NETWORKS A network consists of two or more computers that are linked in order to share resources (such as printers and

CDROMs), exchange files, or allow electronic communications. The computers on a network may be linked through cables, telephone lines, radio waves, satellites, or infrared light beams.

TYPES OF NETWORKS The three basic types of networks include: LAN, MAN and WAN. LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN) A network is said to be Local Area Network (LAN) if it is confined relatively to a small area. It is generally limited to a building or a geographical area, expanding not more than a mile apart to other computers. LAN configuration consist of: o A file server - stores all of the software that controls the network, as well as the software that can be shared by the computers attached to the network. A workstation - computers connected to the file server (Mac or PCs). These are less powerful than the file server Cables - used to connect the network interface cards in each computer.

o

o

METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORK (MAN) Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) covers larger geographic areas, such as cities. Often used by local libraries and government agencies often to connect to citizens and private industries.

WIDE AREA NETWORK (WAN) Wide Area Networks (WANs) connect larger geographic areas, such as London, the UK, or the world. In this type of network dedicated transoceanic cabling or satellite uplinks may be used. top

Advantages of Network Speed. Sharing and transferring files within Networks are very rapid. Thus saving time, while maintaining the integrity of the file. Cost. Individually licensed copies of many popular software programs can be costly. Networkable versions are available at considerable savings. Shared programs, on a network allows for easier upgrading of the program on one single file server, instead of upgrading individual workstations. Security. Sensitive files and programs on a network are passwords protected (established for specific directories to restrict access to authorized users) or designated as "copy inhibit," so that you do not have to worry about illegal copying of programs.

Centralized Software Management. Software can be loaded on one computer (the file server) eliminating that need to spend time and energy installing updates and tracking files on independent computers throughout the building. Resource Sharing. Resources such as, printers, fax machines and modems can be shared. Electronic Mail. E-mail aids in personal and professional communication. Electronic mail on a LAN can enable staff to communicate within the building having tot to leave their desk. Flexible Access. Access their files from computers throughout the firm. Workgroup Computing. Workgroup software (such as Microsoft BackOffice) allows many users to work on a document or project concurrently.

DISADVANTAGES OF NETWORK

• • • • • • • • • •

Server faults stop applications being available Network faults can cause loss of data. Network fault could lead to loss of resources User work dependent upon network System open to hackers Decisions tend to become centralised Could become inefFicient Could degrade in performance Resources could be located too far from users Network management can become dif top

OSI MODELS The standard model for networking protocols and distributed applications is the International Standard Organization's Open System Interconnect (ISO/OSI) model. It defines seven network layers. Layer 1 - Physical This layer defines the cable or physical medium itself, e.g. unshielded twisted pairs (UTP). All media of transmission are functionally equivalent in this layer and the main difference is in convenience and cost of installation and maintenance. Layer 2 - Data Link Data Link layer defines the format of data on the network ( a network data frame, packet and destination address). The Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) is defined by the largest packet that can be sent through a data link layer.

Layer 3 - Network This layer defines the protocols that are responsible for data delivery at the required destination, and requires.

Layer 4 - Transport This layer subdivides user-buffer into network-buffer sized datagrams and enforces desired transmission control. Two transport protocols, Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP), sits at the transport layer. Reliability and speed are the primary difference between these two protocols. Layer 5 - Session This leyer defines the format of the data sent over the connections. Layer 6 - Presentation This layer converts local representation of data to its canonical form and vice versa. The canonical uses a standard byte ordering and structure packing convention, independent of the host. Layer 7 - Application Provides network services to the end-users. e.g Mail. OSI Model gives; Increased evolution, Modular engineering, Interoperable technology, Reduced complexity Simplified teaching and learning, Standardised interfaces. top

INTERNETWORKING Internetwork is a collection of individual networks, connected by intermediate networking devices, that functions as a single large network.

Different Network Technologies Can Be Connected to Create an Internetwork

Internetworking devices have many advantages and they are:

§

Increases the number of nodes that can connect to the network thus limitations on the number of nodes that connect to a network relate to the cable lengths and traffic constraints. Extends the physical distance of the network. They localize traffic within a network. Merge existing networks. Isolate network faults.


§ § §

Typical internetworking devices are:


§

Repeater. Operate at Layer 1 of the OSI Bridges. Passes data frames between net-works using the MAC address (Layer 2 address).

§ §

Hubs. Allow the interconnection of nodes and create a physically attached network. Switches. Allow simultaneous communication between two or more nodes, at a time. Routers. Passes data packets between connected networks, and operate on network addresses (Layer 3 address). top

BROADCASTS

Todetermine the network address of a computer, the host send out broadcast to all the host on its network segment. There are two types:

Requests for a destination MAC addresses. A broadcast is sent to all the hosts on the network segment. A host with matching network address responds back with its MAC address in the source MAC address field. The MAC and the network address is stored in the memory of the host so that they can be used in the future communication. Known as Address Resolutions Protocol (ARP). Requests for a network address. A host sends out a request with the MAC address if it does not know network address for a given MAC address. A server on the network responds back with the network address for the given MAC address. Known as Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP).

Most networking technologies have a special MAC address for a broadcast. Ethernet uses the address: FF-FF-FFFF-FF-FF for a broadcast. There are also network broadcast addresses using the network address (known as multicast) - all nodes on the network listen to the communication (such as transmitting a video conference to many nodes on a network, at the same time), but they are used for different purposes than with broadcast MAC addresses, which are used to get network information.

Broadcast for MAC Address top

BITS, FRAMES, PACKETS AND SEGMENTS

At each nodes each of the OSI layers communicates directly with the equivalent layer on the receiving host. The data that is transmitted in each of the lower layers is referred to in a different way. Protocol data units (PDUs) are the data that passes from layer to layer and are referred to in different ways in each of the layers (bits - at the physical, frames - at the data link layer, packets - at the network layer they, and segments - at the transport layer).

Bits, frames, packets and segments

top IEEE Preamble Start Destination Source Length Data FCS 4 delimiter address address 6 2 field 802.3 7 1 6 Control byte DSAP SSAP field frame format bytes 1 1 1/2 Data L2L46-1500

IEEE Startclelimiter Access Frame Destination Source Data FCS End Frame Token Start delimiter

802.5 1 control control address address delimiter status

frame 1

format byte byte 1 6 6 4 1 1

1 Access control Priority 3 bits Token 1 bit Monitor 1 Reservation 3 bits End delimiter 1 top

PROTOCOL A protocol is a set of rules that governs the communications between computers on a network. These rules are guidelines that regulate the access method, allowed physical topologies, types of cabling, and speed of data transfer. The most common protocols are:

o o o o o

Ethernet LocalTalk Token Ring FDDI ATM

ETHERNET This is the most widely used protocol. This protocol uses an access method called CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection). In this system each computer listens to the cable for any transmitting node before sending anything through the network. If the network is clear, the computer will transmit. Else wait and try again when the line is clear. Sometimes, two computers attempt to transmit at the same instant (causing a collision). Each computer then backs off and waits a random amount of time before attempting to retransmit. The delay by collisions and retransmitting is very small and does not normally affect the speed of transmission on the network. Topologies are bus star or tree and transmission is via twisted pair, coaxial, or fibre optic cable at a speed of 10 Mbps. Fast Ethernet

Support 100Mbps and are more expensive network concentrators/hubs and network interface cards is requires for Fast Ethernet. Category 5 twisted pair or fibre optic cable is necessary. Gigabit Ethernet The Ethernet has a standard protocol of 1Gbps transmission speed but used primarily for backbones on a network.

LOCALTALK Apple Computer developed LocalTalk for Macintosh computers. The method used by LocalTalk is called CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance). It is similar to CSMA/CD except that a computer signals its intent to transmit before it actually does so. LocalTalk adapters and special twisted pair cable can be used to connect a series of computers through the serial port. LocalTalk protocol allows for linear bus, star, or tree topologies using twisted pair cable. TOKEN RING This was developed by IBM in the mid 1980s. The method used involves token-passing. Computers are connected so that the signal travels around the network from one computer to another in a logical ring. A single electronic token moves around the ring from one computer to the next. If a computer does not have information to transmit, it simply passes the token on to the next workstation. If a computer wishes to transmit and receives an empty token, it attaches data to the token. The token then proceeds around the ring until it comes to the computer for which the data is meant. At this point, the receiving computer captures the data. FIBRE DISTRIBUTED DATA INTERFACE (FDDI) Access method of token-passing via a dual ring physical topology. Transmission on one of the rings; however, if a break occurs, the system keeps information moving by automatically using portions of the second ring to create a new complete ring. Transmison speed is100 Mbps over a fibre optic cable, but expensive. ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSFER MODE (ATM) Transmits data in small packets of a fixed size at a speed of 155 Mbps and higher. ATM supports a variety of media such as video, CD-quality audio, and imaging. ATM employs a star topology with fibre optic or twisted pair cabling. top

WIRELESS LANS

Fig 8 Wireless LAN

Wireless LANs use high frequency radio signals, infrared light beams, or lasers to communicate between the workstations and the file server or hubs. Each workstation and file server on a wireless network has some sort of transceiver/antenna to send and receive the data. Information is relayed between transceivers as if they were physically connected. For longer distance, wireless communications can also take place through cellular telephone technology, microwave transmission, or by satellite. Wireless networks are great for allowing laptop computers or remote computers to connect to the LAN. Wireless networks are also beneficial in older buildings where it may be difficult or impossible to install cables. This includes all computers, peripherals, interface cards and other equipment needed to perform data processing and communications within the network. What is Network Cabling? Cable is the medium through which information usually moves from one network device to another. There are several types of cable which are commonly used with LANs. In some cases, a network will utilize only one type of cable, other networks will use a variety of cable types. The type of cable chosen for a network is related to the network's topology, protocol, and size. Understanding the characteristics of different types of cable and how they relate to other aspects of a network is necessary for the development of a successful network. The following sections discuss the types of cables used in networks and other related topics.

• • • • • •

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable Coaxial Cable Fiber Optic Cable Cable Installation Guides Wireless LANs

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable Twisted pair cabling comes in two varieties: shielded and unshielded. Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) is the most popular and is generally the best option for school networks (See fig. 1).

Fig.1. Unshielded twisted pair The quality of UTP may vary from telephone-grade wire to extremely high-speed cable. The cable has four pairs of wires inside the jacket. Each pair is twisted with a different number of twists per inch to help eliminate interference from adjacent pairs and other electrical devices. The tighter the twisting, the higher the supported transmission rate and the greater the cost per foot. The EIA/TIA (Electronic Industry Association/Telecommunication Industry Association) has established standards of UTP and rated six categories of wire (additional categories are emerging). Categories of Unshielded Twisted Pair

Category 1 Mbps 4 Mbps 16 Mbps 20 Mbps 100 Mbps (2 pair) 1000 Mbps (4 pair) 1,000 Mbps 10,000 Mbps

Speed

Use Voice Only (Telephone Wire) LocalTalk & Telephone (Rarely used) 10BaseT Ethernet Token Ring (Rarely used) 100BaseT Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet

Gigabit Ethernet

Unshielded Twisted Pair Connector The standard connector for unshielded twisted pair cabling is an RJ-45 connector. This is a plastic connector that looks like a large telephone-style connector (See fig. 2). A slot allows the RJ-45 to be inserted only one way. RJ stands for Registered Jack, implying that the connector follows a standard borrowed from the telephone industry. This standard designates which wire goes with each pin inside the connector.

Fig. 2. RJ-45 connector Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable Although UTP cable is the least expensive cable, it may be susceptible to radio and electrical frequency interference (it should not be too close to electric motors, fluorescent lights, etc.). If you must place cable in environments with lots of potential interference, or if you must place cable in extremely sensitive environments that may be susceptible to the electrical current in the UTP, shielded twisted pair may be the solution. Shielded cables can also help to extend the maximum distance of the cables. Shielded twisted pair cable is available in three different configurations: 1. 2. 3. Each pair of wires is individually shielded with foil. There is a foil or braid shield inside the jacket covering all wires (as a group). There is a shield around each individual pair, as well as around the entire group of wires (referred to as double shield twisted pair).

Coaxial Cable Coaxial cabling has a single copper conductor at its center. A plastic layer provides insulation between the center conductor and a braided metal shield (See fig. 3). The metal shield helps to block any outside interference from

Fig. 3. Coaxial cable Although coaxial cabling is difficult to install, it is highly resistant to signal interference. In addition, it can support greater cable lengths between network devices than twisted pair cable. The two types of coaxial Thin coaxial cable is also referred to as thinnet. 10Base2 refers to the specifications for thin coaxial cable carrying Ethernet signals. The 2 refers to the approximate maximum segment length being 200 meters. In actual fact the maximum segment length is 185 meters. Thin coaxial cable has been popular in Thick coaxial cable is also referred to as thicknet. 10Base5 refers to the specifications for thick coaxial cable carrying Ethernet signals. The 5 refers to the maximum segment length being 500 meters. Thick coaxial cable has an extra protective plastic cover that helps keep moisture away from the center conductor. This makes thick coaxial a great choice when running longer lengths in a linear bus network. One disadvantage of thick coaxial is that it does Coaxial Cable Connectors The most common type of connector used with coaxial cables is the Bayone-Neill-Concelman (BNC) connector (See fig. 4). Different types of adapters are available for BNC connectors, including a T-connector, barrel connector, and terminator. Connectors on the cable are the weakest points in any network. To help avoid problems with your network, always use the BNC connectors that crimp, rather

Fig. 4. BNC connector Fiber Optic Cable Fiber optic cabling consists of a center glass core surrounded by several layers of protective materials (See fig. 5). It transmits light rather than electronic signals eliminating the problem of electrical interference. This makes it ideal for certain environments that contain a large amount of electrical interference. It has also made it the standard for connecting networks between Fiber optic cable has the ability to transmit signals over much longer distances than coaxial and twisted pair. It also has the capability to carry information at vastly greater speeds. This capacity broadens communication possibilities to include services such as video conferencing and interactive services. The cost of fiber optic cabling is comparable to copper cabling; however, it is The center core of fiber cables is made from glass or plastic fibers (see fig 5). A plastic coating then cushions the fiber center, and kevlar fibers help to strengthen the cables and prevent breakage. The outer insulating jacket made of teflon or PVC.

Fig. 5. Fiber optic cable There are two common types of fiber cables -- single mode and multimode. Multimode cable has a larger diameter; however, both cables provide high bandwidth at high speeds. Single mode can provide more distance, but it is more expensive. Ethernet Cable Summary

Specification 10BaseT 10Base2 10Base5 100BaseT 100BaseFX 100BaseBX 100BaseSX 1000BaseT 1000BaseFX 1000BaseBX 1000BaseSX 0724764497

Cable Type Unshielded Twisted Pair Thin Coaxial Thick Coaxial Unshielded Twisted Pair Fiber Optic Single mode Fiber Multimode Fiber Unshielded Twisted Pair Fiber Optic Single mode Fiber

Multimode Fiber