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Openings in the Base of the Skull and the structures that pass through them
Openings in the Skull

Bone of the Skull

Structures Transmitted

Anterior Cranial Fossa


Perforations in the Cribriform plate

Ethmoid

Olfactory nerves

Middle Cranial Fossa


Optic Canal

Lesser wing of the Sphenoid

Optic nerve, ophthalmic artery

Superior Orbital Fissure

Between lesser and greater wings of


the Sphenoid

Lacrimal, frontal, trochlear,


oculomotor, nasociliary and abducent
nerves; superior ophthalmic vein

Foramen Rotundum

Greater wing of the Sphenoid

Maxillary Division of the Trigeminal


Nerve

Foramen Ovale

Greater wing of the Sphenoid

Mandibular division of the Trigeminal


Nerve

Foramen Spinosum

Greater wing of the Sphenoid

Middle meningeal artery

Foramen Lacerum

Between petrous part of temporal and


Sphenoid

Internal carotid artery

Posterior Cranial Fossa


Foramen Magnum

Occipital

Medulla Oblongata, spinal part of


accessory nerve, and right and left
vertebral arteries

Hypoglossal Canal

Occipital

Hypoglossal nerve

Jugular Foramen

Between petrous part of temporal and


condylar part of occipital

Glossopharyngeal, vagus, and


accessory nerves; sigmoid sinus
becomes internal jugular vein

Internal Acoustic Meatus

Petrous part of temporal

Vestibulocochlear and facial nerves

Muscles of the Eyeball and Eyelids


Muscle

Origin

Insertion

Innervation

Action

Extrinsic Muscles of Eyeball (Striated Skeletal Muscle)


Superior Rectus

Tendinous ring on

Superior surface of

CNIII

Raises cornea

posterior wall of
orbital cavity

eyeball just posterior


to corneoscleral
junction

upward and medially

Inferior Rectus

Tendinous ring on
posterior wall of
orbital cavity

Inferior surface of
eyeball just posterior
to corneoscleral
junction

CNIII

Depresses cornea
downward and
medially

Medial Rectus

Tendinous ring on
posterior wall of
orbital cavity

Medial surface of
eyeball just posterior
to corneoscleral
junction

CNIII

Rotates eyeball so
that cornea looks
medially

Lateral Rectus

Tendinous ring on
posterior wall of
orbital cavity

Lateral surface of
eyeball just posterior
to corneoscleral
junction

CNVI

Rotates eyeball so
that cornea looks
laterally

Superior Oblique

Posterior wall of
orbital cavity

Passes through
pulley and is
attached to superior
surface of eyeball
beneath superior
rectus

CNIV

Rotates eyeball so
that cornea looks
downward and
laterally

Inferior Oblique

Floor of orbital cavity

Lateral surface of
eyeball deep to
lateral rectus

CNIII

Rotates eyeball so
that cornea looks
upward and laterally

Intrinsic Muscles of Eyeball (Smooth Muscle)


Sphincter Pupillae
of Iris

Parasympathetic via
CNIII

Constricts pupil

Dilatory Pupillae of
Iris

Sympathetic

Dilates pupil

Ciliary Muscle

Parasympathetic via
CNIII

Controls shape of
lens; in
accommodation,
makes lens more
globular

Muscles of Eyelids
Orbicularis Oculi
Palpebral Part

Medial palpebral
ligament

Lateral palpebral
raphe

Facial nerve

Closes eyelids and


dilates lacrimal sac

Orbital Part

Medial palpebral
ligament and
adjoining bone

Loops return to origin

Facial nerve

Throws skin around


orbit into folds to
protect eyeball

Back of orbital cavity

Anterior surface and


upper margin of

Striated muscle
oculomotor nerve,

Raises upper lid

Levator Palpebrae
Superioris

superior tarsal plate

smooth muscle
Sympathetic

Muscles of the Head


Muscle
Occipitofrontalis
Occipital belly

Origin

Insertion
Muscle of Scalp

Innervation

3
Action

Highest nuchal line of Epicranial


Facial nerve
occipital bone
aponeurosis
Skin and superficial
facia of eyebrows
Muscles of Facial Expression

Moves scalp on skull


and raises eyebrows

Medial palpebral
ligament
Medial palpebral
ligament and
adjoining bone
Superciliary arch

Lateral palpebral
raphe
Loops return to origin

Facial nerve

Skin of eyebrow

Facial nerve

Aponeurosis of
bridge of nose
Ala of nose

Facial nerve

Dilator Naris

Frontal process of
maxilla
Maxilla

Procerus

Nasal bone

Facial nerve

Orbicularis Oris

Maxilla, mandible
and skin

Skin between
eyebrows
Encircles oral orifice

Closes eyelids and


dilates lacrimal sac
Throws skin around
orbit into folds to
protect eyeball
Vertical wrinkles of
forehead, as in
frowning
Compresses mobile
nasal cartilages
Widens nasal
aperture
Wrinkles skin of nose

Frontal belly
Orbicularis Oculi
Palpebral Part
Orbital Part
Corrugator
Supercilii
Compressor Nasi

Facial nerve

Facial nerve

Facial nerve

Compresses lips
together

Facial nerve

Separate lips

Facial nerve

Compresses cheeks
and lips against teeth
Depresses mandible
and angle of mouth

Dilator Muscles of Lips


Levator Labii
Superioris Alaeque
Nasi
Levator Labii
Superioris
Zygomaticus Minor
Zygomaticus Major
Levator Anguli Oris
Risorius
Depressor Anguli
Oris
Depressor Labii
Inferioris
Mentalis
Buccinator
Platysma

Masseter
Temporalis

Arise from bones and fascia around oral


aperture and insert into substance of lips

Outer surface of alveolar margins of maxilla,


mandible and pterygomandibular ligament
Deep fascia over
Body of mandible and
pectoralis major and
angle of mouth
deltoid
Muscles of Mastication
Zygomatic arch
Lateral surface ramus
of mandible
Floor of temporal
Coronoid process of
fossa
mandible

Facial nerve cervical


branch
Mandibular division of
trigeminal nerve
Mandibular division of
trigeminal nerve

Elevates mandible to
occlude teeth
Anterior and superior
fibers elevate
mandible; posterior
fibers retract

Lateral Pterygoid
(two heads)
Medial Pterygoid
(two heads)

Greater wing of
sphenoid and lateral
pterygoid plate
Tuberosity of maxilla
and lateral pterygoid
plate

Neck of mandible and


articular sac

Mandibular division of
trigeminal nerve

Medial surface of
angle of mandible

Mandibular division of
trigeminal nerve

mandible
Pulls neck of
mandible forward

Elevates mandible

Muscles of Tongue
Muscle
Longitudinal

Origin
Median septum and
submucosa

Insertion
Intrinsic Muscles
Mucous membrane

Innervation

Action

CNXII

Alters shape of
tongue

CNXII

Protrudes apex of
tongue through
mouth
Depresses tongue

Transverse
Vertical
Genioglossus

Superior genial spine


of mandible

Extrinsic Muscles
Blends with other
muscles of tongue

Hyoglossus

Body of greater cornu


of hyoid bone
Styloid process of
temporal bone

Blends with other


muscles of tongue
Blends with other
muscles of tongue

CNXII

Palatine aponeurosis

Side of tongue

Pharyngeal plexus

Styloglossus
Palatoglossus

CNXII

Draws tongue
upward and
backward
Pulls roots of tongue
upward and
backward, narrows
oropharyngeal
isthmus

Muscles of the Neck


Muscle
Platysma
SCM

Digastric
Posterior belly

Origin
Deep fascia over
pectoralis major and
deltoid
Manubrium sterni and
medial third of the
clavicle

Insertion
Body of mandible and
angle of mouth

Innervation
Facial nerve cervical
branch

Action
Depresses mandible
and angle of mouth

Mastoid process of
temporal bone and
occipital bone

Spinal part of
accessory nerve and
C2 and C3

Two muscles acting


together extend head
and flex neck; one
muscle rotates head
to opposite side

Mastoid process of
temporal bone

Intermediate tendon
is held to hyoid by
fascial sling

Facial nerve

Depresses mandible
or elevates hyoid
bone

Anterior belly
Stylohyoid
Mylohyoid

Body of mandible
Styloid process
Mylohyoid line of
body of mandible

Geniohyoid

Inferior mental spine


of mandible

Body of hyoid bone

First cervical nerve

Sternohyoid

Manubrium sterni and

Body of Hyoid bone

Ansa cervicalis; C1, 2

Body of hyoid bone


Body of hyoid bone
and fibrous raphe

Nerve to mylohyoid
Facial nerve
Inferior alveolar nerve

Elevates hyoid bone


Elevates floor of
mouth and hyoid
bone or depresses
mandible
Elevates hyoid bone
or depresses
mandible
Depresses hyoid

Sternothyroid
Thyrohyoid
Omohyoid
Inferior belly

Superior belly
Scalenius Anterior

Scalenius Medius

Scalenius Posterior

clavicle
Manubrium sterni
Oblique line on
lamina of thyroid
cartilage

Oblique line on
lamina of thyroid
cartilage
Lower border of body
of hyoid bone

&3
Ansa cervicalis; C1, 2
&3

bone
Depresses larynx

First cervical nerve

Depresses hyoid
bone or elevates
larynx

Upper margin of
scapula and
suprascapular
ligament
Lower border of body
of hyoid bone
Transverse
processes of 3rd, 4th
5th and 6th cervical
vertebrae
Transverse
processes of upper
six cervical vertebrae

Intermediate tendon
is held to clavicle and
first rib by fascial
sling

Ansa cervicalis; C1, 2


&3

Depresses hyoid
bone

First rib

C4, 5 & 6

First rib

Anterior rami of
cervical nerves

Transverse process
of lower cervical
vertebrae

Second rib

Anterior rami of
cervical nerves

Elevates first rib;


laterally flexes and
rotates cervical part
of vertebral column
Elevates first rib;
laterally flexes and
rotates cervical part
of vertebral column
Elevates second rib;
laterally flexes and
rotates cervical part
of vertebral column

Cranial Nerves

Olfactory

Nerve

Components
Sensory

Optic
Oculomotor

Sensory
Motor

Trochlear

Motor

Trigeminal
Ophthalmic division

Sensory

Maxillary division

Sensory

Mandibular division

Motor

Sensory

Function
Smell
Vision
Lifts upper eyelid, turns
eyeball upward, downward
and medially; constricts
pupil; accommodates eye
Assists in turning eyeball
downward and laterally
Cornea, skin of forehead,
scalp, eyelids and nose;
also mucous membrane of
paranasal sinuses and
nasal cavity
Skin of face over maxilla
and the upper lip; teeth of
upper jaw; mucous
membrane of nose, the
maxillary air sinus, and
palate
Muscles of mastication,
mylohyoid, anterior belly of
digastrics, tensor veli
palatini and tensor tympani
Skin of cheek, skin over
mandible, lower lip and side
of head; teeth of lower jaw
and temporomandibular

Opening in Skull
Openings in cribriform plate
of ethmoid
Optic canal
Superior Orbital Fissure

Superior Orbital fissure


Superior Orbital Fissure

Foramen Rotundum

Foramen Ovale

Abducent

Motor

Facial

Motor

Sensory
Secretomotor
parasympathetic
Vestibulocochlear
Vestibular

Sensory

Cochlear
Glossopharyngeal

Sensory
Motor
Secretomotor
parasympathetic
Sensory

Vagus

Motor

Sensory

Accessory
Cranial root

Motor

Spinal root

Motor

Hypoglossal

Motor

joint; mucous membrane of


mouth and anterior two
thirds of tongue
Lateral rectus muscle: turns
eyeball laterally
Muscles of face, cheek and
scalp; stapedius muscle of
middle ear; stylohyoid; and
posterior belly of digastrics
Taste from anterior two
thirds of tongue, floor of
mouth and palate
Submandibular and
sublingual salivary glands,
lacrimal gland and glands
of nose and palate
Position and movement of
head
Hearing
Stylopharyngeus muscle;
assists swallowing
Parotid salivary gland
General sensation and
taste from posterior third of
tongue and pharynx; carotid
sinus and carotid body
Constrictor muscles of
phaynx and intrinsic
muscles of larynx;
involuntary muscle of
trachea and bronchi, heart,
alimentary tract from
pharynx to splenix flexure
of colon; liver and pancreas
Taste from epiglottis and
vallecula and afferent fibers
from structures named
above
Muscles of soft palate,
pharynx and larynx
Sternocleidomastoid and
trapezius muscles
Muscles of tongue
controlling its shape and
movement (except
palatoglossus)

Superior orbital fissure

Internal acoustic meatus,


facial canal stylomastoid
foramen

Internal acoustic meatus

Jugular Foramen

Jugular Foramen

Jugular Foramen

Hypoglossal Canal

7
Muscles Connecting the Upper Limb to the Thoracic Wall/ Muscles of the Pectoral Region (except Serratus
Anterior)
Muscle
Pectoralis Major

Origin
Clavicle, sternum and
upper six costal
cartilages

Insertion
Lateral lip of the
bicipital groove of
humerus

Innervation
Medial and lateral
pectoral nerves form
brachial plexus

Action
Adducts arm and
rotates it medially;
clavicular fibers also
flex arm

Pectoralis Minor

3rd, 4th and 5th ribs

Coracoid process of
scapula

Medial pectoral nerve


from brachial plexus

Depresses point of
shoulder; if the
scapula is fixed, it
elevates the ribs of
origin

Subclavius

First costal cartilage

Clavicle

Nerve to subclavius
from upper trunk of
brachial plexus

Depresses the
clavicle and steadies
this bone during
movements of the
shoulder girdle

Serratus Anterior

Upper eight ribs

Medial border and


inferior angle of the
scapula

Long thoracic nerve

Draws the scapula


forward around the
thoracic wall; rotates
the scapula

Muscles Connecting the Upper limb to the Vertebral Column/ Superficial (Appendicular) Group of Back Muscles
Muscle
Trapezius

Origin
Occipital bone,
ligamentum nuchae,
spine of 7th cervical
vertebra, spines of all
thoracic vertebra

Insertion
Upper fibers into
lateral third of
clavicle; middle and
lower fibers into
acromion and spine
of the scapula

Innervation
Spinal part of
accessory nerve
(motor) and C3 and
C4 (sensory)

Action
Upper fibers elevate
the scapula; middle
fibers pull the scapula
medially; lower fibers
pull medial border of
the scapula
downward

Latissimus Dorsi

Iliac crest, lumbar


fascia, spines of
lower six thoracic
vertebrae, lower
three or four ribs, and
inferior angle of the
scapula

Floor of bicipital
groove of humerus

Thoracodorsal nerve

Extends, adducts and


medially rotates the
arm

Levator Scapulae

Transverse
processes of first four
cervical vertebrae

Medial border of the


scapula

C3 and C4 and
dorsal scapular nerve

Raises medial border


of the scapula

Rhomboid Minor

Ligamentum nuchae
and spines of 7th
cervical vertebra and
1st thoracic vertebra

Medial border of the


scapula

Dorsal scapular
nerve

Raises medial border


of scapula upward
and medially

Rhomboid Major

2nd to 5th thoracic


spines

Medial border of
scapula

Dorsal scapular
nerve

Raises medial border


of scapula upward
and medially

Muscles Connecting the Scapula to the Humerus


Muscle
Deltoid

Origin
Lateral third of
clavicle, acromion,
spine of scapula

Insertion
Middle of lateral
surface of shaft of
humerus

Innervation
Axillary nerve

Action
Abducts arm; anterior
fibers flex and
medially rotate arm;
posterior fibers
extend and laterally
rotate arm

Supraspinatus

Supraspinous fossa
of scapula

Greater tuberosity of
humerus; capsule of
shoulder joint

Spurascapular nerve

Abducts arm and


stabilizes shoulder
joint

Infraspinatus

Infraspinous fossa

Greater tuberosity of
humerus; capsule of
shoulder joint

Suprascapular nerve

Laterally rotates arm


and stabilizes
shoulder joint

Teres Major

Lower third of lateral


border of scapula

Medial lip of bicipital


groove of humerus

Lower subscapular
nerve

Medially rotates and


adducts arm and
stabilizes shoulder
joint

Teres Minor

Upper two thirds of


lateral border of the
scapula

Greater tuberosity of
the humerus; capsule
of shoulder joint

Axillary nerve

Laterally rotates arm


stabilizes shoulder
joint

Subscapularis

Subscapular fossa

Lesser tuberosity of
humerus

Upper and lower


subscapular nerves

Medially rotates arm


and stabilizes
shoulder joint

Muscles of the Arm


Muscle

Origin

Insertion
Anterior Compartment

Innervation

Action

Biceps Brachii
Long head

Supraglenoid
tubercle of scapula

Short head

Coracoid process of
scapula

Tuberosity of radius
and bicipital
aponeurosis into
deep fascia of
forearm

Musculocutaneous
nerve

Supinator of forearm
and flexor of elbow
joint; weak flexor of
shoulder joint

Coracobrachialis

Coracoid process of
scapula

Medial aspect of
shaft of humerus

Musculocutaneous
nerve

Flexes arm and also


weak adductor

Brachialis

Front of lower half of


humerus

Coronoid process of
ulna

Musculocutaneous
nerve

Flexor of elbow joint

Posterior Compartment
Triceps
Long head

Infraglenoid tubercle
of scapula

Lateral head

Upper half of
posterior surface of
shaft of humerus

Medial head

Olecranon process of
ulna

Radial nerve

Extensor of elbow
joint

Lower half of
posterior surface of
shaft of humerus

Muscles of the Anterior Fascial Compartment of the Forearm


Muscle
Pronator Teres

Origin

Humeral head

Medial epicondyle of
humerus

Ulnar head

Medial border of
coronoid process of
ulna

Insertion

Lateral aspect of the


shaft of radius

Innervation

Median nerve

Action

Pronation and flexion


of forearm

Flexor Carpi
Radialis

Medial epicondyle of
humerus

Bases of 2nd and 3rd


metacarpal bones

Median nerve

Flexes and abducts


hand at wrist joint

Palmaris Longus

Medial epicondyle of
humerus

Flexor retinaculum
and palmar
aponeurosis

Median nerve

Flexes hand

Pisiform bone, hook


of the hamate, base
at 5th metacarpal
bone

Ulnar nerve

Flexes and adducts


hand at wrist joint

Middle phalanx of

Median nerve

Flexes middle

Flexor Carpi Ulnaris


Humeral head

Ulnar head

Medial epicondyle of
humerus
Medial aspect of
olecranon process
and posterior border
of ulna

Flexor Digitorum
Superficialis
Humeroulnar

Medial epicondyle of

head

10

humerus; medial
border of coronoid
process of ulna

phalanx of fingers
and assists in flexing
proximal phalanx and
hand

medial four fingers


Radial head

Oblique line on
anterior surface of
shaft of radius

Flexor Pollicis
Longus

Anterior surface of
shaft of radius

Distal phalanx of
thumb

Anterior interosseus
branch of median
nerve

Flexes distal phalanx


of thumb

Flexor Digitorum
Profundus

Anteromedial surface
of shaft of ulna

Distal phalanges of
medial four fingers

Ulnar (medial half)


and median (lateral
half) nerves

Flexes distal phalanx


of fingers; then
assists in flexion of
middle and proximal
phalanges and wrist

Pronator Quadratus

Anterior surface of
shaft of ulna

Anterior surface of
shaft or radius

Anterior interosseus
branch of median
nerve

Pronates forearm

Muscles of the Lateral Fascial Compartment of the Forearm


Muscle
Brachioradialis

Origin
Lateral supracondylar
ridge of humerus

Insertion
Base of styloid
process of radius

Innervation
Radial nerve

Action
Flexes forearm at
elbow joint; rotates
forearm to the
midprone position

Extensor Carpi
Radialis Longus

Lateral supracondylar
ridge pf the humerus

Posterior surface of
base of 2nd
metacarpal bone

Radial nerve

Extends and abducts


hand at wrist joint

Muscles of the Posterior Fascial Compartment of the Forearm


Muscle
Extensor Carpi
Radialis Brevis

Origin
Lateral epicondyle of
humerus

Insertion
Posterior surface of
base of third
metacarpal bone

Innervation
Deep branch of
radial nerve

Action
Extends and abducts
hand at wrist joint

Extensor Digitorum

Lateral epicondyle of
humerus

Middle and distal


phalanges of medial
four fingers

Deep branch of
radial nerve

Extends fingers and


hand

Extensor Digiti
Minimi

Lateral epicondyle of
humerus

Extensor expansion
of little finger

Deep branch of
radial nerve

Extends
metacarpophalangeal
joint of little finger

Extensor Carpi
Ulnaris

Lateral epicondyle of
humerus

Base of fifth
metacarpal bone

Deep branch of
radial nerve

Extends and adducts


hand at wrist joint

Anconeus

Lateral epicondyle of
humerus

Lateral surface of
olecranon process of

Radial nerve

Extends elbow joint

ulna

11

Supinator

Lateral epicondyle of
humerus

Neck and shaft of


radius

Deep branch of
radial nerve

Supination of forearm

Abductor Pollicis
Longus

Posterior surface of
shaft of radius and
ulna

Base of first
metacarpal bone

Deep branch of
radial nerve

Extends and abducts


thumb

Extensor Pollicis
Brevis

Posterior surface of
shaft or radius

Base of proximal
phalanx of thumb

Deep branch of
radial nerve

Extends
metacarpophalangeal
joint of thumb

Extensor Pollicis
Longus

Posterior surface of
shaft of ulna

Base of distal
phalanx of thumb

Deep branch of
radial nerve

Extends distal phalanx


of thumb

Extensor Indicis

Posterior surface of
shaft of ulna

Extensor expansion
of index finger

Deep branch of
radial nerve

Extends
metacarpophalangeal
joint of index finger

Small Muscles of the Hand


Muscle
Palmaris Brevis

Origin
Flexor retinaculum,
palmar aponeurosis

Insertion
Skin of palm

Innervation
Superficial branch of
ulnar nerve

Action
Corrugates skin to
improve grip of palm

Lumbricals (4)

Tendons of flexor
digitorum profundus

Extensor expansion
of medial four
fingers

1st and 2nd (i.e.


lateral two) median
nerve; 3rd and 4th
deep branch of ulnar
nerve

Flexes
metacarpophalangeal
joints and extend
interphalangeal joints of
fingers except thumb

Palmar (4)

First arises from


base of 1st
metacarpal;
remaining three from
anterior surface of
shafts of 2nd, 4th and
5th metacarpals

Proximal phalanges
of thumb and index,
ring and little fingers
and dorsal extensor
expansion of each
finger

Deep branch of ulnar


nerve

Palmar interossei adduct


fingers toward center of
third finger

Dorsal (4)

Contiguous sidesof
shafts of metacarpal
bones

Proximal phalanges
of index, middle and
ring fingers and
dorsal extensor
expansion

Deep branch of ulnar


nerve

Dorsal interossei abduct


fingers from center of
third finger; both palmar
and dorsal flex
metacarpophalangeal
joints and extend
interphalangeal joints

Interossei (8)

Short Muscles of Thumb (Thenar Muscles; pollicis- thumb)


Abductor Pollicis
Brevis

Scaphoid,
trapezium, flexor
retinaculum

Base of proximal
phalanx of thumb

Median nerve

Abduction of thumb

12

Flexor Pollicis
Brevis

Flexor retinaculum

Base of proximal
phalanx of thumb

Median nerve

Flexes
metacarpophalangeal
joint of thumb

Opponens Pollicis

Flexor retinaculum

Shaft of metacarpal
bone of thumb

Median nerve

Pulls thumb medially and


forward across palm

Adductor Pollicis

Oblique head; 2nd


and 3rd metacarpal
bones; transverse
head; 3rd metacarpal
bone

Base of proximal
phalanx of thumb

Deep branch of ulnar


nerve

Adduction of thumb

Short Muscles of Little Finger (Hypothenar Muscles; digiti minimi- 5th digit)
Abductor Digiti
Minimi

Pisiform bone

Base of proximal
phalanx of little
finger

Deep branch of ulnar


nerve

Abducts little finger

Flexor Digiti Minimi

Flexor retinaculum

Base of proximal
phalanx of little
finger

Deep branch of ulnar


nerve

Flexes little finger

Opponens Digiti
Minimi

Flexor retinaculum

Medial border of 5th


metacarpal bone

Deep branch of ulnar


nerve

Pulls 5th metacarpal


forward as in cupping
the palm

Summary of the Branches of the Brachial Plexus and their Distribution


Branches

Distribution
Roots

Dorsal Scapular Nerve (C5)

Rhomboid minor, rhomboid major, levator scapulae

Long Thoracic Nerve (C5, 6, 7)

Serratus anterior
Upper Trunk

Suprascapular Nerve (C5, 6)

Supraspinatus and infraspinatus

Nerve to Subclavius (C5, 6)

Subclavius
Lateral Cord

Lateral Pectoral Nerve (C5, 6, 7)

Pectoralis major

Musculocutaneous Nerve (C5, 6, 7)

Coracobrachialis, biceps brachii, brachialis; supplies skin


along lateral border of forearm when it becomes the lateral
cutaneous nerve of the forearm

Lateral root of Median Nerve (C5, 6, 7)

(See medial root of median nerve)


Posterior Cord

13

Upper Subscapular Nerve (C5, 6)

Subscapularis

Thoracodorsal Nerve (C6, 7, 8)

Latissimus dorsi

Lower Subscapular Nerve (C5, 6)

Subscapularis and teres major

Axillary Nerve (C5, 6)

Deltoid and teres minor; upper and lateral cutaneous


nerve of arm supplies skin over lower half of deltoid
muscle

Radial Nerve (C5, 6, 7, 8; T1)

Triceps, anconeus, part of brachialis, ECRL; via deep


radial nerve branch supplies extensor muscles of forearm:
supinator, ECRB, ECU, ED, EDM, EI, AbPL, EPL, EPB;
skin, lower lateral cutaneous nerve of arm, posterior
cutaneous nerve of arm, and posterior cutaneous nerve of
forearm; skin on lateral side of dorsum of hand and dorsal
surface of lateral three and a half of fingers; articular
branches to elbow, wrist and hand
Medial Cord

Medial Pectoral Nerve (C8; T1)

Pectoralis major and pectoralis minor

Medial Cutaneous Nerve of arm joined by intercostals


brachial nerve from second intercostals nerve (C8; T1,
2)

Skin of medial side of arm

Medial Cutaneous Nerve of forearm (C8; T1)

Skin of medial side of forearm

Ulnar Nerve (C8; T1)

FCU and medial half of FDP, FDM, ODM, AbDM, AdP, 3rd
and 4th lumbricals, interossei, PB, skin of medial half of
dorsum of hand and palm, skin of palmar and dorsal
surfaces of medial one and a half fingers

Medial root of Median Nerve (with lateral root) forms


Median Nerve (C5, 6, 7, 8; T1)

PT, FCR, PL, FDS, AbPB, FPB, OP, first two lumbricals
(by way of anterior interosseus branch), FPL, FDP (lateral
half), PQ, palmar cutaneous branch to lateral half of palm
and digital branches to palmar surface of lateral three and
a half fingers; articular branches to elbow, wrist and carpal
joints

Muscles of the Gluteal Region


Muscle
Gluteus
maximus

Origin
Insertion
Nerve Supply
Action
Outer surface of ilium, Iliotibial tract and gluteal Inferior gluteal nerve Extends and laterally rotates hip
sacrum, coccyx,
tuberosity of femur
joint; through iliotibial tract, it
sacrotuberous ligament
extends knee joint

Gluteus
medius

Outer surface of ilium

Gluteus
minimus

Outer surface of ilium

Tensor fasciae Iliac crest


latae
Piriformis
Anterior surface of
sacrum
Obturator
Inner surface of
internus
obturator membrane
Gemellus
Spine of ischium
superior
Gemellus
Ischial tuberosity
inferior
Quadratus
Lateral border of ischial
femoris
tuberosity

Lateral surface of
greater trochanter of
femur
Anterior surface of
greater trochanter of
femur
Iliotibial tract

Superior gluteal
nerve
Superior gluteal
nerve

Superior gluteal
nerve
Upper border of greater First and second
trochanter of femur
sacral nerves
Upper border of greater Sacral plexus
trochanter of femur
Upper border of greater Sacral plexus
trochanter of femur
Upper border of greater Sacral plexus
trochanter of femur
Quadrate tubercle of
Sacral plexus
femur

14

Abducts thigh at hip joint; tilts


pelvis when walking to permit
opposite leg to clear ground
Abducts thigh at hip joint; tilts
pelvis when walking to permit
opposite leg to clear ground
Assists gluteus maximus in
extending the knee joint
Lateral rotator of thigh at hip
joint
Lateral rotator of thigh at hip
joint
Lateral rotator of thigh at hip
joint
Lateral rotator of thigh at hip
joint
Lateral rotator of thigh at hip
joint

Muscles of the Anterior Fascial Compartment of the Thigh


Muscle
Sartorius

Origin
Anterior superior iliac
spine

Insertion
Nerve Supply
Upper medial surface of Femoral nerve
shaft of tibia

Iliacus

Iliac fossa of hip bone

With psoas into lesser


trochanter of femur

Psoas

Transverse processes, With iliacus into lesser Lumbar plexus


bodies, and
trochanter of femur
intervertebral discs of
the 12th thoracic and
five lumbar vertebrae
Superior ramus of pubis Upper end of linea
Femoral nerve
aspera of shaft of femur

Pectineus
Quadriceps
femoris
Rectus
femoris
Vastus
lateralis
Vastus
medialis
Vastus
intermedius

Straight head: anterior


inferior iliac spine
Reflected head: ilium
above acetabulum
Upper end and shaft of
femur

Quadriceps tendon into


patella, then via
ligamentum patellae
into tubercle of tibia
Quadriceps tendon into
patella, then via
ligamentum patellae
into tubercle of tibia
Upper end and shaft of Quadriceps tendon into
femur
patella, then via
ligamentum patellae
into tubercle of tibia
Anterior and lateral
Quadriceps tendon into
surfaces of shaft of
patella, then via
femur
ligamentum patellae
into tubercle of tibia

Femoral nerve

Action
Flexes, abducts, laterally rotates
thigh at hip joint; flexes and
medially rotates leg at knee joint
Flexes thigh on trunk; if thigh is
fixed, it flexes the trunk on the
thigh as in sitting up from lying
down
Flexes thigh on trunk; if thigh is
fixed, it flexes the trunk on thigh
as in sitting up from lying down
Flexes and adducts thigh at hip
joint

Femoral nerve

Extension of leg at knee joint;


flexes thigh at hip joint

Femoral nerve

Extension of leg at knee joint

Femoral nerve

Extension of leg at knee joint;


stabilizes patella

Femoral nerve

Extension of leg at knee joint;


articularis genus retracts
synovial membrane

Muscles of the Medial Fascial Compartment of the Thigh


Muscle

Origin

Insertion

Nerve Supply

Action

Gracilis
Adductor
longus
Adductor
brevis
Adductor
magnus
Obturator
externus

Inferior ramus of pubis, Upper part of shaft of


ramus of ischium
tibia on medial surface
Body of pubis, medial to Posterior surface of
pubic tubercle
shaft of femur (linea
aspera)
Inferior ramus of pubis Posterior surface of
shaft of femur (linea
aspera)
Inferior ramus of pubis, Posterior surface of
ramus of ischium,
shaft of femur, adductor
ischial tuberosity
tubercle of femur
Outer surface of
obturator membrane
and pubic and ischial
rami

Medial surface of
greater trochanter

Obturator nerve
Obturator nerve

15

Adducts thigh at hip joint; flexes leg


at knee joint
Adducts thigh at hip joint and
assists in lateral rotation

Obturator nerve

Adducts thigh at hip joint and


assists in lateral rotation

Adductor portion:
obturator nerve
Hamstring portion:
sciatic nerve
Obturator nerve

Adducts thigh at hip joint and


assists in lateral rotation; hamstring
portion extends thigh at hip joint
Laterally rotates thigh at hip joint

Muscles of the Posterior Fascial Compartment of the Thigh


Muscle
Biceps femoris

Origin
Long head: ischial
tuberosity

Semitendinosus

Insertion
Head of fibula

Nerve Supply
Action
Long head: tibial
Flexes and laterally rotates leg
portion of sciatic
at knee joint; long head also
nerve
extends thigh at hip joint
Short head: common
peroneal portion of
sciatic nerve

Short head: linea


aspera, lateral
supracondylar ridge of
shaft of femur
Ischial tuberosity
Upper part of medial
Tibial portion of
surface of shaft of tibia sciatic nerve

Semimembranosus Ischial tuberosity

Medial condyle of tibia Tibial portion of


sciatic nerve

Adductor magnus Ischial tuberosity


(hamstring portion)

Adductor tubercle of
femur

Tibial portion of
sciatic nerve

Flexes and medially rotates


leg at knee joint; extends thigh
at hip joint
Flexes and medially rotates
leg at knee joint; extends thigh
at hip joint
Extends thigh at hip joint

Muscles of the Anterior Fascial Compartment of the Leg


Muscle
Tibialis
anterior
Extensor
digitorum
longus
Peroneus
tertius
Extensor
hallucis
longus
Extensor
digitorum
brevis

Origin
Insertion
Nerve Supply
Action
Lateral surface of shaft Medial cuneiform and Deep peroneal nerveExtendsb foot at ankle joint; inverts
of tibia and
base of first metatarsal
foot at subtalar and transverse
interosseous membrane bone
tarsal joints; holds up medial
longitudinall arch of foot
Anterior surface of shaft Extensor expansion of Deep peroneal nerveExtends toes; extends foot at ankle
of fibula
lateral four toes
joint
Anterior surface of shaft Base of fifth metatarsal Deep peroneal nerveExtends foot at ankle joint; everts
of fibula
bone
foot at subtalar and transverse
tarsal joints
Anterior surface of shaft Base of distal phalanx Deep peroneal nerveExtends big toe; extends foot at
of fibula
of great toe
ankle joint; inverts foot at subtalar
and transverse tarsal joints
Calcaneum
By four tendons into the Deep peroneal nerve
proximal phalanx of big
toe and long extensor
tendons to second,
third, and fourth toes

Muscles of the Lateral Fascial Compartment of the Leg


Muscle
Peroneus
longus

16

Origin
Insertion
Nerve Supply
Action
Lateral surface of shaft Base of first metatarsal Superficial peroneal Plantar flexes foot at ankle joint;
of fibula
and the medial
nerve
everts foot at subtalar and
cuneiform
transverse tarsal joints; supports
lateral longitudinal and transverse
arches of foot
Peroneus
Lateral surface of fibula Base of fifth metatarsal Superficial peroneal Plantar flexes foot at ankle joint;
brevis shaft of
bone
nerve
everts foot at subtalar and
fibula
transverse tarsal joint; supports
lateral longitudinal arch of foot
Muscles of the Posterior Fascial Compartment of the Leg
Muscle

Insertion
Nerve Supply
Superficial Group
GastrocnemiusLateral head from
Via tendo calcaneus
Tibial nerve
lateral condyle of femur into posterior surface of
and medial head from calcaneum
above medial condyle
Plantaris
Lateral supracondylar Posterior surface of
Tibial nerve
ridge of femur
calcaneum
Soleus
Shafts of tibia and fibula Via tendo calcaneus
Tibial nerve
into posterior surface of
calcaneum

Popliteus

Flexor
digitorum
longus

Origin

Deep Group
Lateral surface of lateral Posterior surface of
Tibial nerve
condyle of femur
shaft of tibia above
soleal line
Posterior surface of
shaft of tibia

Bases of distal
Tibial nerve
phalanges of lateral four
toes

Flexor hallucis Posterior surface of


longus
shaft of fibula

Base of distal phalanx Tibial nerve


of big toe

Tibialis
posterior

Posterior surface of
Tuberosity of navicular Tibial nerve
shafts of tibia and fibula bone and other
and interosseous
neighboring bones
membrane

Action
Plantar flexes foot at ankle
joint; flexes knee joint
Plantar flexes foot at ankle
joint; flexes knee joint
Together with gastrocnemius
and plantaris is powerful
plantar flexor of ankle joint;
provides main propulsive force
in walking and running
Flexes leg at knee joint;
unlocks knee joint by lateral
rotation of femur on tibia and
slackens ligaments of joint
Flexes distal phalanges of
lateral four toes; plantar flexes
foot at ankle joint; supports
medial and lateral longitudinal
arches of foot
Flexes distal phalanx of big toe;
plantar flexes foot at ankle joint;
supports medial longitudinal
arch of foot
Plantar flexes foot at ankle
joint; inverts foot at subtalar
and transverse tarsal joints;
supports medial longitudinal
arch of foot

Muscles of the Sole of the Foot


Muscle
Abductor
hallucis
Flexor
digitorum
brevis

Origin
Medial tuberosity of
calcaneum and flexor
retinaculum
Medial tubercle of
calcaneum

Insertion
Nerve Supply
Action
First Layer
Base of proximal
Medial plantar nerve Flexes and abducts big toe;
phalanx of big toe
braces medial longitudinal arch
Four tendons to four
Medial plantar nerve Flexes lateral four toes; braces
lateral toes inserted
medial and lateral longitudinal
into borders of middle
arches

17

phalanx; tendons
perforated by those of
flexor digitorum longus
Abductor digiti Medial and lateral
Base of proximal
Lateral plantar nerve Flexes and abducts fifth toe;
minimi
tubercles of calcaneum phalanx of fifth toe
braces lateral longitudinal arch
Second Layer
Quadratus
Medial and lateral sides Tendon of flexor
Lateral plantar nerve Assists flexor digitorum longus
plantae
of calcaneum
digitorum longus
in flexing lateral four toes
Lumbricals (4) Tendons of flexor
Dorsal extensor
First lumbrical:
Extends toes at interphalangeal
digitorum longus
expansion; bases of
medial plantar nerve; joints
proximal phalanges of remainder: lateral
lateral four toes
plantar nerve
Flexor
digitorum
longus tendon
Flexor hallucis
longus tendon
Third Layer
Flexor hallucis Cuboid, lateral
Medial tendon into
Medial plantar nerve Flexes metatarsophalangeal
brevis
cuneiform, tibialis
medial side of base of
joint of big toe; supports medial
posterior insertion
proximal phalanx of big
longitudinal arch
toe; lateral tendon into
lateral side of base of
proximal phalanx of big
toe
Adductor
Oblique head bases of Lateral side of base of Deep branch lateral Flexes metatarsophalangeal
hallucis
second, third, and fourth proximal phalanx of big plantar nerve
joint of big toe; holds together
metatarsal bones;
toe
metatarsal bones
transverse head from
plantar ligaments
Flexor digiti
Base of fifth metatarsal Lateral side of base of Lateral plantar nerve Flexes metatarsophalangeal
minimi brevis bone
proximal phalanx of little
joint of little toe
toe
Fourth Layer
Interossei
Dorsal (4)

Plantar (3)

Adjacent sides of
metatarsal bones

Bases of proximal
Lateral plantar nerve Abduction of toes; flexes
phalanges first: medial
metatarsophalangeal joints and
side of second toe;
extends interphalangeal joints
remainder: lateral sides
of second, third, and
fourth toes also dorsal
extensor expansion
Inferior surfaces of third, Medial side of bases of Lateral plantar nerve Adduction of toes; flexes
fourth, and fifth
proximal phalanges of
metatarsophalangeal joints and
metatarsal bones
lateral three toes
extends interphalangeal joints

Peroneus
longus tendon
Tibialis
posterior
tendon
Muscle of the Dorsum of the Foot
Muscle
Extensor
digitorum
brevis

Origin
Insertion
Nerve Supply
Action
Anterior part of upper By four tendons into the Deep peroneal nerveExtends toes
surface of the
proximal phalanx of big
calcaneum and from the toe and long extensor
inferior extensor
tendons to second,

retinaculum

third, and fourth toes


Branches of the Sacral Plexus and Their Distribution

Branches
Superior gluteal nerve
Inferior gluteal nerve
Nerve to piriformis
Nerve to obturator internus
Nerve to quadratus femoris
Perforating cutaneous nerve
Posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh
Sciatic nerve (L4, 5; S1, 2, 3) Tibial portion

Common peroneal portion

Pudendal nerve

18

Distribution
Gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, and tensor fasciae latae
muscles
Gluteus maximus muscle
Piriformis muscle
Obturator internus and superior gemellus muscles
Quadratus femoris and inferior gemellus muscles
Skin over medial aspect of buttock
Skin over posterior surface of thigh and popliteal fossa, also over
lower part of buttock, scrotum, or labium majus
Hamstring muscles (semitendinosus, biceps femoris [long head],
adductor magnus [hamstring part]), gastrocnemius, soleus,
plantaris, popliteus, tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, flexor
hallucis longus, and via medial and lateral plantar branches to
muscles of sole of foot; sural branch supplies skin on lateral side of
leg and foot
Biceps femoris muscle (short head) and via deep peroneal branch:
tibialis anterior, extensor hallucis longus, extensor digitorum
longus, peroneus tertius, and extensor digitorum brevis muscles;
skin over cleft between first and second toes. The superficial
peroneal branch supplies the peroneus longus and brevis muscles
and skin over lower third of anterior surface of leg and dorsum of
foot
Muscles of perineum including the external anal sphincter, mucous
membrane of lower half of anal canal, perianal skin, skin of penis,
scrotum, clitoris, and labia majora and minora

Branches of the Lumbar Plexus and Their Distribution


Branches
Iliohypogastric nerve
Ilioinguinal nerve

Lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh


Genitofemoral nerve (L1, 2)
Femoral nerve (L2, 3, 4)

Obturator nerve (L2, 3, 4)


Segmental branches

Distribution
External oblique, internal oblique, transversus abdominis muscles
of anterior abdominal wall; skin over lower anterior abdominal wall
and buttock
External oblique, internal oblique, transversus abdominis muscles
of anterior abdominal wall; skin of upper medial aspect of thigh;
root of penis and scrotum in the male; mons pubis and labia majora
in the female
Skin of anterior and lateral surfaces of the thigh
Cremaster muscle in scrotum in male; skin over anterior surface of
thigh; nervous pathway for cremasteric reflex
Iliacus, pectineus, sartorius, quadriceps femoris muscles, and
intermediate cutaneous branches to the skin of the anterior surface
of the thigh and by saphenous branch to the skin of the medial side
of the leg and foot; articular branches to hip and knee joints
Gracilis, adductor brevis, adductor longus, obturator externus,
pectineus, adductor magnus (adductor portion), and skin on medial
surface of thigh; articular branches to hip and knee joints
Quadratus lumborum and psoas muscles

19

Back

Muscles Connecting the Upper limb to the Vertebral Column/ Superficial (Appendicular) Group of Back Muscles
*Trapezius
*Latissimus Dorsi
*Levator Scapulae
*Rhomboid Major
*Rhomboid Minor
Intermediate (Respiratory) Group of Back Muscles
Muscle
Serratus
Posterior
Superior

Origin
Lower portion of
ligamentum
nuchae, spinous
process of C7 to
T3 and
supraspinous
ligaments

Insertion
Upper border of
ribs 2 to 5 just
lateral to their
angles

Innervation
Anterior rami of
upper thoracic
nerves (T2 to T5)

Action
Elevates ribs 2 to
5

Serratus
Posterior Inferior

Spinous process
of T11 to L3 and
supraspinous
ligaments

Lower border of
ribs 9 to 12 just
lateral to their
angles

Anterior rami of
lower thoracic
nerves (T9 to
T12)

Depresses ribs 9
to 12 and may
prevent lower ribs
from being
elevated when
the diaphragm
contracts

Deep Group of Back Muscles


SpinoTransversales Muscles
Muscle
Splenius Capitis

Origin
Lower half of
ligamentum
nuchae, spinous
processes of C7
to T4

Insertion
Mastoid process,
skull below lateral
1/3 of superior
nuchal line

Innervation
Posterior rami
middle cervical
nerves

Action
Together- draw
head backwards
extending neck;
individually- draw
and rotate head
to one side (turn
face to same
side)

Splenius Cervicis

Spinous
processes of T3
to T6

Transverse
processes of C1
to C3

Posterior rami
middle cervical
nerves

Together- extend
neck; individuallydraw and rotate
head to one side
(turn face to
same side)

Erector Spinae Group of Back Muscles


Muscle
Iliocostalis Lumborum

Origin
Sacrum, spinous process of
lumbar and lower two thoracic
vertebrae and their

Insertion
Angles of the lower 6 or 7 ribs

supraspinous ligaments and


the iliac crest
Iliocostalis Thoracis

Angles of the lower 6 ribs

Angles of the upper 6 ribs and


the transverse process of C7

Iliocostalis Cervicis

Angles of ribs 3 to 6

Transverse processes of C4 to
C6

Longissimus Thoracis

Blends with iliocostalis in


lumbar region and is attached
to transverse processes of
lumbar vertebrae

Transverse processes of all


thoracic vertebrae and just
lateral to the tubercles of the
lower 9 or 10 ribs

Longissimus Cervicis

Transverse processes of upper


4 or 5 thoracic vertebrae

Transverse processes of C2 to
C6

Longissimus Capitis

Transverse processes of upper


4 or 5 thoracic vertebrae and
articular processes of lower
three or four cervical vertebrae

Posterior margin of the mastoid


process

Spinalis Thoracis

Spinous processes of T10 or


T11 to L2

Spinous processes of T1 to T8
(varies)

Spinalis Cervicis

Lower part of ligamentum


nuchae and spinous processes
of C7 (sometimes T1 to T2)

Spinous process of C2 (axis)

Spinalis Capitis

Usually blends with


semispinalis capitis

With semispinalis capitis

Transversospinales Group of Back Muscles


Muscle

Origin

Insertion

Semispinalis Thoracis

Transverse processes of T2 to
T10

Spinous processes of upper 4


thoracic and lower 2 cervical
vertebrae

Semispinalis Cervicis

Transverse processes of upper


5 or 6 thoracic vertebrae

Spinous processes of C2 (axis)


to C5

Semispinalis Capitis

Transverse processes of T1 to
T6 (or T7) and C7 and articular
processes of C4 to C6

Medial area between the


superior and inferior nuchal
lines of occipital bone

Multifidus

Sacrum, origin of erector


spinae, PSIS, mammillary
processes of lumbar vertebrae,
transverse processes of
thoracic vertebrae and articular
processes of lower four cervical
vertebrae

Base of spinous processes of


all vertebrae from L5 to C2

Rotatores Lumborum

Mammillary processes of

Spinous processes of ;umbar

20

lumbar vertebrae

vertebrae

Rotatores Thoracis

Transverse processes of
thoracic vertebrae

Spinous processes of thoracic


vertebrae

Rotatores Cervicis

Articular processes of cervical


vertebrae

Spinous processes of cervical


vertebrae

Segmental Back Muscles


Muscle

Origin

Insertion

Action

Levatores Costarum

Short paired muscles


arising from transverse
processes of C7 to T11

The rib below vertebra


of origin near tubercle

Interspinales

Short paired muscles


attached to the
spinous process of
contiguous vertebrae,
one on each side of
the interspinous
ligament

Intertransversarii

Small muscles
between the
transverse processes
of contiguous
vertebrae

Contraction elevates
rib

Suboccipital Gorup of Back Muscles


Muscle

Origin

Insertion

Innervation

Function

Rectus Capitis
Posterior Major

Spinous process
of axis (C2)

Lateral portion of
occipital bone
below inferior
nuchal line

Posterior ramus
of C1

Extension of
head; rotation of
face to same side
as muscle

Rectus Capitis
Posterior Minor

Posterior tubercle
of atlas (C1)

Medial portion of
occipital bone
below inferior
nuchal line

Posterior
of C1

ramus

Extension of
head

Obliquus Capitis
Superior

Transverse
process of atlas
(C1)

Occipital bone
between superior
and inferior
nuchal lines

Posterior
of C1

ramus

Extension of
head and bends it
to same side

Obliquus Capitis
Inferior

Spinous process
of axis (C2)

Transverse
process of atlas
(C1)

Posterior
of C1

ramus

Rotation of face
to same side

Thorax

21

22

Muscles Connecting the Upper Limb to the Thoracic Wall/ Muscles of the Pectoral Region (except Serratus
Anterior)
*Pectoralis Major
*Subclavius
*Pectoralis Minor
Muscles of the Thorax/ Thoracic Wall
Muscle

Origin

Insertion

Innervation

Function

External
Intercostal

Inferior margin of
rib above

Superior surface f
rib below

Intercostal
nerves; T1-T11

Most active
during inspiration;
supports
intercostals
space; moves
ribs superiorly

Internal
Intercostal

Lateral edge of
costal groove of
rib above

Superior surface
of rib below deep
to the attachment
of the related
external
intercostal

Intercostal
nerves; T1-T11

Most active
during expiration;
supports
intercostals
space; moves
ribs inferiorly

Innermost
Intercostal

Medial edge of
costal groove of
rib above

Internal aspect of
superior surface
of rib below

Intercostal
nerves; T1-T11

Acts with internal


intercostals
muscles

Subcostales

Internal surface
(near angle) of
lower ribs

Internal surface
of 2nd to 3rd rib
below

Related
intercostal nerves

May depress ribs

Transversus
Thoracis

Lower margins
and internal
surfaces of
cocostal
cartilages of 2nd to
6th ribs

Inferior aspect of
deep surface of
body of sternum,
xiphoid process
and costal
cartilages ribs 4-7

Related
intercostals
nerves

Depresses costal
cartilages

Diaphragm (most
important muscle
of respiration)

Xiphoid process;
lower six costal
cartilages, first
three lumbar
vertebrae

Central tendon

Phrenic nerve

Very important
muscle of
inspiration;
increases vertical
diameter of
thorax by pulling
central tendon
downward;
assists in raising
lower ribs. Also
used in
abdominal
straining and
weight lifting

Levatores
Costarum (12)

Tip of transverse
process of C7
and T1-11
vertebrae

Rib below

Posterior rami of
thoracic spinal

Raises ribs and


therefore
inspiratory
muscles

nerves
Serratus
Posterior
Superior
Serratus
Posterior Inferior

(see Intermediate (Respiratory) Group of Back Muscles)

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