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Ethics In Workplace:Work Ethics:

A group of moral principles, standards of behavior, or set of values regarding proper conduct in
the workplace
Relationships at Work
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Management/owner toward client/customer


Management/owner toward employees

Employee toward Employer, Co-workers, Customers

Business Abuse
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illegal
unethical

irresponsible Act done against an Employer

Results of Business Abuse


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Higher prices
Business Failure

Fewer Jobs

Unpleasant Working Conditions

Examples of Business Abuse


1. Stealing
2. Merchandise
3. Money

Shoplift *Kickback

Conflict of Interest

Unauthorized Discounts

4. Vandalism

5. Falsify Records
6. Break Confidentiality
7. Ignore Safety Rules

8. Misrepresent Merchandise
9. Poor Client Service
10. Irresponsible Behavior
11. Addictions

drugs

alcohol

tobacco

12. Gossip

Causes poor work environment (morale)

Lowers Productivity

How Employers Respond to Business Abuse

Increase Security

Loss prevention mgmt.

surveillance

Networks/Helplines

threats of prosecution

Increase Employee Loyalty

fair wages & benefits

fair/consistent treatment

recognition for good wk

foster family climate

Ethical dilemma:An ethical dilemma is a situation wherein moral precepts or ethical obligations conflict in such a
way that any possible resolution to the dilemma is morally intolerable. In other words, an ethical
dilemma is any situation in which guiding moral principles cannot determine which course of
action is right or wrong.
Or
An ethical dilemma, also known as a moral dilemma, is a situation where the guiding principles
of our everyday life cannot determine whether a particular course of action is right or wrong.
The moral precepts conflict in such a way as the possible resolutions to the dilemma are in no
way tolerable. It is like choosing between two evils but in in which ever choice is chosen, no
good will been done.
Example:Accounting:
Your supervisor enters your office and asks you for a check for $150.00 for expenses he tells you
he incurred entertaining a client last night. He submits receipts from a restaurant and lounge. At
lunch your supervisors girlfriend stops by to pick him up for lunch and you overhear her telling
the receptionist what a great time she had at dinner and dancing with your supervisor the night
before.
What do you do?
Bank Teller:

You have worked as a bank teller for several months when one of the other tellers who has
become a good friend tells you that her daughter is extremely ill and that se must have an
operation to survive. She also tells you that she has no insurance and the operation will cost
$10,000. Sometime later you ask her about her daughter and she tells you she is just fine now.
She then confides in you that she took $10,000.00 from a dormant account at the bank to pay for
the operation. She assures you that she has already started paying it back and will continue to do
so until it is all returned.
What do you do?
Computers:
In your spare time at work, you have developed a new spreadsheet program on the personal
computer in your office. It is even more powerful, yet easier to sue than anything on the market.
You share your new program with a friend who encourages you to market it on your own because
you could probably make an incredible profit in a very short time. This is a very attractive option,
yet you developed it using company equipment and during time that you were at work.
What do you do?

An Ethical Decision-Making Model: Clarify.


a. Determine precisely what must be decided.
b. Formulate and devise the full range of alternatives.
c. Eliminate patently impractical, illegal and improper alternatives.
d. Force yourself to develop at least three ethically justifiable options.

e. Examine each option to determine which ethical principles and values are involved.
Evaluate.
a. If any of the options requires the sacrifice of any ethical principle, evaluate the facts and
assumptions carefully.

b. Distinguish solid facts from beliefs, desires, theories, suppositions, unsupported


conclusions, opinions, and rationalizations.
c. Consider the credibility of sources, especially when they are self-interested, ideological
or biased.
d. With regard to each alternative, carefully consider the benefits, burdens and risks to each
stakeholder.
Decide.
a. Make a judgment about what is not true and what consequences are most likely to occur.
b. Evaluate the viable alternatives according to personal conscience.
c. Prioritize the values so that you can choose which values to advance and which to
subordinate.
d. Determine who will be helped the most and harmed the least.
e. Consider the worst case scenario.
f.

Consider whether ethically questionable conduct can be avoided by changing goals or


methods, or by getting consent.

g. Apply three "ethics guides."


o

Are you treating others as you would want to be treated?

Would you be comfortable if your reasoning and decision were to be publicized?

Would you be comfortable if your children were observing you?

Implement.
a. Develop a plan of how to implement the decision.
b. Maximize the benefits and minimize the costs and risks.
Monitor and modify.
a. Monitor the effects of decisions.
b. Be prepared and willing to revise a plan, or take a different course of action.
c. Adjust to new information.

Individual Influences On Ethical Decision Making:-

Following are the factor include


Age

Results contradictory.
However experiences may have impact.

Individual characteristic most often researched.


Results contradictory.

Gender

National and cultural characteristics


People from different cultural backgrounds are likely to have different values / beliefs
about right & wrong.
This will inevitably lead to variations in ethical decision-making across nations,
religions & cultures.
Our mental programming is influential in shaping our understanding of differences
Individualism / collectivism
Power distance
Uncertainty avoidance
Masculinity / femininity
Education and employment
Type and quality of education may be influential.
E.g. business students rank lower in moral development than others and more likely to
cheat.
Amoral business ed. reinforces myth of amoral business.
And Lawyers rank high?

Psychological factors:
Cognitive moral development (CMD) refers to different levels of reasoning that individuals can
apply to ethical issues and problems
Criticisms of CMD
Gender bias
Implicit value judgements
Invariance of stages
An individuals locus of control determines the extent to which they believe that they
have control over the events in their life
Personal values, integrity & moral imagination
Personal values
an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is
personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or
end state
Personal integrity
Defined as an adherence to moral principles/values
Moral imagination
Concerned with whether one has a sense of the variety of possibilities and moral
consequences of their decisions, the ability to imagine a wide range of possible
issues, consequences, and solutions

Situational Influences On Decision Making:Issue Related Situations 2/2


Moral framing:
The same problem/dilemma can be perceived very differently according to the way the
issue is framed
Language is an important aspect of moral framing
Moral muteness (Bird & Walters 1989) because of:
Harmony
Efficiency
Image of power & effectiveness
Rewards

Strong evidence of relationship between rewards, punishments &


ethical behaviour.

Authority

Great influence from immediate superiors & top management on


ethical decision-making.

Bureaucracy

Significant influence on ethical decision-making is well documented.

Work roles

Some learning differences evident

Organizational
Culture

Strong influence implies relationship between culture & ethical


decision-making contested.