www.gisclub.

net‫ 
א
אא‬ 


 

   
RGB
Red:

Layer_3

Gree n: Layer_2
Blue :

Layer_1

'( ) *
+, 


+-( 

+ . /  
'
0
1 

+2
+ - 
32  

   
&'  (
)#* +, -    
!" #$ %

./ 01
!   

: 

 

www.gisclub.net‫ 
א
אא‬

:3) 
 
       ! " #$% &$' ( ) 

9:; (: <=
=.*+, -$ ./  0 -12 3/ -10 4 5 6 7
.5 ;$ GH> ?4@A B ; C / @0 -D EF
I:J I:;IK : I  L $ +E  ) M ; N 5 ( OP )D /
?2 3 / =4 Q0$
R 5D ES TU
/ GE/V 5D ES / W0 X Y BZ[
): M: ;/ .0$: ? (`F /  0 \  (]
?$=' B$; > ^ = _=U
. I  a Ib 
c ?. EI  (d ! Q e=  0 f g 6$. M0
h C i MW /
k Il. m7'/ ?$  m n  =  j ? i  0 b  TU
/
.(GIS)  ]7 ?$  _4 / I  ' E . EZ

2

www.gisclub.net‫ 
א
אא‬ 

)/)
5' : 5:=$ k Il. 1 . MW 50
#- +qr . EI X b <

.RIS e= .j EIU=  0 10 <;<
/ s )  +E =$

G(d:  ]2 +t (  s  <=
. it i 0 123 (
utj/ vE ^0 / $ ej / X L'/ 5D ES ?;@
w4t xA k=bj
.I; 5. <= ( ; GIt QZ y
z E  
$  / -$' [$l 4S Ol $  4@A  / a
#4 I / .$  b  )D ' ?$   EI  )n RE/9  L
I'
L @{ ? 3| 'A xA R+|
\ } ~  / (€ ?$  ;4d E+U 
.I  ' E . EZ B$K ej  ?$  m n 5 Ol !
?[U  b(€/ X G] M2 Y <== b ~W0 b  ‚* aI, L
:ƒ BZ m] .5D ES  *
.$ =  $  ^ = Ol =4/ Y4  M0
B-

Y: <= / ?l0 ?0.
/ $ M2 / 02 :5D ES ?[U
I;IK •
.$W9 / = W0 X
.-$' …$ (`F L/I  0 +E =$ Bd k Il. • 
W=$ X / $    02 ) w.
z 4S I;IK 4@A •
.4r T @
B$
/  1 &$'
/ C=: IZ/ 6E  6E / 0 / u2  Bd  +E  I;IW 
5D ES TU
h fS - ?j- 5/ 5 / 6$  ?D; 
: 0 :Z ej].  @> G+[. &U MW I  ' E . EZ ej
OP )D ‡ˆ ?$   +[; a. / .I-t/ [$@
BF/ 10 ?[U ;†/
.5 ( u23 =

4

www.gisclub.net‫ 
א
אא‬

:/ 
( 

:6 
* )  
')-78 9 
:; <
8 
_:  ‹‰ X .Q@
Q B$ / X [
/ X QU‰ X &$' O Š 3r _ 
! I:t (0 fS y +  Y/ Q ;0 B q >  =J mK ?t Š 3A 
: . (Drury,1987) 0;  =J mK ?t Š 3A Œ4 ! GiF ?*
Q: %Ž ƒ : ‚@ :;/ : ej: :[; = = * ?t ! Š 3r
.(Curran,1985)
z: + : / 5*: y M=' - B ' GI  `F; * ?W  g@ 4 / 
Š +   ‚@  9  $W9 * ?W  ‚@ ; R Š 3r .-;‘ 
1987) : ’Ž :' :-=' B:; z U X ! M= ;I
@{ 4F /
Š :3r : 02 &$' `|; z X ! B/E$@ /   +  
C  .(Drury
?:t Š 3A ‚@
  w. /  X(0 ?= &$' RK z X .‚@ 
?:4 B$K    +  = ;I
9; @{ 4F / U X  d *
Š 3A g@ 4 
xA R+|; 4F G(0 ?=@ B/E$@ 
iA  .I  ' E . 
:3S g@ 4 G+;H/ (/@ Ž,”  2 BS ?t )  =J / E< ?t
.? 
0 <
   9; b/  9% 
: -.@ 4 04 m$/  3S •U 04 m [
E t e2 + +H =$ Q4 –j;
X: )  I;IK @{ /@ Ž,’ t e2 I' g@ 4 = L@
/  y.
.+. L$  /I0; iA T   C$
! Z/ I 'U E=S EZ !
Threshold = >#) < 
?
E . EZ k Il. 7 03 M2 +/I X 0  ?. EI fIA [
M0. 
:* ? : ?W I;IW C i/  ]7 ?$  k4/ I  ' I  ' 
: B@ +/I  . 6/ M2  b(€  X M2 Y <= / ? (W0 /

5

www.gisclub.net‫ 
א
אא‬ 

4 : 
: ! Landsat-TM 5'U =$  =J  3S B$K M;2 ' *
.( Finch—˜˜™) ; 6t
5:b z / Pixel ;j% šD/ f I;IK  @‰ 0 g ;2 L › &$'
xA  ?1;<t 04 m4 iA =$ 4F šD TU; *I'/ ›ES /   O$%
5D ES  (d It
 X+' 4 It/ M0 / %Ž   fS DES Z
/ ? (W0: &:$' B
[d Eœ3 / ElZ A ? (W0 +/I &$' / B + G]
+t/ œ4 ? 
0  1$> L@
X s 5D ES 9; / ? (W0 O./ m0
Eœ3
E+U:   c  / -D
 ‡4 
/ 5D E L@
/  !   2
.F%  04 Q' #; > X
:m4 iA / 
 # 
g@ 4 O. = Rw
G] 5D ES !  L@; ~ 5DES U ž@ = Pw 
=$ G30 GE/V ›ES g@ 4 O. =Ric 
(€/  Y G<= 0 = T

: +   4 &$' Pixel ;j% TU
/
(—)

Pw Rw + (1- Pw) Ric < T

: +  L@
 (€ 4 &$' Pixel ;j% TU
/
(Ÿ)

Pw Rw + (1- Pw) Ric > T 

:0 ] m4 iA  Q4 &$' Pixel ;j% TU
5@ Threshold 0 E @N/
:0.5 = Pw = ›[;  J X b ! 4   N X 5b ›E¡ &=
(¢)

T = 0.5 (Rw + Ric) 

fS Š 4S L ~ Threshold 0 $ 0 ; M0
! $@ It

L   N Threshold 0 f  B ?.@ 4 , L@; L @{ 5D ES
@

www.gisclub.net‫ 
א
אא‬

?. EI / .I;I E I£ ? i ? EIW ) 0 
= ej9 ? i ?  
]t  02 ? i ?/ M2 ! m4 (Gilmer, 1976) c k z Bd 
.ejD It;  ~ ;
xA (Raster) I  ' E . EZ B;K h GIS  ]7 ?$  k4 k Il. / 
] = O¦ Bd‰ §W/ G(W0 ? / 0 O (Vector) 5 ¤i¥
.-[U
/ +/I ¨ ©4 ) -0
h ?40 '=ª . EI  

/B)
5:D ES Š :4  b(€ ' W0 X I I;IK . EI = ( B. E h
X: L :- GI;I' 60.S  ]7 ?$  _4/ I  ' E . k Il. GE/V
›E (:  €02 B O I;IK  Z xA f+ R S $WD (  W0
&:=
\ :@ ›E (  
0 f g M0 4@A 5 ; > ; 
$: +E  &$' 5*E B@ GI=   =  02 ?4@A c 
/ 
:;†/  0 Z ej].  @> G+[. &U MW / .<= B ;@

.?. EI  eV b € d;IJ ?  4 . h 10 ?[U
¢¢ ›' «* + Y GEU  ! " #$% &$'  s ( B. );
B-:. I{ B e2 &$'/  ­3 ŽŽŽ¬ŽŽ e2 5/ Ÿ™ ¬ Ÿ
!/ .6:] X:‡ ­qEI
)[ 
; ?  / ?l0 Q[@
®[l 5$E 5$.
. ? / B ' ­I  B I
X b )
/ Ÿ_ ’Ž ƒ  - EI
0 ›E }F ( $ $  <=

C;=: k / 4< «;<t - N B$ ;H  ej / 5$ O% Y 
.Y 
;<7 C$
- N _ — ƒ  EI
  A eZ B- B I{/

A

www.gisclub.net‫ 
א
אא‬

./ F 
6 
* =B 3D 
E
:G
H 
0:. Œ:='S ' GI  5b/ E —Ž -=' H/œ
/ ­It BWD ( B.
RE:œ F: L R ( F d. ;E‡ ^  -$' _
_$ C j=$
.B O ' _¢Ž ƒ  I 0;  —Ž M=' O L Iœ =$ ‚*
:01
! F8! 
­: 02 j@3 5 ; > t  Q @3F B e 5$E u23 Q4F ( u23 H{
X03/ E<7 ! )
G+' 5b/ l0. M2 Q$$l
/ M2 ®  ! );/ M9; j
­ n/
&:$' Bl / Eœ3S /  0 ? 
0 / 6'S `
/ #$% X }@
z E<7 
'[  S / ? (W0 / G(]U Lœ$% ®  +t <=; u2 L = u2
°$0;/ _Ÿ, – _—,  -D' š/ ;/ _—Ÿ xA ,2 BU; I/ " #$% 
5: ; :> u2$  ; /H (]
xA R+|
Lœ$% X b/ E ” +/I !  M='
.[$P ;U ?4@A
I:' 67 ! )
, ›/'  / B e2 &$' 5$ u2 ›/' ?/[ 

: I:' e= !/ (  6t š$ gE I' TU !/ ®; k H
. (   6  š0Z gE/ eH

:I - * 
: B@ /  — ƒ  Q fI &U / ­; E<7 / I $=' xA ( u23 › ; 
­0;
W ƒ I / ®[l I M2 L@
+@
/ bI' ±I‘ 4 E<7 / I 
: &:$' 
/ ­04 E I£ I;I3 L@; R Q[4 u2 E I£ =- BU[;/
5]
² ‚=  3/  -$ › 
›ES  MD O;3 5b/ l0. M2 #$%
.E<7 / I M2N &=
/ ?  GI' $= X , › 
/ 

C

www.gisclub.net‫ 
א
אא‬

:  
F7 
:$ L0d@ I‰ = l0. / $E 
' GE0'  _ / ­ 2  I‰/ 
: X :b Bd .;(t l0. It
4 / -$[.  +. 2 
+t <=
z
?0.
 L@
/ )[ 
5DE  fN <=
.$ L0d@  G]   +
.-W.  6  &UJ / &= / B 

J

www.gisclub.net‫ 
א
אא‬

FH L7)
. ArcGIS / ERDAS IMAGINE 8.5 #  k Il. = ?40 7  m‰

k$ $ <;< I0' C$ ;I  Raw Data k% I  ' E . GEZ &$' eUJ h
ŸŽŽ’/’/— ³;E $ HRV1 gJ ’ ¬?0. 54[ 5'U =$  /
_:b / $ . EI  B 5]
z / Path (153) / Row (299) =$ 
: L@
HRV1 ’ ¬?0. ! a2S +I  y. * ‹*U
«/@40 k

a2S +I  k

(_ µ¬”Ž x _ ”Ž)

‹*U% 
] 

—Ž’ŽŽ xA ”ŽŽŽ

ŸŽŽ xA ¢ŽŽ x ¢

(E . O B@ ) E . ;j +I'

˜µŽŽ x ”ŽŽŽ

’˜ŽŽ xA ¢ŽŽŽ x ¢

( B@ ) E . © +I'

:5b ?4 ±j` ! E . L@; ~ a2S +I  E . H-t ?0.
./@ Ž˜ – ŽŽ Y  :9S (—) Œ4
./@ Ž”µ¬Ž”— Y  :†S (Ÿ) Œ4
./@ Žµ˜¬Ž™˜ Y  :0;  =J L/+  3S (¢) Œ4
./@ Ž ™¢¬Ž — Y  :*  3S (’) Œ4

ƒ: B:$W G<-t 54  j k;/ .  ŸŽ k b ! ^@ B$W °$0;/ 
_: ”Ž O: B ›' ;E/œ E . 5¦ ›ES y. yN (HRV) 5* /
! 5'U: = Q k; R E . O ›' L ._ ¢ °$0; =- B I /
y:. 5];/ _ µ¢Ÿ Q'[
E °$0; E I ! = b (; / ._ ——™ °$0; I / m/
.; Ÿ” ! ›ES

K

www.gisclub.net‫ 
א
אא‬

Picture Elements GEU Z' &=
 ;/ G(]Z M2  * L@ 

=E = Q Digital Image = * ! GEU Z'  I / B/ .Pixels /
.(DN) digital Number
:5b/ aI, MK @{ ¶ C i/ Š 4 ±j` xA _
a. = 7  ?$='
Geometry Correction 5.I, yWU / + (. &$' B=
z / * 7  
* TU
 / Spectral Enhancement 5' 3 YW ² Š /
.Classification 

D*  
) :"-O
:D* . .M
. (IMG) 1b xA T$ + (. h k% *9 GEU ›  .

MN

www.gisclub.net‫ 
א
אא‬

:Q RS .2 
3: &:$' G+t GEZ  Geometric Correction 5.I, yWU B=
(GCP) DES O09 ©4 e+A / Polynomial 6$. E h From Viewer 
UTM WGS 84 O I;IK/ 3 &$' D/  ;7 GEU  GiF
I: / .6S E7 &$'  › I' ?40 )=‡ Resample E / Zone 39
.GI;It T$ ! -;<·/ .Ib WWU GEZ ¤4A h yWU $='

MM

www.gisclub.net‫ 
א
אא‬

9
B?" .M
) I;IW C i/ .Ib WWU GEU  . EI  (Subset Image) ‹ 
$=' I  @  

4<P ZU 2E% ?` IA y0U
-U +  =$ (AOI)
w 2E% ; /H ?` IA  -; k L C /  5.I, yWU
.yWU

M2

www.gisclub.net‫ 
א
אא‬

:Spectral Enhancement D* UV : 

T
X: Y: <== B- C i/ ;0 GI H A aIc * &$' YW $=' M0 

Threshold :0 f g 6$. M0
h GE/V 5DES  X (€/ W0
:  ? % Š0
¸ C i/ Pw Rw + (1- Pw) Ric < T (—) _E  +  ! ®;  /
# 
: g@ 4 O. Bd‰ ( $ I  ' E . GEZ   <t Š .—
3.915 = Rw Band 3  

=J mK  3S Π 

G30 ;is ›ES  # 
g@ 4 O. Bd{ GEU   <t Š
7.564 =Ric Band 3  =J mK  3S Π=$

M4

www.gisclub.net‫ 
א
אא‬

! : Q4 &$' Pixel ;j% TU
5@ Threshold 0 f I;IK .¢
: (¢) _E  +  ! ®;  / 2 =Pw = ›[;  J X b
T = 2(Rw + Ric)
T = 2 (3.915 + 7.564)
= 22.958 

I:  :' E . GEU Enhancement Spectral 5[ YW .’
ERDAS #:4 ej  ¤i¥  _; Indices 6$. Š0
¸ C i/
. GEU B &$' Threshold 0 R g M0

M5

www.gisclub.net‫ 
א
אא‬

I  ' E . GEZ  tl (  0 g  +  M0 *- œ yD; B@3

M@

www.gisclub.net‫ 
א
אא‬

#:4 k Il. Vector 5 U' xA Raster GEU U' B;K h . 
3D Analyst M;2 ' *$
C i/ (ArcGIS)  ]7 ?$  k4
Polygon ! ]7 Bd= Š4/ Shapfile 1b &$' I;It T$ ! Q;<·/

.$] 

MA

www.gisclub.net‫ 
א
אא‬

:ƒ Š0
¸ C i/ (—) _E B@3 (Map Composition) 2E% ;@

¤ r E/ g I;IK E2r / 2E%  I;IK _. g DA ;% y* 3 DA 2E% &$' ?` Ir @03 )D/ .( N M2 ¨  -

MC

www.gisclub.net‫ 
א
אא‬

MJ

www.gisclub.net‫ 
א
אא‬ 

D*  :W
T
B=' @{/ .* Z _ w  ]t _  xA * _
b TU  +U
5'U: :=$ Œ:4 : d ?$  k Il. = _ g. &$' TU
. HRV1 ’ ¬?0.
k:@s TU: :: a2S G+I  * TU L;2 It;
TU  .Unsupervised Classification k@s (€ TU / Classification
Supervised 

 M2 ! g@ 4 B  (Signature) ?=U DE ?. 
w$; k@s
xA ?$  _  
0=@ k; k@s (€ TU !  .TU ?1 Bd‰ *  
; X c/ Il ? ! = _ Y j &$' ; C i _; ?1 GI' 
- 4/ w ] k Il. Š4 $J  t  M;2 ' +I£ ² Q$ =$ ' &$' BU£
~:/ .:  G ?$  w ;j% TU GE/I k; ƒ¹ w.W$
Š:0
A h ?:4@r $ / m M9 C i/ (  $ ?$  )n w U; 
[:Z ?:$  &$'  (  * b  TU k@s B$W 6$.
:ƒ  ? % ‹l$
/ (Ÿ) _E B@  G 4@ / 
$= X b _
/ (Signature) ERDAS #4 ! M$; z :?= + I'A .—
+IK/  -]; z / (  ! k Il. B   ?' E
:ƒ  ? X b ! k Il. Š4 ƒ¹ w.W$
X 
* /B* 
YZ[ 

MK

# 

—™’¢˜Ž˜ 

=' X

—’™—˜ 

$WD X

—Ž—µµ˜ 

l0. ?0.

—¢””—Ÿ

GU/ 5=2

µ’˜ŸŽŸ

eE

—™’˜™Ž” 

W eE

www.gisclub.net‫ 
א
אא‬  

]7 _ S I;IK

?=U0 B;I
E 

* TU

?=U0 =
G+'A

2N

www.gisclub.net‫ 
א
אא‬

(  t 7 ;% :(Ÿ) _E B@
2M

www.gisclub.net‫ 
א
אא‬ 

02 (  * b  ?[U
;<· I 0 :?[U _=

)n &$' ?[U X b _= ; L ƒ¹ w.J  w$4 GEl ? $ 
eI  ‚4 ,  B TU
~ I  ' E . * ;j
., _*j TU$ 02  0; /

&$' RK z * ?4 B;K h ?$  B$K I  :?$  ¤ l. .Ÿ 
$]  Polygon ! ]7 Bd= Š4 ; 1b xA TU
.(¢) _E B@  yD
22

www.gisclub.net‫ 
א
אא‬ 

24

www.gisclub.net‫ 
א
אא‬

25

www.gisclub.net‫ 
א
אא‬

( 
$# - (
\ 
"
I;IK  @‰ I  ' E . EZ  U$l ?40 L  mD . . EI X b
(  * b  TU
Q / xA DA  0 I W0 X 5 0 + I
.k@s B$W Š0
¸  
. ( u2 0 f g 6$. M0
&$' ?I'. z a/ _b /
?0;EI + I'A 4@A kI 4/ .B  I  ' E . GEZ $ /  €0
.TU$ ;4d E+U  ?$  &$' +. h $J
R &:$'/ š:œ m‰ I 5D ES ?[U
 b(€/  Y <=  x/S G% 
$0 ?. EI$ W$ t ? i d )D  GI' š  DE B@; C i L e
:ed B0. &$' - 
$J ?$  )n ej  ( N W0 / ›E¡  0 +E  TU

.0. = I;IK 5 I[
z / I  ' E . EZ ) -4E/
L/I: ©4 B ?0$ w  / - 4¡ 0. )  I;IK •
.  02 &$' 0$. ? (]
±I
.(  =
&$' b(`F
/ E<7 / I  I;IK •
.I  ' E . EZ .  ;`S M2 ' T@ • 
:' E . EZ B$K M;2 ' u4 =$ 0.  E ! GI' •
.I 

2@

www.gisclub.net‫ 
א
אא‬

]\*
! Q: 
0
/ ¬ I:  :' E .  k—˜µ” I= I .EI R •
.4@ ?. EI
.I  ' E . ?
‚. k—˜˜Ÿ † I0' / 5$' ;E •
(ERDAS IMAGINE 8.6) t g + ; #4 R/I w;EI ?0 •

.;/ / ;I$0 L1 GE H/ :b—’Ž ( $ 5 = OP •
• J.W Finch, Mentoring small dames in semi-arid
regions using remote sensing and GIS, Journal of
hydrology 195,(1997)
• Curran, P.J, Principles of Remote Sensing,
Longman, London (1985).
• Drury, S.A, Image Interpretation in Geology,
Allen & Unwin, London. (1897).

2A