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Lecture 1 - Mech 351 Statics & Dynamics of Rigid Bodies

Engr. Rejie C. Magnaye

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INTRODUCTION
ENGINEERING MECHANICS
- Science that deals/considers the effects of forces on rigid bodies.
- A branch of physical sciences concerned with the state of rest or
motion of bodies that are subjected to the actions of forces.
-

Mechanics is the study of forces that act on bodies and the resultant
motion that those bodies experience. With roots in physics and
mathematics, Engineering Mechanics is the basis of all the
mechanical sciences: civil engineering, materials science and
engineering, mechanical engineering and aeronautical and
aerospace engineering.

Engineering Mechanics provides the "building blocks" of statics,


dynamics, strength of materials, and fluid dynamics. Engineering
mechanics is the discipline devoted to the solution of mechanics
problems through the integrated application of mathematical,
scientific, and engineering principles. Special emphasis is placed on
the physical principles underlying modern engineering design.

Lecture 1 - Mech 351 Statics & Dynamics of Rigid Bodies


Engr. Rejie C. Magnaye

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Principles of Statics

STATICS

DYNAMICS

FORCE SYSTEM

APPLICATIONS

KINEMATICS

KINETICS

CONCURRENT

TRUSSES

TRANSLATION

TRANSLATION

PARALLEL

CENTROIDS

ROTATION

ROTATION

NON CONCURRENT

FRICTION

PLANE MOTION

PLANE MOTION

Fundamental Concepts and Definition


Rigid Body
Definite amount of matter the part of which are fixed in position
relative to each other.
Basic Quantities
Length
Time
Mass
Force
Force
- Considered as a push or a pull.
- As that which changes or tending to change the state of motion
of the body (external effect)
- As that which produce stress and deformation on the body
(internal effect of force)
- Mutual interaction between two bodies that produces
deformation of the bodies or affects the motion of the bodies
Contact forces direct contact of bodies.
Field forces gravitational, electrical and magnetic forces.
Characteristic of Forces
Magnitude
- Position of its line of action
- Direction in which the force acts along its line of action
Principle of Transmissibility
- states that the external effect of a force on a body is the
same for all points of application along its line of action (i.e
independent of the point of application)
Illustration:

Lecture 1 - Mech 351 Statics & Dynamics of Rigid Bodies


Engr. Rejie C. Magnaye

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Considered three identical bars subjected to the loading shown. The


bar is loaded at its ends by two forces that have equal magnitude and are
oppositely directed along the same action.

Scalars and Vector Quantities


Scalar
- Quantities which possess magnitude only can be added
arithmetically
- Can be added arithmetically
Vector
- Quantities which possess both magnitude and direction
- A vector of quantity can be represented geometrically (graphically)
by drawing a line acting, the length of the line representing to
some scale the magnitude of the quantity. An arrow is placed on
the line usually at the end to denote the sense of the direction.
Axioms of Mechanics
The Parallelogram Law
- the resultant of two forces is the diagonal formed on the vectors of
these forces.

Triangle Law (Corollary to Parallelogram Law)

Lecture 1 - Mech 351 Statics & Dynamics of Rigid Bodies


Engr. Rejie C. Magnaye

Page

If two forces are represented by their free vectors placed tip to tail,
their resultant vector is the third side of the triangle, the direction of
the resultant being from tip to tail of the first vector to the tip of the
last vector.

Special Case: if the angle between two forces becomes zero or 180,
the forces act along the same line (i.e forces are collinear). By taking
one direction as positive and the other direction as negative, resultant
therefore is their algebraic sum.
1. Two forces are in equilibrium only when equal in magnitude,
opposite in direction and collinear in action.
2. A set system of forces in equilibrium may be added to any system of
forces without changing the effect of the original system.
3. Action and reaction forces are equal but oppositely directed.
Introduction to Free Body Diagram
- One of the most important concepts in engineering mechanics is
that of free body diagram.
Free Body Diagram
- Sketch of the isolated body which shows only the forces acting on
the body
- It may consist of the entire assembled structure or a isolated part
of it
Numerical Calculations

Lecture 1 - Mech 351 Statics & Dynamics of Rigid Bodies


Engr. Rejie C. Magnaye

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One of the first things a student should is the ability to organize his
work in a neat and orderly manner. Properly arranged work helps to
eliminate personal errors but also permits checking by another person a
frequent occurrence in engineering offices.
Procedures:
1. After identifying the problem, start by constructing a neat diagram
of the quantities involved.
2. State as concisely as possible what data are given and what
information is required.
3. Errors are frequently caused by mental substitution in equations and
subsequent failure to include the term in the equation. For this
reason, write down the equation you want to use before substituting
in it. If a equation is not used, write a short note indicating the
principle used or the operation performed.

Dimensional Homogeneity
The terms of any equation used to describe a physical process must
be dimensionally homogeneous (i.e each term must be express in the
same units)
Resultant of Forces
Resultant
- The effect of a system of forces on a body is usually expressed in
terms of a resultant
- The value of this resultant determines the motion of the body (i.e
if R = 0, R = 0, in motion)

Forces systems
Any arrangement where two or more forces act on a body or
group of related bodies
Coplanar Force System
- When line of action of all forces in system lie on one plane
-

Lecture 1 - Mech 351 Statics & Dynamics of Rigid Bodies


Engr. Rejie C. Magnaye

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Concurrent Force system


- Lines of action of forces passes through a common point
(point of concurrency)
Parallel Force System
- Lines of action of the forces are parallel
Non concurrent Force System
- Also termed as the general coplanar force system
- Lines of action of the forces neither are parallel nor intersect
at a common point
Non Coplanar Force System (Force System on Space)
- Line of action of the forces not on the same plane

Forces and components


o Resolution of Vectors
A vector may be resolved into two component having known
lines of action by using parallelogram law.
For the figure shown, if R is to be resolve into components
acting along line and b, one starts at the head of R and extend a
line parallel to a until it intersect b. likewise a line parallel to b is

drawn from head of R to the point of intersection with a.

Example Problem
1. The tension T in the vertical cable equals the weight of the crate.
Calculate the components Tt and Tn along and normal to the boom,
respectively of the force T applied to the boom A by the crate.

Lecture 1 - Mech 351 Statics & Dynamics of Rigid Bodies


Engr. Rejie C. Magnaye

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2. The 10 kN vertical force is to be replaced by two forces F 1 directed


along 45 line a a and F 2 which has a magnitude of F 1 and the
counter clockwise angle made by x axis. (F1= 10.81 kN with =
17.1; F1= 3.33 kN with 72.9)

Lecture 1 - Mech 351 Statics & Dynamics of Rigid Bodies


Engr. Rejie C. Magnaye

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3. At what maximum angle should the force F be directed so that the


magnitude of its components along CA does not exceed 80percent
of the magnitude of its component along BC? (ans. 53)
4. The hydraulic cylinder exerts a force of 40 kN in the direction of its
shaft against the load that is hoisting. Determine the components F n
and F1 normal and tangent to AB for the position =30

Resolution of Force in Mutually Perpendicular Components


In engineering, forces are not generally at right angles. While the
resultant of such forces may be found graphically (parallelogram law),

Lecture 1 - Mech 351 Statics & Dynamics of Rigid Bodies


Engr. Rejie C. Magnaye

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it is not convenient to do so. It is frequently desirable to resolve each


force into a pair of right angled components for analytical computation.
Direction of F given in terms of Slope

By ratio and proportion


Fy F Fx
= =
a c
b
a
Fy = F ( c )

b
Fx = ( c )

Components Given or Known


x
F

y
F = F

tan x = Fy/Fx; the direction of F is determined by sign of its


components
Example Problem
1. At what angle must the 400N force be applied in order that the
resultant R of the forces will have a magnitude of 1000N? for this
condition will be the angle between R and the horizontal?

Lecture 1 - Mech 351 Statics & Dynamics of Rigid Bodies


Engr. Rejie C. Magnaye

Page |

2. It is desired to remove the spike from the timber by applying a force


along its horizontal axis. An obstruction A prevents direct access so
that two forces one 1.6kN and the other P, are applied by cables as
shown. Compute the magnitude of P necessary ensure tension T
along the axis of the spike. Also find T.

3. Calculate the magnitude of single force R is equivalent to the two


forces shown. Also calculate the angle measured counter
clockwise from the positive axis.

Lecture 1 - Mech 351 Statics & Dynamics of Rigid Bodies


Engr. Rejie C. Magnaye

Resultant of Three or More Concurrent Force System


- requires the sum of three or more vectors
o Graphical method
o Analytical method
Rx=Fx
Ry=Fy
x
F

R=

Tan x=

Fy
Fx

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Lecture 1 - Mech 351 Statics & Dynamics of Rigid Bodies


Engr. Rejie C. Magnaye

Page |

Example Problems:
1. Calculate the magnitude of tension T and the angle for which the
eyebolt will be under a resultant downward force of 15kN.

2. Determine the resultant R of the four acting on the gusset plate.


Also find the magnitude of R and the angle x which resultant makes
with the x-axis.

Moment of a Force
- Moment of a force about an axis or line is the measure of its ability
to produce turning or twisting about the axis.
- The magnitude of the moment about an axis which is perpendicular
to the plane containing the line of action of the force is defined as
the product of the force and the perpendicular distance from the
axis to the line of the force moment is twice the area of the triangle
formed by joining the center of moments with the ends of the force.
M=F*d

Lecture 1 - Mech 351 Statics & Dynamics of Rigid Bodies


Engr. Rejie C. Magnaye

Page |

o Signs and Units


Unit (kN-m, N-m, lb-ft, lb-in, kip-ft, kip-in)
Sign is arbitrarily chosen whichever is more convenient
o The principle of Varignons Theorem
The moment of the resultant forces is equal to the sum of the
moment of its components
o Applications
In some cases it is more convenient to determine the moment of the
force from the sum of the moments of its components rather than
from the force itself.

Mo+ = F*d
Mo+= Fx *y - Fy*x (using components at pt. A)
Mo+= Fx*Fy (using components at pt. B)
Ly =

Mo
Fy

(y intercept; distance from the origin where the force

intersects the y-axis)


Mo+= Fy* Ix (using components at pt. C)

Lecture 1 - Mech 351 Statics & Dynamics of Rigid Bodies


Engr. Rejie C. Magnaye

Lx =

Mo
Fx

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(y intercept; distance from the origin where the force

intersects the x axis)


Example Problems:
1. Calculate the moment about point A exerted by the 160 kN force
supported by the hoisting cable of the tractor crane for the position
shown.
2. In raising the flagpole from the position shown, the tension T in the
cable must supply a moment about 0 of 72kN m. Determine T?
3. Determine the angle , which will maximize the moment M O of the
200N force about the shaft axis at O. also compute MO
Resultant of Parallel Force System
Resultant is determined when it is known in:
Magnitude
Direction
Position

Magnitude
R = F
R=T+SPQ
[ (+); (-)]
Position of the Resultant from any point (apply Varignons Theorem)
MO = R* dr
MO = T* dt + P * dt + Q * dq S * ds (using components)

Lecture 1 - Mech 351 Statics & Dynamics of Rigid Bodies


Engr. Rejie C. Magnaye

Page |

Example Problems
1. Determine the height h above the base B at which the resultant of
the three forces acts.

2. Determine the magnitude and position of the resultant from A of the


forces acting on the cantilever beam showed. (R = 1.5kN,
downward; d= 11m)

Lecture 1 - Mech 351 Statics & Dynamics of Rigid Bodies


Engr. Rejie C. Magnaye

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3. Determine the magnitude of the resultant and its position from O.

Lecture 1 - Mech 351 Statics & Dynamics of Rigid Bodies


Engr. Rejie C. Magnaye

Page |

The special case in which the resultant has zero magnitude but does
have a moment is said to consists of a couple.
- Define as made up of two equal, parallel, oppositely directed forces
- The perpendicular distance between the action lines of the forces is
called moment arm of the couple
- Theirsum is constant and independent of the moment arm
C=F*d
Since the only effect of a couple is to produce a moment that is
independent of the moment center, the effect of a couple is unchanged if

(equivalent couple):
Original Couple
The couple is rotated through any angle in its plane
The couple is shifted to any other position in its plane
The couple is shifted to a parallel plane
Changing the magnitude of F of each force and the perpendicular
distance d while keeping the product F * d constant
C = F*d
C = 10 (2)
C = 20kN m
y

Lecture 1 - Mech 351 Statics & Dynamics of Rigid Bodies


Engr. Rejie C. Magnaye

Page |

Example Problems:
1. To close a gate valve it is necessary to exert two forces of 60 lbs at
opposite sides of a hand wheel 3 ft. diameter. Through an accident
the wheel is broken and the valve must be closed by thrusting a bar
through a slot in the valve stem and exerting a force 4 ft out from
the center. Determine the force required.

2. A vertical force P at A and another vertical force F at V in the figure


shown, produce a resultant of 100 lbs down at D and counter
clockwise couple C of 200 lbs - ft. find the magnitude and direction

of forces P and F.