You are on page 1of 16


Models of network
There are three types of network models
1. Centralized Computing
2. Work Group (peer-to-peer)
3. Domain (Client-Server)
Centralized Computing:
It is the oldest model of networking based on the idea of having one very large and powerful central
computer, to which a number of computer terminals are directly connected. In the early days of
computing, this central computer would invariably have been a mainframe computer (often called
the host computer). This arrangement allowed many users to access the resources of the "host"
mainframe computer simultaneously
Workgroup (Peer to peer):
A workgroup is a collection of computers on a local area network (LAN) that share common resources
and responsibilities. You simply use the same Workgroup for all the computers and a unique name for
each computer. Being a peer-to-peer (P2P) network design all computers acts as a client because there
is no centralized server. The user on each computer determines which data on that computer is shared
on the network. Security is also managed by the user of the devices.
The Microsoft Windows family of operating systems supports assigning of computers to named
workgroups. Macintosh networks offer a similar capability through the use of AppleTalk zones. The
Open Source software package Samba allows UNIX and Linux systems to join existing Windows
Criteria for selecting peer to peer
1. Where 10 to 15 or fewer users will be sharing resources.
2. No server is available.
3. Nobody has the time or knowledge to act as a network administrator.
4. There is little or no concerns about security (security in data processing is the ability to protect
data from unauthorized access or, theft or damage)
5. The organization and the network will experience only limited growth within the foreseeable
Advantages of using peer to peer
They are easy to configure
Computers communicate easily.
They dont require additional server hardware or software
Users can manage their own resources.
They dont require a network administrator
They reduce total cost of network setup.
Disadvantages of using peer to peer
1. They provide a limited number of connections for shared resources.
2. Computers with shared resources suffer from sluggish performance.
3. They dont allow for central management
4. Users are responsible for managing resources. These resources include data in shared
directories, printers, fax cards, and so on.
5. They offer very poor security.



Domain (Client/Server Model)

It is the most common type of network architecture today that provides centralized data storage,
In client-server model one or more computers work as servers and other computers work as clients.
A client is a machine, typically a personal computer (or mobile, desktop or laptop) that is equipped
with network software applications. These applications are designed to request and receive data over
the span of the network.
The server computer controls the whole network, this enables server to keep profile of users, data, and
software etc completely in tacked and organized. A server is a storehouse of files, folders, databases
and even more complicated applications. A server is more powerful than a client and can support and
process the requests of a large number of clients.
Operating systems of servers are different from that of clients.
Client Operating systems: Windows 95, 98, Me, 2000, XP, Vista, 7
Server Operating Systems: Windows NT, server2000, 2003, 2008
Cost: - More expensive in terms of hardware and network operating system.
Complexity: - Experienced system administrators are required to manage the systems.
Dependence: - When server goes down, operations will cease across the network.
1. They are best suited for 10 or more users.
2. Security: - All major server based systems provides sophisticated security.
3. Administration: - Servers are centralized making them easier to manage.
4. Stability: - Server based systems are designed to support a wide range of organization sizes.
Additional servers are added to increase capacity.
5. Client server networks offer centralized backup where data can be stored in one server.
6. Flexibility - New technology can be easily integrated into the system.
7. Accessibility - Server can be accessed remotely and across multiple platforms.
A Windows domain is a logical group of computers running versions of the Microsoft Windows operating
system that share a central directory database. This central database known as Active Directory
(starting with Windows 2000) contains the user accounts and security information for the resources in
that domain. Each person who uses computers within a domain receives his or her own unique account,
or user name. This account can then be assigned access to resources within the domain.
In a domain, the directory resides on computers that are configured as "domain controllers." A domain
controller is a server that manages all security-related aspects between user and domain interactions,
centralizing security and administration.


A domain does not refer to a single location or specific type of network configuration. The computers
in a domain can share physical proximity on a small LAN or they can be located in different parts of the
world. As long as they can communicate, their physical position is irrelevant.

Networking Standards:
A network standard is in short a reference model to make sure products of different vendors can work
together in a network; The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) lays out those
A network protocol is a set of rule, which govern communication between two or more devices or
computer; or, a set of rule and regulation for the communication between devices within a network.
For example in order for you to be able to internet you need to have the 'tcp/ip'-protocol enabled.
In short, a network standard helps vendors to create products that can all work together; a network
protocol allows different network devices to communicate with each other.
There are a lot of different network standards that the majority of computers use. There are standards
for both physical hardware and for signaling. For example, IEEE 802.11g is a wireless networking
standard. It includes specifications for the type of radio that is used, how strong the signal can be
amplified, a standard set of encryption schemes, etc.
Another standard is Ethernet, also known as IEEE 802.3. This is a standard for hardwired networks.
When people talk about Cat 5 cable, this is usually what they mean. It defines what types of wiring can
be used, transmission power requirements, connector styles, etc.
There are also protocols. TCP/IP is basically the protocol that runs the internet and most LANs that
exist today. When people talk about IP addresses, subnet masks, default gateways, etc. those usually
pertain to this. Note that TCP/IP is a protocol that is used in conjunction with things like 802.11g or
Baseband systems use digital signaling over a single frequency. Signals flow in the form of discrete
pulses of electricity or light. With baseband transmission, the entire communication channel capacity is
used to transmit a single data signal. The digital signal uses the complete bandwidth of the cable,
which constitutes a single channel. A cable's total bandwidth is the difference between the highest and
lowest frequencies that are carried over that cable.
Each device on a baseband network transmits bidirectional, and some can transmit and receive at the
same time.



Bidirectional Digital Wave

As the signal travels along the network cable, it gradually decreases in strength and can become
distorted. If the cable length is too long, the result is a signal that is weak or distorted. The received
signal may be unrecognizable or misinterpreted.
As a safeguard, baseband systems sometimes use repeaters to receive an incoming signal and
retransmit it at its original strength and definition to increase the practical length of a cable.
It is the Digital communication technology in which the entire bandwidth of a medium such as a wire,
cable, or channel, is used to transmit a single signal. Therefore, only one communication channel is
available at any given time. Baseband is cheaper and simpler technology than broadband, and is
employed in most types of local area networks such as Ethernet.
Broad Band:
Broadband systems use analog signaling and a range of frequencies. With analog transmission, the
signals are continuous and no discrete. Signals flow across the physical medium in the form of
electromagnetic or optical waves. With broadband transmission, signal flow is unidirectional.

Unidirectional Analog Wave

If sufficient total bandwidth is available, multiple analog transmission systems such as cable television
and network transmissions can be supported simultaneously on the same cable.
Each transmission system is allocated a part of the total bandwidth. All devices associated with a given
transmission system, such as all computers using a LAN cable, must then be tuned so that they use only
the frequencies that are within the allocated range.
While baseband systems use repeaters, broadband systems use amplifiers to regenerate analog signals
at their original strength.
Because broadband transmission signal flow is unidirectional, there must be two paths for data flow in
order for a signal to reach all devices. There are two common ways to do this:
Mid-split broadband configuration divides the bandwidth into two channels, each using a
different frequency or range of frequencies. One channel is used to transmit signals, the other
to receive signals.
In dual-cable broadband configuration, each device is attached to two cables. One cable is
used to send and the other is used to receive.
The term comes from how the high-speed systems work. Imagine your Internet connection as a
highway. Your dial up connection would be a small highway with only a few lanes, so its harder for lots
of cars (data) to get through. Broadband, however, is a huge highway with lots and lots of lanes, so
tons of cars (data) can go through at the same time. This makes everything go faster.
Attenuation is a general term that refers to any reduction in the strength of a signal. Attenuation
occurs with any type of signal, whether digital or analog. Sometimes called LOSS, attenuation is a
natural consequence of signal transmission over long distances. The extent of attenuation is usually
expressed in units called decibels (dBs).
Attenuation occurs on networks for several reasons:


1. range - both wireless and wired transmissions gradually dissipate in strength over longer reaches
2. interference - on wireless networks, radio interference or physical obstructions like walls also
dampen communication signals
3. wire size - on wired networks, thinner wires suffer from higher (more) attenuation than thicker

Cross Talk:
Crosstalk is a disturbance caused by the electric or magnetic fields of one telecommunication signal
affecting a signal in an adjacent circuit. In a telephone circuit, crosstalk can result in your hearing part
of a voice conversation from another circuit. The phenomenon that causes crosstalk is called
electromagnetic interference (EMI). It can occur in microcircuits within computers and audio
equipment as well as within network circuits. The term is also applied to optical signals that interfere
with each other.
Cables (UTP, STP, FOC& Co-axial) & connector:
Cable is the medium through which information usually moves from one network device to another.
There are several types of cable which are commonly used with LANs. In some cases, a network will
utilize only one type of cable, other networks will use a variety of cable types. The type of cable
chosen for a network is related to the network's topology, protocol, and size. Understanding the
characteristics of different types of cable and how they relate to other aspects of a network is
necessary for the development of a successful network.
Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable
Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable
Coaxial Cable
Fiber Optic Cable
Twisted pair cabling comes in two varieties: shielded and unshielded. Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) is
the most popular and is generally the best option for networks


Shielded twisted pair cable is available in three different configurations:
1. Each pair of wires is individually shielded with foil.
2. There is a foil or braid shield inside the jacket covering all wires (as a group).
3. There is a shield around each individual pair, as well as around the entire group of wires
(referred to as double shield twisted pair).
Coaxial cabling has a single copper conductor at its center. A plastic layer provides insulation between
the center conductor and a braided metal shield. The metal shield helps to block any outside
interference from fluorescent lights, motors, and other computers.

Fiber optic cable has the ability to transmit signals over much longer distances than coaxial and twisted
There are two common types of fiber cables -- single mode and multimode. Multimode cable has a
larger diameter; however, both cables provide high bandwidth at high speeds. Single mode can provide
more distance, but it is more expensive.





Max Segment








10km, and
farther (singlemode)
2km and

100Mbps to
100Mbps to




Least Expensive

Easy to install;widely
available and widely

Susceptible to
interference; can
cover only a
limited distance.

More Expensive
than UTP

Reduced crosstalk;
more resistant to EMI
than Thinner or UTP

Difficult to work
with; can cover
only a limited

inexpensive, but
more costly than

Less susceptible to
EMI interference than
other types of copper

Difficult to work
limited bandwidth;
limited application
(Thinnet); damage
to cable can bring
down entire


Cannot be tapped, so
security is better; can
be used over great
distances; is not
susceptible to EMI;
has a higher data rate
than coaxial and
twisted-pair cable

Difficult to

Networking Devices:
The word "modem" is a contraction of the words modulator-demodulator. A modem is typically used to
send digital data over a phone line
The sending modem modulates the data into a signal that is compatible with the phone line, and the
receiving modem demodulates the signal back into digital data. Wireless modems convert digital data
into radio signals and back.


Hub is a common connection point for devices in a network. A hub contains multiple ports
Hub broadcasts the packets to all the ports including the incoming port.

Network repeaters regenerate incoming electrical, wireless, or optical signals. With physical media
like Ethernet or Wi-Fi, data transmissions can only span a limited distance before the quality of the
signal degrades. Repeaters attempt to preserve signal integrity and extend the distance over which
data can safely travel.

Bridge is a device which connects two segments of a network. Bridges inspect incoming traffic and
decide whether to forward or discard it. An Ethernet bridge, for example, inspects each incoming
Ethernet frame - including the source and destination MAC addresses, and sometimes the frame size. If
the destination address is not on the other side of the bridge it will not transmit the data.
Packet forwarding is performed using software.
Usually Bridges have 2 ports can go up to a max of 16 ports.

A Channel Service Unit (CSU) is a device that connects a terminal to a digital line. A Data Service Unit
(DSU) is a device that performs protective and diagnostic functions for a telecommunications line.
Typically, the two devices are packaged as a single unit, CSU/DSU.
You can think of a CSU/DSU as a very high-powered and expensive modem. Such a device is required
for both ends of a T-1 or T-3 connection; the units at both ends must be from the same manufacturer.

Network Interface Card/NIC:

Short for Network Interface Card, a NIC is also commonly referred to as an Ethernet card and network
adapter and is an expansion card that enables a computer to connect to a network such as a home
network or the Internet using an Ethernet cable with a RJ-45 connector. Some NIC cards work with


wired connections while others are wireless. Most NICs support wired either Ethernet or Wi-Fi wireless
standards. Ethernet NICs plug into the system bus of the PC and include jacks for network cables, while
Wi-Fi NICs contain built-in transmitters / receivers (transceivers).

A network switch is a small hardware device that joins multiple computers together within one local
area network (LAN). Technically, network switches operate at layer two (Data Link Layer) of the OSI
Network switches appear nearly identical to network hubs, but a switch generally contains more
intelligence (and a slightly higher price tag) than a hub. Unlike hubs, network switches are capable of
inspecting data packets as they are received, determining the source and destination device of each
packet, and forwarding them appropriately. By delivering messages only to the connected device
intended, a network switch conserves network bandwidth and offers generally better performance than
a hub.
As with hubs, Ethernet implementations of network switches are the most common. Mainstream
Ethernet network switches support either 10/100 Mbps Fast Ethernet or Gigabit Ethernet (10/100/1000)
Different models of network switches support differing numbers of connected devices. Most consumergrade network switches provide either four or eight connections for Ethernet devices. Switches can be
connected to each other, a so-called daisy chaining method to add progressively larger number of
devices to a LAN.

Types of Network Switches

Unmanaged Network Switches
Unmanaged network switches are commonly used in home networks and small businesses. It allows
devices on the network to communicate with each other, such as computer to computer or printer to
computer. An unmanaged switch does not need to be monitored or configured using external software
applications. They are easy to set up and require only cable connections. Unmanaged network switches
are ideal for small and medium networks.
Managed Switches


Managed switches can be modified to suit the functionality of a particular network. They are managed
by an embedded simple network management protocol (SNMP), secure shell or via a serial console.
There are two types of managed switches: smart switches and enterprise managed switches. Smart
switches fall between unmanaged and managed switches. They offer most of the features of managed
switches without their cost or complexity. A smart switch is able to configure virtual LANs, ports and
set up trucking. Smart switches are ideally used in fast LANs, which are those that support gigabit data
transfer. Enterprise managed switches are also called fully managed switches. They have a wide range
of management features, including a web interface, SNMP agent and command-line interface.
Additional features include the ability to restore, backup, modify and display configurations. They have
more features than traditional managed and unmanaged switches and are generally more expensive.
They are found in large enterprises, which are comprised of a large number of connections and nodes.
Routers connect networks. A router links computers to the Internet, so users can share the connection
(NAT). A router acts as a dispatcher, choosing the best path for information to travel so it's received
The router is the only device that sees every message sent by any computer on either of the company's
The Router looks at the IP Address to route the packets.

All but the most basic of networks require devices to provide connectivity and functionality.
Understanding how these networking devices operate and identifying the functions they perform are
essential skills for any network administrator.
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol):
In computer networking, the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is the method for finding a host's
hardware address when only its network layer address is known. ARP is primarily used to translate IP
addresses to Ethernet MAC addresses.
ARP is used in four cases of two hosts communicating:
When two hosts are on the same network and one desires to send a packet to the other
When two hosts are on different networks and must use a gateway/router to reach the other
When a router needs to forward a packet for one host through another router.
When a router needs to forward a packet from one host to the destination host on the same
Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) is a network layer protocol used to resolve an IP address
from a given hardware address (such as an Ethernet address). It has been rendered obsolete by BOOTP
and the more modern DHCP, which both support a much greater feature set than RARP.
RARP is the complement of ARP




IP Addressing and sub netting:

Any given host or interface on a network has a logical Unique ID called as IP (Internet Protocol)
Address, IPV4 address is a 32 bit binary number usually represented as 4 decimal values, each
representing 8 bits, in the range 0 to 255 (known as octets) separated by decimal points. This is known
as "dotted decimal" notation.
Address The unique number ID assigned to one host or interface in a network.
Subnet A portion of a network sharing a particular subnet addresses.
Subnet maskA 32-bit combination used to describe which portion of an address refers to the subnet
and which part refers to the host.
Every IP address consists of two parts, one identifying the network and one identifying the node. The
Class of the address and the subnet mask determine which part belongs to the network address and
which part belongs to the node address.
Subnet mask is used in conjunction with the ANDING process to know whether the source computer
needs to send the packet within the network or to the default gateway.
IP Addresses are categorized in to Classes
1st Octet
Class Decimal

1st Octet Network/Host ID

Order Bits H=Host)

Default Subnet Number of


1 126*


126 (27 2) 16,777,214 (224 2)

128 191



16,382 (214
65,534 (216 2)

192 223



(221 2)

224 239


Reserved for Multicasting

240 254


Experimental; used for research

Hosts per Network

(Usable Addresses)

254 (28 2)

Note: Class A addresses to cannot be used and is reserved for loopback and
diagnostic functions.



Subnet Masks:
A network mask helps you know which portion of the address identifies the network and which portion
of the address identifies the node. Class A, B, and C networks have default masks, also known as
natural masks, as shown here:
Default subnet masks:
Class A - - 11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000
Class B - - 11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000
Class C - - 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000
Private IP Address
Class Private Networks

Subnet Mask Address Range - - - -

Subnetting allows you to create multiple logical networks that exist within a single Class A, B, or C
network. If you do not subnet, you are only able to use one network from your Class A, B, or C
network, which is unrealistic.
Each data link on a network must have a unique network ID, with every node on that link being a
member of the same network. If you break a major network (Class A, B, or C) into smaller subnetworks,
it allows you to create a network of interconnecting subnetworks. Each data link on this network would
then have a unique network/subnetwork ID. Any device, or gateway, connecting n
networks/subnetworks has n distinct IP addresses, one for each network / subnetwork that it
In order to subnet a network, extend the natural mask using some of the bits from the host ID portion
of the address to create a subnetwork ID. For example, given a Class C network of which has
a natural mask of, you can create subnets in this manner: 11001100.00010001.00000101.00000000 - 11111111.11111111.11111111.11100000
--------------------------|sub|---By extending the mask to be, you have taken three bits (indicated by "sub") from the
original host portion of the address and used them to make subnets. With these three bits, it is possible
to create eight subnets. With the remaining five host ID bits, each subnet can have up to 32 host
addresses, 30 of which can actually be assigned to a device since host ids of all zeros or all ones are not
allowed (it is very important to remember this). So, with this in mind, these subnets have been
host address range 1 to 30 host address range 33 to 62 host address range 65 to 94 host address range 97 to 126 host address range 129 to 158 host address range 161 to 190 host address range 193 to 222 host address range 225 to 254
No of subnetworks can be calculated with the Formula 2 to the power of x where x is no bits added to
the network



Routing is the process of moving packets through an internetwork, such as the Internet.
Routing actually consists of two separate, but related, tasks:
1. Define paths for the transmission of packets through an internetwork.
2. Forwarding packets based upon the defined paths
Static vs. Dynamic Routing
Routing can be accomplished by manually entering the information necessary for packets to reach any
part of the internetwork into each router. This is called STATIC ROUTING.
Static routing works reasonably well for very small networks, but does not scale well. When using static
routing, the routing tables on each router must be updated each time the network topology changes
such as when a network link fails.
In most networks, routing is managed automatically by dynamic routing. In dynamic routing, routing
protocols create and maintain the routing tables automatically. Dynamic routing responds much more
quickly to network changes (and network failures) than static routing.
A network cabling that connects a computer to a network device. For example, straight through cables
are cables that connect a computer to a network hub, network switch, and network routers. These are
the standard network cables you would find at the store, unless labeled as a cross-over cable.
To create your own network cables you will first need the equipment we have listed below.
1) Cat5, Cat5e, Cat6, or Cat7 cable - This cabling can be purchased in large spindles at stores that
specialize in cabling. Cat5 cabling is the most commonly used cable used today for networks
2) RJ-45 connectors - These connectors can be purchased at most electronic stores and computer
stores and usually come in bulk packages. It's always a good idea to get more than you expect you
will need.
3) Crimping tool - These tools are often purchased at electronic stores such as radio shack. To create
a network cable you will need a crimper that is capable of crimping a RJ-45 cable (not just a RJ-11
cable, which looks similar to a RJ-45).
4) Wire stripper / Knife - If you plan on making several network cables you should also consider
getting a wire stripper cable of stripping Cat5, Cat6, or your cable of choice. If you do not plan on
creating many network cables a knife will suffice. For simplicity and to prevent potential issues we
recommend a wire stripper.
Once you have the necessary equipment needed to create your own network cables you need to
determine the network cable you wish to create. There are two major network cables: a straight
through cable and a crossover cable. Below are some examples of what cable is used for each of the
Straight Through Wired Cables:
Straight Through refers to cables that have the pin assignments on each end of the cable. In other
words, Pin 1 connector A goes to Pin 1 on connector B, Pin 2 to Pin 2 etc. Straight-Through wired cables
are most commonly used to connect a host to client. When we talk about cat5e patch cables, the



Straight-Through wired cat5e patch cable is used to connect computers, printers, and other network
client devices to the router switch or hub (the host device in this instance).

Crossover Wired Cables:

Crossover wired cables (commonly called crossover cables) are very much like Straight-Through cables
with the exception that TX and RX lines are crossed (they are at opposite positions on either end of the
cable. Using the 568-B standard as an example below you will see that Pin 1 on connector A goes to Pin
3 on connector B. Pin 2 on connector A goes to Pin 6 on connector B etc. Crossover cables are most
commonly used to connect two hosts directly. Examples would be connecting a computer directly to
another computer, connecting a switch directly to another switch, or connecting a router to a router.
Note: While in the past when connecting two host devices directly a crossover cable was required. Now
days most devices have auto sensing technology that detects the cable and device and crosses pairs
when needed.

Rollover Wired Cables:

Rollover wired cables most commonly called rollover cables, have opposite Pin assignments on each
end of the cable or in other words it is "rolled over". Pin 1 of connector A would be connected to Pin 8
of connector B. Pin 2 of connector A would be connected to Pin 7 of connector B and so on. Rollover
cables, sometimes referred to as Yost cables are most commonly used to connect to a devices console
port to make programming changes to the device. Unlike crossover and straight-wired cables, rollover
cables are not intended to carry data but instead create an interface with the device.




Network Troubleshooting:
Any troubleshooting task is basically a series of steps. The actual steps you take will vary from problem
to problem. Later steps in the process may depend on the results from earlier steps. Still, it is worth
thinking about and mapping out the steps since doing this will help you remain focused and avoid
needless steps.
There are 7 steps for Network Troubleshooting, and they are
Identify the problem
Establish a theory
Test the theory
Establish a plan of action
Implement the solution or escalate
Verify full system functionality
Document finding, actions and outcomes
Ping: Ping is part of ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) which is used to troubleshoot TCP/IP
networks. So, ping is basically a command that allows you to check whether the host is alive or not.
To ping a particular host the syntax is (at command prompt)..C :/> ping
Example: C :/> ping

Netstat:It displays protocol statistics and current TCP/IP network connections. i.e. local address,
remote address, port numbers, etc.


The syntax is (at command prompt)C :/> netstat n

Traceroute: Traceroute is a command, which can show you the path a packet of information takes
from your computer to one you specify. It will list all the routers it passes through until it reaches its
destination, or fails to and is discarded. In addition to this, it will tell you how long each 'hop' from
router to router takes.
The syntax is (at command prompt)..C :/> tracert

Ethereal:Ethereal is a freeware sniffing tool that can be used to view packets on the network. This tool
is especially useful to detect any intrusion attempts. It can be used in Linux, UNIX and Windows
operating systems.
Shows the packets that have been captured during the time.
Shows the select packet in 1 in more details. Every option in the 2 window is in
expand/collapse form. If expanded more details of the packet can be observed.
Shows the actual packet captured.