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Lackoffusioninweldedjoints

GabrielRIHAR
WeldingInstitute,Ptujska19,SI1000Ljubljana
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General

Abstract.
Foranefficientexaminationofweldedjoints,thoroughknowledgenotonlyofnondestructive
testingmethodsbutalsoofthedefectstobedetectedisrequired.Intheweldingliterature,
however,thereareveryfewdataonlackoffusion,whichisoneofthemostseriousdefects.There
arealsonoefficienttestingmethodsavailableforitsdetection.
Ourstudiesweretoprovideasmuchdataaspossibleonlackoffusion.Itwasinvestigatedwith
whichweldingprocesseslackoffusionismostfrequent,whatitspositioninaweldedjointisand
whatitsphysicalpropertiesare.Itwasalsostudiedwhatkindofindicationsthelackoffusion
giveswithdifferentnondestructivemethods.
Testingwascarriedoutwithtypicalweldedjoints.Metallographicandmechanicaltestingwasalso
usedinordertomakeacomparisonwithnondestructivetesting.Varioustypesoflackoffusion
wereclassifiedintocharacteristicgroups,i.e.thetypesincludingvoidsandnonmetallicinclusions
andthetypesofpurelackoffusionwhichcannotbedetectedbynondestructivetesting.
Keywords:welding,NDT,welddefects,lackoffusion.

1Introduction
Itisknownfromtheweldingpracticethatthelackoffusiondefectsoftenoccurinaweldedjoint.
Manyafailureofaweldedstructurethusoccursduetoundetectedlackoffusioninweldedjoints.
Lackoffusionisoneofthemostseriouswelddefects.Itproducesthenotcheffect.Thereare,
however,noefficientnondestructivemethodsavailableforitsdetection.
Iflackoffusiondefectsandcracksarecompared,itisevidentthatmuchmoreattentionispaidto
cracksthantolackoffusionalthoughlackoffusionisasseriousadefectasacrack.Inthewelding
literaturenumerouspapersdealwithcracksbutveryfewwithlackoffusion.Onlysomeolder
documentsoftheInternationalInstituteofWeldingwerefoundtoreportonlackoffusion[14].It
was,therefore,decidedtostudylackoffusionmoreclosely.Itwastobefoundoutwhereitoccurs
mostfrequently,underwhichconditionsitformsandhowitcanbedetected.

2Definitionoflackoffusion
Inwelds,incompletelyfusedspots,calledlackoffusion,persist.Aweldcanlackunionwiththe
parentmetalorwithapreviousweldbead.Anadhesionjointforms,whichcanberatherstrongin
certaincases.Itismuchlikeabrazedjointorjointformedinmetallisation.Thepurerlackof

fusionis,themoredifficultitistodetectit.
Withregardtothepositionofthelackoffusiondefectsinaweld,threetypesoflackoffusionare
distinguished[5]:
1. lackofsidewallfusion,
2. lackofinterrunfusion,
3. lackoffusionattherootoftheweld.
Astotheappearanceofthefractureface,onedistinguishesthelackoffusionduetounmelted
oxideinclusionsandthelackoffusionduetomeltedoxideinclusions.Thelackoffusiondefects
duetounmeltedoxideinclusionsconsistofoxidesandnonmetallicinclusions.Lackoffusion,of
whichthreetypes,i.e.IIWreferences4011,4012,and4013,aredistinguishedinastandardshould
notbemixedupwithlackofpenetration,i.e.IIWreference402[6].Thedefectslocatedatthe
surfaceareefficientlydetectedbyavisualinspection.Lackofpenetrationinsidetheweld,
however,canbedetectedbyXrayorultrasonicinspectionmethods.
Astothepossibilityofdetecting,differenttypesoflackoffusioncanbeclassifiedintotwogroups,
i.e.,theoneinwhichlackoffusionincludesvoidsornonmetallicinclusionswhichcanbe
detectedbynondestructivemethods,andtheoneinwhichthelackoffusionshowsno
discontinuityinthematerialsinceitisastructuraldefectandthuscannotbedetectedbynon
destructivemethods.

3Characteristicsoflackoffusion
Itwasfoundinmetallographicexaminationsthatinaweldthreetypesoflackoffusioncanbe
found:
1. purelackoffusionorlackoffusionduetomeltedoxideinclusions,
2. openlackoffusion,
3. lackoffusionconsistingofnonmetallicinclusions.
Thepurelackoffusionisastructuraldefect.Inthiscasethemoltenmetalstickstotheparent
metalwhichhasnotmeltedenoughduringwelding.Ajointbetweenthesolidphaseandtheliquid
oneforms.Itislikeabrazedjoint.Thistypeoflackoffusioncannotbedetectedbynon
destructivetestingmethodsbutwithamicroscopicinspection.Astraightfusionlineindicatesthat
theremaybethelackoffusionbetweentheparentmetalandtheweld.Theinterrunlackoffusion
isevenmorehidden.Itcanbedetectedonlybyanaccuratemicroscopicinspectionwitha50times
magnification.AnexampleofthepurelackoffusionisshowninFig.1.

Fig1:Purelackoffusionbetweenthefinalrunandtheparentmetal.a)macrograph:x3.5micrograph:

x100.

Becauseofinternalstressesproducedduringweldsolidificationandcooling,thefacesstickingto
eachotherwillseparate.Avoidhavingawidthofonlysomehundredthsofamillimeterforms.
Thisgapintheweldisverymucklikeacrack.Itcan,however,bedetectedbynondestructive
testingmethods.Suchatypeoflackoffusionisdifficulttodistinguishfromacrack.Anexample
oftheopenlackoffusionisshowninFig.2.

Fig2:Openlackoffusionbetweenthecentralandfinalruns.a)macrograph,x3.5b)micrograph:x100.

Wherethelackoffusionisthereareveryoftenalsooxidesandnonmetalicinclusions.Suchacase
isshowninFig.3.Iftheoxidelayerdoesnotmelt,theinclusionsareuniformlydistributedacross
theentiresurfaceofthelackoffusiondefect.Iftheymelt,however,thenonmetallicinclusions
becomespherical.

Fig3:Inclusionsatthefacesstickingtogether.a)Themacrographshowslackoffusionbetweenthecentral
andfinalrunsb)Themicrographshowsinclusionsatthefacesstickedtogether.

4Locationoflackoffusiondefects
Thelackoffusionisaplanardefect.Itmayappearattheedgeoftheparentmetalorbetweenruns.
Thelackoffusionbetweentheparentmetalandtheweldmetalshowsaflatface.Thelackof
interrunfusion,however,showsanirregularshape.
Thelackoffusionisusuallytobefoundattheweldinside.Itrarelyreachesthefinalrunsorthe
rootrun.LocationoftypicaltypesoflackoffusionareshowninFig.4.

Fig4:Lackoffusioninaweld:lackofsidewallfusion(above),lackof
interrunfusion(below).

5Detectionoflackoffusionbynondestructivetestingmethods
Asalreadymentioned,thenondestructivetestingmethodscommonlyusedintestingofwelded
jointsareineffectiveindetectionofthelackoffusiondefects.Inroutinetesting,thelackoffusion
isusuallynotdetected.Whenthelackoffusionissuspectedinaweld,thetestingmethodsused
shouldbesuitablyadapted.Attentionshouldbepaidtoallindicationsincludingthosewhichdonot
exceedtheirlevelsofacceptability.
Accountshouldbetakenthatthelackoffusionmayappearingasshieldedarcweldingwitha
consumableelectrodeandgaswelding.Thereisagreatchanceoftheappearanceoflackoffusion
indownhillwelding.
Itisveryusefultoobtaindataontheweldstructureandweldingconditionspriortowelding.
Informationshouldbesoughtwhetheranymechanicalandmetallographicexaminationsofthe
weldedjointstobeexaminedhavebeenperformed.

6Nondestructivetestingmethodsforthedetectionoflackoffusion
Theradiographicexaminationmakespossiblethedetectionoflarge,distinctivetypesoflackof
fusioninwhichthereareinclusionsandvoidsofconsiderablesize.Theexaminationdetectsthe
inclusionsbutnotthelackoffusionitself.Attentionshouldbepaidtoalldefectslocatedatthe
fusionlineandbetweenindividualruns.Theradiographictestingmethodsarenotsuitablefor
detectionofthelackoffusion.
Fordetectionofthelackoffusion,theultrasonicexaminationisthemostsuitableofallthe
availablenondestructivetestingmethods.Alltypesoflackoffusion,withtheexceptionofthe
purelackoffusion,canbedetected.Ourinvestigationsshowedthatconsiderablylargelackof
fusiondefectsgiveweakultrasonicindicationswhichareinpracticeconsideredminoracceptable
defects.Aconsiderablypoorreflectionofultrasonicwavesisobtaineddueto:
thestickedsurfaceconsistsofanumberofsmalldefectswhichpassovertothepurelackof
fusion

thelackoffusionlocatedattheedgesofaVweldcoincideswiththeangleofreflectionof
ultrasonicwaves.

Fig5:Ultrasonicexaminationofthelackoffusionbetween
theparentmetalandtheweldmetal.a)examinationfromall
fourscanningdirectionsb)examinationfromthecoverlayer.

Becauseoftheabove,weak,repeatingindicationsshouldalsobeconsideredwheninspecting
weldsinwhichthelackoffusionissuspected.Theultrasonicwavesshouldbedirected,ifpossible,
perpendiculartothestickingfaces.Itcanbesupposedthatthelackoffusionmayappearatthe
edgeoftheparentmetal.Inthecasewhentheaccessofultrasonicwavesispossiblefromallfour
sides,thedirectpathasshowninFig.5aisused.Theexaminationcanbeaccomplishedonlyfrom
thecoverlayer.Inthiscasethesinglebouncetechniqueisusedtoexaminetheupperpartofthe
weld(Fig.5b).
Thepenetranttestingmethodsareusedprimarilywhentightnessofweldedjointsistobeensured,
e.g.intestingoftanks.Theypermitdetectionofthelackoffusionreachingthesurface.
Allindicationsattheedgeofrunsindicateapossibilityofthelackoffusion.Specialattention
shouldbepaidtofilletwelds.Thelackoffusiondefectexistinginaweldmayopenwhenloaded
andproduceleakingofatank.
Thelackoffusionisatypicallywelder'sfault.Bymonitoringtheweldingprocessanexperienced
supervisorcanfindtheformationoflackoffusion.Attentionshouldbepaidtothepositionofthe
weldpoolwhichmustnotrunaheadofthearcandfilltheweldgroove.Attentionshouldbepaid
whethertheweldersufficientlymeltsthejointedges.Thelackoffusioncanbesuccessfully
detectedbythevisualinspectionduringwelding.Thevisualinspectionafterweldingisnot
efficient.

7Conclusions
Inweldsboththelackoffusionwhichisastructuraldefectandthelackoffusioninwhichthe
metaljointisinterruptedbyvoidsandnonmetallicinclusionsmaybefound.Thepurelackof
fusioncanbedetectedonlybythevisualinspectionduringwelding.Theothertypesoflackof

fusionmaybedetectedbyultrasonictestingmethods.Thelackoffusionreachingthesurfacemay
bedetectedbytheliquidpenetrantormagneticparticletestingmethods.Becauseofan
unfavourablepositionofthelackoffusionandunfavourablepropertiesofthestickingfaces,weak
indicationsareobtainedwithconsiderablylargedefectstherefore,acceptancecriteriaforthe
weldscontainingthelackoffusionshouldbemademorestrict.

References
1. N.Yamauchi,Y.Inaba,T.Taka:FormationMechanismofLackofFusioninMAGWelding.IIW
Doc.21252982.InternationalInstituteofWelding,1982.
2. CausesforWeldDefects.IIWDoc.XIIB04683.InternationalInstituteofWelding,1983.
3. GasshieldedMetalArcWeldingofSteel.DirectionsforExecutionofProcess.AvoidanceofLack
ofFusion.IIWDoc.XIIB04983.InternationalInstituteofWelding,1983.
4. R.KillingandH.Hantsch:BeitragzurFragederBindefehlerempfindlichkeitbeimMetall
AktivgasschweienmitFlldrahtelektroden.SchweienundSchneiden,45(1993)12,689693.
5. MultilingualCollectionofTermsforWeldingandAlliedProcesses/InternationalInstituteof
Welding.Part1.GeneralTerms.Institutzavarilstvo,Ljubljana,1988.
6. EN26520:Classificationofimperfectionsinmetallicfusionwelds,withexplanations.
AIPnD,createdbyNDT.net

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