Heart muscular myocardium →lined with epithelial endocardium & covered by external pericardium (connective & epithelial tissues) Atria separated

from ventricles by atrioventricular valves (these supported by attachments to ventricles: chordate tendinae) - right side has 3 flaps → tricuspid valve - left side has 2 flaps → bicuspid valve systemic pulmonary RV A body VCblood flow LA RA LV circuit heart circuit w/i PA PV lungs

exits from the ventricles regulated by semi-lunar valves

**GENERAL HEART DIAGRAM, HANDOUT HEART DIAGRAM, VESSELS HANDOUT Blood Vessels 1. Arteries carry blood away from heart; several tissue layers to make up an artery: -Endothelium – inner epithelial layer that lines the inside of the vessel (smooth muscle = smooth continuous blood flow) -Smooth Muscle – arteries are wrapped by smooth muscle, which can contract to make the vessel narrower -Outer Connective Tissue Layer – the muscular middle layer of tissue contains elastic connective tissue. This allows arteries to stretch in order to control the large pressure created by the output of the heart. The smooth muscle can contract to reduce the size of the vessel due to lower pressures contraction of muscle → vessel diameter is reduced (constriction) vasoconstriction relaxation of muscle → vessel diameter is increased (dilation) vasodilation ↑ dilation → ↓ blood pressure Arterioles – small arteries with less muscle that conducts blood from arteries to capillary beds 2. Veins Return blood to the heart. Walls of the veins not as strong as those of arteries due to middle layer not being as developed. Blood in veins is at much lower pressure than in arteries so vein walls don’t have to change to compensate for blood pressure changes. Larger veins have valves to prevent backflow of blood. ~ ½ blood in body is contained in venous system. During blood loss, muscle surrounding veins contract to force blood from low pressure venous system over to high pressure arterial system. This is venoconstriction & is under involuntary control. Venules – small veins that conduct blood from capillary beds to larger veins 3. Capillaries Small vessels connecting arteries to veins. They are simple, squamous epithelium wrapped into a tube (1 cell layer thick) called an endothelium. O2 & nutrients (glucose, amino acids, etc) can diffuse from blood, across endothelium, into cells of body tissues, eg. muscles. CO2 & waste products, eg. ammonia, diffuse from body’s cells into blood. Networks of capillaries (capillary beds) are found in all tissues of body. Entrance to capillary beds can be regulated by contraction or relaxation of sphincter muscles (circular smooth muscle) in arterioles that feed blood to capillary beds. This allows us to regulate blood flow to different tissues. Blood entering capillaries is under high pressure due to force of heart contraction. The pressure forces fluid containing dissolved O2 & nutrients into serosal tissues (body cells). This fluid mixes with fluid surrounding cells (interstitial fluid) → O2 & nutrients can diffuse into cells where they are needed. At same time CO2 & waste products diffuse from cells into interstitial fluid. Some interstitial fluid is drawn back into blood due to osmosis. ↑ # open capillary beds → ↓ blood pressure pressure = force/area blood pressure is a function of in the case of blood pressure it is the force of a volume of blood on the walls of the vessel that contains it 1. the volume of blood 2. the speed it travels 3. the diameter of the blood vessel

blood pressure

Arteriole 50-60 mm Hg

Venule 15-20 mm Hg

osmotic pressure

35 mm Hg

35 mm Hg

**BLOOD FLOW DIAGRAM Osmotic pressure – established b/c of proteins, particularly albumin, which cannot cross capillary walls. They’re too big so they remain behind & as a result a concentration gradient is established. This leads to osmotic pressure of ~ 35 mm Hg, drawing water (& dissolved substances) into blood. b.p. > osmotic pressure b.p. < osmotic pressure fluid flows out of blood fluid flows into the blood

Blood flows to capillaries b/c contraction of heart forces blood, under high pressure, into arteries. Arteries are elastic, due to very muscular walls. As stretched arteries shrink back to normal size, blood is pushed forward to lower pressure vessels Arterial system is high pressure Blood flows back to heart (from capillaries) in veins. There’s virtually no effect of heart beat on blood flow in veins. Blood in veins is squeezed forward by contractions of various body muscles. Valves prevent backflow and pooling of blood. Venous system is low pressure Control of Heartbeat Cardiac muscle cells are excitable cells. Changes in internal [K+] and internal [Na+] can affect the potential difference (voltage) across the cell membrane. Sinoatrial (SA) node – ‘pacemaker’ Particularly excitable area of the right atrium; located in wall of right atrium near vena cava. These cells spontaneously depolarize, sending a ‘wave’ of depolarization over the atria. This causes atria to contract, squeezing blood through A-V valves into ventricles. Atrioventricular (AV) node – ‘pacemaker’ Near right A-V valve, deeper in atrial muscle. When AV node depolarizes, impulse is sent down specialized cells: purkinje fibres (located in septum & ventricular muscle). These fibres take the impulse, quickly, to base of ventricles, allowing wave of depolarization to move from bottom upwards to top of ventricles. This squeezes blood upwards. **HEARTBEAT FLOWCHART Blood Pressure Hypertension → high blood pressure -Major cause of heart disorders resulting in death in N. America; easily detected by monitoring blood pressure. -BP normally varied due to body’s response to various stimuli ex. Nervous excitement due to stress. Excitement causes sympathetic nervous system to stimulate vasoconstriction of blood vessels. →results in higher blood pressure →restricts blood flow to kidneys. Response: kidneys secrete hormone renin. This causes Na retention in blood → Na+ retention causes water retention (also leads to ↑ b.p.). High Na diet brings about same effect Arterosclerosis – arteries losing elasticity → ‘hardening of arteries Atherosclerosis – fatty deposits clogging arteries causing them to become narrower Systolic pressure – b.p. caused by output of heart during ventricular contraction

12080 mm Hg
Diastolic pressure –residual b.p. b/w heartbeats, affected by elasticity of arteries Treatments (for high b.p.) 1. life style – exercise & diet, healthy body mass 2. drugs a) sympathetic blocking agents reduce nervous vasoconstriction b) diveretics – cause increased salt (Na) excretion → loss of water c) vasodilators – prevent constriction of blood vessels d) beta-blockers – reduce cardiac output Fetal Circulation -Lungs & liver largely non-functional → unnecessary to pump large vol.’s of blood there -Large volumes of blood need to be pumped through placenta: site of nutrient/waste exchange between fetal & maternal blood -Blood returning to fetal heart from placenta by-passes liver by flowing through ductus venosus -Most of the blood entering right atrium from inferior VC directed through opening in the septum, the foramen ovale, into left atrium. This is oxygenated blood returning from placenta which will be pumped from left side of heart mostly to the head. -Blood entering right atrium from superior VC is mostly deoxygenated blood from head. This blood is directed into right ventricle & on into the pulmonary artery. It’s then routed into the ductus arteriosus that shunts the blood into the descending aorta & on to the placenta (via umbilical cord) -After birth lungs inflate causing the resistance to blood flow in lungs to drop significantly. At same time the large volume of blood that had been flowing to placenta must be taken up by the systemic & pulmonary circuit causing increase in aortic pressure & so an increase in pressure in left atrium & ventricle -Foramen ovale closes due to flap on left atrial side which is closed due to increase in left atrial pressure combined with decrease in right atrial pressure, since pulmonary circuit is open (placenta is closed) -Shortly after birth the ductus arteriosus closes due to contraction of its muscular walls -Similarly the ductus venosus also closes & so blood flows into liver

-Occasionally closure of foramen ovale isn’t complete; may necessitate open heart surgery to close opening & allow proper cardiac blood flow **FETAL HANDOUT Lymphatic System System of vessels associating closely with cardiovascular system. Collects fluids from body tissues & returns it to blood stream. Cells of body’s tissues are surrounded by fluid (interstitial fluid) & are supplied with water that enters from capillaries. Excess tissue fluid is taken up by lymph capillaries, fluid now referred to as lymph. Lymph also contains lymphocytes (produced in lymph nodes, which produce antibodies to attack foreign proteins) Lymph flows into lymph veins, which are similar in construction to blood veins, including valves. As lymph flows through lymph veins it will pass through lymph nodes. Here lymphocytes are produced & lymph is filtered of damaged cells Two major ducts collect lymph fluid -right lymphatic duct drains upper-right body & empties into c-v system via right subclavian vein -thoracic duct drains the remainder of the body & empties into c-v system via left subclavian vein Two other structures of the lymphatic system are the spleen and thymus gland Overall – Roles of the Lymphatic System a) transport FA’s from S.I. via lacteals to c-v system b) return fluids from tissues to c-v system c) fight infections (lymphocytes) & clean lymph Blood Blood – liquid connective tissue Cellular component – 40-45% by volume -erythrocyte (red cells) -leukocytes (white cells) -platelets Non-cellular matrix – plasma 55-60% vol. -composed of water, proteins, & other dissolved substances Blood Functions a) transport b) clotting c) fighting infections Blood Cells – all originate in bone marrow of the skull, ribs, vertebrae, & ends of long bones 1. Erythrocytes (RBC) -By end of their development they lose their nuclei & are packed with hemoglobin (Hb). Hb is a complex protein consisting of 4 polypeptides attached to a central heme group (an iron structure). The iron binds the O2 to be transported by blood. -Need for O2 regulates production of Hb & so RBC -Low levels of O2 → ↑ RBC production -Life span of RBC 80-120 days -Liver & spleen destroy old RBC, with liver breaking down hemoglobin to recover iron. Spleen stores extra RBC (not blood) 2. Leukocytes -Much larger than RBC, however much fewer in blood -Nucleated cells -2 main types a. neutrophils – derived directly from bone marrow; destroy foreign cells, like bacteria, by phagocytic actions b. lymphocytes – develop in lymphoid tissue (spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils); secrete immunoglobins (antibodies) which can inactivate foreign cells 3. Platelets – formed in bone marrow; very small cells; involved in clotting mechanism of blood Blood Functions -Transport – O2 by RBC, bonded to Hb (also carried by plasma) -At lungs Hb + O2 → HbO2 (oxyhemoglobin) -Reverse reaction, ie HbO2 → Hb+O2 happens in body tissues -CO2 – is transported away from tissues to lungs -Most CO2 transported dissolved in plasma as CO2, HCO3-, or H2CO3. Some CO2 can combine with hemoglobin Hb+CO2 → HBCO2 (carbamino hemoglobin) Blood Proteins -Small molecules (glucose, urea, salts, etc.) can dissolve in plasma. Larger molecules (fats, hormones, vitamins, etc.) must combine with ‘transport’ proteins so they can move in blood ex. cholesterol (lipid) must combine with either high-density lipoprotein (HDL) or low-density lipoprotein (LDL). High levels of LDL are associated with atherosclerosis -Blood proteins also important in creating an osmotic pressure in blood to maintain blood volume in order to exert pressure (albumin) Clotting When an injury occurs to a blood vessel coagulation of blood occurs in order to prevent substantial blood loss

1. Damage to vessel causes platelets to clump at damaged site. An enzyme called prothrombin activator is released 2. Prothrombin activator (a blood protein) is converted to thrombin (Ca2+ is needed) 3. Thrombin acts as an enzyme to alter the structure of fibrinogen (another blood protein) into strands of fibrin. Fibrin forms the framework of the clot. (Ca2+ is needed) (it takes place faster in warm blood) NB – vitamin K is necessary for the making of prothrombin Fighting Infections Leukocytes are the ‘soldiers’ of the blood charged with combating invading infections by bacteria & viruses Neutrophils → by phagocytosis digestion w/I by enzymes contained w/I lyosomes Lymphocytes → secrete antibodies which are specific to antigens (proteins or polysaccharides) on the invader Antibody-antigen rxn → inactivation → (phagocytosis by neutrophil) Blood Types -3 genes IA,IB = dominant allele i = recessive allele Type A 35% Type B Type AB <5% Type O 60%

Possessing the IA allele means cells have A antigens on the cell mem. Having IB means B antigens could be present. Type O has no antigens. Immune system makes antibodies if wrong antigens introduced → clotting (agglutination b/w antibodies with antigens) Rh Factor An antigen that could be present on erythrocyte (RBC) membranes. Rh+ dominant Rh- recessive (antigen is absent) Concern: Rh- woman pregnant with an Rh+ baby Normally an RH- person does not make antibodies against the Rh factor, but will do so if the antigen is encountered. This can happen if some of baby’s blood mixes with mother’s blood when placenta degenerates prior to birth – this can have dire consequences for any subsequent Rh+ babies the woman could have. It results in a condition called haemolytic disease of newborn (HDN). Antibodies can cross placenta from mother’s blood to baby’s blood & attack baby’s Rh+ RBC’s. Solution: prevent Rh- mother’s immune system from forming antibodies to the Rh factor. This is achieved by injecting an Rh immunoglobin (a serum containing Rh antibodies) into mother’s blood shortly before childbirth. These injected antibodies will attack any Rh+ RBC’s encountered, thus preventing mother’s immune system from responding. Baby’s blood doesn’t need to be known – nothing will happen if baby is Rh-. This procedure is done as a precaution with all Rh- mothers regardless of the blood type of the father. ** BLOOD SUMMARY BLOOD WORKSHEET CIRC SYSTEM RESPONSES x3 REVIEW WORKSHEETS x2 OVERALL SUMMARY