 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﻔﻨﻲ واﻟﺘﺪرﻳﺐ اﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬
215


 

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 W،،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

‫א‬         ‫א‬   ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫ א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬?‫א‬?? ‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬

،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ،‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﻔﻨﻲ واﻟﺘﺪرﻳﺐ اﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

1

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 1

 K‫א‬‫א‬J 2

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 3

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬٪100‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K6
 W‫א‬‫א‬
K K1

K‫א‬ K2

-1-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬
 W‫א‬1J 1
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬           ‫א‬ 

‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬{‫א‬‫א‬

{‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬{‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

        ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

Remote F  ‫א‬  ‫א‬       ‫א‬   

Aerial Photo F ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬ KESensing

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EInterpretation
،‫א‬1960K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬EImagesF 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬2J 1
‫א‬  ‫א‬ ،‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬

،1839‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

1860K 80‫א‬1858‫א‬
K1882‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K360‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬1903‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
‫א‬1915K1909
-2-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ K1915  ‫א‬ ‫א‬       {‫א‬
‫א‬1934‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬1920
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ K  

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،1942‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

13‫א‬1946‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ،   ‫א‬    ‫א‬

 ‫א‬    ،  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

1957،120‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1946  

K1958‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،E3 F ‫א‬ ‫א‬  1965     ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

    ،1972  ‫א‬ 1968   ‫א‬ EF    ‫א‬

E Landsat-1‫א‬‫א‬ ERTS-1F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1972

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،19741973
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ،  ‫א‬   E1J 1F ،‫א‬   ‫א‬  

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-3-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬



‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

1978‫א‬‫א‬

1972

LANDSAT-1

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

1

1983‫א‬‫א‬

1975

LANDSAT-2

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

2

1979

NOAA-6

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

3

1978

LANDSAT-3

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

4

1981

NOAA-7

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

1982

LANDSAT-4

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

1983

NOAA-8

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

1984

LANDSAT-5

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

1984

NOAA-9

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

1985

RESURS-O1-1

1986

SPOT-1

1986

NOAA-10

1988

RESURS-O1-2

1988

IRS-1A

1988

NOAA-11

1990

SPOT-2

1991

IRS-1B

1991

NOAA-12

1993

SPOT-3


1983‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

1993

LANDSAT-6

1994

NOAA-14

1994

RESURS-O1-3

1995

IRS-1C

1995

RADARSAT

‫א‬

NOAA-13

‫א‬

-4-

5
6

7
8

9

‫א‬‫ א‬10
  11

‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬12
 ‫א‬‫ א‬13
‫ א‬14
‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬15

 16
 ‫ א‬17

‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬18
  19
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

20
21

‫א‬‫ א‬22
 ‫ א‬23

‫א‬ 24

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

1997

IRS-1D

1998

RESURS-O1-4

1998

SPOT-4

1998

NOAA-15

1999

LANDSAT-7

1999

IKONOS

2000

EROS-A

2000

NOAA-16

2001

QuickBird

2002

SPOT-5

2002

NOAA-17

 27
‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬28

‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬29
‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬30
‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬31
‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬32
‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬33
  34
‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬35

 K‫א‬‫א‬E1J 1F

-5-

‫ א‬25
‫א‬‫ א‬26

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬3J 1
  ‫א‬ ،‫א‬
K‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬     

‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

        ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،‫א‬   ‫א‬ 

   ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ،‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

   ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   

    ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ،‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

 K

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ،‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،  ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬4J 1
‫א‬ ‫א‬
 WE1J 1F‫א‬
K‫א‬ K1

K‫א‬‫א‬ K2
K‫ א‬K3

 K‫א‬ K4

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬WE1J 1F
 W‫א‬‫א‬1J 4J 1
‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬    
‫א‬K‫א‬،‫א‬‫ א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

W

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WEPassiveF‫א‬‫א‬ K

  ،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WEActiveF‫א‬‫א‬ K

‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ E‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬F ‫א‬
 K‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬1J 1J 4J 1

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،E      ‫א‬F     

F ‫א‬   E2J 1 F   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

،‫א‬‫א‬KE‫א‬ 810C3،‫א‬300Z‫א‬

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   

‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ K  

 EF ‫א‬   ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬   Eλ Wave LengthF
 KE3J 1F،EFrequency FF

K‫א‬‫א‬WE2J 1F

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE3J 1F

-8-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬2J 1J 4J 1

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 WE4J 1FEBandsF
 KJ 

 K‫א‬‫א‬J 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

 KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬J 

 K‫א‬‫א‬J

KJ

K‫א‬‫א‬J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬













 ‫א‬‫א‬WE4J 1F

-9-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬2J 4J 1
   ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

  ،‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬1J 2J 4J 1

  ،‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ،     

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬      ،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

 ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ،E‫א‬ ‫א‬F   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E5J 1F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬

‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬      

‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،  ‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE5J 1F
-10-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬2J 2J 4J 1

،‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

J 1‫א‬F،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE6J 1
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E2

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

0.52–0.45

0.60–0.52

0.69–0.63

E‫א‬

‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬

E‫א‬

‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

EF

‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

E‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

0.90–0.76

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

1.75–1.55

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

2.35–2.08

K‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬   ،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE2J 1F

-11-

J 10.40
 12.50

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬








 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE6J 1F
 W‫א‬‫א‬3J 4J 1
K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬  ،‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

، ، ،F ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬

 KE‫א‬… ،

 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

KE7J 1 F   ‫א‬        ‫א‬‫א‬  ، 

،E…،،F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،    ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬   
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬ K

 K‫א‬‫א‬ K

-12-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K

K‫א‬ K

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE7J 1F

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫• א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  KE8J 1 F ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬ ‫• א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  

    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬       ‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-13-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬    ،   ‫א‬ 
KE8J 1F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬WE8J 1F

 W‫א‬3J 4J 1
 K ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ 
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE9J 1F‫א‬{‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-14-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬WE9J 1F

-15-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬5J 1
 E
 ،F‫א‬‫א‬

 
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،EPicture Elements= PixelF
‫א‬FEGray ScaleF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EDigital Number = DN‫א‬
 KE10J 1‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬WE10J 1F
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ EDNF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،1023،511،255،127،63

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   K2047  

10 9 8 7 6‫א‬EBinary Computer Coding ScalesF ‫א‬

 KE2048Z211،1024Z210،512Z29،128Z27،64Z26F‫א‬‫א‬11

EDigital Number = DNF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

8 255F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

 KE11J 3F‫א‬E

-16-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬



‫א‬255Z28Z8

4

‫א‬16Z2 Z4





‫א‬4Z22Z2


 ‫א‬2Z21Z1

 K‫א‬WE11J 3F



K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  E12J 1F‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬

،000{1:200‫א‬‫א‬400500EJ 12J 3F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬

 80 100‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬ EF‫א‬

 ،         ،000 {1:40  ‫א‬ ‫א‬

EF ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  

،1:4000 810‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬ ‫א‬EF‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   EF ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-17-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬























 K‫א‬‫א‬WE12J 1F

-18-

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﻔﻨﻲ واﻟﺘﺪرﻳﺐ اﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

2

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬J 1

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 2

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 3
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬٪100‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K6
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K K1

K‫א‬ K2





-17-

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 W1J 2
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ W    ‫א‬   

 KE1J 2‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬




‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬







‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE1J 2F

-18-

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2J 2

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ 

K‫א‬ EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬     ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ، 

 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬      K‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ، ‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬ 
 E  0.8 0.4F‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ،‫א‬  ، ،‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
WE1J 2‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬1J 2J 2

‫א‬ Panchromatic‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K  0.72J 0.39‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WMapping Film‫א‬‫א‬ K

 W

‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ WReconnaissance ‫א‬  K

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ،‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ƒ
  ،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬    

‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ
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 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

Spatial  ‫א‬    ،‫א‬    ƒ
KResolution

 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬   ƒ
 K‫א‬

 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ

،‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،‫א‬  ƒ

 KE2J 2F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE2J 2F

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2J 2J 2

‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 1‫א‬‫א‬

 W

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KHaze‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ
 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ƒ
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ
 K‫א‬ ƒ

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ
 E4J 23J 2F‫א‬‫א‬

 KWE3J 2F
-21-

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 KK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE4J 2F

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3J 2J 2

   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

‫א‬ W ‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬ ‫א‬        ،

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

   ،  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ‫א‬

‫א‬  ،‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ،‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ،

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-22-

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫ƒ א‬
‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ‫א‬   ،‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫ƒ א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬،‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ƒ א‬
 E5J 2‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫ƒ א‬

 KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ
















 K‫א‬WE5J 2F
-23-

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬4J 2J 2

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Color Infrared‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ

‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ،‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ،‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
KE 6 J 2‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬– ‫א‬     ،‫א‬–‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 

 K–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ƒ א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ
 K‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬




-24-

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬










E F










EF

 ‫א‬EFWE6J 2F
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF

-25-

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬


‫א‬

–‫א‬

‫א‬



‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬J ‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬








‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE1J 2F‫א‬

 WMultispectral‫א‬‫א‬5J 2J 2

   K‫א‬  ‫א‬      ‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ،‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬    
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ
 K‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ

 K‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ
-26-

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3J 2

‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬   ، ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬   
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ،‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ 

‫א‬W ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 KE7J 2‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬
 ‫ א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬





‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE7J 2F

-27-

‫א‬‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬1J 3J 2

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬5‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،14

 W‫א‬‫א‬1J 1J 3J 2

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ،   

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ERadiometric ResolutionF

ƒ

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

ƒ

K‫א‬،‫א‬

 14.0F ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬   E0.3 F ‫א‬

KE

    ‫א‬‫א‬ ،   ‫א‬  

ƒ

K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2J 1J 3J 2

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K14.0J 3.0‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KEThermal InfraredF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬3J 1J 3J 2

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   K   1   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ،EActive

System  F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 KEPassive SystemF‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

  ERadio

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

Detection And Ranging = RadarF

W‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬   

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،

 KE8J 2F‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

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W‫א‬‫ א‬K

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬






 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE8J 2F
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 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬2J 3J 2

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1J 2J 3J 2

    ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2J 2J 3J 2

‫א‬ ‫א‬ W‫א‬     ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬     K‫א‬   

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

-30-

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬4J 2

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

WEResolutionF‫א‬‫א‬1J 4J 2

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E‫א‬ F‫א‬‫א‬

 W،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬
WESpectral ResolutionF‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K1

‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    

   ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   K

   0.7  0.4 ‫א‬   E F
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

WESpatial ResolutionF‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K2

‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬    ،  

EIKONOSF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ، 1   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 
   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

 KE10J 29J 2F‫א‬

WERadiometric ResolutionF‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K3

   ‫א‬  ‫א‬   
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬   K‫א‬

،Ebit 6F 6‫א‬‫א‬ 5
‫א‬FEGray

ScaleF ‫א‬    64Z2

6

  

KE11J 2


-31-

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 WETemporal ResolutionF‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K4

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ،‫א‬

‫א‬    ‫א‬     ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬

‫א‬16‫א‬5

 K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE9J 2F


-32-

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 WE10J 2F

 K30EF،20EF،10EF،5EF،2.5EF،1EF
-33-

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬



8

‫א‬255Z2 Z8

‫א‬
16Z24Z4

‫א‬ 4Z22Z2


 ‫א‬2Z21Z1

 KEGray ScaleF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE11J 2F
IKONOS)

 W‫א‬‫א‬2J 4J 2

13×13F‫א‬ ‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

 {E12J 2‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

SPOT‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE12J

2F

 3‫א‬60‫א‬
-34-

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3J 4J 2

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬{‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 WE13J 2‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E‫א‬
KEInclinationF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K1
KEAltitudeF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K2

KEOrbit TimeFEPeriodF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K3
KEEquatorial Crossing TimeF‫א‬‫א‬ K4

 K7‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE13J 1F
-35-

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 WEAccuracyF‫א‬4J 4J 2

K‫א‬ETrue or Exact ValueF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  250‫א‬،7‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 250‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 WESatelliteF‫א‬‫א‬5J 2
،‫א‬    ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

 W

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
K J 2

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 3

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 4

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 5

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J 6

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ،   ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬
K61QuickBird،‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ،   ‫א‬ 
،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

K30Landsat-7

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ،   ‫א‬ 

NOAA-17،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K1

K2

K3

 K1

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ،
-36-

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

WEQuick BirdF‫א‬‫א‬EIKONOSF‫א‬‫א‬1J 5J 2

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬،QUICKBIRD 60 IKONOS 1 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬      
 KE2J 2F

-37-

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 EIKONOS – QUICKBIRDF‫א‬‫א‬WE2J 2F
 IKONOS

QUICKBIRD

‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

October 18, 2001

Nadir: (‫א‬)
61 cm panchromatic
2.44 m Multispectral
25° Off-Nadir 25‫א‬
‫)א‬
72 cm panchromatic

2.88 m Multispectral
Panchromatic:
µm0.900–0.45
Multispectral:
Band 1: Blue 0.45 – 0.52 µm
Band 2: Green 0.52 – 0.60 µm
Band 3: Red 0.63 – 0.69 µm
Band 4: Near IR 0.76 – 0.90 µm
16.5 km x 16.5 km at nadir

23-meter horizontal (CE90%)

kilometers450

24 September 1999
Nadir: (‫א‬)
0.82 m panchromatic
3.2 m Multispectral
26° Off-Nadir: ‫א‬26‫א‬)
1.0 m panchromatic

‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Spatial Resolution

4.0 m Multispectral
Panchromatic:
µm0.929–0.526
Multispectral:
Band 1: Blue 0.445 – 0.516 µm
Band 2: Green0.506 – 0.595 µm
Band 3: Red 0.632 – 0.698 µm
Band 4: Near IR 0.757 – 0.853 µm
11.3 kilometers at nadir
13.8 kilometers at 26° off-nadir
12-m horizontal and 10-m vertical accuracy
with no ground control
2-m horizontal and 3-m vertical accuracy
with ground control
These are specified as 90% CE (circular
error) for the horizontal
and 90% LE (linear error) for the vertical

‫א‬‫א‬

Radiometric ‫א‬
Resolution

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 Swath
 ‫א‬
Accuracy

‫א‬‫א‬

681 kilometers

Altitude

97.2 degree

‫א‬‫א‬Inclination

98.1 degrees

‫א‬‫א‬

10:30 a.m.

10:30 a.m.

1-3.5 days depending on latitude
(30°off-nadir)

3 days at 1-meter resolution, 40° latitude

93.5 minutes

98 minutes

Sun-synchronous

Sun-synchronous

bits per pixel = 2 = 2048 levelJ 11
11

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Temporal Resolution
Orbit time

 ‫א‬‫א‬
11

11-bits per pixel = 2 = 2048 level

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

Radiometric Resolution

-38-

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 WSOPT-5‫א‬‫א‬Landsat-7‫א‬‫א‬2J 5J 2

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ {

‫א‬KSPOT-5‫א‬‫א‬ 5  30‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ،     ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  Landsat ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬  ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

 950      ، 27 –   ‫א‬  
7 ‫א‬‫א‬       ‫א‬  K‫א‬ ‫א‬  

 45،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  26‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   K‫א‬    11 ‫א‬ 

،‫א‬،E14J 2F‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬E3J 2F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

SPOT‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE14J

2F

 WNOAA‫א‬‫א‬3J 5J 2

،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬  

‫א‬، 1‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

-39-

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬4J 5J 2

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E4J 2F‫א‬K
 ESPOT-5 – Landsat-7F‫א‬‫א‬WE3J 2F
Landsat-7

SPOT-5

‫أﺳﻢ اﻟﻘﻤﺮ اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ اﻟﻘﻤﺮ‬

April 15, 1999

‫ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ اﻹﻃﻼق‬

Panchromatic 2.5 m or 5m
B1-B3: 10m
B4: 20 m
Panchromatic:
µm071–0.48
Multispectral:
B1: Green 0.50 – 0.59 µm
B2: Red 0.61 – 0.68 µm
B3: Near IR 0.78 – 0.89 µm
B4: MIR 1.58-1.75 µm

m for Panchromatic15
m for multispectral30
m for thermal60
Panchromatic:
µm0.90–0.50
Multispectral:
Band 1: Blue 0.45 – 0.515 µm
Band 2: Green 0.525 – 0.605 µm
Band 3: Red 0.63 – 0.69 µm
Band 4: Near IR 0.775 – 0.90 µm
Band 5: Mid IR 1.55-1.75 µm
Band 6: Thermal IR 10.4-12.5 µm
Band 7: Mid IR 2.09-2.35 µm

120 km (60km x 2) x 80 km

185 km x 170 km
250 m horizontal accuracy with no
ground control

m with no ground control50

km832

m horizontal accuracy with ground 15
control
These are specified as 90% CE
(circular error) for the horizontal
705 kilometers

98 degrees
10.30 a.m.

98.2 degrees
9:45 a.m.

26 days

16 days

101 minutes

98.9 minutes

Sun-synchronous

Sun-synchronous

bit = 28 = 256 level8

-40-

‫اﻟﺪﻗﺔ اﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰﻳﺔ اﻟﻤﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
Spatial Resolution

Radiometric ‫اﻟﺪﻗﺔ اﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰﻳﺔ اﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬
Resolution

Swath ‫اﻟﺘﻐﻄﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺻﺤﺔ اﻟﻀﺒﻂ‬
Accuracy
Altitude‫اﻻرﺗﻔﺎع ﻋﻦ ﺳﻄﺢ اﻷرض‬
‫ زاوﻳﺔ اﻟﻤﻴﻞ‬Inclination
‫وﻗﺖ ﻋﺒﻮر ﺧﻂ اﻻﺳﺘﻮاء‬
‫اﻟﺪﻗﺔ اﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰﻳﺔ اﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ‬
Temporal Resolution
Orbit time
‫ﻧﻮع اﻟﻤﺪار‬
‫اﻟﺪﻗﺔ اﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰﻳﺔ اﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬
Radiometric Resolution

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE4J 2F
LAUNCH Date
(‫ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ اﻹﻃﻼق ) اﻟﻤﺘﻮﻗﻊ‬

03/01/1984
01/22/1990
09/29/1997
03/24/1998
04/15/1999
09/24/1999
12/20/1999
12/05/2000
06/28/2000
12/07/2000
03/12/2000
10/18/2001
10/22/2001
05/04/2002
06/26/2003
09/27/2003
09/27/2003
09/27/2003
10/17/2003
10/21/2003
12/01/2004
04/20/2004
06/30/2004
11/15/2004
12/15/2004
12/15/2004
03/01/2005
03/01/2005
05/01/2005
06/01/2005
03/01/2006
01/15/2006
01/15/2006
01/15/2006
06/01/2007
06/01/2007
03/01/2008
05/01/2008
07/01/2008
06/30/2008
07/01/2009
06/01/2010

SATELLITE Name
‫أﺳﻢ اﻟﻘﻤﺮ‬

COUNTRY
‫اﻟﺪوﻟﺔ‬

Landsat 5
US
SPOT-2
France
IRS 1D
India
SPOT-4
France
Landsat 7
US
IKONOS-2
US
KOMPSAT-1
Korea
EROS A1
Israel
Tsinghua-1 (SSTL)
China
EO-1
US
MTI
US
QuickBird-2
US
Proba
ESA
SPOT-5
France
OrbView 3
US
DMC BilSat (SSTL)
Turkey
DMC NigeriaSat-1 (SSTL) Nigeria
DMC UK (SSTL)
UK
IRS ResourceSat-1
India
CBERS-2
China/Brazil
DMC ThaiPhat (SSTL)
Thailand
RocSat2
Taiwan
Resurs DK-#1
Russia
KOMPSAT-2
Korea
MONITOR-E #1
Russia
SICH-1M #1
Russia
DMC China DMC
China
TopSat (SSTL)
UK
DMC VinSat-1
Vietnam
ALOS
Japan
EROS B
Israel
CBERS-2B
China/Brazil
IRS ResourceSat-2
India
X-Sat
Singapore
RapidEye-A
Germany
RapidEye-B
Germany
EROS C
Israel
CBERS-3
China/Brazil
Pleiades-1
France
LDCM
US
Pleiades-2
France
CBERS-4
China/Brazil

-41-

‫اﻟﺪﻗﺔ اﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰﻳﺔ اﻟﻤﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
Spatial Resolution
PAN RES. M

MS RES. M

30
10
6
10
15
1
6.6
1.8
39
10
5, 20
0.6
8
2.5
1
12
32
32
6
20
36
2
1
1
8
24
4
2.5
32
2.5
0.7
20
6
10
6.5
6.5
0.7
5
0.7
10
0.7
5

185
20
23
20
30
4
17
14
600
30
12
2.5
18, 36
10
4
26
600
600
6, 23
20
600
8
3
4
20
24
32
5
600
10
7
20
6, 23
50
78
78
2.5
20
2.8
30
2.8
20

Swath ‫اﻟﺘﻐﻄﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬

120
70, 142
120
185
11

37
16
14
120
8
52

24, 140
113
24
28
15
94, 160
48
600
10, 15
35, 70
113
24, 140

16
60, 120
20
177
20
60, 120

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﻔﻨﻲ واﻟﺘﺪرﻳﺐ اﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬
‫א‬

‫א‬

3

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬ K1

 K‫א‬‫א‬ K2

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬٪100‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K12
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K K1

K‫א‬‫א‬ K2






-42-

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬
 W1J 3
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬
 ،‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬2J 3
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 WE1J 3F‫א‬‫א‬

 KEImage PreprocessingF‫א‬‫ א‬K1
KEImage EnhancementF‫א‬ K2

KEImage Merging and Image MosaicF‫א‬ K3
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬



‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬





‫א‬
‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬WE1J 3F
-43-





 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 WEImage PreprocessingF‫א‬‫א‬1J 2J 3

K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

 WEGeometric CorrectionF‫א‬‫א‬1J 1J 2J 3


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
KE2J 3F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬


 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE2J 3F

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 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 WERadiometric CorrectionF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2J 1J 2J 3

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE3J 3F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE3J 3F
 WENoise RemovalF‫א‬‫א‬3J 1J 2J 3

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E4J 3F‫א‬‫א‬

E
 ‫א‬‫א‬F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬







 K‫א‬‫א‬WE4J 3F

 WEImage EnhancementF‫א‬2J 2J 3

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 K‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬،EContrast EnhancementF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE5J 3FEHistogram AdjustmentF‫א‬




‫א‬



 KEHistogramF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE5J 3F
-46-

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬،EEdge EnhancementF‫א‬
 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE6J 3F‫א‬






‫א‬

‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE6J 3F

WEImage Merging and Image MosaicF‫א‬3J 2J 3

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

7‫א‬‫א‬ ،7‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬، 175 185‫א‬

EBandFKE7J 3FEMosaicF،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ 1‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬، 4‫א‬‫א‬
 KE8J 3F1

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 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬








 KEMosaicF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE7J 3F

 












‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE8J 3F
 K1‫א‬EF،1EF،4

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 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬3J 3
‫א‬     ‫א‬   ‫א‬       
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬      ،‫א‬ ‫א‬  

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ W   ‫א‬     ‫א‬ K‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
 KE9J 3F‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ ‫א‬
 W

،‫א‬‫ƒ א‬
 K‫א‬،‫א‬

 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ƒ א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬،

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬WE9J 3F
-49-



 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1J 3J 3

‫א‬  ،‫א‬ ‫א‬  W ‫א‬   ‫א‬    

  K‫א‬   ‫א‬ ،  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 WESizeF‫ א‬K1

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

   ‫א‬    K ‫א‬   ‫א‬  

F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 KE10J 3






 K،‫א‬‫א‬WE10J 3F

WEShapeF‫ א‬K2

،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K K ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  

J 3F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬{‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E11

 E‫א‬F   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،‫א‬     ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE12J 3F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-50-

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 KE13J 3F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬









 K‫א‬‫א‬E11J 3F











K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE12J 3F
-51-

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬










 K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE13J 3F


  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬  

     ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  {‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
J 3   14J 3 F ‫א‬ ‫א‬  {‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬

 KE15






 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE14J 3F
-52-

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬














 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE15J 3F

WEToneF‫א‬ K3

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ESingle BandF‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬EGray ScaleF‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

   ‫א‬  K‫א‬  ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

 KE16J 3F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-53-

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬








 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ WE16J 3F


WEPatternF‫ א‬K4

،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE17J 3F‫א‬‫א‬








 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE17J 3F

-54-


 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

WEShadowF‫ א‬K5

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W
 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE18J 3F‫א‬
 KE19J 3F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬









 K‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE18J 2F







 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE19J 3F
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 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

WEDate-Day and YearF‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K6

{
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬KE20J 3F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬











‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE20J 3F

 K‫א‬

WESiteF‫ א‬K7

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 WETextureF‫ א‬K8

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
F‫א‬‫א‬،Smooth‫א‬W
 ‫א‬
 

،‫א‬‫א‬KRough‫א‬،EMat‫א‬
 KE21J 2F‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE21J 3F

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 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1J 1J 3J 3

 {‫א‬{‫א‬

‫א‬،Signature‫א‬‫א‬{
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫ א‬K1

‫א‬{ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬KE22J 3F‫א‬

 KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬










 KEF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE22J 3F

 W‫א‬‫ א‬K2

{
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬{ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

{ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-58-

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬{
 ‫א‬
{ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬{ ‫א‬‫א‬K

‫א‬‫א‬{  ‫א‬‫א‬{‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫ א‬K3

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬{‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬{ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬{ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K4

K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬{ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬{E،،F‫א‬‫א‬
 KE23J 3F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬{‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬{‫א‬


-59-

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬










 KE23J 3F


 W‫א‬‫ א‬K5

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ KE24J 3F
K
 ‫א‬{‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬







K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE24J 3F
-60-

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K6

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬{
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

{
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

E25J 3F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬K
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

{ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE26J 3F‫א‬








 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE25J 3F






K‫א‬–‫א‬WE26J 3F
-61-

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ { ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 KE27J 3F‫א‬














 KEF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE27J 3F

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K7

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE28J 3F

-62-

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬


















 KE–‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE28J 3F

-63-

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 WEClassification‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2J 2J 3

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬ 
  ،‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

EDN > 35<150FDN‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KThemes ‫א‬
 KE29J 3FEDN‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬










 K‫א‬‫א‬WE29J 3F

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 KESupervised ClassificationF‫א‬‫א‬‫ƒ א‬

KEUnsupervised ClassificationF‫א‬‫א‬‫ƒ א‬

-64-

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

WESupervised ClassificationF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1J 2J 2J 3

‫א‬      ،‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

‫א‬     K‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
ETraining AreasF‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬

 K

 WE30J 3F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬W‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ،‫א‬  ‫א‬ 

‫א‬ ‫א‬  K‫א‬      ‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

       ،‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
K‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 KE31J 3F






 K‫א‬‫א‬ WE31J 3F
-65-

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬



 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 1
 2
 3
 4
 5

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

 Z 

  ‫א‬ 


 Z 
 Z 
‫א‬ Z 



 Z 

‫א‬‫א‬


 Z 

 ‫א‬E1

‫א‬

DN1
DN2
DN3
DN4
DN5


 ‫א‬E2
   




   ،‫א‬




 ‫ א‬ 



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‫א‬‫א‬E3

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

‫ر‬

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،‫א‬W‫א‬

‫م‬

‫ر‬

‫ر‬

‫غ‬

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‫ح‬

‫ح‬

‫م‬

‫م‬

‫ر‬

‫غ‬

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‫ق‬

‫ق‬

‫م‬

‫م‬

‫ر‬

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،‫א‬،
‫א‬






 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE30J 3F
-66-

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ،‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬    W‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬ 

K‫א‬
 K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬

F،،‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 KE32J 3

‫ﺭﺳﻢ ﺑﻴﺎﱐ ﳌﺨﺮﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ‬

30

Pixel ‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺴﻞ‬

20

15
10

6

5

6

4

5


2

0
‫ﻣﺎء‬

‫رﻣﻞ‬

‫ﻏﺎﺑﺎت‬

‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬
‫ﺣﻀﺮﻳﺔ‬

‫ﻣﺤﺎﺻﻴﻞ ذرة‬

‫ﺍﻟـــﻔــــﺌــــــﺎﺕ‬

‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬

 

‫א‬

10.20%

5



12.24%

6



53.06%

26



12.24%

6

 

8.16%

4

 

4.08%

2

 

49


26

25

100 %

‫א‬
 ‫א‬

‫ﻣﺤﺎﺻﻴﻞ‬
‫اﻟﻘﻤﺢ‬

‫א‬

 







 K‫א‬WE32J 3F
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 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

WEUnsupervised ClassificationF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2J 2J 2J 3

  ‫א‬ K   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ 

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ،      ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

،F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬ …،،
 KE33J 3F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬      ،‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬   

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 K،‫א‬‫א‬






 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE33J 3F
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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﻔﻨﻲ واﻟﺘﺪرﻳﺐ اﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬
‫א‬

‫א‬

4

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

 W‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K1

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K2

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K3

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬٪100‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K6
 W‫א‬‫א‬
K K1

 K‫א‬ K2

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K3






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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬
 W1J 4
،‫א‬‫א‬ 

K ‫א‬،‫א‬  ‫א‬K

‫א‬ { ‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬2J 4
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬W ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K1
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

W ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K2
‫א‬{ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬{ 

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K3

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

‫א‬K
 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬{‫א‬W ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ {
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬ ™

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬60F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬EQuickBird
 ‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬

‫א‬،EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E  ‫א‬‫א‬F

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

ESoft CopyF‫א‬EHard CopyF‫א‬‫א‬

EVector LayersF‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K

 KEGeographic Information System = GISF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،EOrthoimage MapsF

  ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬

Digital Data Elevation Model = DEMF‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،ETerrain Elevation Data = DTED
-71-

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

E‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬
 ETop ViewF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬F‫א‬

 KE

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ™

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬E ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ™

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

EF‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

K‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   
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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

 K‫א‬‫א‬{‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ™

‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K1
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K2

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K3

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K4

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬‫א‬

    ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬  ƒ
   ‫א‬     ، ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ
‫א‬    ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫™ א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

F‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬ 

‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬  E1J 4F ELas Vegas– 

‫א‬‫א‬،2000EF‫א‬1972EF‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬













 K2000EF،1972EFELas Vegas–FWE1J 4F

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ™

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬      ،E‫א‬

 ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3J 4
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬{‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬{ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬KE2J 4F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 0.650.45
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-75-

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

0.75‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬E1.3J 0.75F‫א‬‫א‬K1.3‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٪50‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1.3‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

1.91.4‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬  
 ‫א‬‫א‬






 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE2J 4F
-76-

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ™

‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ 

    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،   ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   
‫א‬ ‫א‬    K‫א‬     
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
   ،        ‫א‬ 

K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

   K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ،‫א‬ 

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬    ،‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

٪3J ٪2‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

  ‫א‬    ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ™

‫א‬  K‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬  K‫א‬ ‫א‬    
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬

K1

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

،‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   W‫א‬ ‫א‬

K2

  K‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

         W‫א‬ ‫א‬

K3

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬       ‫א‬    

K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬    ‫א‬    K‫א‬  ‫א‬ 

  ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

    ‫א‬   ‫א‬      

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 KE3J 4F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬







 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE3J 4F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 ‫א‬     ‫א‬     K  ‫א‬ ‫א‬
      K‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K1
 K‫א‬‫א‬ K2
 K‫א‬‫א‬ K3

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ™

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ECooper  Manzer  F 
‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬
 E4J 4F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    K‫א‬ ‫א‬  
‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  K‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ،         ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ 

 KE5J 4F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬













 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EFWE4J 4F
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬


















 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE5J 4F
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬4J 4
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬

F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬KE  

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫™ א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬W‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬   ،   ‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  K     
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬    ،     ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬{‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   

 ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

   ‫א‬ ‫א‬      K  
‫א‬       ‫א‬  ‫א‬    

 K‫א‬

   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 

،E6J 4F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬،

‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
J 4F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬












 K‫א‬‫א‬WE6J 4F



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 KE7

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬












 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE7J 4F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬      ‫א‬    ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 KE8J 4F

-84-

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬


 K‫א‬‫א‬WE8J 4F

-85-


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬ ™

 ‫א‬    ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬    ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬5J 4
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،
  ،

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬{‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ™

 ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ،‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬    K‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
‫א‬KE9J 4F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، 0.45
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   K  ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 

  ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

     ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬    ،

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-86-

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬KE9J 4F‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ K
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 K

‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

K‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  {‫א‬

 ‫א‬    ،‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬     

 2.35–2.1‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬      ‫א‬ 

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
، 12.5 – 10.5‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E9J 4F

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   K‫א‬ 
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

   K ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   

  ،‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

،‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬،‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ K‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   

K 0.45 – 0.30‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   

 K‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ™

‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬      ‫א‬  

{‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬
 ‫א‬     ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬

‫א‬ETsunami–F‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬     ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ 2004

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬E11J 4 10J 4FK‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 K  

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 WE8J 4F

 KEQuick Bird 23/06/2004F‫א‬WE10J 4F


KEQuick Bird 28/12/2004F‫א‬‫א‬WE11J 4F

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬K،1986،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
 K193،‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬،1993،‫א‬ •
 K70،‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬

–‫א‬‫א‬،K،1994،‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
K417،‫א‬J ،‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬،K،1983،‫א‬ •
 K567،‫א‬J 

‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬،K،1987،‫• א‬
K268،‫א‬–،‫א‬

K20051425‫א‬11‫א‬،‫א‬ •

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ •
K40،‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬،‫א‬–‫א‬

،K‫א‬KK،1994،‫א‬‫• א‬
‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،K
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

• Effect of Data Compression on Image Analysis And Classification
Accuracy, 1998, Suliman Rashed Al-Daham, King Saud University –
Riyadh, KAS, 55 Pages.
• Remote Sensing And Image Interpretation Fifth Edition, 2004,Thomas
M. Lillesand – Ralph W. Kiefer – Jonathan W. Chipman, United States of
America, 763 Pages.

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

Ee-BookF
• Fundamentals of Remote Sensing, Canada Centre for Remote Sensing,
258 Pages.
• Remote Sensing, Canada Centre for Remote Sensing, 2003, US Amy
Corps of Engineers, Engineering And Design, 217 Pages.


 ‫א‬‫א‬
QUICKBIRD‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 http://www.digitalglobe.com
IKONOS‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
http://www.spaceimaging.com
 LANDSAT7‫א‬‫א‬

 Lhttp://landsat7.usgs.gov

 SPOT‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

http://www.spotimage.fr/home

RADARSAT‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

http://radarsat.mda.ca

 W‫א‬
http://www.cadmagazine.net
http://www.gisdevelopment.net
http://www.orbimage.com
http://gislounge.com
http://www.ccrs.nrcan.gc.ca
http://www.isro.org
http://landsat.usgs.gov

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 6





‫א‬

 ‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

1J 1

‫א‬‫א‬

3J 1

 7

‫א‬‫א‬

 8

‫א‬‫א‬

 10

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 7

 9

‫א‬

2J 1

4J 1

‫א‬‫א‬

5J 1

 11

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

7J 1

 13

‫א‬‫א‬

9J 1

 15

‫א‬

 12
 14

 16

 18

‫א‬‫א‬

6J 1

8J 1

‫א‬‫א‬

10J 1

‫א‬‫א‬

12J 1

 ‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬

11J 1

‫א‬‫א‬

1J 2

 21



3J 2

 23

‫א‬

5J 2

 20 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 22 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬EF

 25

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF

 29

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 27

 32

2J 2
4J 2

6J 2

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

7J 2

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

9J 2

-93-

8J 2


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬





‫א‬



 ،5EF،2,5EF،1EF

‫א‬
10J 2

 34

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

11J 2

 35

7‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 33

 34
 39

 43

30EF،20EF،10EF

SPOT‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

SPOT‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

3J 3

 46

‫א‬‫א‬

 46

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 48

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ،4‫א‬EF

 48
 49

14J 2

1J 3

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 47

13J 2

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 44

 45

12J 2

2J 3
4J 3
5J 3
6J 3
7J 3
8J 3

 ،1EF

1‫א‬EF
‫א‬

9J 3

 50 ،‫א‬‫א‬

10J 3

 51

12J 3

 51
 52

 52
 53

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-94-

11J 3
13J 3
14J 3

15J 3


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬
 54
 54

 55

 55

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬





‫א‬



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬
16J 3

‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

18J 3

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

19J 3

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

21J 3



23J 3

 56

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 58

EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 57
 60
 60

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 61

‫א‬–‫א‬

 61

17J 3

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

20J 3

22J 3
24J 3

25J 3

26J 3

 62

EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

27J 3

 64

‫א‬‫א‬

29J 3

 63

 66

 65

 67

E–‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

 68‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 74
 76

 79
 80

28J 3

30J 3

31J 3

32J 3

33J 3

 ELas Vegas–F

1J 4

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

2J 4

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF

4J 4

2000EF،1972EF

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF
-95-

3J 4


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 81

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

5-4

‫א‬‫א‬

6J 4

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 83

 84

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 87

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 85

 90

 90

7J 4

‫א‬‫א‬

8J 4

EQuick Bird 23/06/2004F‫א‬

10J 4

EQuick Bird 28/12/2004F‫א‬‫א‬

9J 4

11J 4

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 4

 10

 26

 38
 40

 41





‫א‬

 ‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
IKONOS – QUICKBIRD)F‫א‬‫א‬
SPOT-5 – Landsat-7)F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 

-96-

‫א‬
1J 1
2J 1

1J 2

2J 2

3J 2
4J 2


 ‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K



K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K



 1 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 2K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

W‫א‬1J 1

 2 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W‫א‬2J 1
 6K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K
 6K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

W‫א‬3J 1

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬4J 1

 7K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

W‫א‬‫א‬1J 4J 1

 8K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

W‫א‬‫א‬1J 1J 4J 1

 9K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

W‫א‬‫א‬2J 1J 4J 1

 10 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W‫א‬‫א‬2J 4J 1
W‫א‬1J 2J 4J 1

 10 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K
 11 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

W‫א‬‫א‬2J 2J 4J 1

 12 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

W‫א‬‫א‬3J 4J 1

 14 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W‫א‬3J 4J 1
 16 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

W‫א‬‫א‬5J 1

 17 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 18 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W1J 2
 19 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K
 19 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K
 20 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

W‫א‬‫א‬1J 2J 2
W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2J 2J 2

 22 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K
 24 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K
 26 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2J 2

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3J 2J 2

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬4J 2J 2

WMultispectral‫א‬‫א‬5J 2J 2

 27 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3J 2

 28 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W‫א‬‫א‬1J 3J 2
 28 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

W‫א‬‫א‬1J 1J 3J 2

 28 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2J 1J 3J 2
-97-


 ‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 28 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

W‫א‬‫א‬3J 1J 3J 2

 30 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K
 30 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K
 30 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1J 2J 3J 2
W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2J 2J 3J 2

 31 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K
 31 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

W‫א‬‫א‬2J 3J 2

W‫א‬‫א‬4J 2

WEResolutionF‫א‬‫א‬1J 4J 2

 34 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K
 35 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

W‫א‬‫א‬2J 4J 2

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3J 4J 2

 36 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K WEAccuracyF‫א‬4J 4J 2
 36 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

WESatelliteF‫א‬‫א‬5J 2

 37 K K K K K WEQuick BirdF‫א‬‫א‬EIKONOSF‫א‬‫א‬1J 5J 2
 39 K K K K K K K K K K K K

WSOPT-5‫א‬‫א‬Landsat-7‫א‬‫א‬2J 5J 2

 39 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K WNOAA‫א‬‫א‬3J 5J 2
 40 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬4J 5J 2

 42 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 43 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W1J 3
 43 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

W‫א‬2J 3

 44 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K WEImage PreprocessingF‫א‬‫א‬1J 2J 3
 44 K K K K K K K K K K K K WEGeometric CorrectionF‫א‬‫א‬1J 1J 2J 3
 45 K K K K K K K K K WERadiometric CorrectionF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2J 1J 2J 3
 45 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K WENoise RemovalF‫א‬‫א‬3J 1J 2J 3
 46 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K WEImage EnhancementF‫א‬2J 2J 3
 47 K K K K K K K K K K K

WEImage Merging and Image Mosaic F‫א‬3J 2J 3

 49 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W‫א‬3J 3
 50 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1J 3J 3
 50 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K WESizeF‫א‬K1
 50 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K
 53 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

WEShapeF‫א‬2.
WEToneF‫א‬3.

 54 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K WEPatternF‫א‬4.
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 ‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 55 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

WEShadowF‫א‬5.

 56 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K WEDate-Day and Year F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬6.
 56 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K WESiteF‫א‬7.
 57 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

WETextureF‫א‬K8

 58 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1J 1J 3J 3
 58 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

W‫א‬K1

 58 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W‫א‬‫א‬K2
 59 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W‫א‬‫א‬K3
 59 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K4

 60 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K
 61 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

W‫א‬‫א‬K5

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K6

 62 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K7

 64 K K K K K K K K K K K K WEClassification‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2J 2J 3
 65 K K K K K K K K K K
 68 K K K K K K K K

WESupervised ClassificationF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1J 2J 2J 3

WEUnsupervised ClassificationF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2J 2J 2J 3

 69 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 70 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W1J 4
 70 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W‫א‬‫א‬2J 4
71 ....................................................................................................W‫א‬™
72 ......................................................................................... W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬™
72 .......................................................................................... W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬™
73 ..................................................................................................... W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬™
74 ...................................................................................................... W‫א‬‫א‬‫™א‬
75 ..................................................................................................... W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬™
 75 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3J 4
77 ............................................................................................... W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬™
78 ..................................................................................................... W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬™
79 ........................................................................................................ W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬™
 82 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K
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W‫א‬‫א‬4J 4


 ‫א‬

 215

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

82 ................................................................................................... W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫™א‬
86 ............................................................................................................... W‫א‬™
 86 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

W‫א‬‫א‬5J 4

86 ......................................................................................................W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬™
89 ....................................................................................................... W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬™
 91 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬
 92 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

‫א‬‫א‬

 93 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬
 96 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
GOTEVOT appreciates the financial support provided by BAE SYSTEMS