DAMS IN PAKISTAN

Nauman Ayubi

Contents:
1. Dams in Pakistan’s Interest. 2. Tarbela Dam. 3. Mangla Dam.

Proposed dams: 4. Kalabagh Dam-a project of highest priority for Pakistan. 5. Diamer-Bhasha Dam. 6. Power crises…….the way out! 7. Water war between Pakistan and Kashmir inevitable in future. 8. Pakistan rejects Indian protest on Gilgit-Baltistan Dam.

Dams in Pakistan’s interest
The Information Ministry issued a report saying the construction of large water reservoirs was in line with national needs. The report on building large water reservoirs, however, said Kalabagh Dam was being not only opposed without explicit technical reasons, but Pakistan’s interests had been compromised to tackle the issue. Outlining Pakistan’s overall water needs, the report said 70.1 million acres of land in the country was cultivable while only 44.4 million acres of land was being cultivated. The construction of large and new water reservoirs would help cultivate more than 22.5 million acres of land, the report said, adding that currently Pakistan’s overall need for water was being recorded at 115 million acres feet (MAF) while only 106 million acres

feet of water was available. The report said Pakistan would need to build a new dam every 10 to 15 years for cultivation and power generation purposes.

Tarbela Dam
Tarbela Dam is a large dam on the Indus River in Pakistan. Reservoir size of some 95 sq miles (250 km2) makes it the largest earth filled dam in the world. The dam was completed in 1974 and was designed to store water from the Indus River for irrigation and flood control, and for the generation of hydro-electric power. The Project consists of an earth and rock fill embankment across the entire width of the river with two spillways cutting through the left bank discharging into a side valley. Its main spillway has a discharge capacity of 650,000 and auxiliary spillway 850,000 cusecs. A power station on the right bank near the toe of the main dam houses fourteen (14) power units. The total volume of earth and rock used for the project is approximately 200 million cubic which makes it the largest man made structure in the world , except for the Great Chinese Wall which consumed somewhat more material. The dam crosses this essentially alluvial valley and connects the last points to high ground before the mountains give way to the plains. A 24 feet thick filter drain mattress under the embankment together with nearly vertical chimney drain provides the necessary facility to collect the seepage. On May 14, 1968, the World’s largest single contract for the construction of civil works at that time, the Tarbela Dam Project was signed at a price of $ 623 Million between the Water and Power Development Authority of Pakistan and the Tarbela Dam Joint Venture which comprised a group of three Italian and three French heavy construction contractors. Later five German and two Swiss contractors also joined the

group making up a consortium of thirteen European firms led by Italian firm namely Impregilo. Because the source of the Indus River is glacial melt water from the Himalayas, the river carries huge amounts of sediment. The annual suspended sediment load is about 430 million tons per year. This means that, over time, the reservoir will fill. The useful life of the dam and reservoir was estimated to be somewhere around fifty years, since the dam's completion in 1976, meaning that the reservoir would have been full of sediment by 2030. Sedimentation, however, has been much lower than predicted, and it is now estimated that the useful lifespan of the dam will be 85 years, to about 2060.

MANGLA DAM
The Mangla Dam is the twelfth largest dam in the world. It was built from 1961 to 1967 with funding from the World Bank. The project was designed and supervised by Binnie & Partners of London, and it was built by Mangla Dam Contractors, a consortium of 8 U.S. construction firms, sponsored by Guy F. Atkinson Company of South San Francisco. Mangla Dam Contractors employed Pakistanis, Americans, British, Canadians, Germans, and Irish. Until 1967, the entire irrigation system of Pakistan was fully dependent on unregulated flows of the Indus and its major tributaries. The agricultural yield was very low for a number of reasons, the most important being a lack of water during critical growing periods. This problem stemmed from the seasonal variations in the river flow due to monsoons and the absence of storage reservoirs to conserve the vast amounts of surplus water during those periods of high river discharge. The Mangla Dam was the first development project undertaken to reduce this shortcoming and strengthen the irrigation system. The dam was damaged due to an Indian Air Force raid during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. As a consequence, the hydro project was temporarily out of service. The main dam is 10,300 feet long and 454 feet high with a reservoir of 97.7 square miles. Since its first impounding in 1967, sedimentation has occurred to the extent of 1.13 million acre feet, and the present gross storage capacity has declined to 4.75 million acre feet from the actual design of 5.88 million acre feet. The power station of Mangla dam consists of 10 units each having capacity of 100 MW. In order to remedy the storage capacity decreases, the Pakistani government has decided to raise the dam by 40 feet, to 494 feet high. This will increase the reservoir capacity by 18% and provide an additional 644 MWh of power, but will displace 40,000 people currently living near the reservoir. The project was designed primarily to increase the amount of water that could be used for irrigation from the flow of the Jhelum and its tributaries. Its secondary function was to generate electrical power from the irrigation releases at the artificial head of the

reservoir. The project was not designed as a flood control structure, although some benefit in this respect also arises from its use for irrigation and water supply.

KALABAGH DAM - A PROJECT OF HIGHEST PRIORITY FOR PAKISTAN
Kalabagh Dam Project was designed in 1984, with the assistance of the United Nations Development Program and supervised by the World Bank. In the meantime, the project team was asked to complete the Detailed Designs and Contract Documents for making it ready to enter into the implementation stage. The project was poised for start of construction in mid 1987. But unfortunately, this programme could not be materialized due to opposition from some Provincial Governments, mainly on political grounds. In spite of a widespread realization of the urgency of this project, among vast majority of professional sectors of engineers, economists, agriculturists, industrialists and the intelligentsia, a political consensus could not be achieved for constructing Kalabagh Dam. As a result of this delay of 23 long years in the implementation of this project our dear country has suffered immensely in the agriculture and the energy sectors, directly and in industrial and manpower sectors indirectly. All these negative effects have, no doubt, contributed in a big way to the alarming situation faced by the national economy, which we are witnessing now. The proposed Kalabagh Dam is a multi-purpose hydroelectricity cum-irrigation project that could have added 2,400 MW generation capacity to the WAPDA. So far, over one billion rupees have already been spent on the feasibility and design of this project, but consensus on the construction of this dam by the provincial governments is not forthcoming despite efforts by the Federal Government. Agriculture is the backbone of Pakistan’s economy. If nothing is done, there would be shortfall in food requirements and Pakistan could be one of the major food deficit countries in the world. With a large arable land, Pakistan still has the potential of bringing several million acres of untouched land under irrigation. With virtually no limit on availability of land, it is unfortunate to willingly let large quantities of water into the sea. On the other hand, national demand of electricity and gas has been and would keep in growing rapidly. Recently, Federal Government has entered in to a number of agreements with international private sector to install over 3,000 MW of thermal power over next 3-4 years. Though it may help in overcoming the load-shedding, the power cost is increasing substantially. Therefore, a large scale injection of cheap hydropower through multi-purpose storages is the only answer if the cost of electric supply is to be kept within affordability of the consumers.

This multi-purpose project would have a live storage capacity of 6.1 million acre feet (MAF) and it would make substantial contribution to firming up the irrigation. Further, it would add a large amount of cheap hydropower to the National Grid through its 2400 MW (Ultimate 3600 MW) installed power. As part of controversy on Kalabagh Dam, a number of apprehensions/doubts have been expressed both by upper (NWFP) and lower (Sindh) provinces. Most of these are based either on lack of information or hear say. In addition, there have been reservations in the mind of some quarters without any apparent reason. Consequently, the Project has been thoroughly reviewed and revised to remove the apprehensions and doubts, which in the pat may have blocked its implementation. If Kalabagh was in position today, there would have been no load-shedding in Pakistan. The energy generated at Kalabagh would be equivalent to 20 million of oil per year. On a conservation basis, the overall direct benefits of Kalabagh Dam would be around Rs. 25 billion per annum. Thus the investment cost of project would be repaid within a very short period of 9-10 years.

CONSEQUENCES OF NOT BUILDING KALABAGH DAM: i) National food security would be threatened, thus subjecting the economy to additional burden of importing food grains. ii) Loss of storage capacity of the on-line reservoir due to sedimentation would result in shortage of committed irrigation supplies causing serious drop even in existing agriculture production. iii) In its absence it would give rise to bitter inter-provincial disputes and recriminations particularly in a dry water year.

Diamer-Bhasha Dam
After a delay of about a decade the 272 meter high, the largest Roller Compacted Concrete Dam in the world is going to be built in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. The dam will have the multiple purposes of creating electricity, conserving water, supporting agriculture, creating commerce, increasing tourism, managing floods, as well as well as generating employment. Several large multinational are bidding for the project.

The Executive Committee of the National Economic Council (Ecnec) will also take up upgrading of the Karakorum Highway for Bhasha Dam that will cost Rs 12.058 billion in accordance with the revised estimates. The federal government has allocated Rs 100 million for this project during the ongoing fiscal year 2008-09. The upgrading of the Karakorum Highway will be completed in three years, from 2008 to 2011. This project is aimed at facilitating transportation of plant, machinery, heavy equipment like turbine runner for construction of Bhasha Dam and it will also increase tourism and trade with China. The Minister for water and power Raja Pervaiz Ashraf said the construction of this dam would ensure green revolution in the country by producing power generation 4500 MW as well as water storage 6.4 MAF which would contribute for meeting demand of electricity and water for irrigation of thousands of acre land of the country per annum. Regarding beginning of the construction, the Minister said that the construction of the Dam would begin by the end of this year may be September or October according to the scheduled finalized for the project. The Wapda authorities have already been directed to follow the schedule to ensure given time frame for the completion of the mega project, and are working to complete the resettlement plan for the affectees of the Dam site belonging to Northern Areas and NWFP. The generation of 4,500 MW inexpensive hydel power from Diamer-Bhasha dam would reduce the dependence on thermal power resulting saving of huge foreign exchange and make available 6.4 MAF of water for irrigation. The project would also create massive infrastructure and job opportunities leading to the overall socio- economic uplift of the area.

POWER CRISES…… THE WAY OUT
Pakistan at present is facing severe power crises – considered to be the worst of the four such crises it has faced since 1974-75 onwards. Incidentally, the present crises which is carrying on since the last twenty-four months is even greater than the one faced by the country during the eighties which gave birth to the concept of the Individual Power Producers (IPPs) etc, and which in a way changed the whole complexion of the power sector once and for all.

The continuing negatives of the situation have now engulfed the national economy in a stifling embrace. Industrial productivity has gone down and the situation pretends badly for exports and the ensuing balance of payments. Although serious thoughts have been given by the Government for betterment of the current problem, but still the stranglehold of today may have far-reaching implications for all of us. As a consequence, the instant study would strive to unlock the mysteries of the crises and also detail out both the supply side and demands side measures in the offing. Power sector, as a rule, has always been finance intensive. It is large investments that make the sector move-over to the next generation of technologies, incidentally a must for any standard system. The experts are of the opinion that without new investments and heavy outlays on operation and maintenance of power systems, the sector will simply stagnate. A little insight into the Pakistani power sectors reveals that it has sadly been neglected over the years and in facts has been deprived of badly needed investment during the last 15 years, actually, the last one decade has been debilitating. The Private Power and Infrastructure Board (PPIB), Alternate Energy Development Board (AEDB) and such like small and nearly non-professional bodies can be quoted in this context. Strangely, infrastructure building was delegated to the private sector through these bodies leaving Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) all dressed up with no way to go. Coming back to the past investment in the power sector, we see that the only worthwhile outlays were under the heading of IPPs, and over USD 6.5 billion were invested on arranging for 5728 MW of power during the period 1994-1996. It is also a fact that instead of arranging power on the as and when required basis, the whole chunk of nearly 6000 MW of power came on bar in a very short span of 24 months or so. The situation would have not been that problematic and grim, had the Pakistani power customer contained itself to the normal load growth of 2-3% year instead of breaking all barriers and reaching a whopping figure of nearly 14% during 2006-07. This unprecedented load growth according to experts was spurned on account of the consumption led growth adopted by the then government against the development/production led structures. Unfortunately, because of all this Pakistan became an importing nation, a dumping ground for energy in-efficient goods, a country which changed its life style in smallest terms and the ensuing consumption desire that burdened the economy beyond relief. Further study revealed that the power consumption in the country was totally skewed towards wasteful use. 62% growth was evident in the domestic and commercial sectors alone, while 18% and 17% of the total growth was seen in the industrial and the

agricultural sectors respectively. In other words, growth in power usage for the industrial sector was only one fourth of the increase in usage in the domestic and the commercial sectors. What is the way out? We would have to undertake both supply side and demand side measures as soon as possible. The supply side measures would include installation of rental power plants in private sector, expedition’s installation of IPPs already contracted by the PPIB and struck-up in the diverse in competencies of that organization, installation of new power plants in public sector, and induction of fast track generation capacity by PPIB. The demand side measures include reduction of demand through energy conservation and load management, as a MW saved is, in fact, better than a MW generated. The present government has taken u provision of new generation very seriously with six rental power plants totaling 1002 MW planned for Faisalabad, Guddu, Sialkot, Multan and Quetta planned to start producing power.

Power Generation Addition Rental Plants. Serial Number 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Name of Project Rental Power Plant, Faisalabad. Rental Power Plant, Guddu. Rental Power Plant, Sahuwala, Sialkot. Rental Power Plant, Multan. Rental Power Plant, Faisalabad. Rental Power Plant, Sheikh Manda, Quetta. Total Fuel Oil Gas Oil Oil Oil Oil Capacity (MW) 150 110 150 192 200 200 1002 Expected COD March 2009 March 2009 March 2009 April 2009 May 2009 June2009

Similarly, an addition of 502 MW of hydro power to the system is seen by 2011.

Power Generation Addition WAPDA Hydro Plants.

Serial Number 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Name of Project Khan Khwar. Jinnah Hydro. Allai Khwar. Duber Khwar. Kurram Turrangi Total

Type Hydro Hydro Hydro Hydro Hydro

Capacity (MW) 72 96 121 130 83 502

Expected COD September 2009 February 2010 September 2010 October 2010 September 2011

As power demand is growing at a fast pace of 10.26% annually, which may be down from the high 14% of last financial year but still remains amongst the highest in the world, the government has further decided to take-up fast track projects through the PPIB. It is also in fashion for huge construction and other development projects which require quick power for limited time periods. These totaling 1366 MW include Walters Rental Project Karachi, Karkey Rental Project Karachi, Cavalier Energy Project Port Qasim Karachi, Ruba Energy Project Karachi AND Progas Energy Ltd Port Qasim.

Power Generation Addition PPIB Fast Track Projects. Serial Number 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Name of Project Walters Rental Project, Karachi. Karkey Rental Project, Karachi. Cavalier Energy Project, Port Qasim. Progas Energy Limited, Port Qasim. Ruba Energy Project. Cavalier Energy Project, Port Fuel Capacity (MW) Expected COD February 2009 February 2009 August 2009 August 2009 December 2009 April 2010

RFO/HSD 205 RFO LPG/HSD LPG RFO LPG/HSD 232 156 210 107 314

Qasim. 7. 8. Ruba Energy Project. Progas Energy Project, Port Qasim. Total RFO LPG 47 95 1366 December 2010 December 2010

In order to ensure all possible facets of power generation are tapped, Pakistan Electric Power Company (PEPCO) mainly and to some extent the Karachi Electric Supply Company (KESC) have also added captive power to their generation capabilities. This has beefed up the present supplies by about 250 MW of badly needed power, while a potential of 1500 MW remains to be tapped. However, further additions will depend upon the provision of high pressure boilers along with corresponding turbines and generators at the various sugar mills of Pakistan. It would also need the enactment of a law/policy allowing special benefits for such additions/investments, especially when the private sector has to be given incentives before it undertakes any new venture. However, in order to lessen the present power shortages, PEPCO and KESC seriously need to take up demand side management and conservation massive public awareness campaign through electronic media, closure of shopping centers/plazas after sunset, arrangement of industrial holidays, interaction with industries for reduction of load during peak hours especially steel furnaces, induction of energy saver lamps to replace incandescent bulbs and tube lights. Other conservation measures, switching of bill boards and alternate street light points and switching of unnecessary lights and appliances at peak hours voluntarily by the general public. These, incidentally are the only solution till new generation comes up. This is the way through which the country can breathe, while it waits new generation. Unfortunately, the above supply side measure though indicates well for the country, also contain some inherent risks. These include the inappropriate dependence of new generation on imported oil, the logistics nightmare in the making for feeding the tens of small IPPs/new plants, the likelihood of tariff increase in the immediate future, the possibility of breakdowns in the small size IPPs and danger to the power system as a whole because the scheme of things does not cater for many a contingency. As a consequence, the following is suggested to be taken up as a necessary requirement. It would be to the effect that WAPDA be fully utilized development of both water and power projects and this should be by giving it the original autonomous status. WAPDA can put up new generation through bridge finance and then arrange for subsequent

disinvestment/IPOs. The IPP size should be extended to a minimum of 2000 MW of economy of scale etc. all newly created entities then need to be disbanded with the Thar Coal generation being handed over to WAPDA, while mining of the coal may be tackled by the Sindh Mines Minerals Department. Experts consider this as the only option, in case Pakistan wishes to utilize its own vast coal reserves of 184 billion tons. In the end, it would be appropriated to suggest and also state that the above supply side measures are basically immediate and short term nature that have to be necessarily followed by the medium and the long term projects, which basically would compromise of the two hydel projects underway of the 970 MW Neelum-Jhelum HHP and the 4500 MW Diamer-Bhasha HPP, the host of others in the pipeline, the nuclear power plans being undertaken by PAEC and the possible gas and electricity imports from Iran (IPI), and Turkmanistan (TAPI). Alternate energy through wind, bio-mass solar and coal would also be supplementing the power acquisitions during the medium and long terms. As the potential of such power is phenomenal, the future should be bright provided we remain on the right track and that detractors of alternate energy too remain at bay.

Water War Between Pakistan and Kashmir Inevitable in Future
India is not likely to consider abrogation of the Indus Basin Waters Treaty with Pakistan,

even in the event of any future war but since Pakistan’s primary interest in Kashmir is to secure its water resources, a water war between Kashmir and Pakistan is inevitable in the future. A conflict over land between the people of Kashmir and the government of India will soon become a thing of the past. On the other hand, a water war between Kashmir and Pakistan is inevitable in the future. Kashmir on the Pakistani side of the Line of Control is predominantly agriculture-based, depending on farming, livestock and related activities. Though this region is well endowed with water resources, it is marginally irrigated. Worse, hardly any development projects have been envisaged. Apart from lack of development, the province also suffers from manipulations. Its resources are tapped, but the region is not duly compensated. The Mangla dam, constructed in Mirpur has revolutionized agriculture in Punjab, but at the cost of Kashmir's deprivation. The Mangla dam, a major asset to the region, irrigates the canals in Punjab and also generates electricity. This dam supplies 20 per cent of the hydroelectricity needs of Pakistan. However, till early 2003, the province had not received any royalty for the electricity generated from Mangla dam. NWFP, however, has been receiving due compensation for the electricity generated from its Tarbela dam. In late 2002, during General Musharraf's regime, it was decided to raise the height of Mangla dam by another 30 feet to 1,264 feet. This issue had long been under dispute due to objections from Kashmir. It was feared that by raising the dam, around 44,000 persons and 8,000 households in Kashmir would be displaced, and the district of Mirpur would be submerged. Following the federal government's decision, Kashmiris organized several protests. Though the water authorities assured building a new city adjacent to Mirpur for the project-affected people, the locals are not inclined to trust the authorities and almost all the political parties in the province opposed to the project. General Musharraf while inaugurating the Mangla dam extension project stated: “The raising of Mangla dam project will first be benefiting Punjab, Sindh, NWFP, Balochistan and would then accrue benefits for Azad Kashmir.” This clearly reflects Pakistan's policy towards Kashmir — an instrument for the development of its provinces, especially Punjab. Kashmir is needed for developing water and hydropower projects that will ensure reliable supply to the provinces in Pakistan. But at the same time, Kashmir's own development needs are being neglected. Indus Waters Treaty of 1960 divided the Basin between India and Pakistan. India is under obligation to let flow the waters of western rivers to Pakistan. India can only use these waters for household and agricultural purpose. For instance, the new areas developed by withdrawals from river flows cannot exceed 120,000 hectares. The treaty also puts a restriction of 3.6 MAF of storage capacity on the western rivers. A major achievement of the treaty was to end the decade-long bitter controversy since partition. It opened the way for large development works in the basin in both countries. The post-treaty period led to an agricultural boom in both the countries, leading to higher levels of production, acreage, yield and rapid growth. The negative outcome for Pakistan was the loss of eastern rivers and with this, land

surrounding these rivers largely irrigated by traditional methods was adversely affected. However, this loss was compensated by the construction of storage reservoirs, canals and diversions. The other drawback was the rise in inter-provincial discord, especially in recent years, due to reduced flows in the Indus. Pakistan can now argue that by submitting to man-made reservoir water, which has inherent complications, Pakistan has accepted an unjust principle of replacing perennial stream water. But it has to be borne in mind that had it not been for the treaty, Pakistan would have been forced to remain in eternal conflict with its neighbor Pakistan still has a solution in hand by improving the management of water resources and developing new projects, though it involves huge capital outlay. Nevertheless, there is bound to be an eternal sense of insecurity in Pakistan’s mind given that any call on India’s part to change the treaty can jeopardize Pakistan’s water supply situation. If the treaty is revoked, Pakistan stands to lose its lifeline. In the long-term, the Indus Waters Treaty has favored Pakistan. Assessing the present water situation, it is evident that India has had much to lose while Pakistan has been insulated from water-related adversities. For India, abrogating the treaty is an extreme step, which may be taken under coercive circumstances. On the other hand, given the bounty that the treaty has bestowed on Pakistan, the country might not entertain even the proposition of renegotiating the treaty. If the treaty subsists, northern India would eventually reach a point where meeting growing water requirements would become difficult. International laws do not permit linking one river basin to another. India then might be compelled to tap the rivers given away to Pakistan, especially the Chenab. Treaty-bound, India might fail in fostering socio-economic growth in northern states like Jammu & Kashmir and Punjab. The World Bank had envisioned that mutual trust would finally bind the two countries to the treaty. Instead, the two countries have chosen the path of hostility. Jammu & Kashmir in India has been the foremost loser as a result of this treaty as all the rivers surrendered to Pakistan were the major water resources for the state. Due to restrictions imposed on tapping of water resources, in conjunction with faltering policies of successive state governments, Jammu & Kashmir has been unable to grow to the optimum potential of its agriculture and electricity sectors. Hydroelectricity potential in the state has been estimated to be around 15,000 MW, of which only 10 per cent has been harnessed so far. Currently, projects worth 1,600 MW are in various stages of development. Of the existing installed capacity in the state of 1,473 MW, 99 per cent is from hydel plants. There is little scope for any other forms of power generation, particularly thermal, in the state since there are not many feasible sites for such plants and the state’s difficult topographical condition makes transportation of raw material impracticable. Abrogation is bound to incite reactions from the World Bank and the countries that were party to the treaty and have provided funds. The countries, including Australia, Canada, Germany, New Zealand, Britain and the US, are also India’s major export destinations. India is aware of the implications of abrogation of the treaty. Therefore, despite growing protests from the Kashmiri people, no policy maker in New Delhi is ever likely to even contemplate this move. India’s relations with its neighbors would also be affected, as

India also has water treaties with Nepal and Bangladesh. The dominant political thought in India is to have civilized relations with neighbors, despite all odds. Therefore, India did not seek unilateral abrogation of the treaty in the wars of 1965, 1971 and 1999; therefore, India is not likely to consider abrogation in the event of any future war as well.

Pakistan rejects Indian protests on Gilgit-Baltistan Dam
Pakistan rejected the Indian protest over the Gilgit-Baltistan empowerment and selfgovernance order, saying New Delhi had no right to interfere in the matter. The rejection came on the day two protest notes were handed over to the Pakistani high commission in New Delhi by the Indian external affairs ministry on Gilgit-Baltistan and the construction of the 7,000 MW Bunji Dam in Pakistan’s administered Kashmir. India’s deputy high commissioner in Islamabad was called to the Foreign Office by the director general (South Asia) and told Islamabad rejects New Delhi’s interference on Gilgit-Baltistan, as also the Indian claim that Jammu and Kashmir was an integral part of India. Pakistan and China signed a memorandum of understanding in August for the construction of a dam at Bunji in Astore district in Gilgit-Baltistan, earlier known as the Northern Areas, during President Asif Ali Zardari’s Beijing visit. Earlier, New Delhi had also protested against the construction of the Neelam-Jhelum hydropower project and Bhasha dam in what it calls Pakistan-Occupied Kashmir, which is referred to as ‘Azaad Kashmir’ by Islamabad. The dam, one of the eight hydel projects shortlisted for construction with a capacity to generate 7,000 MW of electricity, has triggered anxieties in India about growing Chinese activities in Pakistan-occupied Kashmir.

Bibliography:
Daily Times.com • Wikipedia. • Rupeenews.com

Posted on June 19, 2009 by Moin Ansari

Strategicforesight.com
March 11,2009

Thaindian News.com
September 12th,2009 by IANS

• Contemporary Affairs
Book 56, Editor Abbas Sarwar Quraishi.