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Types of drilling fluids

Conventional water base mud: For spud mud required in the TOP holes .
S. NO of 1-4 from the following table will be used . And the complete table will
be required to drill subsequent sections.
In addition to this Barite will be used as weighing agent, MICA/nut plug, will be
used as LCM and defoamer, EP lube for defoaming and lubricity.
S.NO

Name of
the
chemical
Bentonite

General
dose ppb

Caustic
soda
Soda ash

0.25-0.5
ppb
0.25 ppb

4

Xc –
polymer

0.5-2.5 ppb

5

CMC
Corboxy
methyl
cellulose
PAC
Poly
Anioinic
cellulose
CFLS
Chrome
free Ligno
sulphonat
e
Sulphonat
ed Asphalt

2-5 ppb

1

2
3

6

7

8

20-25 ppb

Functions
1. Primary viscosifier, fluid
loss control
2. Wall plastering in loose
sand formations.
3. Gel strength contributor
1. pH maintenance for
alkalinity
1. To remove hardness in the
drill water
1. To enhance and support the
viscosity ( in addition to
bentonite)
2. To lift and hold cutting in the
suspension
3. For gel strength
1. Water loss reducer,
viscosifier

2.5ppb

1.Same function as CMC

2-8 ppb

1. To reduce viscosity
2. Fluid loss reducer

3-12 ppb

1. Shale stabiliser
2. Fluid loss reducer
3. Lubricant

Limitations
Excess dose
shall cause
for un
wanted
excess
strength
To use as per
required pH
Excessive
usage cause
high viscous
problems
Unstable at
high
temperature
Stable at
both low and
high
tempearture
Unstable at
high
tempearture
To use with
required pH

Potassium chloride Polymer Mud: It is one of the main inhibited mud to use
in drilling the shale and problematic clays.
S.NO
1

Name of
the
chemical
Potassium
chloride

General
dose ppb
5- 15 %

Functions
Potassium ion from K Cl will
be absorbed by formation and

Limitations
Dose will be
decided as

Sensitive ep lube &cause foaming To use as per required pH Excessive usage cause high viscous problems Improper mixing cause viscous problems Improper mixing cause viscous problems Selection as per the formation temperature To use with required pH Improper mixing cause foaming To remove the foam from the mud To prevent Bacterial degradation of polymers Other Types of water base muds are Poly amine. silicates are alternative in place of Potassium chloride ( K Cl) or Potassium Sulphate ( K2 SO4) and rest all other sl no-2 to 11 ( except PHPA glycol) will be used for the functions mentioned against that. 2-5% Extra contributor for shale inhibition with Glycol cloud 8 Sulphonat ed Asphalt 3-12 ppb 9 EP lube 0.5 ppb 5 PHPA 1-2 ppb 6 PAC Poly Anioinic cellulose Glycol 2-5 ppb Fluid loss reducer. Shale encapsulator. pH maintenance for alkalinity 1.25-0.5-2.5 ppb 0. sodium silicate. extra contributor for shale inhibition. potassium silicate muds and these poly amine. As the usage of bentonite is restricted with K Cl polymer muds. Fluid loss reducer 6.25-0.will prevent swelling of clay /shale The source of potassium ion is from Potassium sulphate just like from K Cl 1. Lubricant For lubricity 10 Defaomer 0. while drilling the salt dome formations. Also lubricity contributor 1A Potassium sulphate 5-12% 2 Caustic soda Soda ash 0. Saturated salt mud with sodium chloride as main weighing agent. Shale stabiliser 5.25 ppb 4 Xc – polymer 0. To remove hardness in the drill water It is the main viscosifier and gel strength contributor in the KCl mud.5% 11 Biocide 0. Synthetic oil base mud (SOBM) . For all water base mud spotting fluid (weighted and non weighted ) is common for releasing the stuck pipe.1% 3 7 per the depletion.5-1% 4.

To make the solids of mud to oil wet to prevent blinding of shaker screen mesh Rheology modifier.S. emulsifies oil/ water phase as uniform phase Secondary emulsifier.To improve the YP and gel strength. restricted to use while drilling the pay zone formations. it si the main inhibitive agent. It enhance the emulsification after adding the primary emulsifier Wetting agent. OWR should be more for higher weight muds. it si most recommended Inhibitive mud. and this calcium chloride dissolve in water.no 1 2 3 4 Chemical Base oil ( Saraline. it prevents the seepage losses while drilling loose. where ever it is required while drilling To prepare brine. Weighing agent.5 ppb 7 Versamod/ confi mod 0. EDC 99) etc Configel / VG-69/ Bentone ( trade names of the visosifiers Lime Concentarion 50-80 % ( as required OWR) For high mud weights OWR should be 75:25 to 90:10 6-8 ppb 5-7 ppb Versa mul/ ConfimulP. gelmul ( trade names of the emulsifiers Vesa coat/ ConfimulP 7-8 ppb 6 Versawet/ Confi wet 3-3. unconsolidated formation also it is non damaging weighting agent to use pay zone formation drilling. For any type of mud the main requirements 1) To balance the formation pressure with mud weight 2) To achieve the good drillability and hole cleaning with optimum rheology 3) To maintain the better the inhibition with proper inhibited chemical selection .5-1. Primary viscosifier for Oil base muds For alkalinity in mud and support to the emulsifier Primary emulsifier.5 ppb Main function External phase in the SOBM.5 ppb 8 Calcium chloride 25-30 ppb 9 Calcium carbonate (f) 10-15 ppb 10 Barite As required 5 3-3.the water requirement will be as OWR Bridging agent. as there will not be any reaction with formation clay/ shales) .To get the chloride ion to inhibit from formation water.

non corrosive e) 6) Non damaging to the environment with effluents .4) To facilitate the formation studies with minimised interference 5) To maintain the rig equipment/ drill string safety ( lubricant.