeze Film Analysis
16.3. Modal Projection Method for Squeeze Film Analysis
16.4. Slide Film Damping

16.1. Elements for Modeling Thin Films


The ANSYS program has three elements for modeling thin film effects. FLUID136 and FLUID138 are used to
model squeeze film effects. FLUID139 is used to model slide film effects.

Table 16.1 Thin Film Fluid Elements


Element

Dimens.

Shape or Characteristic

DOF

FLUID136

3-D

Quadrilateral, 4 or 8-node

PRES

FLUID138

3-D

Line, 2-node

PRES

FLUID139

1-D

Line, 2-node

UX or UY or
UZ

16.2. Squeeze Film Analysis


Squeeze film analysis simulates the effects of fluid in small gaps between fixed surfaces and structures
moving perpendicular to the surfaces. Depending on the operating frequencies, the fluid can add stiffening
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185

Chapter 16: Thin Film Analysis


and/or damping to the system. At low frequencies, the fluid can escape before it compresses. Therefore, the
fluid only adds damping to the system. At high frequencies, the fluid compresses before it can escape.
Therefore, the fluid adds both stiffening and damping to the system.
A static analysis is used to determine the damping effects at low frequencies. A harmonic analysis is used
to determine the stiffening and damping effects at high frequencies.
The FLUID136 element is used to model the fluid domain between a fixed surface and a structure moving
normally to that surface. The fluid domain is modeled by overlaying FLUID136 elements on the moving
surface of the structure (i.e., lower surface of the structure adjacent to the fixed wall).

Figure 16.1: Moving Plate above a Fixed Wall

The FLUID138 element is used to model the pressure drop through holes in a moving structure. Microstructures
are commonly perforated to reduce the damping effects of the fluid layer. FLUID138 elements are used in
conjunction with FLUID136 elements to obtain a consistent pressure distribution, including the effects of
holes.

Figure 16.2: Perforated Plate Structure

A squeeze film analysis can be performed on structures with known velocities or unknown velocities. If the
velocity profile is known, you can apply it directly to the fluid elements. If the velocity profile is not known
(or is too complicated), it can be determined from the mode-frequency response of the structure (model
projection method). This section deals with directly applying the velocities. Modal Projection Method for
Squeeze Film Analysis (p. 201) covers the modal projection method.
The following squeeze film analysis topics are available:
16.2.1. Static Analysis Overview
16.2.2. Harmonic Response Analysis Overview
16.2.3.Transient Response Analysis Overview
16.2.4. Flow Regime Considerations
16.2.5. Modeling and Meshing Considerations
16.2.6. Analysis Settings and Options
16.2.7. Loads and Solution
16.2.8. Review Results
16.2.9. Sample Harmonic Analysis
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16.2.2. Harmonic Response Analysis Overview


16.2.10. Simplified Transient Analysis
16.2.11. Complex Transient Analysis

16.2.1. Static Analysis Overview


Use a static analysis to calculate the pressure distribution for low operating frequencies, where the compression of the fluid (and thus the stiffening effect) is negligible. The resulting pressure distribution can then be
used to extract a damping coefficient that reflects the damping effect of the fluid.
C=

F
vz

F is the total pressure force at the fluid structure interface and vz is the normal velocity component of the
moving structure. A typical pressure distribution on a rectangular plate is shown in Figure 16.3: Pressure Distribution on a Plate at a Low Driving Frequency (p. 187).

Figure 16.3: Pressure Distribution on a Plate at a Low Driving Frequency

16.2.2. Harmonic Response Analysis Overview


Use a harmonic analysis to calculate the complex pressure distribution for high operating frequencies. The
complex pressure distribution can be used to extract a damping coefficient and a stiffness coefficient. The
phase shift between the pressure and the velocity is caused by compression of the fluid. The real pressure
component contributes to the damping of the system. The imaginary pressure component contributes to
the stiffening of the system.
C=

FRe
vz

K=

FIm
vz

FRe is the real component of the pressure force. FIm is the imaginary component of the pressure force. Omega
() is the frequency (rad/sec). The damping and stiffness coefficients are frequency-dependent. Figure 16.4: Damping and Squeeze Stiffness Coefficients vs. Frequency (p. 187) illustrates the frequency dependency
for a typical microsystem application.

Figure 16.4: Damping and Squeeze Stiffness Coefficients vs. Frequency

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187

Chapter 16: Thin Film Analysis


The DMPEXT command is used to extract frequency-dependent damping parameters for use with the
MDAMP, DMPRAT, ALPHAD, and BETAD command inputs.

16.2.3. Transient Response Analysis Overview


A transient analysis is often necessary (for example, in problems where a moving structure closes the gap).
When there is contact, it is prudent to use a nonlinear analysis to model the contact more accurately. A linear
transient analysis can be performed when the gap between a moving structure and a fixed surface remains
relatively large. For information on the linear and nonlinear Reynolds equatons, refer to Flow Between Flat
Surfaces in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications.
For transient analysis example problems, see Simplified Transient Analysis (p. 194) and Complex Transient
Analysis (p. 196).

16.2.4. Flow Regime Considerations


The Reynolds squeeze film approach assumes a continuous fluid flow regime. To ensure a continuous flow
regime, the characteristic length (i.e., gap thickness) must be more than one hundred times larger than the
mean free path of the fluid particles.
Lm (p0 ) =

L0 P0
p0

Lm(po) is the mean free path of the fluid at the operating pressure P0, and L0 is the mean path at reference
pressure P0. If the fluid is air at atmospheric pressure (1.01325*105), then by definition L0 is approximately
64*10-9 meters (64 m). So, for continuum theory to be directly applicable (without modification) to air at
atmospheric pressure, the gap should be greater than 6.4 m (64*10-9 meters * 100).
The applicability of the continuum theory is generally assessed using the Knudsen number, which is equal
to the mean free fluid path divided by the gap. For continuum theory to be valid, the Knudsen number
should be less than 0.01.
L P
L
Kn = m = 0 0
d
p0 d
For high Knudsen numbers, the continuum theory is not valid. However, the dynamic viscosity can be adjusted
to simulate the high Knudsen number flow regime. The default flow regime for FLUID136 and FLUID138 is
continuum theory (KEYOPT(1) = 0). Set KEYOPT (1) = 1 to specify the high Knudsen number flow regime.
For FLUID136, set KEYOPT(1) = 2 to specify the high Knudsen number flow regime with surface accommodation factors.
The type of reflection of the gas molecules at the wall interface is specified using accommodation factors.
Squeeze film models assume diffuse reflection of the gas molecules at the wall interface (accommodation
factor = 1). This assumption is valid for most metals, but is less accurate for micromachined surfaces, particularly those fabricated from silicon. Materials such as silicon cause specular reflection. Typical accommodation
factors for silicon are between 0.80 and 0.90. For more information on accommodation factors, see Flow
Between Flat Surfaces in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications.

16.2.5. Modeling and Meshing Considerations


The methods used to model and mesh the fluid domain depend on the squeeze film analysis method. If the
velocities are directly applied to the fluid elements, the fluid elements can be independent of the structure.
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16.2.6. Analysis Settings and Options


If the velocities are determined from the mode-frequency response of the structure (modal projection
method), the fluid elements cannot be independent of the structure.
In the modal projection method, the FLUID136 elements must lie on the surface of the structural mesh. Use
the ESURF command to overlay FLUID136 elements on the surface of an existing structural mesh. FLUID136
supports 4-node and 8-node options, along with degenerative triangles.
The FLUID138 element is used to model the pressure drop in the channels (holes) in a structure as shown
in Figure 16.2: Perforated Plate Structure (p. 186). The element supports a circular hole configuration and a
rectangular hole configuration (KEYOPT(3)). The element works in conjunction with FLUID136 to correctly
compute the pressure distribution on the structure's surface and through the channels. To correctly model
the FLUID138 element:
1.

Use a single FLUID138 element for each hole.

2.

Align the FLUID138 element at the center of the hole. The element should extend through the depth
of the hole and have a length equal to the depth of the hole.

3.

Assume the pressure at the center of the hole (flush with the plate surface in the thin film region) is
at the same pressure as the nodes modeled at the periphery of the hole. Couple the nodes of the
FLUID136 element at the whole periphery with the node of the FLUID138 element as shown in Figure 16.5: Coupling of Nodes at the Hole Periphery with the Center Node of a FLUID138 Element (p. 189).

Figure 16.5: Coupling of Nodes at the Hole Periphery with the Center Node of a FLUID138
Element

FLUID138 element

Coupled nodes of hole periphery


with the first node of the
FLUID138 element
Structural mesh shown. FLUID136
elements lie underneath the
structure on the thin film surface.

16.2.6. Analysis Settings and Options


A thin film analysis using FLUID136 and FLUID138 can be a linear or nonlinear solution for both a static and
a transient analysis. No special analysis options or load step options are required. See the Basic Analysis Guide
for general guidelines on defining the analysis type and analysis options.
Harmonic response analysis is a linear analysis. For a harmonic response analysis, you must use the full
method.

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Chapter 16: Thin Film Analysis

16.2.7. Loads and Solution


The fluid elements support pressure loads at the nodal PRES degrees of freedom and velocity body loads
(FLUE) at the node or element as shown in Table 16.2: Load Options for Thin Film Fluid Elements (p. 190). Pressure
loads are applied using the D family of commands. The velocity load is applied using the BF family of
commands. For the velocity load, a positive velocity load will cause a positive pressure. For a harmonic response analysis, a positive velocity load will cause a positive in-phase pressure load. See Applying Body
Loads for details on applying body loads.

Note
Velocity body loads (FLUE) are the velocities of the moving wall in a direction normal to the wall.
They are not in-plane velocities of the fluid.

Table 16.2 Load Options for Thin Film Fluid Elements


Load

Type

ANSYS Label

Pressure

Nodal DOF

PRES

Normal Velocity

Body Load

FLUE

The recommended equation solvers for the fluid elements are the Sparse Direct Solver (SPARSE), the Jacobi
Conjugate Gradient Solver (JCG) and the Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient Solver (ICCG).

16.2.8. Review Results


Results from a thin film fluid analysis are stored on the Jobname.RST file. The primary result from the fluid
analysis is the nodal pressures. For a harmonic response analysis, the pressures are stored as complex values
(Real and Imaginary components). "The General Postprocessor (POST1)" discusses reading results into the
database and viewing the nodal degree of freedom (pressure) results.
Each fluid element computes and stores results for the mid-plane fluid velocity (PG) and effective viscosity.
Use the element table to retrieve and view these results.
To compute the damping and squeeze stiffness coefficients from the resulting pressure distribution on the
surface of a structure, use the element table tools to compute the force on a per-element basis, then sum
over all elements to compute the coefficients. The following command sequence demonstrates how to do
this task. This example assumes parameters omega and velo exist (frequency and normal velocity (FLUE
loading), respectively).
set,1,1
etable,presR,temp
etable,earea,volu
smult,forR,presR,earea
ssum
*get,Fre,ssum,,item,forR
set,1,1,,1
etable,presI,temp
smult,forI,presI,earea
ssum
*get,Fim,ssum,,item,forI

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

store Real solution


extract "Real" pressure
extract element area
compute "Real" force
sum over all elements
get the total "real" force
store Imaginary solution
extract "Imaginary" pressure
compute "Imaginary" force
sum over all elements
get the total "imaginary" force

K=abs(Fim*omega/velo)
C=abs(Fre/velo)

! Compute squeeze stiffness coefficient


! Compute damping coefficient

/com, ** Equivalent squeeze stiffness coefficient **


*stat,K

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Results
/com, ** Equivalent damping coefficient **
*stat,C

16.2.9. Sample Harmonic Analysis


Problem Description
A rectangular beam with perforated holes under transverse motion is modeled to compute the effective
damping and squeeze stiffness coefficients. The thin film surface of the structure is modeled with FLUID136
elements. FLUID138 elements are used to model the hole regions. By altering the boundary condition of
the free FLUID138 node, we can simulate different pressure boundary conditions of the hole region. The
purpose of the analysis is to compute the equivalent squeeze stiffness and damping coefficient for an assumed
uniform plate velocity. A harmonic response analysis is performed at 150 kHz. A previous modal analysis
indicated that the pertinent eigenfrequency was 150 kHz. Since the analysis is linear, the magnitude of the
velocity can be arbitrary for computing the coefficients.
Three cases were considered:
1.

Holes modeled with no resistance (pressure = 0 at hole location, no FLUID138 elements ).

2.

Holes modeled with finite resistance (FLUID138 elements modeled, pressure set to zero on fluid node
at top of plate).

3.

Holes modeled with infinite resistance (no pressure specification at hole location, no FLUID138 elements).

Case 1 is typical for large diameter holes compared to the hole depth. Case 3 is typical for very high flow
resistance, which happens in the case of narrow and long holes. Case 2 is the most accurate case where the
fluid pressure drop is taken into account by the FLUID138 elements.

Results
Table 16.3: Beam Model Results Considering Perforated Holes (p. 191) lists the damping and squeeze coefficient
results. Figure 16.6: Pressure Distribution (Real Component) (p. 192) and Figure 16.7: Pressure Distribution (Imaginary
Component) (p. 192) illustrate the real and imaginary pressure distribution. The input file for case 2 is listed.

Table 16.3 Beam Model Results Considering Perforated Holes


Frequency
(kHz.)

Hole option

Damping Coefficient

Squeeze stiffness coefficient

150

Infinite resistance

2.016e-5

1.201

150

Finite resistance

1.325e-5

.5465

150

No resistance

1.165e-5

.4607

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Chapter 16: Thin Film Analysis

Figure 16.6: Pressure Distribution (Real Component)

Figure 16.7: Pressure Distribution (Imaginary Component)

Command Listing
The input file for this example is shown below for the finite-resistance Case 2
/batch,list
/PREP7
/title, Damping and Squeeze film stiffness calculations for a rigid
/com,
plate with holes
/com
uMKS units
ET, 1,136,1
ET, 2,138,1

! 4-node option, High Knudsen Number


! Circular hole option, Hugh Knudsen Number

s_l=100
s_l1=60
s_w=20
s_t=1
c_r=3
d_el=2
pamb=.1
visc=18.3e-12
velo=2000
freq=150000
pi=3.14159
omega=2*pi*freq
pref=.1
mfp=64e-3
Knud=mfp/d_el

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

Half Plate length (um)


Plate hole location
Plate width
Plate thickness
Hole radius
Gap
ambient pressure (MPa)
viscosity kg/(um)(s)
arbitrary velocity (um/s)
Frequency (Hz.)

!
!
!
!

Frequency (rad/sec)
Reference pressure (MPa)
mean free path (um)
Knudsen number

mp,visc,1,visc
mp,visc,2,visc

! Dynamic viscosity gap


! Dynamic viscosity holes

192

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Command Listing

r,1,d_el,,,pamb
rmore,pref,mfp

! Real constants - gap

r,2,c_r,,,pamb
rmore,pref,mfp

! Real constants - hole

! Build the model


rectng,-s_l,s_l,-s_w,s_w
pcirc,c_r
agen,3,2,,,-s_l1/3
agen,3,2,,,s_l1/3
ASBA, 1, all
TYPE, 1
MAT, 1
smrtsize,4
AMESH, all

! Mesh plate domain

! Begin Hole generation


*do,i,1,5
nsel,all
*GET, numb, node, , num, max
N, numb+1,-s_l1+i*s_l1/3,,
N, numb+2,-s_l1+i*s_l1/3,, s_t
TYPE,2
MAT, 2
REAL,2
NSEL, all
E, numb+1, numb+2
ESEL, s, type,,1
NSLE,s,1
local,11,1,-s_l1+i*s_l1/3
csys,11
NSEL,r, loc, x, c_r
NSEL,a, node, ,numb+1
*GET, next, node, , num, min
CP, i, pres, numb+1, next
nsel,u,node, ,numb+1
nsel,u,node, ,next
CP, i, pres,all
csys,0
*enddo
! End hole generation
nsel,s,loc,x,-s_l
nsel,a,loc,x,s_l
nsel,a,loc,y,-s_w
nsel,a,loc,y,s_w
nsel,r,loc,z,-1e-9,1e-9
d,all,pres
nsel,all
esel,s,type,,2
nsle,s,1
nsel,r,loc,z,s_t
d,all,pres,0
dlist,all

! Plate domain
! Hole domain

! Create nodes for link elements

! Define 2-D link element

! Select all nodes on the hole circumference

!Coupled DOF set for constant pressure

! Fix pressure at outer plate boundary

! P=0 at top of plate

allsel
bfe,all,flue,,velo
fini
finish
/solu
antyp,harm
harfrq,freq
solve
finish

! Apply arbitrary velocity

! Full Harmonic analysis

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Chapter 16: Thin Film Analysis


/post1
esel,s,type,,1
set,1,1
etable,presR,pres
etable,earea,volu
smult,forR,presR,earea
ssum
*get,Fre,ssum,,item,forR
set,1,1,,1
etable,presI,pres
smult,forI,presI,earea
ssum
*get,Fim,ssum,,item,forI

! extract "Real" pressure


! compute "Real" force

! extract "Imaginary" pressure


! compute "Imaginary" pressure

K=abs(Fim*omega/velo)
C=abs(Fre/velo)

! Compute equivalent stiffness


! Compute equivalent damping

/com, ******* Equivalent stiffness ************************


*stat,K
/com, ******* Equivalent damping **************************
*stat,C
finish

16.2.10. Simplified Transient Analysis


Problem Description
A simplified transient analysis is performed for a rectangular plate fixed at two ends with a hole in the center.
A stepped pressure load is applied to the top surface of the plate. SOLID45 elements model the structure.
FLUID136 elements model the thin film surface and a FLUID138 element models the hole region. Displacement
and pressure time history results are determined at the bottom of the plate on the circumference of the
hole.

Command Listing
The input file for this example is shown below.
/PREP7
/title, Simplified Transient Analysis
/com
uMKS units
ET, 1,136,1
keyop,1,3,2
et,2,138,1
ET,3,45

!
!
!
!

4-node option, High Knudsen Number


PRES + UZ + UY + UZ DOFs, implicit treatment
Hole
Structural element

s_l=20
s_w=20
s_t=10
c_r=6
d_el=2
pamb=.1
visc=18.3e-12
pref=.1
mfp=64e-3
Knud=mfp/d_el

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

Half Plate length (um)


Plate width
Plate thickness
Hole radius
Gap
Ambient pressure (MPa)
viscosity kg/(um)(s)
Reference pressure (MPa)
Mean free path (um)
Knudsen number

mp,visc,1,visc
mp,visc,2,visc
mp,ex,3,79e3
mp,dens,3,19300e-18
mp,nuxy,3,.1

! Dynamic viscosity gap


! Dynamic viscosity hole
! Gold

r,1,d_el,,,pamb
rmore,pref,mfp

! Real constants - FLUID136

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Command Listing
r,2,c_r,,,pamb
rmore,pref,mfp

! Real constants - FLUID138

block,-s_l,s_l,-s_w,s_w,0,s_t
cyl4,0,0,c_r,,c_r,,s_t
vsbv,1,2
numcmp,all
type,3
mat,3
real,3
mshape,1,3d
esize,,3
vmesh,1
! SOLID45 mesh
nsel,s,loc,z,0
esln,s
TYPE, 1
MAT, 1
real,1
esurf
allsel

! FLUID136 mesh

!make the nodes/elem for 138


*get,numb,node,,num,max
n,numb+1,0,0,0
n,numb+2,0,0,s_t
type,2
mat,2
real,2
e,numb+1,numb+2

! FLUID138 mesh

!couple hole pres eq


esel,s,type,,1
nsle,s,1
local,11,1,0,0,0
csys,11
nsel,r,loc,x,c_r
nsel,a,node,,numb+1
cp,1,pres,all
csys,0
allsel
nsel,s,loc,x,-s_l
nsel,a,loc,x,s_l
nsel,a,loc,y,-s_w
nsel,a,loc,y,s_w
nsel,r,loc,z,-1e-9,1e-9
nsel,a,node,,numb+2
d,all,pres
nsel,all
dlist

! Fix pressure at outer plate boundary

!esel,s,type,,1
!nsle,s,1
!nsel,u,cp,,1
!cm,FLUN,node
!allsel
nsel,s,loc,x,-s_l
nsel,a,loc,x,s_l
d,all,ux
d,all,uy
d,all,uz
allsel

! Fix two ends of SOLID45 elements

nsel,s,loc,z,s_t
sf,all,pres,1.e+1
allsel

! Apply pressure loading on SOLID45 top surface

fini
/solu

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Chapter 16: Thin Film Analysis


antype,trans
kbc,1
nropt,full
time,180e-6
!time,6e-6
deltim,2e-6
outres,all,none
outres,nsol,all
outres,esol,all
cnvtol,pres,,1.e-6
cnvtol,u
,,1.e-6
save
solve
fini

! Specify a stepped loading

! Specify time step size

! Specify convergence values

/post26
nl=node(c_r,0,0)
nsol,2,nl,uz
nsol,3,nl,pres
prvar,2,3
fini
/post1
set,last
esel,s,type,,1
etable,_gap,nmisc,2
pretab,_gap
fini

! Print time history results

! Retrieve results at last substep


! FLUID136
! Print GAP value

16.2.11. Complex Transient Analysis


Problem Description
A complex transient analysis is performed for a rectangular top plate fixed at two ends with a hole in the
center. A voltage is applied to the bottom surface of the top plate. After the top plate makes contact with
the bottom plate the voltage is set to a release value. SOLID185 elements model the top plate. TRANS126
transducer elements are created between the plates. FLUID136 elements model the thin film surface and a
FLUID138 element models the hole region. The applied voltage is shown in Figure 16.8: Applied Voltage (p. 197).
Displacement and pressure results at the bottom of the top plate on the circumference of the hole are
shown in Figure 16.9: Displacement Time History (p. 197) and Figure 16.10: Pressure Time History (p. 198).

196

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Results

Results
Figure 16.8: Applied Voltage

Figure 16.9: Displacement Time History

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Chapter 16: Thin Film Analysis

Figure 16.10: Pressure Time History

Command Listing
The input file for this example is shown below.
/batch,list
/title, Complex Transient Analysis
!/nerr,,,-1
/PREP7
/title, Complex Transient Analysis
/com
uMKS units
ET, 1,136,1
keyop,1,3,2
keyop,1,4,0
keyop,1,5,2
keyop,1,6,1
et,2,185
ET,3,185

! 4-node option, High Knudsen Number


!implicit
!compressible
!fluid gap option
!mech gap option

s_l=100
s_w=20
s_t=1
d_el=2
pamb=.1
visc=18.3e-12
pref=.1
mfp=64e-3
Knud=mfp/d_el
mingapf=1e-2
mech_mingapf=1e-2
app_volt=23.281
app_pres=0

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

mp,visc,1,visc
mp,ex,3,79e+3
mp,dens,3,19300e-18
mp,nuxy,3,.1

! Dynamic viscosity gap


! Gold

! Structural element
Half Plate length (um)
Plate width
Plate thickness
Gap
ambient pressure (MPa)
viscosity kg/(um)(s)
Reference pressure (MPa)
mean free path (um)
Knudsen number
Minimum gap for real constanst on element 136
Mechanical minumum gap for real constant on element 136
Applied voltage
Applied pressure at boundaries

r,1,d_el,,,pamb
! Real constants - gap
rmore,pref,mfp,0,0,1,mech_mingapf
rmore,mingapf,1.e+18,0.e-2,-4.e+0,-0.e-2,1.e-0
!
mingapf,penpar,deadpres,deadspr,deaddam,deadeps

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Command Listing

!top plate
block,-s_l,s_l,-s_w,s_w,0,s_t
lsel,s,line,,4,5,1
lsel,a,line,,2,7,5
lesize,all,,,19,-.1
lsel,s,line,,1,8,7
lsel,a,line,,3,6,3
lesize,all,,,11,-.1
lsel,s,line,,9,12,1
lesize,all,,,2
type,3
mat,3
real,3
!mshape,1,3d
mshape,1,3d
cyl4,0,0,s_w/50,,,,s_t+1
vsbv,1,2
numcmp,volu
vmesh,1
!hole
n,10000,0,0,0
n,10001,0,0,s_t
et,6,138,1,,0
r,10,s_w/200,,,pamb,
rmore,pref,mfp
type,6
real,10
mat,1
e,10000,10001
lsel,s,line,,13,16
nsll,s,1
nsel,a,node,,10000
cp,next,pres,all
d,10001,pres,0
allsel

!INSTALL TOP PLATE


!Set element depth

!Mesh top plate with Gold material

!Create a hole in top plate

!Specify nodes for hole element (138)


!Define hole shape
!Define hole diameter and pressures

!Tie top plate hole edge to hole element.

!else emtgen computes INCORRECT areas


nsel,s,loc,z,0
cm,trun,node
allsel
emtgen,'TRUN',,,'uz',-d_el,mingapf*d_el,1.e-18
!Create transducer elements 126 using emtgen
!apply gap information
!fluid
nsel,s,loc,z,0
!Define Fluid region
esln,s
TYPE, 1
MAT, 1
real,1
esurf
!Surface the solid top plate with 136 squeeze film elements
nsel,s,loc,x,-s_l
nsel,a,loc,x,s_l
nsel,a,loc,y,-s_w
nsel,a,loc,y,s_w
nsel,r,loc,z,-1e-9,1e-9
d,all,pres
nsel,all

!Fix pressure at outer plate boundary

nsel,s,loc,x,-s_l
nsel,a,loc,x,s_l
d,all,ux
d,all,uy
d,all,uz
allsel
nsel,s,loc,z,s_t
sf,all,pres,app_pres
allsel

!Apply pressure at boundary

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199

Chapter 16: Thin Film Analysis


!fix bottom node voltage/disp
nsel,s,loc,z,-d_el
d,all,ux
d,all,uy
d,all,uz
d,all,volt
allsel
!fix top node voltage
cmsel,s,trun
d,all,volt,app_volt
allsel

!Set voltage/displacement at bottom plate


!V(bottom)=0V
!displacement(bottom)=(0,0,0)

!Set voltage on top side to applied voltage value


!for pulldown

fini
/solu
antype,trans
kbc,1
time,11.e-5
!autots,on
deltim,1.e-5,
nsubst,10,1000,2
outres,all,none
outres,nsol,2
outres,rsol,2
outres,esol,2
cnvtol,pres,,5.e-6
cnvtol,u
,,5.e-6
nropt,full
neqit,500
save
solve
time,20e-5
nropt,full
neqit,100
outres,all,none
outres,nsol,2
outres,rsol,2
outres,esol,2
cnvtol,pres,,5.e-6
cnvtol,u
,,5.e-6
solve
cmsel,s,trun
d,all,volt,1.5
allsel
time,20.4e-5
outres,all,none
outres,nsol,20
outres,rsol,20
outres,esol,20
cnvtol,pres,,5.e-6
cnvtol,u
,,5.e-6
cnvtol,pres,,1.e-4
cnvtol,u
,,1.e-4
autots,on
deltim,.005e-5,0.001e-5,1e-5
solve
time,30e-5
autots,on
deltim,.5e-5,0.02e-5,1e-5
solve
fini

!Pulldown stage

!enforce regular timesteps

!Contact time.
!Reduce number of equilibrium iterations to save time.

!Setup release time


!Set release voltage across
!only limited time here
!Long grinding period here, reduce result steps so we don't go
!over 1000 results.

!Let Autotimestep run here


!to better capture the overshoot movement on release
!After initial snapback,
!increase timestep as overshoot decays.

/POST1
allsel
GG=node(0,-0.4,0)
SET,LIST,999
SET,,, ,,, ,30
!*
!*
PLESOL, NMISC,13, 0,1.0
presol,nmisc,13

200

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16.3.1. Modal Projection Method Overview


/out,
fini
!*list,closes,lis1
!*list,closes,lis2
/post26
NUMVAR,200
SOLU,191,NCMIT
STORE,MERGE
FILLDATA,191,,,,1,1
REALVAR,191,191
NSOL,2,GG,U,Z,UZ_2
NSOL,3,GG,PRES,,PRES_3
NSOL,4,GG,VOLT,,VOLT_4
plvar,2
plvar,3
plvar,4
fini

16.3. Modal Projection Method for Squeeze Film Analysis


Modal projection techniques provide an efficient method for computing damping parameters for flexible
bodies. The Modal Projection Technique is the process of calculating the squeeze stiffness and damping
coefficients of the fluid using the eigenvectors of the structure. In the modal projection method, the velocity
profiles are determined from the mode-frequency response of the structure.
The following modal projection method topics are available:
16.3.1. Modal Projection Method Overview
16.3.2. Steps in Computing the Damping Parameter Using the Modal Projection Technique
16.3.3. Example Problem Using the Modal Projection Method
16.3.4. Damping Extraction for Large Signal Cases

16.3.1. Modal Projection Method Overview


For a structure undergoing flexible body dynamics, the displacement and velocity vary along the structure.
For a thin-film fluid adjacent to the structure, there is a true dependency between the structural velocity
and the fluid pressure. A modal analysis of a structure provides information on the fundamental eigenfrequencies and mode shapes (eigenvectors). For each mode, i, we can impress the distributed eigenvector
values as velocity loads and compute the resulting pressure distribution and hence the fluid force acting on
mode j. Therefore, we can compute a matrix of modal squeeze stiffness coefficients, Kij, and modal damping
coefficients, Cij. The diagonal terms of these matrices are the coefficients of each mode, the off-diagonal
terms represent the "cross-talk" coefficients between modes. Figure 16.11: Modal Projection Technique for
Damping Characterization (p. 201) illustrates the modal projection technique.

Figure 16.11: Modal Projection Technique for Damping Characterization

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201

Chapter 16: Thin Film Analysis


From the modal squeeze and stiffness coefficients for the main diagonal terms (source mode = target mode),
other useful damping parameters can be calculated. For example, the modal damping ratio, , and the
modal squeeze to stiffness ratio, kri, can be computed by:
i = Cii /(2imi )

kri = K ii / i2

Where mi is the modal mass and i the eigenfrequency. The damping ratio can be used to compute ALPHAD
and BETAD parameters for Rayleigh damping (see ABEXTRACT command), or to specify constant and
modal damping by means of the DMPRAT or MDAMP commands.
The squeeze to stiffness ratio represents the relative stiffening of the mechanical system due to fluid compression and resonance shift. If the squeeze-to-stiffness ratio is small (e.g., <.02), then the squeeze stiffness
affects the structural stiffness by less than 2%, which may be negligible. At higher frequencies, the ratio can
be much larger, indicating a significant stiffening of the structure.
The stiffness and damping coefficients may be strongly frequency-dependent. Figure 16.12: Damping and
Squeeze Stiffness Parameters for a Rectangular Plate (p. 202) shows a typical frequency dependency of the
squeeze and damping forces on a flat plate, and the resulting stiffness and damping constant. The frequency
where the forces intersect is known as the cut-off frequency. Below this frequency, structures may be accurately characterized by a constant damping coefficient, and stiffness effects can be ignored. Structures which
operate far above the cut-off can be described by a constant stiffness coefficient, and damping effects can
be ignored.

Figure 16.12: Damping and Squeeze Stiffness Parameters for a Rectangular Plate

16.3.2. Steps in Computing the Damping Parameter Using the Modal Projection
Technique
The basic steps in performing the analysis are as follows:
1.

Build a structural and thin-film fluid model and mesh.

2.

Perform a modal analysis on the structure.

3.

Extract the desired mode eigenvectors.

4.

Select the desired modes for damping parameter calculations.

5.

Perform a harmonic analysis on the thin-film elements.

6.

Compute the modal squeeze stiffness and damping parameters.

7.

Compute modal damping ratio and squeeze stiffness coefficient.

8.

Display the results.

Steps 4-7 have been automated using the DMPEXT command macro. Step 8 is available through the MDPLOT
command macro.

202

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16.3.2. Steps in Computing the Damping Parameter Using the Modal Projection Technique

16.3.2.1. Modeling and Meshing


Model preparation for the modal projection method for damping parameter extraction follows very closely
to the method outlined in Modeling and Meshing Considerations (p. 188). Both the structural model and the
thin-film fluid model need to be defined simultaneously. Group the fluid nodes on the structure surface into
a node component named "FLUN". This component should only include nodes attached to FLUID136 elements.
This component defines the nodes for which the eigenvector values will be extracted from the mode-frequency
analysis.

16.3.2.2. Perform Modal Analysis


A modal analysis of the structure is required to obtain the eigenvectors of the desired modes. The modal
analysis should be set up with the following options:
1.

Use the Block Lanczos, Supernode, or PCG Lanczos (if applicable) method (MODOPT command).

2.

Extract the eigenmodes of interest (MODOPT command).

3.

Expand the eigenmodes of interest (MXPAND command).

The expanded eigenmodes will compute the necessary eigenvectors required for the modal projection
technique. Note: The thin-film fluid elements may be left active in the model when performing the modal
analysis. These elements will not contribute to the modal solution.

16.3.2.3. Extracting Eigenvectors


The eigenvectors from the modal analysis must be retrieved and stored in a format appropriate for use by
the thin-film fluid elements for a subsequent harmonic fluid analysis. Use the RMFLVEC command in POST1
to retrieve the eigenvectors. The data is stored in the file Jobname.EFL.

16.3.2.4. Performing a Harmonic Response Analysis and Extracting Damping Parameters


The command macro DMPEXT performs a harmonic response analysis with the thin-film fluid elements using
the eigenvector information for the desired mode(s). The macro also extracts damping parameter information
for use in subsequent dynamic structural analysis. Damping parameters extracted include the modal
damping coefficient, modal squeeze stiffness coefficient, damping ratio, and the squeeze-to-stiffness ratio.
DMPEXT requires a "source" mode number and a "target" mode number. The source mode is the mode for
which the eigenvectors are used to impart a velocity field on the fluid elements. The target mode is the
mode which is acted on by the pressure solution (fluid forces). For transverse oscillations and a uniform gap,
there is little mode interaction and hence only diagonal terms are required (source mode (i) = target mode
(j)). For transverse motion with nonuniform gaps, or asymmetric plate motion, mode interaction effects
(cross-talk) can be significant and should be computed (source mode .ne. target mode). Typical cross-talk
scenarios are shown in Figure 16.13: Fluidic Cross-Talk between Transverse and Rotational Motion (p. 204).

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203

Chapter 16: Thin Film Analysis

Figure 16.13: Fluidic Cross-Talk between Transverse and Rotational Motion

Damping parameter extraction can be selected over a desired frequency range or at the eigenfrequencies
of the structure. Damping results are computed and stored in an array parameter.
Computed damping ratios may be used in subsequent dynamic structural analyses. A constant damping
ratio can be applied using DMPRAT for a subsequent harmonic or mode-superposition transient analysis.
Mode damping ratios may be applied using the MDAMP command for use in mode-superposition harmonic
and transient analyses. Note: Subsequent structural analysis using these damping parameters do not require
the thin-film fluid elements in the model.
The command macro ABEXTRACT (like DMPEXT) extracts alpha and beta damping parameters for use in
the ALPHAD and BETAD commands. These commands define Rayleigh damping and can be used in timetransient structural analysis to model damping effects. The damping parameters are computed from two
modes defined by the user.
The command macro MDPLOT may be used to display the frequency-dependent damping parameters.

16.3.3. Example Problem Using the Modal Projection Method


A rectangular beam with perforated holes is modeled to compute the effective damping coefficient, stiffness
coefficient, and damping ratio. The surface of the structure is modeled with FLUID136 elements to represent
the thin film. The structure is modeled with SOLID45 elements. This example computes the Rayleigh damping
coefficients ( and ) and modal damping ratios i for use in a transient dynamic analysis.
The problem is defined as an extension to the earlier squeeze film example. After modeling the fluid domain,
the structure of the beam is modeled and meshed with SOLID45 elements. A modal analysis is performed
on the structure and the first two eigenvalues and eigenvectors are computed. RMFLVEC is used to extract
the eigenvectors for use in the modal projection method to compute the thin-film damping parameters.
The command macro ABEXTRACT is used to compute the Rayleigh parameters from the lowest two eigenmodes . Modal damping ratios are also provided by the ABEXTRACT macro for the two eigenmodes.
Table 16.4: Modal Damping Parameters for First Two Eigenfrequencies (p. 204) lists the results from the damping
parameter extraction. Computed Rayleigh parameters are: ALPHAD=65212, BETAD=1.829e-8. The input file
for this example is shown below.

Table 16.4 Modal Damping Parameters for First Two Eigenfrequencies


Frequency
(Hz.)

Modal Damping
Coefficient

Modal Squeeze Stiffness Damping


Coefficient
Ratio

Stiffness
Ratio

55294

67419

.2758e9

.9703e-1

.2285e-2

157497

83123

.3568e10

.4200e-1

.3644e-2

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16.3.3. Example Problem Using the Modal Projection Method


The input file for this example is shown below.
/batch,list
/PREP7
/title, Damping Ratio and Rayleigh Damping Calculations for a Perforated Plate
/com
uMKS units
ET, 1,136,1
ET, 2,138,1
ET,3,45

! 4-node option, High Knudsen Number


! Circular hole option, Hugh Knudsen Number
! Structural element

s_l=100
s_l1=60
s_w=20
s_t=1
c_r=3
d_el=2
pamb=.1
visc=18.3e-12
pref=.1
mfp=64e-3
Knud=mfp/d_el

! Half Plate length (um)


! Plate hole location
! Plate width
! Plate thickness
! Hole radius
! Gap
! ambient pressure (MPa)
! viscosity kg/(um)(s)
! Reference pressure (MPa)
! mean free path (um)
! Knudsen number

mp,visc,1,visc
! Dynamic viscosity gap
mp,visc,2,visc
! Dynamic viscosity holes
mp,ex,3,79e3
! Gold
mp,dens,3,19300e-18
mp,nuxy,3,.1

r,1,d_el,,,pamb
rmore,pref,mfp
r,2,c_r,,,pamb
rmore,pref,mfp

! Real constants - gap

! Real constants - hole

! Build the model


rectng,-s_l,s_l,-s_w,s_w
pcirc,c_r
agen,3,2,,,-s_l1/3
agen,3,2,,,s_l1/3
ASBA, 1, all
TYPE, 1
MAT, 1
smrtsize,4
AMESH, all

! Plate domain
! Hole domain

! Mesh plate domain

! Begin Hole generation


*do,i,1,5
nsel,all
*GET, numb, node, , num, max
! Create nodes for link elements
N, numb+1,-s_l1+i*s_l1/3,,
N, numb+2,-s_l1+i*s_l1/3,, s_t
TYPE,2
MAT, 2
REAL,2
NSEL, all
E, numb+1, numb+2
! Define 2-D link element
ESEL, s, type,,1
NSLE,s,1
local,11,1,-s_l1+i*s_l1/3
csys,11
NSEL,r, loc, x, c_r
! Select all nodes on the hole circumference
NSEL,a, node, ,numb+1
*GET, next, node, , num, min
CP, i, pres, numb+1, next
nsel,u,node, ,numb+1
nsel,u,node, ,next
CP, i, pres,all !Coupled DOF set for constant pressure

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Chapter 16: Thin Film Analysis


csys,0
*enddo
! End hole generation
esize,,2
type,3
mat,3
real,3
vext,all,,,,,s_t

! Extrude structural domain

nsel,s,loc,x,-s_l
nsel,a,loc,x,s_l
nsel,a,loc,y,-s_w
nsel,a,loc,y,s_w
nsel,r,loc,z,-1e-9,1e-9
d,all,pres
! Fix pressure at outer plate boundary
nsel,all
esel,s,type,,2
nsle,s,1
nsel,r,loc,z,s_t
d,all,pres,0
dlist,all

! P=0 at top of plate

esel,s,type,,1
nsle,s,1
nsel,u,cp,,1,5
cm,FLUN,node
allsel
nsel,s,loc,x,-s_l
nsel,a,loc,x,s_l
d,all,ux
d,all,uy
d,all,uz
allsel
fini
/solu
antype,modal
modopt,lanb,2
eqslv,sparse
mxpand,2
solve
fini

! Modal analysis
! Extract lowest two eigenmodes
! Expand lowest two eigenmodes

/post1
RMFLVEC
fini

! Extract eigenvectors

/solu
abextract,1,2
finish

! Extract damping ratios and Rayleigh constants

A transient dynamic analysis on the switch can be performed using the extracted damping parameters. The
following input illustrates a coupled electrostatic-structural time-transient solution. The electrostatic field is
assumed to be normal to the plate in the gap, and fringing effects are ignored. TRANS126 elements are used
to model the coupled electrostatic-structural interaction with the switch. The EMTGEN command is used to
generate the transducer elements. A step voltage pulse is applied over a short duration (65 micro-seconds)
then released. Rayleigh damping parameters, when used, are applied to the global mass (ALPHAD parameter)
and stiffness (BETAD parameter) matrices. We want to apply these only to the mass and stiffness matrix of
the SOLID45 elements, and not the TRANS126 elements, because doing so may overdamp the system. The
TRANS126 elements produce a damping matrix and a stiffness matrix only. Hence, we can use the ALPHAD
parameter for the global mass matrix since there is no contribution from the TRANS126 elements. To isolate
206

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16.3.3. Example Problem Using the Modal Projection Method


the SOLID45 elements for beta damping, we can apply the beta damping via a material damping option
(MP,DAMP). Figure 16.14: Time-Transient Response from Voltage Pulse (p. 208) illustrates the displacement of a
node near the center of the plate over time. The maximum amplitude of displacement (0.11 microns) is
small enough to ignore large deflection damping effects.
/batch,list
/PREP7
/title, Damped Transient Dynamic Response of an RF MEMS switch
/com
uMKS units
/com,
Small deflection assumption
et,1,200,6
ET,3,45

! Structural element

s_l=100
s_l1=60
s_w=20
s_t=1
c_r=3
d_el=2
pamb=.1
visc=18.3e-12
pref=.1
mfp=64e-3
Knud=mfp/d_el

!
!
!
!
!
!

Plate length (um)


Plate hole location
Plate width
Plate thickness
Hole radius
Gap
! ambient pressure (MPa)
! viscosity kg/(um)(s)
! Reference pressure (MPa)
! mean free path (um)
! Knudsen number

mp,ex,3,79e3
mp,dens,3,19300e-18
mp,nuxy,3,.1
mp,damp,1,1.829e-8
! Build the model

! Gold

! Material damping (from squeeze film results)

rectng,-s_l,s_l,-s_w,s_w
pcirc,c_r
agen,3,2,,,-s_l1/3
agen,3,2,,,s_l1/3
ASBA, 1, all

! Plate domain
! Hole domain

TYPE, 1
MAT, 1
smrtsize,4
AMESH, all

! Mesh plate domain

esize,,2
type,3
mat,3
real,3
vext,all,,,,,s_t

! Extrude structural domain

nsel,s,loc,x,-s_l
nsel,a,loc,x,s_l
d,all,ux
d,all,uy
d,all,uz
allsel
aclear,all
save
nsel,s,loc,z
cm,base,nodes
emtgen,'base',,,'uz',-d_el
allsel,all
nsel,s,loc,z,-d_el
d,all,uz,0
d,all,volt,0
cmsel,s,base
d,all,volt,10
allsel,all
fini
/solu

! generate Transducer elements

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Chapter 16: Thin Film Analysis


antyp,trans
alphad,65211
! alpha damping computed from Squeeze-film theory
kbc,1
time,.000065
deltime,2.0e-6
outres,all,none
outres,nsol,all
solve
time,.0002
cmsel,s,base
d,all,volt,0
allsel,all
solve
fini
n1=node(0,2,0)
/post26
nsol,2,n1,uz
prvar,2
plvar,2
finish

Figure 16.14: Time-Transient Response from Voltage Pulse

16.3.4. Damping Extraction for Large Signal Cases


If a structure does not undergo significant deformation, the gap between the structure and the fixed wall
may be assumed to be constant (small signal case). If the structural deformation in the gap is significant,
the change in the gap may effect the damping of the structure (large signal case). The gap is defined as a
real constant in the thin-film fluid elements. Use SETFGAP to automatically define and/or update the gap
real constants for the thin-film FLUID136 elements. The command can be used to:

Create real constant table entries for every selected FLUID136 element (large signal case).

Update an existing real constant table according to structural displacements for every FLUID136 element
(large signal case).

This option allows you to check the dependence of the damping parameters over the deflection range of
the structure.

16.4. Slide Film Damping


Slide film damping occurs if two surfaces separated by a thin fluid film move tangentially with respect to
each other, because energy is dissipated due to viscous flow. Typical applications are damping between the
fingers of comb drives and horizontally-moving seismic masses.

208

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16.4. Slide Film Damping


FLUID139 is used to model slide film damping. FLUID139 can model Couette and Stokes flow (Figure 16.15: Slide
Film Damping at Low and High Frequencies (p. 209)). Couette flow assumes a constant velocity gradient across
the fluid gap. Tangentially moving surfaces at low frequencies produce a nearly constant velocity gradient
in the fluid, so Couette flow is applicable to low frequencies.
Stokes flow assumes that the velocity gradient is not constant across the fluid gap. Tangentially moving
surfaces at high frequencies do not produce a constant velocity gradient, so the Stokes flow is applicable
to high frequencies. The transition from Couette to Stokes flow occurs near the cut-off frequency.
fc =

2 d2

where is the fluid density, the dynamic viscosity and d the gap separation.
Couette flow does not occur at high frequencies, because inertial effects are important and viscous friction
is only able to accelerate a thin fluid layer near the moving surface. The penetration depth is given by
=

Figure 16.15: Slide Film Damping at Low and High Frequencies


Low frequencies:

Moving Wall
Plate velocity

Couette flow:
FD =

A
p

High frequencies:

Moving Wall
Plate velocity

Stokes flow:
FD ( ) =A

sinh
cosh

( ) + sin( )
( ) - cos( 2 )
2d

2d

2d

FLUID139 models the effect of viscous flow in the thin film with a series of mass-damper elements, as shown
in Figure 16.16: Viscous Slide Film Element FLUID139 (p. 211). Couette flow is modeled using a two-node option.
Stokes flow is modeled using a 32-node option. In the 32-node option, the end nodes (node 1 and 32) are
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Chapter 16: Thin Film Analysis


connected to the structural portion of the model with structural degrees of freedom, and the series of massdamper elements are contained within "auxiliary" nodes (nodes 2-31).
The gap separation distance (GAP) and the overlap area of the surfaces (AREA) are specified as real constants
for FLUID139. If the overlap area changes during the analysis, the area change rate (DADU) must also be
specified as a real constant. A changing overlap area is typical in lateral comb drives.
A new = A initial +

dA
(un ui )
du

AREA is the initial overlap area, DADU is the change in the overlap area with respect to the surface displacement, and un and ui are the location of the interface nodes (1 and 32). Note: For a constant surface area,
DADU is the width of the overlap surface.
FLUID139 may be used for a prestress static analysis in conjunction with a prestress harmonic analysis, as
well as a full transient analysis. Prestress analysis is required if the plate area changes due to the structural
displacement. A typical command sequence for a prestress harmonic analysis would include the following:
/solu
antyp,static
pstress,on
.
.
solve
fini
/solu
antyp,harmonic
pstress,on
.
.
solve
finish

KEYOPT(3) specifies the continuous flow options. For a no-slip assumption at the wall, use the continuum
theory (KEYOPT(3) = 0). For slip flow where the Knudsen number is much less or much greater than 1.0, use
the first order slip flow condition (KEYOPT(3) = 1). For slip flow with a Knudsen number of approximately
1.0, use the extended slip flow option (KEYOPT(3) = 2).

210

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16.4.1. Slide Film Damping Example

Figure 16.16: Viscous Slide Film Element FLUID139


KEYOPT(2)=0 and KEYOPT(3)=0
Second wall

First wall
TK
Node I

Node J

KEYOPT(2)=1 and KEYOPT(3)=0


First wall

Second wall

TK

I+1

I+2

I+3

I+29

I+30

I+31

Node I

I+32

Node J
I+32 = J

KEYOPT(2)=1 and KEYOPT(3)=1


Second wall
Lm

First wall
TK
I

I+1

I+2

I+3

I+29

I+30

I+31

Node I

I+32

Node J

16.4.1. Slide Film Damping Example


Comb drive resonators are a common application for slide film damping. Figure 16.17: Comb Drive Resonator (p. 211) illustrates a typical comb drive assembly consisting of fixed and moving comb drives, springs, and
a central mass.

Figure 16.17: Comb Drive Resonator

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211

Chapter 16: Thin Film Analysis


Details on the comb drive geometry are given in the input file listed below. The electrostatic behavior of
the moving comb drives are represented by two TRANS126 transducer elements with prescribed Stroke vs.
Capacitance data obtained from finite element runs. The structural behavior of the crab legs is modeled by
a spring element. The inertial effects of the central mass are modeled with a mass element. Damping occurs
between the comb teeth (lateral dimension), and between the comb teeth and the substrate (vertical dimension). Four FLUID139 elements are used to model the lateral and vertical damping (two per comb drive).
The cut-off frequency is well below the frequency range for the analysis; therefore, Couette flow is assumed.
Since the comb drive effective surface area changes with displacement, the DADU real constant is used
(equal to the width of the plate area).
A static prestress analysis is run using a DC bias voltage on the input and output fixed comb drives. A harmonic analysis sweep is then performed using a small AC voltage. The displacement (magnitude and phase
angle) of the central mass is shown in Figure 16.18: Displacement of Central Mass (p. 212). Figure 16.19: Real
and Imaginary Current (p. 212) shows the current.

Figure 16.18: Displacement of Central Mass

Figure 16.19: Real and Imaginary Current

/prep7
/title Comb drive resonator with FLUID139 Couette damping

!
!
!
!
!
!

212

DRIVE COMB
|
|
CRAB LEG SPRING --- CENTRAL MASS --- CRAB LEG SPRING
|
|

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16.4.1. Slide Film Damping Example


!

PICK-UP COMB

! Reference:
! "Microelectromechanical Filters for Signal Processing",
! Lin, L., Howe, R.T., J. Microelectromechanical Systems,
! VOL 7, No. 3, Sept 1998
! beam parameters (uMKS units)
E = 190e3
d = 2.33e-15
hb = 2
wb = 2
Lb = 100
k = 5.699

!Young modulus
! density
! beam thickness
! beam width
! beam length
! mechanical stiffness

! comb parameter
n= 9
np=n*2
x0= 10
L0= 26
L=20
gi= L0-x0
w= 4
h= hb
gp=3
g= 3
Mr = 1.96563e-11

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

number of finger
number of finger pairs
initial finger overlap
finger length (stator comb)
finger length (moving comb)
initial gap
finger width
finger thickness
finger gap (lateral)
comb gap (vertical)
mass

! Lateral gap area


areal=np*h*x0
! Vertical gap area
areav=n*w*x0
! Stroke vs. Capacitance data
x1
cx1
x2
cx2
x3
cx3
x4
cx4
x5
cx5

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

14
0.97857e-2
15
0.96669e-2
16
0.95445e-2
17
0.94185e-2
18
0.93384e-2

! Voltage conditions
Vi = 40
Vo = 60
Vac = 10

! input dc bias
! output dc bias
! input ac bias

! Damping parmeters
nu=18.3e-12
! dynamic viscosity
po=0.1
! reference pressure
dens=1.17e-18
! density
fc=nu/(2*3.14159*dens*(g**2))
! cutoff frequency
daduv=w*n
! change in plate area - vertical
dadul=h*np
! change in plate area - lateral
! Model
n,1,0
n,2,0
n,3,0
n,4,0
et,1,126,,0,1
!Trans126, UX-Volt DOF
r,1,,,gi,,
rmore,x1,cx1,x2,cx2,x3,cx3
rmore,x4,cx4,x5,cx5

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213

Chapter 16: Thin Film Analysis

e,1,2
e,2,3
et,2,21,,,4
r,2,Mr
type,2
real,2
e,2

! Mass element

et,3,14,,1
r,3,k
type,3
real,3
e,2,4

! linear spring, UX DOF

! Lateral dampers
et,4,139
! Slide-film damper, Couette flow, Continuum theory
mp,visc,4,nu
mp,dens,4,dens
r,4,g,areal,-dadul,po
type,4
mat,4
real,4
e,1,2
e,2,3
! Vertical dampers
r,5,g,areav,-daduv,po
real,5
e,1,2
e,2,3

d,1,ux,0
d,3,ux,0
d,4,ux,0
d,2,uy,0
d,2,volt,0
! Prestress static analysis
/solu
d,1,volt,Vi
d,3,volt,Vo
pstres,on
solve
fini
! Harmonic Frequency Sweep
fr0=60000
fr1=120000
/solu
antyp,harm
d,1,volt,Vac
d,3,volt,0
pstres,on
harfrq,fr0,fr1
nsubs,60
outres,all,all
kbc,1
solve

! AC voltage component on capacitor


! prestress

/post26
nsol,2,2,u,x,ux2
esol,3,2,,nmisc,24,ir
esol,4,2,,nmisc,25,ii
/axlab,x,Frequency (Hz)
plcplx,0
/axlab,y, Displacement (um)

214

! label of x axis

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16.4.1. Slide Film Damping Example


plvar,2
plcplx,1
/axlab,y, Phase angle
plvar,2
plcplx,2
/axlab,y, Current (pA)
plvar,3,4
fini

! plot displacement

versus time (frequency)

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215

216

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Index
A
acceleration, 129
ACEL command, 43, 129
acoustic analysis, 165
load step options, 175
loads for, 172
reviewing results from, 176
acoustics, 165
absolute pressure, 165
absorbing boundary condition, 167
amplitude, 172
applications of, 165
axisymmetric cases, 167
boundary admittance, 167
circular or spherical boundary (RAD), 167
compressible fluid, 165
coupled acoustic analysis, 165
coupling matrix, 177
definition of, 165
density, 167
far-field problems, 177
fluid load, 177
fluid-structure interaction, 165, 177
fluid-structure interface, 170
forcing frequency, 172
harmonic acoustic analysis, 166
infinite acoustic elements, 167
inviscid fluid, 165
mean pressure, 165
meshing the model, 168
modal analysis, 165
outgoing pressure wave, 167
particle velocity, 165
pressure changes, 165
pressure gradient, 165
sample fluid-structure acoustic analysis (batch), 177
sample room acoustic analysis, 179
solving acoustics problems, 165
sound-absorption material, 179
speed of sound (SONC), 167
standing wave pattern, 179
transient acoustic analysis, 165
uncoupled acoustic analysis, 165
unsymmetric matrices, 171
wavelength, 169
adiabatic boundaries, 40
advection limit, 60
advection term, 161
ambient radiation, 40

amplitude, 172
analysis options
acoustics, 171
analysis type
acoustics, 165
Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian analysis, 79
boundary conditions, 81
mesh updating, 83
remeshing, 84
arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian analysis
example problems, 87
artificial viscosity, 105
axis of rotation, 135

B
backward time integration method, 59
Bingham viscosity model, 119, 123, 131
boundary conditions, 104
FLOTRAN analysis, 11
laminar and turbulent flow, 33
thermal analysis, 40
transient analysis, 62
bulk temperature, 42
buoyancy, 43

C
Carreau viscosity model, 119, 123, 130
CGLOC command, 135
CGOMEGA command, 135
collocated Galerkin approach, 46, 161
compressible flow analysis, 4, 23, 103
compressible fluid, 165
conduction limit, 60
conductivity matrix algorithm, 44
conjugate heat transfer, 4, 44
convergence, 60, 140
coordinate systems, 133
Couette flow, 208
coupled acoustic analysis, 165
coupling algorithms, 145
cross-talk, 203

D
D command, 33, 81, 136, 153
DA command, 33, 81
database
backing up, 176
density, 39, 119
displacements, 174
distributed resistance, 136
divergence, 105

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217

Index
DL command, 33, 81
drag, 38

E
effective viscosity, 24
elements
FLOTRAN, 7
example problems
arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian analysis, 87
compressible flow, 106
incompressible flow, 38
modal projection method, 204
multiple species, 154
slide film, 211
squeeze film, 191
thermal analysis, 47
volume of fluid analysis, 70

F
files
Jobname.RST, 176
FLDATA1 command, 25, 39, 59
FLDATA10 command, 120
FLDATA11 command, 120
FLDATA12 command, 126, 131
FLDATA13 command, 43, 126
FLDATA14 command, 42, 103, 126
FLDATA15 command, 129
FLDATA17 command, 103, 129
FLDATA18 command, 44, 139
FLDATA19 command, 140
FLDATA20 command, 140141
FLDATA21 command, 140
FLDATA22 command, 140
FLDATA23 command, 140
FLDATA24 command, 25, 33, 36, 161
FLDATA25 command, 43, 161
FLDATA31 command, 36
FLDATA33 command, 161
FLDATA34 command, 36, 161
FLDATA35 command, 68
FLDATA36 command, 67
FLDATA37 command, 44, 145
FLDATA38 command, 59
FLDATA4 command, 61, 69
FLDATA4A command, 5960
FLDATA7 command, 117, 119, 130, 150
FLDATA8 command, 120
FLDATA9 command, 120
FLOCHECK command, 62
FLOTRAN analysis
applications, 3
218

artificial viscosity, 16
boundary conditions, 11
characterizing flow, 25
compressible flow, 4, 103
compressible flow analysis, 10
convergence, 13, 17
convergence and stability tools, 15
coordinate systems, 7
divergence, 20
DOF capping, 16
domain file, 14
element characteristics, 7
element limitations, 8
evaluating, 20
examining results, 12
files, 12
flow regime, 10
fluid properties, 117
free surface, 4
global iterations, 17
graphical solution tracking, 17
incompressible flow, 4
inertial relaxation, 15
laminar flow, 4
meshing, 11
modified inertial relaxation, 15
multiple species transport, 4
nodal residuals file file, 13
non-Newtonian fluid flow, 4
overview, 10
overwrite frequency option, 12
print file, 13
problem domain, 10
quadrature order, 16
relaxation factors, 15
residuals, 13
restart file, 13
restarting, 14
results file, 12
setting parameters, 11
solvers, 139
solving, 11
special features, 133
stopping, 19
thermal analysis, 4, 39
transient analysis, 59
turbulence model, 10, 17
turbulent flow, 4
types, 3
verifying results, 20
flow regime
thin film, 188

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Index
fluid analyses
acoustics (see acoustics)
slide film, 208
squeeze film, 185
thin film, 185
fluid properties
initializing and varying, 126
specifying, 117
tables, 120
user-defined file, 118, 126
user-programmable subroutines, 118, 131
fluid property types, 117
fluid-structure interaction, 165, 174, 177
fluid-structure interface, 170
forced convection, 4, 43
forces, 174
forcing frequency, 172
free convection, 43
free surface analysis, 4

G
generalized symmetry boundary conditions, 33, 81
global iterations, 60, 140
gravitational acceleration, 129

H
harmonic acoustic analysis, 166
harmonic acoustic analysis guidelines, 166
heat balance, 4647
heat fluxes, 40
heat transfer (film) coefficients, 40
hydraulic diameter, 24

I
IC command, 150
ICE command, 66
ICVFRC command, 66
impedance, 174
incompressible flow analysis, 4, 23
boundary conditions, 33
difficult problems, 36
example problem, 38
meshing requirements, 32
inertial relaxation, 106
infinite acoustic elements, 167
inlet parameters, 25
inlet values, 33
intersections, 33
INTSRF command, 38

K
KEYOPT command, 133, 151
Knudsen number, 188

L
laminar flow, 4, 23, 25
large signal cases, 208
lift, 38
load step options
acoustics, 175
loads, 40, 171

M
mass imbalances, 33
mass types, 59
material model interface, 4
meshing, 32, 39
FLOTRAN analysis, 11
mixture types, 149
modal projection method, 201
modified inertial relaxation, 153
moments, 174
monotone Streamline Upwind approach, 46
monotone streamline upwind approach, 161
moving wall, 33
MP command, 39, 117
MSADV command, 161
MSCAP command, 153
MSDATA command, 150151
MSMETH command, 153
MSNOMF command, 150
MSPROP command, 152
MSRELAX command, 153
MSSOLU command, 153
MSSPEC command, 149150, 152
multiple species transport, 4, 149

N
natural convection, 4
Newmark time integration method, 59
non-fluid properties, 39, 117
non-Newtonian fluid flow analysis, 4, 129
non-Newtonian viscosity models, 119, 123

P
particle velocity, 165
PERI command, 33
periodic boundaries, 33
/PICE command, 66
PLVFRC command, 69
power law viscosity model, 119, 123, 130

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219

Index
preconditioned bicgstab solver, 143
preconditioned generalized minimum residual solver,
141
pressure gradient, 165
pressure surface loads, 174
pressure wave limit, 60
property calculations, 103
property types, 117, 120

R
radiosity solver method, 47
ratio of specific heats, 103, 129
reference pressure, 129
reference properties, 129
relaxation factors, 43, 153
reviewing results
acoustics, 176
Reynolds number, 24
rotating reference frames, 135
rotational speeds, 135

S
sample acoustic analysis
batch method, 177
search directions, 140
semi-direct solvers, 140
SFE command, 67
SFL command, 67
SIMPLEF algorithm, 145
SIMPLEN algorithm, 145
slide film, 185, 208
solution, 171
Solvers, 139, 171
sparse direct solver, 143, 171
species mass fractions, 150
specific heat, 39, 103, 118, 124
specified flow, 33
specified pressure, 33
squeeze film, 185
squeeze film analysis
harmonic analysis, 187
static analysis, 187
transient analysis, 188
squeeze stiffness effect, 185
stationary wall, 33
stepped or ramped loads, 175
Stokes flow, 208
streamline upwind/Petrov-Galerkin approach, 46, 161
surface tension coefficient, 65, 117, 119, 125
surface-to-surface radiation, 40, 47
Sutherland's law, 123
swirl, 136
220

symmetry boundary, 33

T
temperature equation, 39
temperature field algorithm, 44
temperature load, 40
temperature offset, 126
thermal analysis, 4
example problems, 47
loads and boundary conditions, 40
property specifications, 39
thermal boundary conditions, 40
thermal conductivity, 39, 119, 124
thin film analysis, 185
Couette vs. Stokes flow, 208
cross-talk, 203
flow regime, 188
large signal cases, 208
modal projection method, 201
slide film, 208
squeeze film, 185
time steps, 60
TOFFST command, 126, 129
total temperature, 103
transient analysis, 59
boundary conditions, 62
settings, 60
terminating, 61
tri-diagonal matrix algorithm, 140
turbulence model, 2425
turbulence ratio, 25, 36
turbulent flow, 4, 23
turbulent kinetic energy, 25, 33

U
uncoupled acoustic analysis, 165
units, 117
unspecified boundary, 33

V
variable density option, 43
velocity capping, 36
viscosity, 39
Bingham model, 119, 123, 131
Carreau model, 119, 123, 130
effective, 24
power law model, 119, 123, 130
viscous heating, 43
volume of fluid analysis, 65
boundary conditions, 67
example problems, 70

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Index
input settings, 67
loads, 66
postprocessing, 69

W
wall roughness, 33
wall static contact angle, 117, 119, 125

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221

222

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