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Industry Forum

by Rainer Drath and Alexander Horch

Industrie 4.0: Hit or Hype?


Complexity, Productivity

being done). This obfollowed by an extreme increase in pron Germany, the term
scures the real and sound
ductivity. The second industrial revolu­Industrie 4.0 [1] is cur- Future
future visions behind Intion began about 100 years later in the
rently prevalent in alnavigation
dustrie 4.0. This column is
slaughterhouses in Cincinnati, Ohio, and
most every industry-relatsystems could
intended to provide easyfound its climax with the production of
ed fair, conference, or call
to-understand access to
the Ford Model T in the United States.
for public-funded projects. calculate an
the core ideas of IndustThe development of continuous proFirst used at the Hanover optimal route
rie 4.0 and describes the
duction lines based on both division of
Fair in 2011, the term, through traffic
basic industrial requirelabor and the introduction of conveyor
raised numerous discus- for every car,
ments that need to be fulbelts resulted in another productivity
sions, and the major quesdependent on
filled for its success.
explosion. Third, in 1969, Modicon pretion is: is it a hit or hype?
its position,
sented the first programmable logic conEven in politics, this term
troller that enabled digital programming
is used frequently with destination, and
Industrie 1.0–3.0
of automation systems. The programrespect to German indus- other related
The first three industrial
ming paradigm still governs today’s
try, and research efforts information,
revolutions spanned almodern automation system engineering
relating to it are currently such as
most 200 years. First,
and leads to highly flexible and efficient
supported by €200 million
mechanical looms driven
traffic jams.
automation systems (Figure 1).
from government-funding
by steam engines in the
It is remarkable that Industrie 4.0
bodies—the German Fed1780s started a significant
announces an industrial revolution
eral Ministry of Education and Research
change. Fabric production left pria priori. In that sense, the somewhat
and the German Federal Ministry of Ecovate homes in favor of central factories,
nomic Affairs and Energy. The term Industrie 4.0 refers to the fourth industrial
revolution and is often understood as
the application of the generic concept
of cyberphysical systems (CPSs) [5]–[7]
to industrial production systems (cyberphysical production systems). In North
Industrie 4.0
America, similar ideas have been
brought up under the name Industrial
Digitalization Industrie 3.0
Internet [3], [4] by General Electric. The
technical basis is very similar to Industrie 4.0, but the application is broader
Industrie 2.0
Manual Labor
than industrial production and also includes, e.g., smart electrical grids. The
Industrie 1.0
various definitions have caused confusion rather than increasing transparen1800s
cy. Overambitious marketing reinforced
the confusion (Industrie 4.0 is already
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MIE.2014.2312079
Date of publication: 19 June 2014

FIGURE 1 – An overview of the four industrial revolutions. Note that production flexibility was
highest when manual labor dominated production. Flexibility is one of the main drivers behind
Industrie 4.0. [Images courtesy of Archive City of Murg, Germany, http://commons.wikimedia.
org/wiki/File:Aline1913.jpg, and Control Engineering Asia (]

56  IEEE industrial electronics magazine  ■  june 2014

amTherefore. It is useor are controlled by a central traffic ful for various purposes such as control system. sonable. and not forced by any. a CPS requires three levels (see Figure 2): ■■ the physical objects (in this example. adjust speed. vice and form a second identity in although they are mainly used in other the network. machines. or a private factory network). tor on–off features to minihappening. accessible The novelty in such a scenario is from anywhere. three-dimensional (3-D) models. Future way mobile phones contributing navigation systems could have found their way parties calculate an optimal route into our pockets. configuration. the physical engineering. hence. traffic lights would have an object reprediagnostics. destination. field devices. dependent on its povices. exploration overeager marketing messages. tested. This information. different functionaltechnical basis is often mixed with corities will act for the physical objects: responding future visions. To sum it up. june 2014  ■  IEEE industrial electronics magazine  57 . machines.g. new levels of organization and scheduling are possible. and other entities in industrial production would get their own identities in the network. speed. The availability of bulk data allows various new business models.0 have the potential to be as formative as the previous three technical breakthroughs.0 is closely related to ous applications. It will become a self-evident on these data. Despite some negotiation functions. calendar. payment services. other related information. This to those data. In combination with third-party services such as weather.0.0 is the introduction of Inlatest available version.0—Background etc. it is the future. with individual identifiers. This about the plan of the next trend is unstoppable traffic light.products) will become able to store documents and knowledge about themselves outside their physical body in the network. The availability of bulk data allows the development of services that have not been possible so far. increasingly be conOnce cars feed their position. or historical data. the traffic lights and cars) ■■ data models of the mentioned physical objects in a network infrastructure ■■ services based on the available data. let us consider a structure in production systems will simple example: traffic lights today eibecome more affordable and. but to make their connection ■■ Hypothesis 1: Communication inframore transparent. to an optimal traffic flow. These data objects 4. ther act independently from each other be introduced everywhere. products. but in that it ■■ Hypothesis 3: Field devices. They the traffic lights could orchestrate and will be available as data objects in the optimize their behavior with respect network and may store real-time data. we believe that the ideas behind Industrie 4. combines the available technology in a plants. or fire engines could control explorable. They could negotiate with each other or could be interconnected and simulated. Police. requirements. What would be possible in an industry based on this concept? Components. or current color and time schedule. where these data obapplications. Industrie 4.g. future cars part of future produccould inform themselves tion systems. They will store documents. the Internet and destination back into the network.0 is or provide automatic mobody—it is currently a potential hit. nected to a network (e. CPSs. Algorithms for autonomy optimization Services Algorithms Cloud Documents Topology 3-D Models Process Data . Systems could be virtually integrated. collaborate well through traffic for every ■■ Hypothesis 2: Field decar. stored outside and Technical Drivers the body of the physical objects. and factories (even individual provocative question “hit or hype” illustrates the current discussion but cannot be answered yet.. In addition ternet technologies into industry. like navigation systems with user-driven traffic information. However. The possibilities are endless. Physical Objects FIGURE 2 – Three levels form a CPS in Industrie 4.0 is still in the future. hence. jects form a knowledge base for variIndustrie 4. service. and and factories (even in. the consumer industry.. they obtain a virtual living representation in the net. and analyzable in the netgreen lights for optimal security and work. to overcome sition. Industrie functions. By doing so. Based plants. As a CPS. available objects and data. etc. geolocation. operation and service of sentation in the network providing their products. e. The digital factory and the virtual commissioning would be accessible to everybody (authorized). they become searchable. dividual products) will such as traffic jams. and optimized. not in a new technology.the challenges.Industrie 4. This will lead to an explosion of safety in the city. the same given that all mize emissions.. simulation models. machines. Most of the techaugment the corresponding real denical ingredients are already available. is The major technical background of updatable and. The following hypotheses will help These three hypotheses sound reain understanding the CPS concept.. bulances. plants. represents the Industrie 4. new way.

plattform-i40. [4] P. Since 2007. Nov. Any future Industrie 4. he coordinates ABB’s research portfolio with respect to integrated engineering of automation systems.” in Machine Learning in Cyber Trust. In addition. However. 2010. Industrie 4. shortages of natural reserves. and individualized products. de/­finalreport2013 [3] J. Stankovic. Many companies. Recommendations for implementing the strategic initiative INDUSTRIE 4. online brokerage. Available: Technologyreview. pp. Summary Industrie 4. ■■ Data Privacy: access to productionrelated data and services has to be controllable to protect company know-how.1145/1837274. [Online]. given that all contributing parties collaborate well to overcome the challenges outlined above. the term revolution does not refer to the technical realization but to the ability to meet today’s as well as future challenges. [Online].0? Flexibility in production needs to be translated into the flexibility of workers. companies. com) is program manager and senior principal scientist in ABB Corporate Research.0 initiative is supported by an industry-led steering [9] [Online]. natural Technik-Gesellschaft/Industrie-40-Mit-InternetDinge-Weg-4-industriellen-Revolution [2] H. New York: Springer. and W. (DAC’10) W.0 is a phenomenon that will come inevitably.0 has to prevent unauthorized access to production systems to prevent environmental or economic damage and harm to humans. T. At this level. L.0. smart electrical grids. His current interests include the concretization of cyberphysical systems to electrical power systems and industrial production. The Impact of Control Technology. His research interests are in developing concepts and methods to increase the efficiency in the engineering of automation systems. it was merely the effect of changes in working and production methods rather than technical novelty that has motivated the term revolution. gereports. (2012. Sec.dke. 5]. New York. leading to an unpredictable world of online shops.drath@de. (2012). and universities work on different aspects of Industrie 4. 28).abb.0 is a potential hit. Kagermann. S. Gill. Biographies Rainer Drath (rainer. VDI Nachrichten. etc. he has held several management roles in the areas of production optimization. received his M. 2009. robustness. it has to enable industrial production to cope with the decarbonization of the energy supply. In ABB. “Cyber-physical systems: A new frontier. [Online].ieeecss. Looking back at the previous industrial revolutions. Liu. 2000. Production systems have fierce demands with respect to ­real-time behavior. M. W. which was confronted with the Internet in the early 1990s. Available: www. Available: http://files.0: Mit dem Internet der Dinge auf dem Weg zur 4. (2011). and video streaming. etc. and J. Alexander Horch (alexander. VDE.0 is the triad of physical objects.0. Some very basic requirements guide most of the work currently being done. 47th Design Automation Conf. reliability. NY: ACM. (Raj) Rajkumar. In his role. Wolfgang. Gopalakrishnan. Leber.0 is still in the future.pdf [5] R.) in automation technology from the Technical University of Ilmenau. 3–13. Wahlster. horch@de. and Q. Germany. Die Deutsche NormungsRoadmap Industrie 4.acm. Sha. and society with respect to Industrie 4. and standardization bodies [8] need to collaborate with maximum transparency to succeed in this complex and precompetitive task. degree in automatic control from Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm. in Proc. he currently 58  IEEE industrial electronics magazine  ■  june 2014 leads a research initiative in the area of Industrie 4.-Ing. which coordinates various committee teams [9]. Industrie 4.D. Products could navigate autonomously through the production line. He worked at ABB Corporate Research Germany as scientist and project leader in the area of optimization and asset management in different process industries. Wang. Apr. It needs to take advantage of the demographic challenge in many countries. X. ■■ Cybersecurity: Industrie 4. He is known as a driver in the AutomationML community and has received various research awards in his research field. The revolution is not necessarily the technical realization but the new horizon of business models. Eds. C. (2010). Available: www.0 must not compromise production.plattform-i40. Baheti and H. industriellen Revolution. and applications on top of those. Industrial Internet: Pushing the boundaries of minds and machines. IEEE Control Systems Society. Available: www. References [1] H. their virtual representation and services. (13) 2011. and industrial control systems.0. political instabilities in some countries. [7] R. Sha. [Online]. (2011.0 architecture has to fulfill these requirements as preconditions for industrial acceptance. We are convinced that Industrie 4. industrial and power automation. services. Industrie 4.0 reference architecture have already been outlined in [2. Samad and A.1837461 [6] [8] DKE. whether we want it or not. and J.0 has to be stepwise introducible into existing plants. Lukas. Cyberphysical Systems [Online]. He holds a doctoral degree (Dr. For Industrie 4. Cyber-physical systems: The next computing revolution. Industrial Requirements The German Industrie 4. Evans and M. Available: http://www. I.0. Lee. The reader is invited to contribute. Internet banking. [Online]. (2013). neither by disturbances nor by a breakdown. ■■ Stability: Industrie 4. availability.vdi-nachrichten. ­[Online]. What could be revolutionary for people. pp. This is similar to the consumer world. Available: http:// doi. Available: http://www. It is difficult to imagine all of the possible consequences of an industrial production that largely follows the concepts shown here. Helbi.could revolutionize production planning. the economy. 1). He is a certified project management professional and a certified automation professional from ISA.Sc. 161–166. auctions. ■■ Investment protection: Industrie 4. organizations. 731–736. General Electric’s San Ramon Software Center Takes Shape MIT Technology Review. The next important steps toward realizing an Industrie 4. degree in engineering cybernetics from the University of Stuttgart in 1996 and ge-industrial-internet-vision-paper. (2013).  . pp. Annaswamy.