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TUTORIAL B1.

32 TB 496

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR TESTING


DC EXTRUDED CABLE SYSTEMS FOR
POWER TRANSMISSION AT A RATED
VOLTAGE UP TO 500 kV
4 th Interactive Workshop on HV Cables, System and Accessories
Mumbai 24 - 25 th February 2015

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Copyright

DISCLAIMER
Ownership of a CIGRE publication, whether in paper form or on electronic support only infers right of use
for personal purposes. Are prohibited, except if explicitly agreed by CIGRE, total or partial
reproduction of the publication for use other than personal and transfer to a third party; hence
circulation on any intranet or other company network is forbidden.

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Content

Scope of work
Revision with respect to TB 219
Overview of tests
Technical basis Definition of test parameters
Prequalification tests
Type tests
Routine tests
Sample tests
After installation tests
Comparison with other recommendations / standards

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WG Scope of work (1)

Background
o
o

General scope
o
o
o

TB 219 issued in February 2003 addresses HVDC extruded cable


systems up to 250 kV
Due to commercially available HVDC systems above 250 kV an
update to 500 kV was necessary
Prepare a recommendation for testing DC extruded cable systems
up to 500 kV
Step 1: review TB 219 principles with respect to eventual
inadequacy for DC voltages beyond 250 kV
Step 2: develop a new recommendation (new TB)

Working Group duration: 3 years (2009-2011)

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WG Scope of work (2)

Scope of work
o
o
o
o
o
o

Survey of laboratory and operational experience


Consider extrapolation of TB 219 principles to 500 kV
Consider both submarine and land applications and aspects related
to testing of long lengths
Electrical, thermal and mechanical aspects
Refer to appropriate standards and recommendations
The recommendation to be released shall at least:
Cover Prequalification tests, Type tests, Routine tests, Sample tests,
After installation tests
Consider a range of type approval
Take into account laying and operational conditions when developing the
test conditions and requirements

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Survey of laboratory and operational experience

At the time of preparing this recommendation


o
o
o
o

Laboratory experience at voltages up to and including 500 kV


Operating experience limited to 200 kV
Commercial Contracts awarded at a voltage level up to 320 kV
A further increase in voltage level is to be expected and this
recommendation will therefore cover voltages up to 500 kV.
It is important to emphasise that the lack of operational
experience above 200 kV and the limited number of tests at
higher voltage levels represent an uncertainty in the preparation
of this recommendation. Consequently new relevant knowledge
that emerges from increased testing and/or service experience at
higher voltages may necessitate new revisions of this
recommendation in the future.

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WG B1.32 Members
COUNTRY

NAME

CANADA

Allen MacPhail

DENMARK

Thomas Kvarts

FRANCE

Laurent Benard

ITALY

Ernesto Zaccone

JAPAN

Seishi Hirano

KOREA

Jung-Nyun Kim

NETHERLAND

Riccardo Bodega

NORWAY

Jerome Matallana (Secretary)

NORWAY

Bjrn Sanden (Convenor)

SWEDEN

Marc Jeroense

SWITZERLAND

Detlef Wald

UK

Roman Svoma

CORRESPONDING MEMBERS:

AUSTRALIA

Joska Ferencz

ITALY

Luigi Colla

US

Steve Eckroad

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Revisions with respect to TB 219 (1)

Discussion on technical basis


o
o
o
o

Determination of voltage factors at V > 250 kV ?


Inverse power law and n values at V > 250 kV ?
Time constants at V > 250 kV, resistivity of insulating materials ?
Examination of TB 303 outcome and relevance for HVDC extruded
WG consensus: TB 219 principles shall cover higher voltage
levels until some discrepancies are displayed by operational
and/or lab experience

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Revisions with respect to TB 219 (2)

Main changes:
o
o
o
o
o

Voltage range extended to 500 kV


General text update to take into account latest revisions of IEC
60840/62067 wording
Range of approval of both prequalification and type tests have been
revised
Load cycle blocks of PQ test refers to number of cycles instead of
number of days
Duration of cycles updated to comply with IEC requirements instead
of exactly 24 h or 48 h load cycles (i.e. at least 8 h heating etc).
Adopted wording is 24 hours or 48 hours load cycles
Recommendations for routine / sample tests on cable accessories
have been included

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Scope of the recommendation

This document recommends a series of tests on extruded cables


for DC power transmission systems (land or submarine cables
with their accessories in fixed installations) up to and including
500 kV.
o

Recommendation addresses 2 type of HVDC systems


LCC (Line Commutated Converters) Classic HVDC, thyristor
technology, cable system subjected to polarity reversals
VSC (Voltage Source Converters) New generation conversion
technology based on IGBT electronics, cable system not subjected to
polarity reversals

Extruded cable systems


Within the scope of these recommendations extruded shall mean either
filled (e.g. with mineral or carbon) or unfilled and either thermoplastic
(e.g. polyethylene, etc.) or thermoset (e.g. crosslinked polyethylene,
ethylene propylene rubber, etc.) insulations.

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Overview of proposed tests (1)

Where applicable, all definitions are in line with IEC 60840 and
IEC 62067
Development Tests
o
o

Tests made during the development of the cable system


The manufacturer should complete all analyses and development
testing prior to commencing the prequalification test. The precise
nature and extent of development work and analyses shall be left to
the discretion of the manufacturer, but may include the following:
Resistivity = f(E,T), breakdown strength, space charge properties
DC field distribution within the insulation systems through resistivity
coefficients
Long term stability, ageing effect assessment
Sensitivity of electric field to variations in

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Cable dimensions
Material composition
Process conditions

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Overview of proposed tests (2)

Prequalification tests (PQ tests)


o

Tests made before supplying on a general commercial basis a type


of cable system covered by this recommendation, in order to
demonstrate satisfactory long term performance of the complete
cable system.
The prequalification tests need only be carried out once unless there is
a substantial change in the cable system with respect to material,
manufacturing process, design or design electrical stress levels.

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A substantial change is defined as that which might adversely affect the


performance of the cable system

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Overview of proposed tests (3)

Type tests
o

Tests made before supplying on a general commercial basis a


type of cable system covered by this recommendation, in order to
demonstrate satisfactory performance characteristics to meet the
intended application.
Once successfully completed, these tests need not be repeated,
unless changes are made in the cable or accessory with respect to
materials, manufacturing process, design or design electrical stress
levels, which might adversely change the performance characteristics.

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Overview of proposed tests (4)

Routine tests
o

Sample tests
o

Made by the manufacturer on manufactured component, cable


length or accessory, to check that it meets the specified
requirements
Made by the manufacturer on samples of complete cable or
components taken from a complete cable or accessory at a
specified frequency to check that the finished product meets the
specified requirements

After installation tests


o

Made to demonstrate the integrity of the cable system as installed

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Technical basis (1)

Voltage factors
o
o
o

Based on available V-t characteristics for DC operation


Inverse power law provided a conservative basis for the work
A value of n = 10 was selected in TB 219 and kept by WG B1.32
since no significant finding allowed to amend this approach today
Test voltage Vdc is:

Inverse power law


V n t = const

where:

V : voltage
t : time
n : life exponent from V-t characteristics

Vdc = V0 K1
where:

V0 : system voltage
K1 : test voltage ageing factor

K1 = n

t0
t1

t0 design life
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t1 test duration
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Technical basis (2)

Test factors up to 500 kV DC

Prequalification Test

Type Test

Design Life, t0 (years)

40

40

Test Duration, t1 (days)

360

30

Test Voltage Aging Factor, K1


Test Factor

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10

40 365 / 360
1.45

10

40 365 / 30
1.85

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Technical basis (3)

Time constants
o
o
o

Determine the duration of test sequences (steady state aimed at)


Resistivity of insulation materials vs. E and T
Higher resistivity materials may be developed and a review of test
block durations may be required in the future
Temperature
(C)

(F/m)

(.m)

Time for stability, 10


(hours)

20

2x10-11<< 3x10-11

1015< < 5x1016

55<10 < 4300

60

2x10-11<< 3x10-11

2x1013<< 5x1014

1< 10 < 43

90

2x10-11< < 3x10-11

1012<< 5x1013

0.06< 10 < 4.3

Condition
Zero load
(Prequalification)

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Temperature

Testing time
(Days)

Ambient temperature
At least 120
(2015C)
At least maximal conductor
temperature
1
48 Hour Load Cycle:
(60C to 90C
(heating period)
depending on
(Type Approval)
manufacturer design)

Time for stability, 10


(Days)
2.3<10 < 180

0.003<10 <1.8
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Test objects
Example of test loop

test object
Termination

minimum 5 m cable
between Accessory
test objects

test object
Joint

0.5 m cable included in the


Accessory test object

test object
Joint

test object
Termination

test object Cable. Minimum 10 m.

minimum 5 m cable between


Accessory test objects

Back to type test


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DC tests voltages, examples

Rated
voltage

Type test
Routine tests

U0 (kV) UT (kV) = 1.85xU0

PQ test: Load cycle test


Type test: Polarity reversals
After installation test

PQ test: Polarity
reversals

UTP1 (kV) = 1.45xU0

UTP2 (kV) = 1.25xU0

300

555

435

375

320

592

465

400

400

740

580

500

500

925

725

625

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Impulse tests voltages

Lightning impulse (LI)


o

UP1 = 1.15 x max. absolute value


of the design LI voltage when LI
has opposite polarity to DC

Switching Impulse (SI)


o

UP2,S = 1.15 x max. absolute


value of the design SI voltage
when SI has same polarity as DC
UP2,O = 1.15 x max. absolute
value of the design SI voltage
when SI has opposite polarity as
DC

kV

kV
U P2,S

U0

VSC, same polarity positive


switching impulse

- U P2,O

LCC or VSC, opposite polarity


negative switching impulse

kV

kV

t
- U0

U P2,O
- U P2,S

VSC, same polarity negative


switching impulse

- U0

LCC or VSC, opposite polarity


positive switching impulse

kV

kV
U P1

- U0

LCC or VSC, positive lightning impulse

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U0

U0

t
- U P1

LCC or VSC, negative lightning impulse

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Thermal parameters

Tcond,max
o
o

Tmax
o
o
o
o

Maximum temperature the cable conductor is designed to operate


Stated by the supplier
Maximum temperature drop over the cable insulation in steady
state at which the cable is designed to operate
The semiconducting screens are not included
This value is stated and calculated by the supplier
The supplier shall correlate this design value with data measured
during testing

Ambient temperature
o

(20 15) C

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Thermal conditions for tests (1)

Load Cycles (LC)


o
o

Consist of a heating period followed by a cooling period


24 hours load cycles
At least 8 h heating
During at least the 2 last hours of heating
Tcond Tcond,max
T Tmax
At least 16 h of natural cooling

48 hours load cycles


At least 24 h heating
During at least the 18 last hours of heating
Tcond Tcond,max
T Tmax
At least 24 h of natural cooling

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Thermal conditions for tests (2)

High Load (HL)


o
o

Consists of a continuous heating period


Within the first 8 hours, the following conditions shall be achieved
Tcond Tcond,max
T Tmax

Zero load (ZL)


o

If, for practical reasons, these conditions are not met within 8 h, a
longer time can be used, although not constituting as being part of the
test period
No heating applied

Prior to impulse tests


o

The following conditions shall be met for at least 10 h before impulses


Tcond Tcond,max
T Tmax

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Specific test conditions (1)

Polarity reversal test (PR) 24 hours load cycles


o
o
o
o
o

LC sequence and voltage as described previously


Starting with positive polarity
3 polarity reversals evenly distributed shall be performed during a
24 hours load cycle (therefore at least 8 h between reversals)
One reversal shall coincide with the cessation of heating current
Polarity reversal performed within 2 minutes. If, for practical
reasons, this cannot be achieved, the duration shall be agreed
between customer and supplier

Superimposed impulse voltage tests


o

o
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Prior to impulse tests, the temperature conditions defined in the


previous slide shall be achieved but the DC voltage U0 shall also
be applied for at least 10 h
This was selected to reflect the electric dynamics of extruded
insulations under HVDC
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Specific test conditions (2)

Check on insulation thickness of cable (IEC 60811-1-1)


o
o

Prior to all electrical tests


Consistency with IEC 60840 and IEC 62067 standards

Return cable voltage definitions


o

URC,AC
Maximum voltage a return cable can experience due to temporary
damped AC overvoltage (typically due to a commutation failure)
The nature of the overvoltage depends upon the configuration of the
HVDC link and needs to be calculated for each case

URC,DC
Maximum DC voltage in normal operation

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Prequalification Test

The prequalification test is intended to indicate the long-term


performance of the complete cable system and should
normally be carried out after the development tests have been
completed.
The prequalification test needs only be carried out once,
unless there is a substantial change in the cable system with
respect to materials, manufacturing processes, construction or
design parameters.
o
o

A substantial change is defined as that which might adversely


affect the performance of the cable system.
The supplier shall provide a detailed case including test evidence
if modifications are introduced, which are claimed not to constitute
a substantial change.

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Prequalification Test

Range of approval
o
o
o

o
o
o

The rated voltage U0 is not more than 10% higher than that of the tested cable
system.
The calculated average electrical stress in the insulation (given by U0 divided by the
nominal insulation thickness) is less than or equal to that of the tested system.
The calculated Laplace electrical stress at U0 (using nominal dimensions) at the
cable conductor and insulation screen is less than or equal to that of the tested
system.
The maximum conductor temperature Tcond,max is less than or equal to that of the
tested system.
The maximum temperature drop across the insulation layer Tmax (excluding the
semiconducting screens) is less than or equal to that of the tested system.
A cable system prequalified according to this recommendation for LCC is also
prequalified for VSC. A cable system prequalified according to this recommendation
for VSC is not prequalified for LCC.
An unarmoured cable prequalified according to this recommendation prequalifies an
armoured cable and vice versa

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Prequalification Test

Comments to the range of approval


Cigr TB 303 is a relevant document to assess the need for further PQ
testing but the concept of Extension of Qualification cannot be implemented
for HVDC extruded given the current state-of-the-art
o For the sake of clarity, no consideration of DC electrical stress involved in
this range of approval
o

Establishing the DC stress involves calculations based on material properties that


are established from non standardised measurements, e.g. conduction current as
a function of temperature and electrical stress
DC stress is a critical design criteria and each supplier must have detailed
knowledge of their cable system

The use of a large conductor cross-section is recommended to cover


thermo-mechanical aspects
o PQ tests performed according to TB 219 are valid
o The aim of the impulse test at the end of the PQ test sequence is to check
the integrity of the cable system. It does not qualify the system for a given
impulse level. Project-specific impulse levels should be qualified during the
type test
o

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Prequalification Test

General
o
o
o

Test arrangement
o
o

At least 100 m of cable including at least one complete accessory of


each type should be tested
Where appropriate mechanical preconditioning may be considered
before starting the PQ test
Minimum duration of voltage test is 360 days
Cable and accessories shall be assembled according to
manufacturer's instructions
The test loop should reflect the installation conditions

Sequence of tests
o
o
o

Long duration voltage test


Superimposed impulse voltage test
Examination

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Prequalification Test
Long duration voltage test, LCC sequence

Number of
cycles or days

Test Voltage

LC

LC

LC+PR

HL

HL

ZL

LC

LC

LC+PR

S/IMP

30
cycles

30
cycles

20
cycles

40
days

40
days

120
days

30
cycles

30
cycles

20
cycles

Not applicable

UTP1

UTP1

UTP1

UTP1

UTP1

UTP1

UTP1

UTP2

UTP2

UP2,O = 1.2 x U0
UP1 = 2.1 x U0*

Long duration voltage test, VSC sequence

Number of
cycles or days
Test Voltage

LC

LC

HL

HL

ZL

LC

LC

S/IMP

40
cycles

40
cycles

40
days

40
days

120
days

40
cycles

40
cycles

Not applicable

UTP1

UTP1

UTP1

UTP1

UTP1

UTP1

UTP1

UP2,O = 1.2 x U0
UP1 = 2.1 x U0*

LC=Load Cycle, HL=High Load, PR=Polarity Reversal, ZL=Zero Load, S/IMP=Superimposed Impulse Test.
* If required
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Prequalification Test

Impulse test levels


o
o
o

UP2,O = 1.2 x U0
UP1 = 2.1 x U0 (agreement between customer and supplier)
Tests shall be performed on the complete assembly or on one or
more cable samples with a minimum total active length of 30 m cut
from the complete assembly

Note on success criteria - Interruptions


o

In case of interruption due to external factors the test may be


resumed
If the interruption is longer than 30 minutes the specific lost load cycle
shall be repeated
If the interruption happens during a constant load period and is longer
than 30 minutes, the day the interruption occurred shall be repeated

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Example: Prequalification Test VSC, U0 = 320 kV


VSC prequalification test schedule
600

Load Cycles :

400

Test Voltage (kV)

+ 1.45 x UO 40 cycles
200

8 h heating / 16 h cooling
(applied current leads to design temperature)

0
0

40

80

T120
Tmax 200
for at least
2280
h
max & 160
240

320

360

-200

-400

-600
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Elapsed Time (days)

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Example: Prequalification Test VSC, U0 = 320 kV


VSC prequalification test schedule
600

Test Voltage (kV)

400

Load Cycles :
- 1.45 x UO 40 cycles

200

8 h heating / 16 h cooling
(applied current leads to design temperature)

0
0

40

80

120

160 & T
200
240
280
320
Tmax
max for at least 2 h

360

-200

-400

-600
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Elapsed Time (days)

Page 33

Example: Prequalification Test VSC, U0 = 320 kV


VSC prequalification test schedule
600

400

Test Voltage (kV)

High Load :
+ 1.45 x UO 40 days

200

Continuous Heating
(applied current leads to design temperature)

0
0

40

80

120

160

200

240

Tmax & Tmax

280

320

360

-200

-400

-600
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Elapsed Time (days)

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Example: Prequalification Test VSC, U0 = 320 kV


VSC prequalification test schedule
600

High Load :

400

Test Voltage (kV)

- 1.45 x UO 40 days
Continuous Heating

200

(applied current leads to design temperature)

0
0

40

80

120

160

Tmax & Tmax


200

240

280

320

360

-200

-400

-600
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Elapsed Time (days)

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Example: Prequalification Test VSC, U0 = 320 kV


VSC prequalification test schedule
600

Test Voltage (kV)

400

Zero Load :

200

- 1.45 x UO 120 days


No Heating

0
0

40

80

120

160

200

240

280

320

360

-200

-400

-600
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Elapsed Time (days)

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Example: Prequalification Test VSC, U0 = 320 kV


VSC prequalification test schedule
600

400

Test Voltage (kV)

Load Cycles :
200

+ 1.45 x UO 40 cycles
8 h heating / 16 h cooling

0
0
-200

(applied current leads to design temperature)


40
80
160
200
120

Tmax & Tmax for at least 2 h

240

280

320

360

-400

-600
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Elapsed Time (days)

Page 37

Example: Prequalification Test VSC, U0 = 320 kV


VSC prequalification test schedule
600

400

Test Voltage (kV)

Load Cycles :
- 1.45 x UO 40 cycles

200

8 h heating / 16 h cooling
(applied current leads to design temperature)

0
0

40

80
160
200
240
Tmax
& T120
for
at
least
2
h
max

280

320

360

-200

-400

-600
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Elapsed Time (days)

Page 38

Example: Prequalification Test VSC, U0 = 320 kV


VSC prequalification test schedule
600

Impulse superimposed to DC Test :


after min. 360 days DC testing

400

Test Voltage (kV)

U0 applied for at least 10 hours


Tmax & Tmax for at least 10 hours

200

Waveform according to IEC 60230


0
0

40

80

120

160

200

240

280

320

360

-200

-400

-600
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Elapsed Time (days)

Page 39

Type Test

Range of approval (1)


o
o
o
o
o

The actual designs, materials, manufacturing processes and service


conditions for the cable system are in all essential aspects equal.
All service voltages, U0, UP1, UP2,S and UP2,O (URC,AC and URC,DC in case of
return cable), are less than or equal to those of the tested cable system.
The mechanical stresses to be applied during preconditioning are less than
or equal to those of the tested cable system.
The service maximum conductor temperature Tcond,max is less than or equal
to that of the tested cable system.
The maximum temperature drop across the insulation layer Tmax
(excluding the semiconducting screens) is less than or equal to that of the
tested cable system.
The actual conductor cross-section is not larger than that of the tested cable
system.

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Type Test

Range of approval (2)


The calculated average electrical stress in the insulation (given by U0
divided by the nominal insulation thickness) is less than or equal to that of
the tested system.
o The calculated Laplace electrical stress (using nominal dimensions) at the
cable conductor and insulation screen is less than or equal to that of the
tested system.
o A cable system qualified according to this recommendation for LCC is also
qualified for VSC provided the switching impulse withstand tests at UP2,S
voltage levels as specified in 4.4.3.3 are carried out. A cable system
qualified according to this recommendation for VSC is not qualified for LCC
o

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Type Test

Comments to the range of approval


o

For the sake of clarity, no consideration of DC electrical stress involved in


this range of approval
Establishing the DC stress involves calculations based on material properties that
are established from non standardised measurements, e.g. conduction current as
a function of temperature and electrical stress
DC stress is a critical design criteria and each supplier must have detailed
knowledge of their cable system

Non-electrical tests need not be carried out on samples from cables of


different voltage ratings and/or conductor cross-sections unless different
materials and/or different manufacturing processes are involved
o If the combination of materials applied over the screened core is different
from that of the cable on which type tests have been carried out previously,
repetition of ageing tests on pieces of complete cable for compatibility
purposes may be required
o Type tests successfully performed according to TB 219 are valid
o

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Type Test

Test objects
o
o

All components of the cable system shall be subjected to type test


Different parts of a system could be in different loops

Non-electrical type tests


o
o

o
o

The cable system shall be applied to non-electrical type testing as


specified in IEC 62067 Ed. 2
Land cable systems including water blocking featurs shall be
subjected to a water penetration test as specified in IEC 62067 Ed.
2
Submarine cable systems shall be subjected to a water integrity test
as specified in Electra 189, April 2000
Cables with metallic earthing connections through plastic sheath
shall be subjected to the relevant test in Electra 189, April 2000

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Type Test: Electrical Type Test


Submarine cables
Tensile bend test
Electra
Electra171
171[13]
[7]

Land cables
Bend test
IEC 62067 [4]

LCC Load Cycling


( 4.4.2.2)

VSC Load Cycling


( 4.4.2.3)

LCC Switching
( 4.4.3.2)

VSC Switching
( 4.4.3.3)

Mechanical preconditioning
Appropriate for land or submarine
cable application
o Aim: subject the test object to the
maximum mechanical stress
experienced during handling,
installation and recovery
o Land cable systems: IEC 62067 Ed. 2
o Submarine cable systems: Electra 171
o

Electrical tests sequence


o

Lightning
( 4.4.3.4)

o
o
o

Subsequent DC
( 4.4.3.5)

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Load cycles tests


Superimposed impulse tests
Subsequent DC test
Test of outer protection for joints
Examination
Page 44

Type Test

Note on success criteria - Interruptions


o

In case of interruption caused by external factors, the test may be


resumed
Interruption > 30 min: the specific lost load cycle shall be repeated
Interruption > 24 h: the actual test block shall be repeated (24
hours LC block, 24 hours LC block with polarity reversals, 48 hours
LC block)

Note on rest periods between test blocks


o
o
o
o

Minimum rest periods of 24 h are recommended between test


blocks of different polarities
No voltage, heating applied (at the discretion of the manufacturer)
The goal is to relax the electrical / eventually mechanical stresses
Rest periods do not apply to individual polarity reversals in the
polarity reversal blocks

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Page 45

Type Test VSC

VSC electrical test sequence


o
o
o
o

12 x 24 hours Load Cycles at -UT


12 x 24 hours Load Cycles at +UT
3 x 48 hours Load Cycles at +UT
Superimposed switching impulse withstand test

Test loop at U0 , 10 consecutive impulses to UP2,S


Test loop at U0 , 10 consecutive impulses to -UP2,O
Test loop at -U0 , 10 consecutive impulses to -UP2,S
Test loop at -U0 , 10 consecutive impulses to UP2,O

Superimposed lightning impulse withstand test (if required)


Test loop at U0 , 10 consecutive impulses to UP1
Test loop at -U0 , 10 consecutive impulses to UP1

Subsequent DC test
2 h at UT , no heating

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Type Test LCC (1)

LCC electrical test sequence


o
o
o
o
o

8 x 24 hours Load Cycles at -UT


8 x 24 hours Load Cycles at +UT
8 x 24 hours Load Cycles with polarity reversals at UTP1
3 x 48 hours Load Cycles at +UT
Superimposed switching impulse withstand test
Test loop at U0 , 10 consecutive impulses to -UP2,O
Test loop at -U0 , 10 consecutive impulses to UP2,O

Additional superimposed switching impulse withstand test for LCC


systems intended to be qualified for VSC application
Test loop at U0 , 10 consecutive impulses to UP2,S
Test loop at -U0 , 10 consecutive impulses to -UP2,S

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Type Test LCC (2)

LCC electrical test sequence


o

Superimposed lightning impulse withstand test (if required)


Test loop at U0 , 10 consecutive impulses to UP1
Test loop at -U0 , 10 consecutive impulses to UP1

Subsequent DC test
2 h at UT , no heating

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Type Test

Other tests
o

After both VSC and LCC test sequences, test of outer protection for
joints intended for burial on land shall be performed as specified in
IEC 62067 12.4
Cables with longitudinally applied metal tape or foil bonded to the
oversheath shall be subjected to tests specified in IEC 62067

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Type Test

Return cable test sequence


o
o

Mechanical preconditioning
Thermo-mechanical preconditioning
24 daily cycles, i.e. 24 hours Load Cycles without any requirement
on Tmax
No voltage applied

AC voltage test at
1.15 x URC,AC at power frequency for 30 minutes
Ambient temperature

o
o

Lightning impulse withstand test at relevant test voltages


Cable with integrated return conductor
For such a design, the return path function should be tested together
with the power transmission cable in an integrated test program
The test program shall be agreed between customer and supplier

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Example: Type Test Sequence VSC, U0 = 300 kV


VSC Type Test schedule

600

1/ 24 h Load Cycles -UT


-1.85 x UO 12 load cycles

400

8 h heating / 16 h cooling
Test Voltage (kV)

(applied current leads to design temperature)

200

Tmax & Tmax

0
0

120

240

360

480

600

720

-200
-400
-600
Elapsed time (hours)

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Example: Type Test Sequence VSC, U0 = 300 kV


VSC Type Test schedule

600
2/ 24 h Load Cycles +UT

Test Voltage (kV)

400

+1.85 x UO 12 load cycles


8 h heating / 16 h cooling

200

(applied current leads to design temperature)

Tmax & Tmax

0
0

120

240

360

480

600

720

-200
-400
-600
Elapsed time (hours)

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Example: Type Test Sequence VSC, U0 = 300 kV


VSC Type Test schedule

600
3/ 48 h Load Cycles +UT

400

+ 1.85 x UO 3 load cycles

Test Voltage (kV)

24 h heating / 24 h cooling

200

(applied current leads to design temperature)

Tmax & Tmax

0
0

120

240

360

480

600

720

-200
-400
-600
Elapsed time (hours)

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Example: Type Test Sequence VSC, U0 = 300 kV


4/ Switching Impulse Withstand Test
Maximum temperature (applied current leads to design temperature)
Tmax & Tmax and U0 for 10 h minimum before testing
Test object under +U0
10 consecutive shots, same polarity as DC
Switching Impulse voltage : +UP2,S
Waveform in agreement with IEC 60230
10 consecutive shots, opposite polarity to DC
Switching Impulse level : -UP2,O
Waveform in agreement with IEC 60230

Test object under -U0


10 consecutive shots, same polarity as DC
Switching Impulse voltage : -UP2,S
Waveform in agreement with IEC 60230
10 consecutive shots, opposite polarity to DC
Switching Impulse voltage : +UP2,O
Waveform in agreement with IEC 60230
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Example: Type Test Sequence VSC, U0 = 300 kV


5/ Lightning Impulse Test (if required)
Maximum temperature (applied current leads to design temperature)
Tmax & Tmax and U0 level for 10 h minimum before testing
Test object under +U0
10 consecutive shots, opposite polarity to DC
Lightning Impulse voltage : - UP1
Waveform in agreement with IEC 60230

Test object under -U0


10 consecutive shots, opposite polarity to DC
Lightning Impulse voltage : +UP1
Waveform in agreement with IEC 60230

6/ Conclusion : Subsequent DC Test


-1.85 x UO for 2 hours No heating
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Routine Tests (1)

Routine test on transmission cables


o
o
o

Each delivery length shall be submitted to UT = 1.85 x U0 for 1 hour


AC voltage testing could be considered provided the insulation
system and the cable design allow AC testing
If AC testing is impractical due to the cable length, the voltage level,
the frequency, the voltage level, frequency and time of application
can be adjusted to perform the test (agreement between client and
supplier)

Routine tests on cable accessories


o

The experience of using DC voltages for routine testing of


accessories for DC extruded cables is limited, and the efficiency not
proven so far
Testing with AC could be a relevant alternative, provided that the
insulation system and the design allow AC testing

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Routine Tests (2)

Routine tests on cable accessories


o

Tests on prefabricated joints and terminations


DC test voltage applied to the main insulation of each individual
prefabricated accessory shall be performed. Same requirement as for
the cable alone (UT = 1.85 x U0 for 1 hour )
AC voltage test, if applicable
PD measurement, if applicable

Test on factory joints of submarine cables

DC test (UT = 1.85 x U0 for 1 hour )


AC voltage test, if applicable
PD measurement, if applicable
X-ray inspection

Repair joint for submarine cables

Same procedure as for prefabricated joints and terminations


Agreement between client and supplier if the joint is not built of any prefabricated component
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Routine Tests (3)

Return cables or conductors


o
o
o
o

Each delivery length shall be submitted to a voltage test


AC testing is preferred
Voltage level and time of application shall be agreed between
supplier and client
If the AC test is rendered impractical (long manufacturing lengths,
high voltage levels), a suitable DC voltage shall be applied instead
(agreement between client and supplier)
DC test voltage 2.5 x URC,DC or 25 kV
Voltage applied for 1 hour

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Sample Tests (1)

Sample tests on transmission cables (refer to IEC 62067)


o
o
o

For materials not mentioned in IEC 60840 / 62067, the test program
shall be agreed between manufacturer and customer
Frequency of test: in agreement with IEC 62067
Tests

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Conductor examination
Electrical resistance of conductor
Capacitance
Thickness of insulation and non-metallic sheath
Thickness of metallic sheath
Diameters, if required
Density of HDPE insulation, if required
Impulse voltage test
Water penetration test, if applicable
Tests on components of cables with longitudinally applied metal tape or foil,
bonded to the oversheath, if applicable
Page 59

Sample Tests (2)

Sample tests on factory joints for submarine cables (1)


o

o
o

For a submarine cable system, the sample tests shall be performed


on one factory conductor joint only, prior to starting manufacture of
the joints
A sample of at least 10 m of cable and a factory joint shall be
prepared for the test
Tensile test
The tensile test of the conductor joint shall be performed according to
manufacturer specification
The tensile force applied to the conductor shall not be lower than the
design value
Test omitted if the factory joint is type tested under the contract

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Sample Tests (3)

Sample tests on factory joints for submarine cables (2)


o

PD measurement and AC voltage


Test performed if applicable to the insulation system
Performed after restoring the outer semiconductive layer and the metallic
ground conductor or outer sheath
PD measurement and AC voltage test shall be performed according to
the manufacturer quality assurance procedures

o
o

Impulse voltage test


Hot set test for insulation where applicable
Refer to IEC 62067 10.9

Pass criteria
If a factory joint fails in any of the listed items above, 2 additional joints
shall be tested successfully

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Sample Tests (4)

Sample tests on repair joints and terminations


o
o

Sample tests are not applicable for repair joints and terminations for
submarine cable systems
They shall be routine tested ( 5.2.1 and 5.2.3 of the present
technical brochure)

Sample tests on field moulded joints


o
o
o
o

These joints may be used for land cable systems


They cannot be routine tested and the sample test sequence as
requested in IEC 62067 is recommended
Frequency of tests and procedure as described in IEC 62067
Same tests as for factory joints of submarine cables of the present
technical brochure ( 5.2.2)

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After installation Tests

High voltage test


o
o
o

Test on polymeric sheath


o
o

The installed cable system shall be subjected to a negative DC


voltage of UT = 1.45 x U0 for 1 hour
The return cable system shall be subjected to a negative DC voltage
that was agreed between supplier and client for 1 hour
Negative polarity is applied regardless the polarity of the pole
Used to be applied for underground cables
Shall be performed according to IEC 60229, if appropriate

TDR measurement (for engineering information)


o

Fingerprint of the wave propagation of the cable

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