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Petroleum Experts

MBAL
Reservoir Engineering Toolkit
Version 8.1
December 2005

USER GUIDE

The information in this document is subject to change as major improvements and/or
amendments to the program are generated. When necessary, Petroleum Experts will
issue the proper documentation.
The software described in this manual is furnished under a licence agreement. The
software may be used or copied only in accordance with the terms of the agreement. It
is against the law to copy the software on any medium except as specifically allowed in
the licence agreement. No part of this documentation may be reproduced or
transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including
photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval systems for any purpose
other than the purchaser's personal use, unless express written consent has been
given by Petroleum Experts Limited.
All names of companies, wells, persons or products contained in this documentation
are part of a fictitious scenario or scenarios and are used solely to document the use of
a Petroleum Experts product.

Address:
Petroleum Experts Limited
Spectrum House
2 Powderhall Road
Edinburgh, Scotland
EH7 4GB
Tel: (44 131) 474 7030
Fax: (44 131) 474 7031
email: edinburgh@petex.com
Internet: www.petex.com

Registered Office:
Petroleum Experts Limited
Spectrum House
2 Powderhall Road
Edinburgh, Scotland
EH7 4GB

MBAL

1

Introduction..............................................................................................................................1
Brief Tool descriptions.............................................................................................................2
About this guide.......................................................................................................................3
How to use this guide ..............................................................................................................3
Using the MBAL application...................................................................................................1
2.1 File Management.....................................................................................................................1
2.1.1
Opening and Saving Files .............................................................................................1
2.1.2
Append ..........................................................................................................................2
2.1.3
Defining the Working Directory......................................................................................3
2.1.4
Preferences ...................................................................................................................3
2.1.5
Viewing the Software Key .............................................................................................5
2.1.6
Selecting Printers and Plotters ......................................................................................5
2.1.7
The Windows Clipboard ................................................................................................5
2.1.8
Windows Notepad .........................................................................................................6
2.2 Setting the Units ......................................................................................................................6
2.2.1
Defining System Units ...................................................................................................7
2.2.2
Defining the Global Unit System ...................................................................................7
2.2.3
Changing individual variable units.................................................................................7
2.2.4
Minimum and Maximum Limits......................................................................................9
2.2.5
Conversion Details ......................................................................................................10
2.2.6
Resetting the Units ......................................................................................................11
2.2.7
Generating a Units Report...........................................................................................12
2.3 Getting Help...........................................................................................................................12
2.3.1
Accessing Help............................................................................................................12
2.3.2
Help through the menu................................................................................................12
2.3.3
Getting help using the mouse and keyboard...............................................................13
2.3.4
Minimising Help ...........................................................................................................13
Data Import...............................................................................................................................1
3.1 Importing Data in MBAL ..........................................................................................................1
3.1.1
Importing an ASCII File .................................................................................................2
3.1.2
Importing data from an ODBC Datasource ...................................................................4
3.2 Static Import Filter ...................................................................................................................5
3.3 ASCII File Import .....................................................................................................................6
3.3.1
Import Set-up.................................................................................................................6
3.3.2
Line Filter.......................................................................................................................7
3.3.3
Import Filter ...................................................................................................................8
3.4 ODBC Database Import ........................................................................................................10
3.4.1
Filter Set-up .................................................................................................................10
3.4.2
Choose Table & Fields ................................................................................................11
Plots, Reports ..........................................................................................................................1
4.1 The Plot Screen.......................................................................................................................1
4.1.1
Leaving the plot screen .................................................................................................1
4.1.2
Resizing the display ......................................................................................................1
4.1.3
Modifying the plot display ..............................................................................................2
4.1.3.1
Plot scales (New!!!)..................................................................................................2
4.1.3.2
Display menu...........................................................................................................3
4.1.3.2.1
Labels ..................................................................................................................4
4.1.3.2.2
Colours ................................................................................................................4
4.1.3.2.3
Plot line widths.....................................................................................................5
4.1.3.2.4
Fonts....................................................................................................................6
4.1.3.2.5
Plot Legends........................................................................................................6
4.2 Output......................................................................................................................................6
4.2.1
Selecting a printer or plotter ..........................................................................................6
4.2.2
Making a hard copy of the plot ......................................................................................7
4.3 Changing the plotted variables................................................................................................7
4.4 Reporting .................................................................................................................................8
4.4.1
Selecting sections to include in the report.....................................................................8
4.4.2
Solving printing problems ............................................................................................11
Defining the system ................................................................................................................1
1.1
1.2
1.3

2

3

4

5

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MBAL

5.1 Reservoir Analysis Tools.........................................................................................................1
5.2 System options ........................................................................................................................2
5.2.1
Tool options ...................................................................................................................3
5.2.2
User information ............................................................................................................3
5.2.3
User comments and date stamp ...................................................................................3
6
Describing the PVT .................................................................................................................1
6.1 Selecting the PVT method.......................................................................................................2
6.2
Black Oil PVT Descriptions ...........................................................................................5
6.2.1
PVT for Oil .....................................................................................................................5
6.2.2
Controlled Miscibility Option ..........................................................................................6
6.2.3
Matching correlations ....................................................................................................7
6.2.4
Using PVT tables.........................................................................................................10
6.2.5
PVT Tables for Controlled Miscibility...........................................................................11
6.2.6
Variable PVT for Oil Reservoir ....................................................................................12
6.2.7
PVT for Gas.................................................................................................................13
6.2.8
Water Vapour Option...................................................................................................14
6.2.9
Black Oil PVT for Retrograde Condensate .................................................................16
6.2.10
Black Oil Condensate model validation procedure .....................................................18
6.2.11
PVT for General Model................................................................................................27
6.2.12
Multiple PVT Definitions ..............................................................................................29
6.2.13
Checking the PVT calculations....................................................................................31
6.3 Compositional Modelling .......................................................................................................34
6.3.1
EOS Model Setup........................................................................................................35
6.3.2
Compositional Tracking...............................................................................................40
6.3.3
Fully Compositional fluid description ...........................................................................45
7
Quick Start Guide on Material Balance tool .........................................................................1
7.1 Data Available .........................................................................................................................1
7.2 Setting up the Basic Model......................................................................................................2
7.3 Matching to Production History data in MBAL.........................................................................8
7.3.1
Using Simulation Option to Quality Check the History Matched Model ......................13
7.4 Forecasting............................................................................................................................14
7.4.1
Rel Perm Matching ......................................................................................................14
7.4.2
Confirming the validity of the rel perms.......................................................................17
7.5 Predicting reservoir pressure decline without a well .............................................................25
7.6 Predicting production and reservoir pressure decline with a well model ..............................27
8
The Material Balance Tool ......................................................................................................1
8.1 Material Balance Tank Model..................................................................................................2
8.1.1
Recommended Workflow ..............................................................................................4
8.2 MBAL Graphical Interface .......................................................................................................5
8.2.1
Manipulating Objects.....................................................................................................5
8.2.2
Viewing Objects.............................................................................................................8
8.2.3
Validating Object Data...................................................................................................8
8.3 Tool Options ............................................................................................................................9
8.4 Input.......................................................................................................................................12
8.4.1
Wells Data ...................................................................................................................12
8.4.1.1
Setup .....................................................................................................................12
8.4.1.2
Production / Injection History.................................................................................13
8.4.1.3
Production Allocation.............................................................................................14
8.4.2
Tank Input Data ...........................................................................................................15
8.4.3
Tank Parameters .........................................................................................................15
8.4.3.1
Water Influx ...........................................................................................................20
8.4.3.2
Rock Compressibility .............................................................................................21
8.4.3.3
Rock Compaction ..................................................................................................23
8.4.3.4
Pore Volume vs. Depth .........................................................................................24
8.4.3.5
Relative Permeability.............................................................................................28
8.4.3.5.1
Relative Permeability Hysteresis.......................................................................30
8.4.3.5.2
Calculate Tables from Corey Functions ............................................................31
8.4.3.5.3
Production History .............................................................................................31
8.4.3.5.4
Entering the Tank Production History................................................................31
8.4.3.5.5
Calculating the Tank Production History and Pressure.....................................33

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MBAL

8.4.3.5.6
Calculating the Tank Production History Rate Only .................................. ........34
8.4.3.5.7
Plotting Tank Production History ............................................................... ........34
8.4.3.5.8
Production Allocation................................................................................. ........35
8.4.4
Transmissibility Data ...................................................................................................36
8.4.4.1 Transmissibility Parameters ...................................................................................... ..36
8.4.4.2
Transmissibility Production History .................................................................... ...40
8.4.4.3
Transmissibility Matching .................................................................................. ....41
8.4.5
Transfer from Reservoir Allocation......................................................................... .....42
8.4.6
Input Summary .................................................................................................... ........42
8.4.7
Input Reports .................................................................................................... ...........42
8.5 History Matching................................................................................................................... .43
8.5.1
History Setup ............................................................................................................. ..44
8.5.2
Analytical Method ................................................................................................... .....45
8.5.2.1
Regressing on Production History...................................................................... ...47
8.5.2.2
History Points Sampling .................................................................................... ....49
8.5.2.3
Changing the Weighting of History Points in the Regression .......................... .....50
8.5.3
Graphical Method .................................................................................................. ......52
8.5.3.1
Changing the Reservoir and Aquifer Parameters ........................................ .........54
8.5.3.2
Straight Line Tool ........................................................................................ ..........54
8.5.3.3
The Best Fit Option..................................................................................... ...........55
8.5.3.4
Locating the Straight Line tool................................................................... ............55
8.5.3.5
Graphical method results ........................................................................... ...........55
8.5.4
Energy Plot ........................................................................................................ ..........56
8.5.5
WD Function Plot............................................................................................... ..........57
8.5.6
Abnormally pressured gas reservoirs...................................................................... ....57
8.5.7
Simulation.................................................................................................................... 60
8.5.8
Fw / Fg / Fo Matching................................................................................................. . 64
8.5.8.1
Running a Fractional Flow Matching ..................................................................... 66
8.5.9
Sensitivity Analysis ..................................................................................................... .67
8.5.9.1
Running a Sensitivity ............................................................................................ .67
8.6 Production Prediction .................................................................................................................. 69
8.6.1 Prediction Setup ................................................................................................................. 71
8.6.2 Production and Constraints ................................................................................................ 75
- Voidage Replacement and Injection ..................................................................................... .79
8.6.3 DCQ Swing Factor (Gas reservoirs only)......................................................................... ..80
8.6.4 DCQ Schedule ................................................................................................................ ...81
8.6.5 Well Type Definitions....................................................................................................... ...81
8.6.5.1 Well Type Setup ........................................................................................................ ..82
8.6.5.2 Well Inflow Performance ......................................................................................... ....83
8.6.5.3 More Well Inflow Performance ............................................................................... .....85
8.6.5.4 Inflow Performance (IPR) Models ............................................................................. ..87
8.6.5.5. Multirate Inflow Performance.................................................................................... ..90
8.6.5.6 Gas and Water Coning Matching ............................................................................. ...91
8.6.5.6.1 Gas Coning Matching............................................................................................ .91
8.6.5.6.5 Water Coning Matching....................................................................................... ...93
8.6.5.7 Well Outflow Performance.......................................................................................... .94
8.6.5.8 Tubing Performance.................................................................................................. ..96
8.6.5.8.1 Constant Bottom Hole pressure ........................................................................... ..96
8.6.5.8.2 Tubing Performance Curves .................................................................................. 96
- Cullender Smith correlation ...................................................................................................99
8.6.5.8.3 Witley correlation ...................................................................................................100
8.6.6 Testing the Well Performance ...........................................................................................101
8.6.7 The Well Schedule ........................................................................................................... 102
8.6.8 The Reporting Schedule....................................................................................................103
8.6.9 Running a Prediction .........................................................................................................105
8.6.9.1 Saving Prediction Results ..........................................................................................106
8.6.9.2 Plotting a Production Prediction .................................................................................107
8.6.10 Displaying the Tank Results............................................................................................108
8.6.11 Displaying the Well Results.............................................................................................108
9
Monte-Carlo Technique ..........................................................................................................1

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MBAL

9.1 Program Functions ..................................................................................................................1
9.2 Technical Background.............................................................................................................1
9.3 Tool Options ............................................................................................................................3
9.4 Distributions.............................................................................................................................4
10 Decline Curve Analysis..................................................................................................................1
10.1 Programme Functions ...............................................................................................................1
10.2 Tool Options ............................................................................................................................1
10.3 Production History ...................................................................................................................2
10.4 Matching the Decline Curve ....................................................................................................5
10.5 Prediction Set-up.....................................................................................................................7
10.6 Reporting Schedule.................................................................................................................8
10.7 Running a Production Prediction.............................................................................................9
11 1D Model .........................................................................................................................................1
11.1 Program Functions ....................................................................................................................1
11.2 Technical Background.............................................................................................................1
11.2.1
Simultaneous Flow ........................................................................................................2
11.2.2
Fractional Flow ..............................................................................................................2
11.3 Tool Options ............................................................................................................................3
11.4 Reservoir and Fluids Properties ..............................................................................................4
11.5 Relative Permeability...............................................................................................................6
11.6 Running a Simulation ..............................................................................................................7
11.6.1
Plotting a Simulation......................................................................................................8
12 Multi Layer Tool..............................................................................................................................1
12.1 Programme Functions ...............................................................................................................1
12.2 Technical Background.............................................................................................................2
12.3 Tool Options ............................................................................................................................4
12.4 Layer Properties ......................................................................................................................5
12.4.1
Relative Permeability.....................................................................................................6
12.5 Running a Calculation .............................................................................................................7
13 Reservoir Allocation Tool..............................................................................................................1
13.1 Background .............................................................................................................................1
13.2 Reservoir Allocation Tool Capabilities.....................................................................................4
13.3 Graphical Interface ..................................................................................................................4
13.4 Tool Options ............................................................................................................................5
13.5 Input Data ................................................................................................................................6
13.5.1
Tank Input Data .............................................................................................................6
13.5.2
Well Input Data ..............................................................................................................7
13.5.3
Transfer from Material Balance .....................................................................................8
13.6 Calculations .............................................................................................................................9
13.6.1
Setup ...........................................................................................................................10
13.6.2
Run Allocation .............................................................................................................10
13.6.3
Tank Results................................................................................................................11
13.6.4
Well/Layer Results.......................................................................................................12
Appendix A ............................................................................................................. Examples
1
A1
Water Drive Oil Reservoir........................................................................................................1
A1.1
Setting up the Problem..................................................................................................1
A1.2
PVT Menu......................................................................................................................2
A1.3
Reservoir Input ..............................................................................................................5
A1.4
Rock Properties .............................................................................................................5
A1.5
Relative Permeability.....................................................................................................5
A1.6
Production History .........................................................................................................6
A1.7
History Matching............................................................................................................7
A2
Well by Well History Matching...............................................................................................12
A3
Multitank modelling................................................................................................................27
Other Example Files........................................................................................................................40
Appendix B - References....................................................................................................................1
Appendix C -MBAL Equations ...........................................................................................................1
C1 Material Balance Equations.....................................................................................................1
C1.1
OIL.................................................................................................................................1

PETROLEUM EXPERTS LTD

MBAL

C1.2
GAS ...............................................................................................................................2
C1.3
OGIP Calculations .........................................................................................................2
C1.4
Natural Depletion Reservoirs ........................................................................................2
C1.5
Abnormally Pressured Reservoirs.................................................................................2
C1.6
Water Drive Reservoirs .................................................................................................3
C2 Aquifer Models.........................................................................................................................3
C2.1
Small Pot .......................................................................................................................3
C2.2
Schilthuis Steady State .................................................................................................3
C2.3
Hurst Steady State ........................................................................................................4
C2.4
Hurst-van Everdingen-Dake ..........................................................................................5
C2.5
Hurst-van Everdingen-Odeh..........................................................................................7
C2.6
Vogt-Wang.....................................................................................................................8
C2.7
Fetkovitch Semi Steady State .......................................................................................8
C2.8
Fetkovitch Steady State ..............................................................................................10
C2.9
Hurst-van Everdingen Modified ...................................................................................11
C2.10
Carter-Tracy ................................................................................................................12
C3 Relative Permeability.............................................................................................................13
C3.1
Corey Relative Permeability Function .........................................................................13
C3.2
Stone method 1 modification to the Relative Permeability Function...........................13
C3.3
Stone method 2 modification to the Relative Permeability Function...........................14
C4 Nomenclature ........................................................................................................................15
C4.1
Subscripts....................................................................................................................17
Appendix D-Fluid Contacts Calculation details ...............................................................................1
D-1 Pore Volume vs. Depth...............................................................................................................1
D-2 Standard Fluid Contact Calculations ..........................................................................................4
D-3 Trapped Saturation Fluid Contact Calculations..........................................................................9
D-4 Trapped Saturation Fluid Contact Calculations........................................................................15
Appendix E- Trouble Shooting Guide ...............................................................................................1
E-1 Prediction not Meeting Constraints.............................................................................................1
E-2 Production Prediction Fails .........................................................................................................1
E-3 Pressures in the Prediction are increasing (With No Injection) ..................................................2
E-4 Reversal in the Analytic Plot.......................................................................................................2
E-5 Difference between History Simulation and Analytic Plot...........................................................2
E-6 Dialogs Are Not Displayed Correctly ..........................................................................................3

PETROLEUM EXPERTS LTD

MBAL is in a package made up of various tools designed to help the engineer to gain a better understanding of reservoir behaviour and perform prediction run. the various tools available in MBAL are: Figure 1. Reservoir Allocation Monte Carlo volumetrics. The User is encouraged to consult the appropriate references for more details. 1-D Model (Buckley-Leverett) and Multi-Layer This document explains the basic procedures to follow in order to set-up a MBAL model using the examples provided.1: Tools in MBAL - Material Balance. This user guide focuses on how to use the various program features as analytical tools to solve engineering problems. So far. Decline Curve Analysis. The appendix B at the end of this manual gives a list of the references for the various models implemented in the MBAL software package.1 Introduction This user guide gives an introduction to the key features available in the MBAL program developed by Petroleum Experts. .

These can be then extrapolated into the future for generation of forecasts. this reservoir allocation has been done based on the kh of each layer. based on a variety of methods (like Stiles for instance). providing an accurate and fast reservoir model as long as the assumptions of material balance are valid for the real situation to be modelled. This approach does not take the IPR of the layers into account and also ignores the rate of depletion of the layers. Petroleum Experts .1 Chapter 1 . 1D Model: This is the classic Buckley Leverett tool for predicting breakthrough times and saturations in a water flooding scenario. Decline Curve Analysis: Production data can be fitted to Hyperbolic. Cole etc. Multi Layer: Relative Permeability averaging for different layers can be done using this tool. The Reservoir Allocation tool in MBAL improves the allocation by allowing the user to enter IPRs for each layer and calculates the allocation by taking the rate of depletion into account as well. Distributions can be assigned to variables like porosity or thickness of the reservoir and the program will generate the range of probabilities associated with a reserves range. gases and condensates. Crossflow is also accounted for in the model. Impurities are also tracked and can provide an effective measure of the quality of the underlying assumptions in the case where few data is available. Furthermore. Reservoir Allocation: When a well is producing from multiple layers. Exponential or Harmonic declines.Introduction Brief Tool descriptions Material Balance: This incorporates the classical use of Material Balance calculations for history matching through graphical methods (like Havlena-Odeh.2-3 1. Campbell. There rel perms can then be used in MBAL or the Buckley Leverett tool for further analysis. it is essential for an engineer to know how much each layer has contributed to the total production.). Monte Carlo Simulation: This tool enables the user to perform statistical evaluation of reserves. Detailed PVT models can be constructed (both black oil and compositional) for oils. predictions can be made with or without well models and using relative permeabilities to predict the amount of associated phase productions. Traditionally. as well as different start/finish times for the wells. MBAL can also be tied into GAP for integrated production modelling studies.

If more details on any of the options are required. follow the instructions provided with the examples in Appendix A or the Quick Start Guide. The step by step examples of the Quick Start Guide as well as Appendix A provide a detailed account of building Material Balance models and performing predictions. but will cover all you need to know about the program and might be in the end more beneficial as the Windows basics would have been clearly understood. the data files may vary from the examples shown as updates to the program are issued. This is the slow approach. then the various chapters relevant to the options in question can be consulted. 1. the objectives of the exercise should be defined. On occasion. MBAL User Guide . the corresponding documentation will be provided.g.Chapter 1 . this guide may be used in different ways. Chapter 2 of this guide gives a brief summary of the basic Windows features needed to run MBAL.2 About this guide MBAL is Windows based software. or if you only wish to use a particular analysis tool (e. Monte-Carlo). Once the objectives are defined. Use this approach only if you are already familiar with the facilities available in the program. Where major amendments or changes to the program require further explanation.3 How to use this guide Depending on your needs and the amount of time available to become familiar with the program. and options. menus. Before a modelling exercise. the chapters in this document are organised to correspond with the steps one might follow to set-up an MBAL model in order to achieve the objectives. The screen displays used in this guide are taken from the examples provided with the software. These will show how to run a quick analysis trying each feature for a particular case. If you are new to Windows applications.Introduction 3-3 1. we recommend you read this guide to the end to become familiar with the program features. If you are limited with time and want to sample the program features quickly.

other data files can be opened quickly and easily at any time during the current working session. 2. or press Ctrl+O. In addition to the MBAL procedures used to open files save and print files.1.Open. To open a file. this chapter covers the essential features of data management. The options and procedures discussed in the following sections are found under the File. Units.1 Opening and Saving Files When you first start MBAL. choose File . If you do not want to work with this file. define the system units and getting help.2 Using the MBAL application For first time users. and Help menus. The following screen is displayed: . the program automatically opens the last file accessed.1: File Menu 2. this chapter also describes the procedures to establish links to other Windows programs.1 File Management The following sections describe the File menu commands: Figure 2.

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Chapter 2 - Using the MBAL Application

Figure 2.2:
MBAL- Open File

A dialog box appears listing in alphabetical order. The files in the default data directory
are automatically shown first. A file can be opened as for any Windows application.
The standard MBAL file type is the *.MBI file. This type is displayed by default. The only
other file type available is the MBR file. The only use of this type of file is as an output
file from GAP which stores the results from a GAP prediction that can be read by
MBAL.
Saving files can be done as for any Windows application.

2.1.2 Append
This option allows the user to merge different MBAL files:
Figure 2.3:
Append

This can be useful in the case where users created MBAL files for reservoirs
independently and would like to have all reservoir models in the same MBAL file.
Petroleum Experts

Chapter 2 - Using the MBAL Application 3-13

2.1.3 Defining the Working Directory
The Data Directory option specifies the default working directory where files will be
saved in and picked up from. This facility makes it more efficient to access data files.
Whenever you open, close or create new files, the program automatically selects the
files or saves to the directory defined in this option.

2.1.4 Preferences
The preferences option allows setting various MBAL preferences.
Figure 2.4:
Preferences Menu

These include:
• Compress Data Files
Select yes to compress (zip) data files when saving to disk. This facility is useful
for managing very large data files.

Dialog Font
This changes the screen display, font type and size. Only fonts installed under
Windows are displayed. Refer to your Windows manual for more information on
installing fonts.

Format Numerical Input Fields
This option specifies how the numerical input fields are displayed.
If this is set to Yes, numbers will be displayed with a fixed number of digits e.g.
0.3000 or 12.00. Also the number is centred within the field.
If this option is set to No, numbers will be displayed with as few digits as
necessary e.g. 0.3 or 12. Also the number is left justified within the field.

Reload Last File Used at Startup
If you select Yes, MBAL will load the file that was in use the last time you ran
MBAL. If No is selected, MBAL will not load any file when it starts.

File History List Length

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Chapter 2 - Using the MBAL Application

The file menu normally keeps a list of the last files that were accessed by MBAL.
This entry allows you to control the number of files which appears in this list. The
maximum number of files is 10.

Display Results during Calcs.
If No is selected, MBAL will not update the dialogs with the results until the end
of the prediction and simulation calculations. This will mean that the calculation
progress will not be visible. However, it will speed up the calculations by up to
25%.

Include Well Downtime in Constraints
Normally system constraints should be applied to the instantaneous rate i.e. the
rate without factoring by the well downtime. However you may switch this option
on to make MBAL include the well downtime in the constraints. Note that prior to
V7.0 this option was always switched on.

IPR/VLP Tolerance
This value can be used to control the tolerance used in calculation of VLP/IPR
intersections. The tolerance used in the calculation is the average layer pressure
multiplied by the value displayed in this field. For example, if you enter 0.001
then the tolerance used will be 0.1% of the average layer pressure.
The default value of 0.001 will handle calculate most intersections accurately
and keep calculation times at a reasonable level. However some cases
(particularly with high PIs) may give poor results - in these cases a smaller
tolerance may give better results although the calculations will be slower.

Negative VLP Tolerance (Liquid)
This value can be used to control if IPR/VLP solutions are allowed at rates where
the VLP is negative (and therefore the rate is unstable). This value is used for
any oil or water well but it is not applied to injectors.
If any negative values are entered (such as the default of -1) then MBAL will
calculate its own tolerance, which is a

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Chapter 2 - Using the MBAL Application 5-13

2.1.5 Viewing the Software Key
The Software Protection command activates the REMOTE software utility program that
allows access to the software protection key. The REMOTE facility indicates what
programs are enabled on the key, the program expiration date, and the key and client
number. This utility is also used to activate the key when the program licence has date
has expired, or update the key when more program modules are acquired.
Figure 2.5:
Remote utility

2.1.6 Selecting Printers and Plotters
Use these menu options to select the output (printer or plotter) devices.

2.1.7 The Windows Clipboard
The Clipboard command provides access to the Windows clipboard where data can be
viewed, saved, retrieved or deleted. This command option can be used to view data
from MBAL calculations that are not intended for printing.

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Chapter 2 - Using the MBAL Application

2.1.8 Windows Notepad
The Notepad command provides direct access to the Windows text editor. This
application is useful to make notes of current analysis for later inclusion in reports. This
option can also be used view the results of calculations that have been saved to a file.

2.2 Setting the Units
Use the Units menu to define the measurement units that are used in dialog boxes,
calculation output, reports and plots. This can be accessed as shown below:
Figure 2.6:
Accessing
dialog

the

units

The following screen will appear:
Figure 2.7:
MBAL Units System

2.2.1 Defining System Units
In MBAL, the units can be changed / selected at two levels. These are at the MBAL
global level or at an individual variable level.
Petroleum Experts

Chapter 2 - Using the MBAL Application 7-13

2.2.2 Defining the Global Unit System
A particular unit system can be selected from the drop-down list boxes at the top of the
unit columns. This will change the default units for all variables in GAP. The options
available are shown below:
Figure 2.8:
MBAL
Global
System

Units

2.2.3 Changing individual variable units
It is also possible to change the units of individual variables in MBAL to generate a user
specific set of units that can be saved and picked up later in other MBAL models.
To change units of individual variables and create a mixed set of units follow the steps
below:
To view and select the variables, move the scroll bar thumb in any direction, up or
down, until you locate the variable.

MBAL User Guide

8-13

Chapter 2 - Using the MBAL Application

Figure 2.9:
MBAL Individual Units
System

The corresponding input and output unit categories will scroll simultaneously. From the
appropriate unit category (Input/Output), select the preferred measurement unit for the
unit selected. To view the list of units click the arrow to the right of the field. To select a
unit, click the name to highlight the item:
Figure 2.10:
MBAL Individual Units
System

To view the conversion between the currently selected unit and the base (default) unit
for the variable in question, click the blank button to the right of the units drop down list.
Note that a change to the input or output units in the unit database is global with
respect to that variable, and will affect entries made in the variable database (accessed
from the Controls button). For example, a change in the input unit of Pressure will
affect, among others, the Layer Pressure in the Well IPR Input screen.
Once all the changes have been made Press on save button and it will prompt you for a
name to be given to the mixed set of units.

Petroleum Experts

4 Minimum and Maximum Limits When a dialog is accessed and data entered. This is to avoid obviously erroneous values being used as input to the calculations.11: Saving a Units system This system will then appear in the Global Units Systems: Figure 2. the program checks that each input value is within a range of values defined by a minimum and maximum value.2. Each measurement type has its own set of limits: MBAL User Guide .12: Saved Units system 2.Chapter 2 .Using the MBAL Application 9-13 Figure 2.

Note that the minimum and maximum fields are displayed in the current input units.Using the MBAL Application Figure 2.10-13 Chapter 2 . the precision controls how many decimal places are used when a value is displayed by the program.5 Conversion Details You can also change the precision for each measurement unit. 2. Click on the details button for the measurement type that you wish to change: Petroleum Experts .2.13: Limits The program provides a default set of limits but the units dialog allows changing these values. Depending on you program format settings.

Figure 2. 2. It will also delete all user defined unit system. MBAL User Guide .15: Details Please note that there is a different precision for each possible unit.14: Details This displays a dialog that allows changing the precision.Chapter 2 .6 Resetting the Units Click the Reset button to reset the units to their original state (after the first installation on this PC). minimum/maximum values and precisions. This will reset all unit selections.Using the MBAL Application 11-13 Figure 2.2.

2. You will be prompted to specify the output device and appropriate format. Click Report again to start the report. The function buttons are found at the top of the window and are useful in finding general information about Windows help. moves you directly to the topic associated with the underlined word(s). The .12-13 Chapter 2 . the following methods display the on-line help. the program prompts you to enter a name for the report. 2. 2. Figure 2.3 Getting Help MBAL has an on-line help facility that allows quick access to information about a menu option. to an ASCII text file. and select the subject you want from the list of help topics provided. To print a units report choose the Report command.16: Help Menu The help facility offers function buttons and jump terms to move around the Help system.3.7 Generating a Units Report A report of the system units can be printed either directly to the printer. Clicking a jump term. Petroleum Experts .Using the MBAL Application 2.2 Help through the menu From the menu bar. the button associated with that function is dimmed. choose Help⏐Index or ALT H I.TXT extension is automatically given by the program. input field or function command without leaving the MBAL screen. Jump terms are words marked with a solid underline that appear in green if you use a colour VDU.3. When printing to a file. 2. or the Windows clipboard. If a feature is not available.1 Accessing Help To get information quickly in MBAL.

Next. and holding the mouse button down.Using the MBAL Application 13-13 2. 2.3. but not exit the help facility.Chapter 2 . An alternative way is to click the menu command or option to view. To get help using the keyboard press the ALT key followed by the first letter of the menu name or option and press F1. If you prefer using the keyboard. press F1. The mouse pointer changes to a question mark. click the minimise button in the upper-right corner of the help window.3 Getting help using the mouse and keyboard To get help through the mouse. choose the menu command or option to view.3. Press SHIFT+F1.4 Minimising Help If you want to close the help Window. MBAL User Guide . press ALT Spacebar N.

These software filters can be created and used once (Temporary Filter). user defined filters can also be created and saved to disk.1 Importing Data in MBAL This facility enables you import tabular data from a wide variety of files and databases. only some of the data sources may be available. Once the filter has been stored it will appear automatically in the File Type combo box. After the data has been imported. . These allow data to be imported into MBAL from external files or databases. A temporary filter can only be used once. The data import dialogue is used to import data from the 2 sources currently supported by MBAL: ASCII files Open Database Connectivity sources (ODBC). Static filter are stored in on disk into binary files with the MBQ extension. It can also be distributed to other users of MBAL. Warning: Static filters only appear in the File Type combo box if the corresponding MBQ file has been stored in the default data directory. To create a static filter. They can also be distributed easily to other users. In some cases. Wherever the button is available. click on the Static Filter and then click on New (see the Static Filter topic below). the filter ‘script’ is destroyed immediately afterwards. These filters can be configured visually and can be saved to disk for future use. Depending on the type of data being imported. 3. or they can be stored for future use (Static Filters). MBAL uses the idea of a filter ‘template’ for defining the format of a file or database to be imported and how the data in the import file maps to the data in MBAL. Static filter: If a filter is built as a Static Filter. In most cases. the program provides the user with permanent (or hardcoded filters) such as tubing performance curves imports or imports from the binary files of other Petroleum Experts products.3 Data Import This chapter describes the MBAL program import facilities. the ‘script’ of the filter can be stored on the disk and retrieved to be re-used or re-edited. data can be imported directly into the program tables. Temporary filter: A temporary filter is created by using the Temporary Filter file type.

If the current Import Type is ASCII file.1.1: Data import Once a data source has been selected using the Import Type combo box. 3.2-11 Chapter 3 . (ODBC option only) The following two sections describe the method of importing data from the various data sources. then an ODBC filter will be created ODBC Calls the ODBC administration program. The program is used to set up data sources so that they may work with ODBC. Command Buttons Data Import Dialogue Done Runs the selected filter and imports data into table Static Filter Calls the static filter dialogue. If it is ODBC.Data Import Figure 3. an ASCII file filters will be displayed. which should reside in your windows system directory if you have ODBC installed on your machine. Once configured the import static filters appear on the import dialogues together with any hard coded import file types in the program. Petroleum Experts . Each column of numbers can be modified if the correct unit does no appear in the program.1 Importing an ASCII File This facility enables you import tabular data from a wide variety of files and databases. the dialog will display only the fields relevant to that data source. A filter is configured visually and can be distributed easily to other users. You may select hard coded filters or build a static filter to import your data.

For more information on the set-up of the ASCII file import filter. the program will create a temporary filter that is deleted once the data has been imported. MBAL User Guide .Chapter 3 .e. If the Temporary Filter option is left selected.Data Import 3-11 Figure 3. If a segment of a path is entered into this field the dialog will be updated to show the contents of the new directory. filters displayed when the import dialog is called from the PVT table will be different to those shown when the import dialogue is called from the Production History table. These include the hard coded filters and any static filters which have been created for this particular section of the program (i. File Type This combo box displays the relevant import filters. When you press done the file will be imported using the currently selected File Type.2: Data import . see the ASCII File Import section below. Browse Click this button to select a file from your hard disk or network drive.ASCII files Input Fields for ASCII file File Name The full path name of the file to import may be entered in this field.

you can build a temporary filter to import the data.e.3: Data import .Data Import 3. Petroleum Experts .ODBC Datasource Input Fields for ODBC Database Run Filter This combo box shows the import filters which are relevant. has been selected you cannot select a data source from the list box.1. other than Temporary. For more information on the set-up of the ODBC Database import filter see the ODBC Database Import section below. Once selected. When a filter. Figure 3. WinXP. To save a filter click the static filter button to set up a permanent filter.2 Importing data from an ODBC Datasource This feature has been designed around the Open Data Base Connectivity standard to present the user with a common interface to a wide variety of data sources. but it deleted after the data has been imported. NT 4. The ODBC drivers which currently exist can support such diverse sources as dBase files and Oracle 7. The filters run by this tool are similar to queries run on a database.0) and as such is not supplied by Petroleum Experts Ltd.4-11 Chapter 3 . ODBC is an addition to the operating system (i. Available Data Sources This list box can be used to select any of the databases which have been set up with ODBC tools on your computer. At present data can be imported from 1 table at a time and supported with additional SQL to filter the data set. If you have temporary filter selected a temporary filter is created. This filter is destroyed after it has been run.

Data Import 5-11 3.Chapter 3 . Static filters are administered with the Static Filter dialog shown below. Consequently when the New. Any filters that are built as static filters will be listed on the data import dialogue. The temporary filter option displayed in these lists is a static filter which is run once. Edit Reads the currently selected filter then displays the File Import Filter screen Delete Deletes the currently selected filter. if it is ASCII File only files which contain ASCII filters will be listed. then destroyed. and if it is for an ODBC data source it will appear in the list of filters to run.2 Static Import Filter This feature allows you to build filters which can be re-used or even distributed to other users of the program.e. Copy Copies the currently selected filter then displays the File Import Filter screen. MBAL User Guide . Figure 3.4: Static Filters This screen is accessed by the Static Filter button on the file import dialogs which appear throughout the program. The list box is used to select a filter whose details are then displayed at the bottom of the screen. It is from here that the import filters can be managed. This dialog will list the filters for the current import type. Command Buttons: New Creates a new filter then displays the Import Set-up screen. Copy or Edit buttons are clicked you are given the options relevant to the import type. i. If it is an ASCII filter it will be in the list of filter types.

6-11 Chapter 3 .Data Import 3. Each column of numbers can be modified if the correct unit does not appear in the program. Command Buttons Petroleum Experts .1 Import Set-up On this dialog you can specify the name and description of the filter to be created or edited. Name A name for the filter type must be entered here. 3.5: Import Set-up (ASCII file) Input Fields ASCII File The full path name of the example file to be used for the definition of the filter must be entered in this field. The description only appears in the bottom section of the Details field on the Import Filters dialog. Description Up to 120 characters may be entered here to give a more comprehensive reminder of the operation of the filter. It is also used to define the example file to be used when defining the filter. Column Width Enter the number of characters in which you wish each data column to be displayed in the next filter definition dialog. Once configured the import filters appear on the import dialogs together with any hard coded import file types in the program. File Format Select the format of the example file specified above. This will appear in the file type field of an import dialog. The following screens are only used to modify these filters. Figure 3.3 ASCII File Import This facility is designed to let you import tabular data from a wide variety of files and databases.3. This defines how MBAL separates the columns of data in the example file. A filter is configured visually and can be distributed easily to other users.

The First n lines and Last n lines options can be used to remove sections of the file which are always of a fixed length. The string can be any pattern of characters which appear somewhere on the boundary line. First n lines Enter the number of lines. Figure 3.Data Import 7-11 Browse Calls up a file selection dialogue. The Lines starting with non numeric option will ignore all lines whose first character (not including spaces) is non numeric. Together they describe an area of the file in which the following options can remove further lines from the data import.2 Line Filter On this screen the user can define the area of the file.3.6: Import Set-up (Line Filter) Input Fields All of these fields are only available if the option is checked.Chapter 3 . which will cause the import filter to stop reading data from the file at the first occurrence of a blank line. The check boxes may be used in together to build up complex rules. There is a hierarchy to the rules to prevent duplication. These two options define the area of the file within which the rest of the options work.. The Before string and After string can be used to ignore parts of the file which may vary in length. MBAL User Guide . All of the options above are processed in the order in which they are described. The Lines starting with string option allows you to enter a pattern (up to.. characters) which will then exclude lines from the import. to be ignored. which contains the data to import. Stop at First Blank line. The selected file and path is entered into the ASCII file input field. starting from the top of the file. 3. The Table End section only has one option.

After Enter the pattern which occurs somewhere in the first line to be ignored (after reading has started).3 Import Filter On this page you can define how the filter reads each line from the file. this column will be blue. Alternatively the column number of line section may be entered here. Petroleum Experts .7: Import Filter Input Fields Unit A combo box can be used to list the units defined for the measurement in the MBAL program. If the selection in the Field Names list box changes the column will turn red. to be ignored. 3.3. which is completely greyed except for the data area the first time this screen is displayed. From this screen data can be matched with the variable names and the data units can be set. The Shift and Multiplier fields can be used to modify the data before it is converted into the units set for the program.Data Import Last n lines Enter the number of lines. In the Field Format area you can set the units of the data in the import file. The graphical selections are echoed into the files in the Data Area section.8-11 Chapter 3 . Figure 3. starting from the bottom of the file. Before Enter the pattern which occurs somewhere in the last line which is to be ignored (from the start of the file). A text window displays the ASCII file or database. If you are defining a new filter you should call up the Import Filter dialogue to define the data area. Once this is done you may select columns of data for each field in the list box. Once defined. Lines starting Enter the pattern which occurs at the start of lines to be ignored.

When the ignore radio button is set the value will be set to a blank in the table. End Enter the column in which the data ends. For example: data: data: data: data: ∫ 8901 8901 8901 89/01 format : YYMM format : YYM format : MYY format : M/Y result is January 1989 result in an error results is August 1990 results is January 1989 MBAL picks up the default date format from the Windows International settings. M & D separated by an “/”. Set-up Displays the Import Set-up dialogue. When no day is included in the date you are prompted for the day of the month on which the measurements regularly occur. If the data in the file contains no delimiters the format defines the number of characters read as the day. If you are editing an existing filter it will be saved automatically when this button is pressed.Chapter 3 . If the carry over radio button is set. Shift This number is added to the product of the Multiplier and the data read from the file. If the file type is fixed format: Start Enter the column in which the data starts. Command Buttons: Reset Prompts the user to confirm the resetting of the data in the filter. Otherwise: Multiplier The data read from the file is multiplied by this number.Data Import 9-11 If the measurement is of time and the unit is date: Format A date format can be entered here using the characters Y. If the file type is delimited: Column Enter the column of numbers displayed on the screen which contains the data. Done When the user is defining a new filter a file selection dialogue is displayed for you to enter a file name. If less than This field can be used to handle entries below this value in a special way. If the date in this field is to be the ‘end of the month’ any number greater than 30 can be entered. MBAL User Guide . Filter Displays the Import Filter dialogue. These fields will echo any valid graphical selection and must contain the longest number in the column of data. the last valid value read is copied to this entry in the table. Any valid graphical selection will be echoed in this field. month & year.

This will appear in the file type field of an import dialogue.8: Filter Set-up (ODBC) Input Fields Name A name for the filter type can be entered here.4 ODBC Database Import This facility is designed to let you import data from a database. Figure 3. Petroleum Experts . Description Up to 120 characters may be entered here to give a more comprehensive reminder of the operation of the filter.10-11 Chapter 3 . When building a static filter you are required to enter a name for the filter which will appear in the Run Filter combo box of the Data Import dialogue. The ODBC filter operated in the same way as the ASCII filter (described above) with the exception of the 2 dialogues used to define the data set.4.1 Filter Set-up This dialog is used to select the data source on which the filter is to be based. Available Data Sources Data sources which have been configured to communicate with ODBC Command Buttons: Done Calls the Table/Fields dialogue ODBC Calls the ODBC administrator program.Data Import 3. ODBC drivers are not part of MBAL and must be purchased separately. The ODBC (Open Database Connectivity) standard has been used as it allows the users to work in the same manner with a wide variety of data sources. 3. The description only appears in the bottom section of the Details field on the Import Filters dialogue. Note that you must have ODBC drivers already installed on you PC to use these features.

MBAL User Guide . Data can be imported from one table at a time with the current system.Chapter 3 . Temporary) and is not saved in the static filter file.Data Import 11-11 3.9: Import Filter * Input Fields Tables Select the table from which you want to retrieve data. Fields Select the fields that contain the data you want to import.e. Additional SQL Additional Structured Query Language can be entered here to filter the data set.4. Figure 3. This section is designed for use with one shot filters (i.2 Choose Table & Fields Once a data source has been chosen you can select the table and fields to include in your filter.

This chapter also describes the report dialogue box and explains how to set up a report and export it. 4. (Imagine drawing a box over the area to view and position the cross-hairs on any corner of the box. the program also gives you the facility of accessing a plot through the relevant menu. the menu command. A screen similar to the following appears: Figure 4. Where data has been saved. This is done by zooming in on any portion of the screen. To magnify an area: First place the plot cross-hairs near the area of interest.1 Leaving the plot screen The plot screen's Finish menu command will exit the current plot screen and return you to the previous dialogue box.4 Plots. Reports This chapter describes the MBAL program plot and report facilities. After zooming. or command button to access a graphic display will always be Plot. Throughout MBAL.1. drag the pointer diagonally across the area of interest.2 Resizing the display A plot display can be enlarged to view a particular section of the display more closely. 4. The screen display will automatically enlarge or magnify the area you have selected. double-clicking the grid area or choosing the Redraw menu command will reset the plot display to its original scales.1: MBAL plot screen 4.1 The Plot Screen Plot screens can be accessed directly through the relevant dialogue box using the Plot command button.1. A rectangle will temporarily be drawn over the area to magnify.) Holding down the LEFT mouse button. . It explains how to modify a plot. Release the mouse button. change plot colours and print a plot display.

That is.Plots.2: Scales Menu The Edit screen allows the user to edit the scale options. Displays can also be modified to exclude (or include) the plot legend. cross-hair status information or curve data points.3: Scales options Petroleum Experts .3. Reports 4.1 Plot scales (New!!!) To change or save the plot display scales.3 Modifying the plot display Options are available in the Display menu to change the plot scales. choose the Scales option from the menu.2-11 Chapter 4 . 4. Â Any change made to a plot display applies only to the current active plot. axes labels and plot colours. The following menu box will appear: Figure 4. changes to a plot display are plot specific.1. Figure 4.1.

1. Reset Oil Rate Scale Select this option to delete any saved scales.2 Display menu The display menu allows the user to view and alter the plot labels. there will be three menu options:Save Oil Rate Scale Select this option to save the current oil rate scale.Chapter 4 . tank pressure. There will be similar menu options for each displayed variable. oil rate). For example. Some plots allow the user to save the plot scales for each variable (e. Restore Oil Rate Scale Select this option to redisplay the plot with the saved oil rate scales. Reports 3-11 Entering the new minimum and maximum values for the X and Y axis. and pressing Done will return to the plot display with the updated axis and grids. These scales are saved to disk. This will return the program to normal behavior where the scales are recalculated each time we enter the plot. There will also be similar menu options to save/restore/reset all displayed variables.3. This will mean that the same scales are always displayed when a particular variable is displayed rather than being recalculated.Labels option MBAL User Guide . as shown in the screenshot below: Figure 4. 4. Normally when a plot is displayed. the program will automatically calculate the scales required to view all the data to plot.4: Plot Display .g.Plots. colours etc. if you have a plot displaying oil rate.

5: Plot Display .6: Plot Display .1 Labels The labels menu allows changing the default labels to the ones preferred by the user: Figure 4.2. choose: Figure 4. Reports 4. The colours chosen can be saved so they become defaults for all plots.Labels option 4. The colour settings can be customised at any time.Plots. and/or modified temporarily for a single plot. To access the plot colour options.2.2 Colours MBAL uses a palette of colours that allows the user to customise the plot display to suit personal preferences.1.1.Colours Option The following screen appears: Petroleum Experts .3.4-11 Chapter 4 .3.

2. MBAL User Guide . To select a plot item.8: Display .Chapter 4 . 4. Every item in the lists displayed can be selected.3. it will stay in force until exiting the program. plot variables. However. This will store the line width setting in the INI file. and each will accept any of the defined colours. and colour scheme.3 Plot line widths This dialog allows the user to change the width of lines on the plots. Separate colour schemes can be defined for the screen and hardcopy plots. colour schemes affect entire plots. Lastly choose the desired shade from the colour bar available for the scheme selected. click the Save button. if you wish to keep the line width setting the next time you run the program. highlight the item name. Next select the plot item to modify.Plots. Reports Figure 4.1.Line Widths Once a change has been made to the line width.7: Plot Display Option - 5-11 Colours The plot colour screen is generally sectioned into three parts: plot elements. Changing a colour involves the following steps: First select the desired colour scheme: colour. grey scale or monochrome. Enter a line width between 1 and 9: Figure 4.

1.Plots.2 Output The Output option in the plot menu allows the user to send the plot to a printer. or use the key combination indicated to the right of the menu item.2. 4.2. (Shift+F7) Symbol Off excludes the data points of the displayed plot curves.2. However you can change to another printer within MBAL by clicking on the File/Printer Options button. Reports 4.10: Printer selection Petroleum Experts . mouse status information and curve data points. (Shift+F6) Cursor Off excludes the grey status bar located at the bottom of the plot screen displaying the X and Y co-ordinates of the plot cross-hairs.1 Selecting a printer or plotter On starting MBAL. To activate the appropriate option click the menu item.5 Plot Legends The Display menu provides additional options for excluding (or including) the plot legend. Note that the fonts selected are also used when outputting the plot to a printer or plotter.wmf file): Figure 4. a tick will appear to the left of the menu item. the clipboard or create a windows metafile with the plot (*. the printer used is the default printer as specified by Windows.3. (Shift+F8) 4.4 Fonts This dialog allows the user to change the fonts that appear on the plot.1. Where the option is active.6-11 Chapter 4 . Figure 4.3.9: Output Options 4. Legend Off excludes the legend indicating the plot input data. This will also allow selecting additional settings appropriate to the printer.

Windows Metafile.11: Variables The variable selection dialogue box that appears will vary with the type of plot selected and the variable items that can be displayed. start your preferred Windows draw program and open a new document. Clipboard sends a copy to the Windows clipboard. generates a *. All the above output options allow you to generate different types of colour plots: - 4. You are given the choice of selecting one on the following output media: • • • Hardcopy sends the plot display directly to the attached printer or plotter in the format and layout specified in the Printer setup.WMF that can be imported into most Windows graphics programs (e. Grey Scale outputs the plot is varying shades or grey.Chapter 4 . simply click the variable name: MBAL User Guide . Freelance).2 Making a hard copy of the plot The Output menu command enables you to make or send copies of the plot display to include in your reports. If you want to keep the plot in the clipboard. Monochrome outputs the plot display is black and white only.Plots. To select a variable item.g. This type is best used with non-colour printers. Changing the plotted variables If you want to change the variables that are currently on the plot to display another set of variables.3 Colour outputs the plot in the colours selected. The extension is automatically given by the program. Figure 4.2. This plot is useful for displaying plots on LCD monitor or black and white screens. This format is best if you have a high quality colour laser printer/plotter. The contents of the clipboard are deleted and replaced whenever a new plot is sent to the clipboard. choose the Variables menu command. select the program's Edit menu and choose the Paste command. Reports 7-11 4. Next. A dialogue box appears promoting you name the plot file.

4.12: Variables selection The plots can include one or two Y axis variables plotted against the same X axis.8-11 Chapter 4 . All the main menu items in MBAL have a reporting option with default report options ready for commercial reports: Figure 4.1 Selecting sections to include in the report Selecting the “Reports” option shown above will display the following screen: Petroleum Experts . Reports Figure 4. 4. Input and Production Prediction options have similar reporting options that work on the same principles as described below. 4.4 Reporting This section describes the options relevant for printing or viewing a report.Plots.13: Reporting The PVT.

first select all of the options by clicking on the boxes next to them: Figure 4.Chapter 4 .14: Reporting The information available for reporting is displayed in the sections menu and the user can then select which of these to include in the report. Reports 9-11 Figure 4.Plots.15: Selecting sections include in the report to Then the information relevant to each option can be selected by clicking on the extend buttons shown above: MBAL User Guide . if all the information is required. For example.

16: Selecting sections include in report to As soon as these options are chosen.Plots.10-11 Chapter 4 .17: Selecting where to send the report Clicking the “Report” button now will create the report in the relevant format: Petroleum Experts . then the output method can be selected from the main report screen: Figure 4. Reports Figure 4.

check the appropriate printer port is selected (usually 'LPT1'). If can't read the printer file. the document may not print or will compress to form an unreadable file MBAL User Guide . it is ON and on-line. When Windows cannot find the appropriate fonts. Reports 11-11 Figure 4. • Check that the latest version of your printer driver has been installed. • Check you have installed the correct fonts and printer fonts for your driver. it substitutes another font.Chapter 4 . • Check you have selected the correct printer and port from the Printer Set Up.Plots. If you have an old printer driver. check the following: • Make sure you have sufficient space on disk to create a printer file.4.2 Solving printing problems If your printed output does not look like the format you see on screen.18: Report 4. • Check your printer is connected properly.

The parameters selected are global for the current active file. The tool selection can be changed at any time. The options displayed will correspond to the analysis tool selected and are different between tools.1: MBAL. 5. you may immediately notice the options on the menu bar change. The menu bar changes when a tool is selected. This smart menu feature simplifies the process of data entry by displaying only those options. The following analytical tools are displayed: . Figure 5.System Options To access this menu. They establish the inputs required and specify the nature of the calculations that will performed. that new choices may require more or different data to be supplied and in some cases recalculated. fields and input parameters that are relevant to the chosen application.1 Reservoir Analysis Tools The function of the Tool menu is to define the reservoir engineering analysis tool. On selecting the analysis tool. The selections made in these screens set the scope of the MBAL program. This is the effect of MBAL's smart data input feature. The menu lists the current Reservoir Engineering tools available in MBAL. click the menu name or press ALT T.5 Defining the system This chapter describes the program Tool and Options menus. It should be noted however.

The information entered here will appear on the report and screen plots. A dialogue similar to the following appears: Petroleum Experts . 5. 1D Model Analysis of water flooding in an oil reservoir (Buckley-Leveret analysis) Multi Layer Calculation of average pseudo-relative permeabilities for a multi-layer reservoir. Predictions can also be made using relative permeabilities and well performances (IPR.Defining the System Material Balance This model enables the user to perform the classical history matching to determine fluid originally in place as well as aquifer influx. It takes into account the IPR of each layer as well as the rate of depletion and is an improvement to the classical kh technique. • User Information These fields may be used to identify the reservoir and analyst working on the model. the Options menu can be invoked: This dialogue box has three main sections: • Tool Options Where the different options available for the tool selected in the Tool menu can be chosen. The material balance models can also be used in GAP for full system modelling and optimisation. Monte Carlo Statistical Modelling Statistical tool for estimating Oil and Gas in place. Decline Curve Analysis This is the classical decline curve analysis tool whereby production history is fitted to curves that are then extrapolated in an attempt to predict future performance. Reservoir Allocation This tool allocates reserves in a multilayer system if only cumulative production per well is known.2 System options Once the analysis tool has been selected. To access the Options menu. VLP) to evaluate future reservoir performance based on different production strategies. click the menu name or press ALT O. • User Comments This is a space where a log of the updates/changes to the file can be kept.2-3 Chapter 5 .

or use the TAB button. refer to the relevant analysis tool chapter. The comments window can be viewed by either dragging the scroll bar thumb or using the ↑ and ↓ directional arrow keys.3 User comments and date stamp This box is used to keep a history log of events on the system or modifications made to the file since you started. The Date Stamp command adds the current date and time to the user comments box. MBAL User Guide .2.2. click the arrow to the right of the field to display the current choices.Chapter 5 . The details entered here provide the banner/header header information that identifies the reservoir in the reports and plots generated by the program. 5. To move to the next entry field.2 User information The information for these fields is optional.1 tool- Tool options To select an option. An unlimited amount of text is allowed. Press Ctrl+Enter to start a new paragraph. click the field to highlight the entry. The options displayed are determined by the analysis tool selected in the Tool menu.Defining the System 3-3 Figure 5. 5.2.2: Material Balance System Options 5. For more information on these fields.

6 Describing the PVT In order to accurately predict both pressure and saturation changes throughout the reservoir. such as Glaso. This will therefore not provide the right fluid description when we have injection of hydrocarbons in the reservoir or when the reservoir pressure drops below the bubble/dew point. Beal.Matching: Where both basic fluid data and some PVT laboratory measurements are available. and can be supplied either manually or imported from an outside source.Tables: Where detailed PVT laboratory data is provided. MBAL offers several options for calculating the required fluid properties: . . Use of EOS: The basic equations of state are not predictive unless matched to measured lab data. the program can modify the black oil correlations to best-fit the measured data using a non-linear regression technique. the program uses traditional black oil correlations.Correlations: Where only basic PVT data is available.Compositional: Where the full Equation of State description of the fluid is available and all the PVT can be obtained from a Peng-Robinson or an SRK description of the fluid phase behaviour. The ideal situation would be to have data from laboratory studies done on fluid samples. As this is not always possible. Note with regards to the PVT definitions: Use of Tables: Tables are usually generated using one fluid composition which implies a single GOR for the fluid. Care has to be taken in order to make sure that the EOS has been matched and is applicable for the range of Pressures and Temperatures to be investigated. A unique black oil model is available for condensates and details of this can be found later in this guide as well as the PROSPER manual. So called black oil tables can be generated from an EOS model and then be imported and used in MBAL. . . This data is entered in table format (PVT tables). it is important that the properties of the fluid are accurately described. . MBAL uses this data instead of the calculated properties. and Petrosky etc.

1 Chapter 6 .2: Selection of Fluid Method Reservoir Fluid • Oil Petroleum Experts . Under the system Options: Figure 6. as well as the method with respect to compositional modelling.1: Accessing the Options Here the fluid can be selected. Figure 6.2-47 6.Describing the PVT Selecting the PVT method The following paragraphs summarise the steps to be taken based on the amount of PVT information available.

We still have to define a tank to either be predominately oil or condensate. The tank type controls how we input the fluid in place i. • General This option allows a tank to be treated as an oil leg with a gas cap containing a condensate rather than dry gas. In other words. This allows modelling of solution gas bubbling out of the oil in the tank.g. This will give compatibility with old MBAL files. If we have a full oil and gas model. It also defines the predominant fluid in the history matching e. both oil and gas wells can be defined for a tank. as well as liquid drop out in the tank from the gas. gas or oil graphical plots. However these should not affect the results (apart from that mentioned below).e. The tank type defines the wetting phase. depth tables assuming that there is both initial oil and gas. There are two main reasons:- - It is convenient to define a tank fluid type from a display point of view. a tank can be treated as an oil tank with an initial condensate gas cap or as a condensate tank with an initial oil leg. OOIP and gas cap fraction of OGIP and oil leg fraction. Suitable relative permeability’s can be used to allow production only from an oil leg or from the gas cap. MBAL will automatically recalculate the input fluid volumes and pore volume vs. These models take into account liquid dropout in the reservoir at different pressures and temperatures. • Retrograde Condensate MBAL uses the Retrograde Condensate Black Oil model. This means that the user can enter a full black oil description of the oil (as would be done for the old oil case) and a full black oil description for the gascondensate (as would be done for the old retrograde condensate case).0-SroSwc for an oil tank. For example. The liquid is put back into the gas as an equivalent gas quantity. the maximum gas saturation is 1.e. Whether the tank is defined as oil or condensate. unless water is present. This may have an effect on the calculation of the maximum saturation of the oil or gas phase. we can calculate oil properties above the dew point and gas properties above the bubble point. If you switch from oil to condensate tank. We should get the same results if we analyze as an oil tank with a gas cap or a condensate tank with an oil leg. oil or condensate.Chapter 6 .0-Swc for a condensate tank but is 1. This allows modelling of supercritical fluids. The pressure drop is therefore calculated on the basis of a single phase gas. The user may still choose to only enter one model i. MBAL User Guide . Any gas cap properties will be treated as dry gas • Gas (Dry and Wet Gas) Wet gas is handled under the assumption that all liquid condensation occurs at the separator. This may effect the calculations of the relative permeabilities.Describing the PVT 3-47 This option uses oil as the primary fluid in the reservoir.

Previously. The main benefit is that production of injected gas can now be controlled by use of recirculation breakthroughs. Thus as soon as gas injection started. The following sections will describe the PVT definition and validation procedures depending on the fluid to be modelled. This chapter will be split into two main categories: Section 6. none of the injection gas will be recirculated.Describing the PVT Another feature of this method is the full tracking of gas injection in the tank. This will mean that injection gas will remain in the tank.4-47 Chapter 6 . The user may also enter a gas injection saturation at which full recirculation takes place.3 will be a description of the Compositional Options Petroleum Experts . Once the relevant options are selected. Whilst the gas injection saturation is below this breakthrough.2 will be a description of the Black Oil models Section 6. a linear interpolation of the two boundary conditions is used. the produced CGR would start to drop. gas production always contained a mixture of original gas and injected gas based on a volumetric average. However we are now able to enter a recirculation breakthrough. then the PVT screen can be accessed: Figure 6. Between the breakthrough and full recirculation saturation. only injected gas is produced. this will still be the case. At this saturation.3: Accessing the PVT screen This will allow entry of the relevant data to describe the fluid behaviour. If no breakthroughs are entered.

6. CO2. the Use Tables box can be un-checked.1 PVT for Oil If Oil is defined as the fluid type in the Options menu. Figure 6. If PVT Tables have been entered.Describing the PVT 5-47 6.Chapter 6 .2. .2 Black Oil PVT Descriptions In this section. . Where additional PVT data can be provided. and a decision was made to use the matched or unmatched black oil correlations instead of the tables. and a decision was made to use the original (unmatched) black oil correlations instead. MBAL User Guide . then the Use Matching box can be unchecked. all the options with regards to the Black Oil model for PVT descriptions will be described. • • • Select the appropriate Separator (Single or Two Stage) Select the black oil correlations to apply. • If the black-oil correlations have been matched. If no further data is available. N2 and H2S are from gas stream composition. continue with the 'Matching Correlations. so it can be applied to condensates as well for example.The Mole Percent.. the following PVT dialog box is displayed.4: PVT for Oil: Data input • Â Enter the required fluid data in the fields provided. This validation will also be explained. In MBAL there is a unique condensate model that can describe the properties of retrograde condensate fluids but needs to be validated first.The Formation GOR is the Solution GOR at the bubble point and should not include free gas production..' and 'Using the PVT Tables' sections. The definition “Black Oil” means that the fluid will be treated as two phases. Oil and Gas. click Done to exit the PVT menu.

As the pressure drops.no matter how high the pressure reaches. Therefore the amount of gas that can be re-dissolved back into the oil is limited to the initial Rs. MBAL simply backtracks up the Rs vs. there is no change in the PVT model from before. Figure 6. So what are the changes if the controlled miscibility option is selected? In fact. If the fluid continues to drop to below the initial bubble point. If the pressure increases further. MBAL still keeps to the original Rs vs. The Rs will stay constant until the tank drops below the initial bubble point pressure . Pressure curve.2 Controlled Miscibility Option This option is used to control how free gas redissolves into the oil if the pressure of the fluid increases.5: Controlled Miscibility Option Firstly it is worth reviewing how gas re-dissolving was handled in older versions of MBAL (and how it is still handled if this option is not selected). gas will start to bubble out of the oil. Pressure curve.it will then decrease as specified by the saturated Rs vs. we assume that the gas re-dissolves back into the oil at exactly the same rate as it bubbled out. In other words. Pressure curve as defined by the PVT model. The amount of gas is described by the saturated part of the Rs vs. it can still not be dissolved into the oil above the initial Rs . back above the initial bubble point pressure.6-47 Chapter 6 . the oil is still under saturated so no gas bubbles out of the oil. as the pressure drops from the initial pressure. Now if the pressure of the fluid starts to increase. It is only if the pressure starts to increase ilable and the gas has infinite time to dissolve. Consider a fluid that starts above the initial bubble point. So even if we have injected gas into the sample. It then calculates the maximum Rs available in the system .Describing the PVT 6.2. P curve.

It then sets the potential Rs (RsPot) to the minimum of these two values i.2. enough gas is available from injection and the oil can dissolve more gas. Note that if the pressure keeps rising. but the available gas runs out so the oil becomes under saturated again.0e08. If you wish all the gas to be redissolved at each time step. x is adjusted to be the remixing given the length of the time step. We then calculate the actual Rs to be:- Rs = (1 − x) RsLast + xRsPot RsLast is the Rs at the last time step. 6.Describing the PVT 7-47 i. MBAL will allow the Rs to rise above the initial Rs.e. Correlations are modified using a non-linear regression technique to best fit the measured data.e.0 will mean that no remixing will occur. then simply enter a very large number for the remixing e. assuming that the remixing factor is large enough.Chapter 6 . Secondly. 1.3 Matching correlations The matching facility is used to adjust the empirical fluid property correlations to fit measured PVT laboratory data. Note that each time we calculate a new Rs.g.6: Accessing the PVT Match Data Input Screen The following screen will appear: MBAL User Guide .0. if the pressure rises above the initial pressure. x is limited to a maximum of 1. we also recalculate the corresponding new bubble point. You access this facility by clicking the Match command in the 'Fluid Properties' dialogue box: Figure 6. MBAL will use fluid properties based on under saturated properties calculated from the new bubble point. we are either limited by the available gas or the maximum gas that can dissolve. A value of 0. the available gas to available oil ratio.

The available match data can be entered manually or imported using the “Import” button in this screen (from a file of PVTP for instance).8: Matching measured PVT to the correlations Petroleum Experts . Figure 6.7: PVT Match Data Input screen Up to 50 PVT tables can be entered which are sorted by temperature. click Match as shown above in order to match the correlations to the available data. data entered for matching should be from a CCE experiment in order to  The ensure mass balance consistency in the data Once all the data has been entered.Describing the PVT Figure 6.8-47 Chapter 6 .

Chapter 6 . All matching parameters will be reset  toTo1unmatch and 0 respectively. click Reset. This should have parameter 1 as close to 1 as possible and parameter 2 as close to 0 as possible.Describing the PVT 9-47 Click Calc to start the match process. and a shift (Parameter 2) to the correlation. the match coefficients for the selected correlations and fluid properties are displayed under Match Parameters: Figure 6. The Standard Deviation displays the overall match quality. the better the match.9: Selection of Correlation that most closely resembles the properties of the fluid From these tables. correlations. The lower the standard deviation. The regression technique applies a multiplier (Parameter 1). The correlations selected can then be applied in the program from the main PVT screen: MBAL User Guide . the best correlation (the one requiring the least correction) can be selected. When the calculations are done.

Note on Use of Tables: Tables are usually generated using one fluid composition which implies a single GOR for the fluid. Tables are sorted by temperature. Petroleum Experts . Up to 50 PVT tables can be entered.Describing the PVT Figure 6. and click Tables. To access the PVT tables: • Enter the information required in the input dialog box. Check the 'Use Tables' option in the data input screen. The program will use the data in the PVT tables in all further calculations only if the 'Use Tables' option in the 'Fluid Properties' data entry screen is enabled. and each table may use a different temperature if desired. Where the program requires data that is not entered in the tables it will calculate it using the selected correlations.10: Making sure that the selected correlations are used by MBAL 6.4 Using PVT tables If detailed PVT laboratory data is available it can be entered in the tables provided.10-47 Chapter 6 . This will therefore not provide the right fluid description when we have injection of hydrocarbons in the reservoir (for pressure support for instance).2. A 'User Table' dialog box similar to the following will appear.

The option is open to any user who would like to use data from their own programs. As before. one can enter up to 50 tables with a different temperature for each set. click Done to exit the PVT menu. As file formats vary across programs. this option is user specific.Chapter 6 .11: PVT Tables Input screen • Enter the measured PVT data in the columns provided. However for each temperature one must enter a single saturated table and up to 50 under saturated tables.2. Each under saturated table corresponds to different bubble point. if a fixed value for water compressibility has  For been entered in the tank data. The general file import facility is described in Chapter 4. The Import facility is an alternative method of entering data.5 PVT Tables for Controlled Miscibility If controlled miscibility has been selected. scroll to the next free table from the up/down button shown above. MBAL User Guide . 6. If no further data is available. it will ignore any values entered for Bw in the PVT tables. the table entry has some differences. To select the next PVT table. the material balance tool.Describing the PVT 11-47 Figure 6. Section 3.

Describing the PVT Figure 6.13: Selecting the Variable PVT model Petroleum Experts .12: Tables for Controlled Miscibility 6. To enable this tank model.6 Variable PVT for Oil Reservoir In order to take into account the change of black oil properties versus depth (compositional gradient). select ‘Variable PVT’ as the tank model in the Options menu: Figure 6.12-47 Chapter 6 . a ‘Variable PVT’ tank model has been implemented.2.

so all layer bottom depths  The must be greater than the datum depth. If a primary gas cap exists.Chapter 6 . MBAL will also stop you entering layers less than one foot thick. MBAL will sort the layers in the table by the layer bottom depth. The Dry Gas model assumes all liquid dropout occurs at the separator. 6. The Datum Depth must correspond to the 0 pore volume versus depth and the bottom depth of the last layer must correspond to the 1 pore volume versus depth.Describing the PVT 13-47 In this model.2.7 PVT for Gas When Gas is defined as the fluid type in the Options menu. an equivalent gas rate is used (based on the CGR entered) that allows for condensate production to ensure that a mass balance is observed. The basic PVT properties of each layer can be entered and if measured data is available. the Datum Depth must be the depth of the initial Gas/Oil contact. datum depth defines the top of the top layer. MBAL User Guide .14: Variable PVT model data input  Note that a '*' will appear on the Match Data button if the match process has already been performed on a layer The depths entered here must match the depths entered in the reservoir pore volume versus depth table (see Tank Data Input). the tank is divided into several ‘layers’ having different PVT properties. the PVT correlations can be matched by clicking on the Match Data button. Figure 6. the following PVT dialog box is displayed. In the calculations.

Describing the PVT Figure 6.14 PVT for Gas: Data Input • Â • • Enter the required fluid data in the fields provided. Figure 6. CO2.2.8 Water Vapour Option The “Model Water Vapour” Option is available for Gas reservoirs and serves in providing the amount of water (from the vaporised water) that will drop out as pressure depletes in the reservoir. The Mole Percent. Select the Gas Viscosity correlation to apply. Enter the required separator data in the fields provided. N2 and H2S are from gas stream composition.14-47 Chapter 6 . 6.15 PVT for Gas: Data Input The following plot is taken from PROSPER and shows the vaporised water curves the program will use when this option is activated: Petroleum Experts .

the PVT properties can be matched using the same procedure. The properties of gas (Z factor. However. density etc) will be calculated with the gas equation of state PV = ZnRT and the Standing-Katz model with corrections for impurities. when a reservoir is used as part of an IPM model.16 Vaporised water content in Gas plots In tests we have performed. MBAL User Guide . As with the Black Oil model for Oils.Chapter 6 . the condensed water shows no major impact in the material balance calculations.Describing the PVT 15-47 Figure 6. then this water will cause loading for low rates and will result in the well dyeing sooner in the prediction (more realistic forecast).

Describing the PVT 6.2.17: PVT Retrograde Condensate: Input The required data can be entered in the fields provided and the best source of these is a matched equation of state in PVTP. If a separator calculation is done in PVTP: Figure 6.18: Performing separator calculations in PVTP Petroleum Experts .16-47 Chapter 6 .9 Black Oil PVT for Retrograde Condensate If Retrograde Condensate is defined as the fluid type in the Options menu. Figure 6. the following PVT dialog box is displayed.

Describing the PVT 17-47 Figure 6.19: Analysis results from the separator experiment The “Analysis” screen will provide all the data needed to enter in the BO Condensate model in MBAL. MBAL User Guide .Chapter 6 .

18-47

Chapter 6 - Describing the PVT

6.2.10

Black Oil Condensate model validation procedure

The formulation of the Black Oil model for condensates is described in the PROSPER
manual and it can be used to model most but not all Condensates. The shape of the
CGR curve is difficult to predict from the basic data and this is why this particular model
needs to be validated before use.
The Condensate model in MBAL needs to be matched to CCE data (honouring mass
balance). However, the process that MBAL will follow is one of depletion by removing
gas from the reservoir, which resembles a depletion experiment.
The objective of the validation procedure is to cross check that the BLACK OIL
model reasonably reproduces the drop out and recovery results as predicted by
laboratory experiments and/or fully compositional models.
.To perform the validation, the following steps are taken:
1. Use an Equation of State (EOS) package (e.g. PVTP) to calibrate an EOS to the
represent the fluid compositionally.
Figure 6.20:
Phase envelope for
condensate

2. Simulate a depletion experiment with this tool using a given separation scheme and
an initial Gas in Place of 100 MMSCF.

Petroleum Experts

Chapter 6 - Describing the PVT 19-47

Figure 6.21:
Depletion experiment
in PVTP

As soon as the calculations are finished:
Figure 6.22:
Results from
Depletion Experiment
in PVTP

MBAL User Guide

20-47

Chapter 6 - Describing the PVT

3. As soon as the calculations are finished, transfer the following results to a package
like EXCEL
i)
ii)
iii)

Produced GOR i.e. yield
Liquid Drop Out
Gas recovery

4. Simulate a Constant Composition Experiment (CCE) with the compositional tool
(PVTP) and create an export file with the match data MBAL will need to match the
BO model to:
Figure 6.23:
Selecting the export
options from PVTP

Figure 6.24:
Exporting the CCE
tables from PVTP

At this point, export and save the .ptb file.

Petroleum Experts

Chapter 6 - Describing the PVT 21-47

5. Go to MBAL PVT section and enter the separator data and dew point under the
PVT input section as shown earlier.
6. Transfer this drop out and gas property data generated with CCE to the match data
in PVT screens of MBAL. Perform the match, so that the black oil model is tuned.

Figure 6.25:
Importing the CCE
tables previously
generated from
PVTP into MBAL

Figure 6.26:
Selecting the
correct import
format

MBAL User Guide

22-47

Chapter 6 - Describing the PVT

Figure 6.27:
Data imported

Figure 6.28:
Condensate model
Matching

Petroleum Experts

Chapter 6 - Describing the PVT 23-47

Figure 6.29:
Setting up Tank
Parameters for the
comparison

This will ensure that no support comes from connate water expansion and the gas in
place is the same as the Depletion experiment in PVTP (since we want to compare the
two).
8. Set water influx to None.
9. Set the tank rock compressibility to 1E-20, i.e. no energy will come from the rock
itself.

Figure 6.30:
Preventing drive from
rock compressibility

MBAL User Guide

24-47

Chapter 6 - Describing the PVT

10. Set the relative permeability in such a manner that oil is blocked, i.e. oil relative
permeability is zero:
Figure 6.31:
Preventing oil from
escaping the
reservoir.

11. Go to Prediction | Prediction Setup and set the model to “Reservoir Pressure
only from Production Schedule”
Figure 6.32:
Setting up the
prediction

12. In Prediction | Production and Constraints set the average gas production rate to
a very small value as shown:
Petroleum Experts

34: Prediction Done 14.Chapter 6 . Figure 6. MBAL results and the compositional results i) Produced GOR MBAL User Guide .Describing the PVT 25-47 Figure 6.e. Once the prediction is finished. Run the prediction and save the model.33: Setting up the prediction 13. Once done on the EXCEL spread sheet. export the following from the model to EXCEL i) The GOR ii) The oil saturation which is the equivalent of liquid drop out iii) Gas recovery 15. you can plot the following variables versus pressure for both the situation i.

Describing the PVT ii) iii) Liquid dropout Gas recovery Note that the liquid drop out in MBAL is oil saturation in the tank. The results of this validation for one case are shown below: 12 10 8 6 ResLiq Dropout from fluid characterization 4 Predicted Oil Sat from MBAL 2 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Pressure in bara Liquid Drop out Comparison. 90 80 GAS RECOVERY 70 MBAL Results 60 50 EOS Results 40 30 20 10 0 0 100 200 300 400 PRESSURE Gas Recovery Curve Petroleum Experts 500 600 .26-47 Chapter 6 . which is a fraction and needs to be converted to a % value.

If the General fluid model has been selected in Options menu: Figure 6. there is no problem in describing the PVT as oil with the gas cap defined as the “m” value. Note that this may always not be the case. we can conclude that for this particular case. then the above PVT definitions are not adequate.Describing the PVT 27-47 Results of Validation: On basis of these three graphs.2. Gas or condensate options are selected. This is why the General description was added to the program in order to accommodate this situation and be able to solve the material balance equations for any type of fluid. in an oil reservoir with a gas cap.Chapter 6 .35: Selecting the General Model MBAL User Guide .11 PVT for General Model In MBAL if the Oil. when the situation to be modelled is that of a condensate with an oil leg. However. We recommend that all users should go through the validation procedure before the MBAL is used for condensates. So. the material balance equations are solved specifically for the type of fluid selected. the Black Oil model is able to replicate the behaviour of a fully compositional model and as such we can use the MBAL tool to study this reservoir. The properties of the gas will be defined by the gas gravity entered in the PVT screen. 6.

Match.Describing the PVT The following screen will appear in the PVT definition for the fluid: Figure 6.36: General Model PVT screen There are three tabs on the above screen:- - - Oil: This tab will display the same fields as on the standard oil or variable PVT dialog. each phase can be matched separately.e. The only difference is that the water inputs are not displayed. the gas properties are calculated from the model entered in the gas tab and the water properties are calculated from the model entered in the water tab. the oil properties are calculated from the model entered in the oil tab. if you do not have a full model for the gas phase. you may switch the Use Full Gas Model option off. In this case. Note that the water properties will still be calculated from the data in the water tab. the gas properties will be calculated from the oil model i. Petroleum Experts . In this case. It is also possible to exclude use of the full model for either the oil or gas phase. Water: This tab displays the water inputs that normally appear on the oil or retrograde condensate. This allows compatibility with old oil or retrograde condensate models. The Import. For example. the same as the standard oil model. For example. Table and Match Param buttons on each tab will operate on each phase model separately.28-47 Chapter 6 . The only difference is that the water inputs and the gas impurities are not displayed. Gas: This tab will display the same fields as on the standard retrograde condensate dialog. However the results calculated from the Calc button will always be from the combination of the three models.

Describing the PVT 29-47 6. delete (-) and copy (x) streams of different PVT definitions. the following screen will appear: Figure 6.37: Selecting Multiple Tank Model In the PVT section now. MBAL User Guide . it is possible to have more than one tanks described. If the fluid in these segments is different.Chapter 6 .12 Multiple PVT Definitions In MBAL. with transmissibility between them that would simulate different regions of a reservoir. then MBAL allows the creation of different PVT models for each one of these tanks. Figure 6.2.38: Multiple PVT definitions screen The buttons shown above will allow the user to add (+).

it the (x) button is clicked 5 times.39: Multiple PVT definitions screen These definitions can then be selected accordingly in the reservoir screen: Figure 6.30-47 Chapter 6 .40: Multiple PVT definitions screen Petroleum Experts .Describing the PVT So. then the streams will be created accordingly (with the same properties as the original): Figure 6.

Figure 6.Chapter 6 .42: PVT Calculator The following dialogue box will be prompted: MBAL User Guide .Describing the PVT 31-47 6. click Calc in the 'Fluid Properties' screen or choose PVT⏐Calculator.2.41: PVT Calculator The same screen can also be accessed from inside the Fluid Properties screen: Figure 6.13 Checking the PVT calculations To check the quality of the PVT data entered.

and the number of steps to calculate for each.43: PVT Automatic Calculation • Select the correlations to apply. User selected A separate input screen appears that allows you to enter up to 10 specific pressure and temperature points to check. and can be changed to test the other correlations. • • If the controlled miscibility option has been selected then the bubble point is not fixed. Click Calc. • Check the method of calculation (Automatic or User Selected) Automatic Enter a range of pressures and temperatures. Petroleum Experts . So you will also need to enter the bubble point Pb at which you wish the calculations to be done.32-47 Chapter 6 . A calculation screen showing the results of the previous calculation appears.Describing the PVT Figure 6. These default from the Fluid Properties input screen.

labels and scales or the variables displayed on the X and Y axes.Describing the PVT 33-47 Figure 6. The program allows you to modify much of the plot display.44: PVT properties calculated • Click Calc again to start the calculation. use any of the following menu options on the menu bar. MBAL User Guide . Display Use this option to access the facilities for changing the plot scales. You can change the plot colours.Chapter 6 . To change a plot display. Finish Closes the plot.45: PVT Plot screen. plot labels and plot colours. • To view the calculation results graphically. A graphics screen similar to the following appears: Figure 6. Redraw Cancels any zoom and redraws the original plot. click Plot. You can view other PVT variables by choosing the Variables menu option.

6. the Windows clipboard or into a Windows Metafile.46: Selecting compositional Options. The second option will calculate all the PVT properties using the Equation of State as well as tracking the compositions (Full Calculation). Versus Set the x-axis i. Variables Use this option to select different display variables for the X and Y axes.e. Petroleum Experts . These can be selected from the Options screen as shown below: Figure 6.3 Compositional Modelling In MBAL there are two ways to model the fluid considering its equation of state. The following sections will describe the data entry in the relevant screens in order to set up the models for both compositional tracking and the Full EOS Calculation. GOR etc) and simply track the compositions by flashing the fluid at the different resulting pressures during a forecast (Compositional Tracking).Describing the PVT Output Use this option to make a copy of the plot display. pressure or temperature. One option will use the Black Oil model for the PVT properties (Bo.34-47 Chapter 6 . Next Variable Use this option to select the next PVT variable to plot. The plot can be sent directly to 'the printer. Help Display the appropriate help topic.

These options should reflect the EOS available for the fluid (from PVTP for example) and the process (path) the fluid follows to standard conditions (which .48: Selecting compositional Options. The EOS Model Setup button will be activated. Accessing this screen will show the different options for the EOS: Figure 6.1 EOS Model Setup Once either the tracking or full calculation methods are selected from the options menu: Figure 6.47: Selecting compositional Options.Describing the PVT 35-47 6.Chapter 6 .3.

6. our PVT experts have been working on ways to speed up the calculation of properties from an EOS model.49: Selecting compositional Options. Petroleum Experts .1.2 Optimisation Mode Figure 6.1.36-47 Chapter 6 .Describing the PVT 6. Speed is one of the main issues with fully compositional models and the options in this section will define the speed of calculations.1 EOS Model This can be set up to Peng Robinson or SRK: Figure 6.3. The fastest calculations will be done by the default “Medium” option and this should be left as is unless any problems are detected in the calculations.3.50: Selecting Optimisation mode Over the past few years.

Describing the PVT 37-47 6.3 Separator Calc Method Figure 6.1. depending on the path the fluid will take to standard conditions. Of course.3.52: Importing K-Values The “Use K Values” option is an addition to the compositional modelling that allows modelling the process based on K values (equilibrium ratios). these values can be easily exported by doing a separator calculation: MBAL User Guide . In PVTP. Figure 6. This can allow process calculations from systems more complex than separation to be represented as “Pseudo” separators and can be obtained from process simulators. the amount of gas and liquid resulting from the calculations will be different.51: Selecting fluid path to standard conditions There are three options in this section of which the first two are self explanatory.Chapter 6 .

54: Exporting K-Values Petroleum Experts . under the Analysis tab the Export K Values button can be used: Figure 6.Describing the PVT Figure 6.38-47 Chapter 6 .53: PVTP separator calculations And once the calculations are done.

Figure 6.pks file than can be imported in MBAL.Chapter 6 .55: Exporting K-Values from PVTP Now the program will allow the user to export a *.56: Importing K-Values in MBAL MBAL User Guide .Describing the PVT 39-47 Figure 6. containing all the information with regards to separator stages and K values.

6.Describing the PVT 6.3. the gas resulting from a given separation process or the gas which can be picked from a selected number of separator stages.2 Compositional Tracking Once the compositional tracking option is selected and the EOS setup complete.40-47 Chapter 6 .1. the PVT button will show an option to enter the compositions for tracking: Petroleum Experts .57: Injection Gas Options The three available options will either use a fixed composition which can be defined later.4 Injection Gas Source These options define the properties of the gas to be possibly injected in the reservoir: Figure 6.3.

58: Tracking Compositions In this screen: Figure 6.59: Importing EOS compositions The “Edit Composition” will allow importing the EOS for this fluid: MBAL User Guide .Chapter 6 .Describing the PVT 41-47 Figure 6.

42-47 Chapter 6 .60: Importing a *.prp file (generated by PVTP) Figure 6.Describing the PVT Figure 6. one extra button will appear in the results screen (the “Analysis” button). that will allow us to see the variation of composition in time: Petroleum Experts .61: EOS import completed Once a prediction is done now.

63: Viewing the resulting composition Of course the results can also be seen and plotted from the results screen itself: MBAL User Guide .62: Analysis of results Figure 6.Describing the PVT 43-47 Figure 6.Chapter 6 .

44-47 Chapter 6 .64: Compositional variation in time Petroleum Experts .Describing the PVT Figure 6.

3. taken from flashing the current reservoir composition.Chapter 6 . therefore it is assumed this experiment only in the plots. The process can be described as follows: - Calculate the initial number of moles in the tank from the initial surface volume. Graphical plots are based on CCE (constant Mass Expansion) theory. Once the Fully Compositional option is selected and the EOS setup completed: MBAL User Guide .Describing the PVT 45-47 6. • Calculate the downhole volume of each phase using the molecular weight and density calculated from the flash at the current pressure. history regression and history simulation respect the actual process. using this method the model tracks the number of moles in the reservoir rather than surface volumes. • Use flash to calculate the number of moles in each phase and the oil and gas composition at the current pressure. the program will use the black oil properties for this calculation. Different compositions moving between tanks using transmissibility’s are also modelled.3 Fully Compositional fluid description Unlike standard Material Balance. • Remove these moles from the tank. - At each time step • Calculate the well performance. at the same time different injection compositions are also taken in to account. Analytic plots. the gravities and molecular weights at surface calculated from flashing the initial composition to surface. • Calculate the number of moles in the production over the time step using the gravities and molecular weights at surface calculated from the last flash.

65: Selecting the Fully Compositional option The PVT button will show an option to enter the compositions for tracking: Figure 6.66: Fluid Properties In this screen: Petroleum Experts .Describing the PVT Figure 6.46-47 Chapter 6 .

The results can be viewed in the same way as for the compositional tracking option. MBAL User Guide .Chapter 6 .68: EOS for use in the Fully Compositional PVT model The import can be done in the same way as shown earlier.Describing the PVT 47-47 Figure 6. The equation of state for each fluid in the system can be entered separately: Figure 6.67: Entering Composition.

Prepare the history matched model for forecasts (Fractional Flow Matching) Creating a well model in MBAL on which the forecast will be based • • • 7. the most realistic profile will be obtained if the effects of the surface network is modelled by importing the MBAL model in GAP . This quality check is based on what is physically possible and focussed towards determining inconsistencies between data and physical reality.@ Pb = 0.4 cP Oil gravity = 39 API Gas grav. Later in this chapter a description on how to transfer the data from Excel into MBAL will be provided.798 Water Salinity = 100.32 RB/STB Oil Visc. However. Of course. The following topics will be described: • Quality-checking the data that is available.XLS.000 PPM Production data This data is contained in an Excel file OILRES1. it provides a more realistic basis on which the forecasts can be made compared to the simpler fixed withdrawal options. Well Data Once the history matching is finished. data (IPR and VLP) will be provided so that a forecast can be made based on this information note that a well model is not necessary for performing forecasts in  Please MBAL.7 Quick Start Guide on Material Balance tool The objective of this example is to demonstrate the basic functionality of MBAL in terms of history matching options and performing predictions. = 0.1 Data Available PVT data (@ 250 deg F) • • • • • • • Bubble point (Pb) = 2200 psig Solution GOR = 500 SCF/STB FVF@ Pb = 1. History matching procedure to determine the OOIP and possible aquifer size.

top to bottom: Figure 7. the fluid has been defined as oil. On the menu bar go to Tools and click on Material Balance. On the menu bar go to Options and following screen appears.2: Setting Options the In this screen. The following options can be selected: Figure 7. The production history will be entered by tank.2 Setting up the Basic Model MBAL is set up in such a way so as to make it easy for the user to move through the screens in a wizard like fashion. Progressing to PVT | Fluid Properties the following data can be entered: Petroleum Experts . One can go from left to right on the options menu and for each option.1: Working path • • • Start MBAL and select the menu option File | New.2-39 Chapter 7 .Quick Start Guide 7.

H2S or N2 in it. In the PVT Input dialog. press the Match button to invoke the screen where the match data can be entered: Figure 7. The correlations that best match the fluid (require the least correction) will then be selected for use in the model.3: PVT data entry In this section the Black oil properties of the oil have been defined.Quick Start Guide 3-39 Figure 7. these will be matched to the available correlations. clicking on Match will lead to the screen where the regression between correlations and measured data will be done: MBAL User Guide .Chapter 7 . The water salinity was also specified (allowing calculation of the water properties) and indicated that the produced gas has no CO2.4: PVT Match data After the data has been entered. Since laboratory measured data for this fluid at bubble point conditions are available.

specifying the PVT properties of the fluid is finished. and Beggs for viscosity (Parameter 1 as close to 1 as possible and Parameter 2 as close to 0 as possible). In this case. and supply the following information: Petroleum Experts .4-39 Chapter 7 . In the main menu bar go to Input | Tank Data.Quick Start Guide Figure 7.6: Match parameters At this stage. Figure 7. Glaso is selected for bubble point. click the Match Param button to check the parameters of each of the correlations and select the one which requires the least correction. The next step is entering the initial data for the reservoir model.5: PVT Match data Once this is done. GOR and FVF calculations.

8: Tank Parameters MBAL User Guide . The next step is defining the aquifer support: Figure 7.Quick Start Guide 5-39 Figure 7.Chapter 7 .7: Tank Parameters The OOIP entered in this screen is only an estimate. obtained from geology for example.

the rel perm information can be specified: Figure 7.10: Rel Perms Petroleum Experts .Quick Start Guide As there is yet no evidence to suggest the presence of an aquifer. The rock compressibility options can be specified next: Figure 7.9: Rock Compressibility As soon as the compressibility is entered. this will be left to “None” for the time being.6-39 Chapter 7 .

XLS. Next step would be to history match the model. in terms of identifying and quantifying its various drive mechanisms and determining the OOIP and aquifer support. Figure 7.11: Production History This finishes our setting up of basic tank model. Note that this can be copied from the Excel file OILRES1. It is advisable to save the file at this point. MBAL User Guide .Quick Start Guide 7-39 The last data that we have to supply is the production history of the reservoir as shown in the following screen.Chapter 7 .

3 Chapter 7 . Since the pressure is always above the bubble point.12: Production History From the production history table. then there would be an inconsistency between PVT and production data. If this was not the case. Thus the data is consistent with the PVT. the history matching process can begin: Petroleum Experts . In the PVT section we indicated that the bubble point was 2200 psig and the solution GOR was 500 Scf/STB. it can be seen that the reservoir pressure is always above 2200 psig.8-39 7.Quick Start Guide Matching to Production History data in MBAL The first thing to do is to see whether our production history data is consistent with our PVT data. Figure 7. If we go to the production history screen in the tank input data. Indeed in this case all the gas rates converted into GOR values which are 500 SCF/STB. The source of this inconsistency would need to be identified before progressing with the history match. there should be no free gas and hence the producing GOR should be to the solution GOR. Having determined that there is no inconsistency in the data. we can click on the option Work with GOR at the bottom of the dialog and the gas rates are converted into producing GOR values.

Chapter 7 .14: History Matching Plots Three plots are available.Quick Start Guide 9-39 Figure 7. Note that in the graphical methods the plot shown in the screen above is the Campbell plot.13: History Matching This will prompt the plots used for history matching as shown below: Figure 7. and the Analytical method plot that shows the reservoir pressure Vs Cum Production from the historical data and the model. The energy plot. showing the relative importance of each drive mechanism currently in the model. the Graphical method where the diagnostics in terms of drives can be done. MBAL User Guide .

16: History Matching plots Petroleum Experts . the presence of an aquifer is very likely (source of energy).15: Initialising aquifer model an Going back to History Matching/All. the WD function plot (for the aquifer) will now be shown as well as the three plots seen originally: Figure 7. Therefore an aquifer model can be selected in the tank data section: Figure 7.10-39 Chapter 7 .Quick Start Guide Based on the response of the Campbell plot.

This eliminates the manual change of parameters to get a match between model and data which was done in the classical material balance calculations.Quick Start Guide 11-39 Look at the analytical method plot. the analytical plot has to be activated (by clicking once on the title bar of this plot for example) and in the menu bar of the above screen select the Regression option that will now appear: Figure 7. At the end of regression the values for which the best match is achieved are displayed.18: Regression parameters The parameters to select for regression will be the ones least trusted or the ones for which values were assumed rather than measured. the OOIP and the least trusted aquifer parameters were selected. then the “Best Fit” button can be selected in order to transfer these values into the model: MBAL User Guide . If they are accepted.17: Regression Option Selecting this option will prompt the Regression screen that will enable the selection of parameters to regress on. Figure 7. In this case. it can be seen that with the current aquifer model.Chapter 7 . The aquifer parameters along with the OOIP can now be changed so that the Campbell plot will become a straight horizontal line and the model matched the measured data in the analytical method plot. the model is predicting production rates higher than those actually observed. To activate the regression analysis button.

20: History Matching plots after regression is done The model obtained at this stage in terms of OOIP and various drive mechanisms satisfies all the methods and is therefore acceptable.12-39 Chapter 7 .Quick Start Guide Figure 7. Petroleum Experts . This file can now be saved as Oilres.mbi.19: Regression parameters After transferring the data if we click on done we get the following plots: Figure 7.

This is the best way to ensure that WC and GOR evolution in the future will be predicted correctly.1 13-39 Using Simulation Option to Quality Check the History Matched Model At this stage it must be noted that in the regression analysis that was done in the analytical plot. From the main menu the option History Matching | Run simulation | Calculate can be selected. MBAL User Guide . Â Note: The model is not ready at this stage to go ahead with predictions and study various development alternatives. Fractional flow matching should be done that will create pseudo relative permeability curves based on history.Chapter 7 .Quick Start Guide 7. The simulation option will perform the opposite calculation. measured reservoir pressures. there should be no discrepancy between reservoir pressures predicted from simulation and historical. At the end of calculation. the tank pressure and non primary phase production was fixed and production rate of the primary phase. the phase rates from the history are kept and the pressure is calculated from the material balance equations. the Plot option can be selected and the following plot will appear: Figure 7. If the model has been properly history matched. In this case both are identical and thus the match attained is good. With the model now history matched.3.21: Simulation This plot has the pressure with time plotted both from simulation and production history data. oil in this case. was calculated based on the material balance equations.

following the procedure outlined below. 7.Quick Start Guide Forecasting In performing Forecasts with a history matched model.1 Rel Perm Matching The creation of the Fractional Flow curves is done from: Figure 7. In MBAL the use of Pseudo Rel Perms is employed in predicting the water cut and GOR that would flow in the well along with the oil.22: Fw Matching Petroleum Experts .14-39 7. there was no way to do this based on material balance principles. These Rel perm sets provide the basis on which fractional flow curves are built. Traditionally. the amount of water and gas production (water cut and GOR) needs to be predicted accurately. since there is no geological model that would allow prediction of the water cut and GOR evolution. which in this case is the main phase.4.4 Chapter 7 .

Figure 7. the program will regress on the available historical data in order to fit the fractional flow curve to them.Quick Start Guide 15-39 Figure 7.23: Fw plot By selecting the “Regress” button on the menu bar of this screen.Chapter 7 .24: Regressing on available data the MBAL User Guide . This will in turn create a set of rel perm curves that will then be used to predict the fractional flow (in this case) of water when saturation in the tank increases.

16-39 Chapter 7 . In this case however. this is not possible as no free gas is available so the rel perms input in the reservoir data screen will be accepted for the forecast.25: Regression progress Figure 7.26: Result of Fw Matching The same can be done for the gas fractional flow. Petroleum Experts .Quick Start Guide Figure 7.

where the historical production of oil will be fixed (as measured) but not the production of water or gas.27: Fw difference between model and real input data In order to quantify exactly how much difference there is in terms of actual water cut in the history and the match of the model. I reality. this match is not always perfect because of errors in the data and scatter in the points.Chapter 7 . However.4. MBAL User Guide .2 17-39 Confirming the validity of the rel perms In cases where the match between the fractional flow curve and the historical points is good. These will be calculated based on the fractional flow curves and then compared to the historical production.Quick Start Guide 7. An example is shown below: Figure 7. the model is expected to reproduce the historical water cuts well. then a “Prediction of History” needs to be done.

28: Selecting prediction screen the setup Step 2: The following options need to be selected: Figure 7.18-39 Chapter 7 . the prediction setup option can be selected: Figure 7.29: Selecting prediction screen Petroleum Experts the setup . this is the procedure to be followed: Step 1: Under production prediction.Quick Start Guide In doing this forecast.

30: Copying historical production to impose on the forecast When the “Copy” button is selected.31: Accepting the data MBAL User Guide .Quick Start Guide 19-39 Step 3: Set the historical production volumes of oil to be extracted from the talk: Figure 7. the program will prompt the following message: Figure 7.Chapter 7 .

Quick Start Guide The historical rates will then be copied across: Figure 7.20-39 Chapter 7 .32: Historical production transferred Petroleum Experts .

Chapter 7 . the schedule is set to automatic: Figure 7.34: Selecting the prediction setup screen MBAL User Guide .Quick Start Guide 21-39 Step 4: Setting the Reporting Schedule: Figure 7.33: Selecting the prediction setup screen In the following screen.

the “Calc” button will run the prediction: Figure 7.Quick Start Guide Step 5: Running the prediction: Figure 7.36: Selecting the prediction setup screen Petroleum Experts .22-39 Chapter 7 .35: Selecting the prediction setup screen In the following screen.

37: Selecting the prediction setup screen If the “Variables” button is selected from the menu bar of the plot.Chapter 7 . the list of plot variables will be shown: Figure 7.Quick Start Guide 23-39 Step 6: Comparing the results.38: Selecting the prediction setup screen MBAL User Guide . In the prediction screen the “Plot” button will show a plot of the results in terms of pressure Vs time: Figure 7.

this illustrates that the model is ready for predictions.40: Selecting the prediction setup screen Where we can see a good agreement between the data and the forecast. Petroleum Experts .24-39 Chapter 7 .39: Selecting the prediction setup screen Select both the History.Quick Start Guide Figure 7. and prediction streams to be plotted together: Figure 7.

41: Selecting the prediction setup screen The first option allows a forecast without a well whereas the second requires a forecast with a well model. Having selected the relevant options: Figure 7.5 25-39 Predicting reservoir pressure decline without a well In MBAL there are various options for performing a forecast. The two main sub-groups for an oil system are: Figure 7. In this subsection we will look into a forecast without a well and in the next subsection a forecast with a well model will be performed.Quick Start Guide 7.42: Selecting the prediction setup screen MBAL User Guide .Chapter 7 .

Performing the forecast now: Figure 7.44: Selecting the prediction setup screen The results indicate that the reservoir can only support this for approximately 4 years only. The oil rate is.Quick Start Guide Then in the production and constraints screen the desired production of oil is entered: Figure 7. Petroleum Experts . until the reservoir does not have enough energy to support it. as specified earlier.26-39 Chapter 7 .43: Selecting the prediction setup screen This production will be kept constant throughout the prediction. 10000bbls/day.

45: Selecting the prediction setup screen In the Production and Constraints screen.6 27-39 Predicting production and reservoir pressure decline with a well model In the Options menu.46: Setting the well head pressure MBAL User Guide .Chapter 7 . the relevant options are selected: Figure 7.Quick Start Guide 7. the well head pressure now needs to be specified: Figure 7.

Quick Start Guide The next option relates to the well type definition: Figure 7.47: Well Type definition Selecting the + button will add a well in the model: Figure 7.28-39 Chapter 7 .48: Adding a well to the model Petroleum Experts .

49: Defining the well type As shown in the screen above the type of well can now be defined. in this case a naturally flowing oil producer.50: Well inflow screen MBAL User Guide . then the inflow and outflow for this well can be defined: Figure 7. Having done this.Chapter 7 .Quick Start Guide 29-39 Figure 7.

52: Importing the file Petroleum Experts *. The MIP file can be then imported: Figure 7.mip . Selecting the “Match IPR” button as shown above will prompt the IPR matching screen.Quick Start Guide An IPR model can be created in PROSPER.51: IPR matching screen Select the file from the relevant directory as shown below: Figure 7.mip file with all the inflow information needed for MBAL to calculate the PI. PROSPER can export a *. Assuming that the PI of the well is not known.30-39 Chapter 7 .

53: Importing finished The . the following message will appear: Figure 7.Chapter 7 . As soon as this is finished.mip file has allowed MBAL to pick up the reservoir pressure. WC and test data from the PROSPER file. Clicking on the “Calc” button will match this data to a PI and Vogel model: Figure 7.Quick Start Guide 31-39 Selecting “Done” will allow MBAL to import the file.54: IPR matching screen MBAL User Guide .

Quick Start Guide Figure 7.32-39 Chapter 7 .56: Calculated PI transferred onto the model Petroleum Experts .55: Regression parameters Selecting the “Done” button will allow the calculated PI onto the well model: Figure 7.

57: More Inflow screen Abandonment or breakthrough constraints can be added to the well model if necessary.Chapter 7 .Quick Start Guide 33-39 Having populated the IPR screen with the relevant data.58: Importing VLPs MBAL User Guide . the “More Inflow” screen can be selected now: Figure 7. Figure 7.

Selecting this will prompt the following screen: Figure 7.59: Importing VLPs The lift curves are stored as a *. the following message will appear: Figure 7.34-39 Chapter 7 .60: Importing finished message Petroleum Experts .Quick Start Guide The lift curves have been previously generated with PROSPER and can be imported using the “Edit” button shown above.tpd file and as soon as this imported.

61: Lift curves imported The data can also be plotted using the “Plot” button in the screen above: Figure 7.Quick Start Guide 35-39 The VLP data can be seen in the screen below: Figure 7.62: VLPs and IPR plot MBAL User Guide .Chapter 7 .

Quick Start Guide The well model is now completed and going back to the main screen of MBAL. This is done from the “Well Schedule” option: Figure 7.63: Reservoir Model with Well The well now needs to be scheduled to be active.36-39 Chapter 7 .64: Well Schedule Option Petroleum Experts . the well can be seen attached to the reservoir model: Figure 7.

66: Reporting Schedule MBAL User Guide .Quick Start Guide 37-39 In this screen.65: Adding well schedule As soon as this is finished. the well opening and/or closing times can be defined. along with any possible downtime that this well will occur during the forecast period: Figure 7. the reporting schedule can be set (to automatic): Figure 7.Chapter 7 .

38-39 Chapter 7 .67: Selecting prediction screen the setup In the calculation screen.68: Selecting prediction screen Petroleum Experts the setup . selecting “Calc” will generate the forecast: Figure 7.Quick Start Guide The model is then ready for the forecast: Figure 7.

the results can be plotted as in previous cases: Figure 7. MBAL User Guide . The completed MBAL file along with the constituting files can be found in the MBAL samples directory.69: Selecting prediction screen the setup This concludes the example.Quick Start Guide 39-39 Of course.Chapter 7 .

8 The Material Balance Tool Quotation by Muskat. However. taken from an expert in the 'Reservoir Engineering News Letter'. It is always instructive to try it. It will boomerang if applied blindly as a mystic hocuspocus to evade the admission of ignorance. - Predict the reservoir performance and well production for a given manifold pressure schedule. - Determine the presence. They continually unfold a past with an inevitability that defies all 'man-made' laws. Water/Oil. It should be a part of the 'stock in trade' of all reservoir engineers. etc. meaning that it is based on a tank model and does not take into account the geometry of the reservoir. The material balance program uses a conceptual model of the reservoir to predict the reservoir behaviour based on the effects of reservoir fluids production and gas to water injection. - Predict the reservoir pressure for a given production and/or injection schedule. But whether the engineer is clever or stupid. the position and orientation of the wells. encroachment angle. and why. To predict this past while it is still the future is the business of the reservoir engineer. but it will not fool the reservoir. - Estimate the depth of the Gas/Oil. the type and size of an aquifer. Reservoirs always do what they 'ought' to do. the material balance approach can be a very useful tool to: - Quantify different parameters of a reservoir such as hydrocarbon in place. In others it may be grossly misleading. right or wrong. the reservoir is always 'right'. September 1974: “The Material Balance method is by no means a universal tool for estimating reserves. if only to find out that it does not work. In some cases it is excellent. etc. etc. - Predict the reservoir performance and manifold back pressures for a given production schedule. . the drainage areas. Reservoirs pay little heed to either wishful thinking or libellous misinterpretation. gas cap size. Gas/Water contacts. The algebraic symbolism may impress the 'old timer' and help convince a Corporation Commission. honest or dishonest.” Overview: The material balance is based on the principle of the conservation of mass: Mass of fluids originally in place = Fluids produced + Remaining fluids in place. The material balance equation is zero-dimensional.

The Material Balance Tool 8. • Uniform pressure distribution. • Linear. • Constant temperature. gas cap and aquifers. Petroleum Experts . The Material Balance Program can handle: • Oil. gas or water injector wells. • The use of relative permeability tables or curves. radial and bottom drive reservoir and aquifer systems. gas lifted. • In predictive mode. • Gas injection in the gas cap. gas or condensate reservoirs.2 – 110 Chapter 8 .1 Material Balance Tank Model Assumptions: The Material Balance calculations are based on a tank model as pictured below:Figure 8. • The use of tubing performance curves to predict well production. • Uniform hydrocarbon saturation distribution.1: Material Balance Tool Tank Model Assumptions Throughout the reservoir the following assumptions apply:• Homogeneous pore volume. ESP. automatic shut-in of well based on production or injection constraints. • Naturally flowing.

The Material Balance Tool is divided into three main sections: 1. 2. WC or WGR.Pore volume fraction versus depth (optional). . Oil tanks with variable PVT vs. Depth.Relative permeabilities. where the following information can be entered: . .Relative permeability curves..Chapter 8 .. . − It is highly recommended to tune the reservoir & aquifer models if any production history data is available.A graphical method (P/Z.) is used to quantify the missing reservoir and aquifer properties. . the 'Production History' section of the Input menu. where: .Production and constraint schedules.A simulation of production can be run to check the validity of the results of the above two techniques. The INPUT section. .A well schedule or drilling program.110 Multiple tanks with transmissibilities between them. . − Relative permeability curves are used for tanks. .Gas. .transmissibility parameters (optional). Note: − It isn't necessary to enter the reservoir production history to run a Production Prediction. Where reservoir performances can be simulated assuming: . The PRODUCTION PREDICTION section. and History Matching menu can be left blank.Known and estimated reservoir parameters. 3.Production and injection history on a well to well basis or total tank production.The Material Balance Tool • • 3 .Known or estimated aquifer type and properties. Havlena Odeh . oil and water relative permeabilities can be estimated from historical GOR. MBAL User Guide .Gas contracts. − If data are not available to match the models. . .Well performance definitions. transmissibilities and wells in prediction – however their use in history matching is limited for calculation of transmissibility rates.An iterative non linear regression is used to automatically find the best mathematical fit for a given model. . . The HISTORY MATCHING section.

make sure that all wells belong to the same tank. At every step check the validity and consistency of the data (PVT. and • All available reservoir and aquifer data. please refer to the tutorials in Appendix A or the Quick Start guide for MBAL. go to Production Prediction. Find the best possible match using the program's non-linear regression the 'Analytical Method'. etc.2: Working path Petroleum Experts . If you choose to enter the production history well by well. Confirm the quality and correctness of the match. For more details. using the 'Graphical Method'.1 Recommended Workflow The following steps should be followed in a Material Balance study. • Production history. * 4. * This is the most common mistake. 1. Figure 8. Run a simulation to test the validity of the match. 7. * 3.The Material Balance Tool 8. Production. best way to use the program is from left to right on the options menu  The and for each option. 2. 5.1. Make certain you have the following data available: • PVT.4 – 110 Chapter 8 . 6. Then and only then.) * This is the most important step. • Reservoir average pressure history. Pressure History. top to bottom as shown in the Figure below. Enter the data.

Newer versions of MBAL are fully backward compatible.3: Graphical Interface When an existing file is opened. the program will place the reservoir components in the same position as when the file was last saved.The Material Balance Tool 5 . wells and transmissibilities (communication between tanks) are represented by unique graphical objects which may be easily manipulated on the screen. 8. As components are added. The following sections provide an explanation on adding.Chapter 8 . Figure 8. moving and deleting a graphical object. a reservoir model will appear on the screen as shown below: Figure 8.2.4: Graphical Interface MBAL User Guide .110 MBAL Graphical Interface 8.2 MBAL uses a graphical interface to facilitate the modelling of the reservoir system. the relevant input screens and fields are displayed prompting screens in which the appropriate data can be entered. All the reservoir components such as tanks. This sketch may be altered to suit personal preferences.1 Manipulating Objects When the Material Balance tool is selected.

based on the requirements for modelling a situation Petroleum Experts . Â These Refer to the Multi-Tank example in Appendix A for instance. these can be added to the system by using the component buttons shown below: Figure 8.6 – 110 Chapter 8 . Next. The data input screen for the selected component will appear. Enter the appropriate information and click Done. and circles to represent the wells. This illustrates how more than one reservoirs or wells are added to the system. If you click Cancel.The Material Balance Tool If the options are set up to allow multiple tanks and/or history wells. Prediction Wells – these are wells that can be used in a production prediction (calculate rates using VLPs and IPRs for example) Transmissibilities – used to model the interface between tanks To add a new component in the model: • Click the appropriate component button to the left of the main screen. Each component object has a different shape. options will be explored further in the form of examples later on. place the cursor anywhere on the screen and click again.g. The cursor should change to the shape of the object on top of a cross-hair. (E. MBAL currently uses squares to represent tanks.: Add Tank). diamonds to represent transmissibilities.5: Component Buttons The objects that can be added in the graphical plot include:• • • • Tanks History Wells – these are wells that include production data which can then be allocated to tanks on a fractional basis. MBAL will discard the new object.

click on the Move button as shown below: Figure 8. press the Shift key and click on the object to move. Alternatively. click the left mouse button and drag the object to a new position (keeping the left mouse button down).110 Moving Objects To move an object. will place it on a different position on the screen. This will prompt a menu on which the Disable option can be selected: Figure 8. MBAL User Guide . Release mouse button when the object is moved to the new position.7: Disabling an object This object will now be greyed-out from the screen and will be excluded from further calculations. Holding down the Shift key and dragging the object.The Material Balance Tool 7 .Chapter 8 . Place the cursor over the object to move. Enabling / Disabling Objects Objects can be very simply disabled from the screen by right-clicking on an object.6: Component Buttons The cursor will change to a shape with four arrows directed to the points of a compass.

3 Validating Object Data The MBAL smart data validation system allows the user to move freely within the input section of the program. As long as input data remain invalid.8 – 110 Chapter 8 .2. then the title of this screen will appear in red: Petroleum Experts .2.8: Disabling an object These options are self-explanatory and no further details will be provided here. 8. 8. If data entered in any particular screen are invalid. MBAL has a facility that allows you to view and handle the data more efficiently.2 Viewing Objects In the unusual situation where you may have a large number of components and data to manipulate. no calculations can be done of course. These editing facilities are located under the View menu: Figure 8. even if the data entered are invalid.The Material Balance Tool The same pop-up menu can also be used to delete or Edit items by selecting the relevant option.

10: Validation error message sheet titles highlighted in MAGENTA are empty but not invalid .110 Figure 8. This section describes the 'Tool Options' section of the System Options dialogue box.3 Tool Options Once the Material Balance is chosen from the Tool menu.this is  Data only a warning 8.Chapter 8 . MBAL User Guide . then a message with the cause of the validation error will appear: Figure 8.The Material Balance Tool 9 .9: Invalid screen If the Validate button is selected. go the Options menu to define the system setup.

• Yes Select this method if you wish to use the Abnormally Pressured Method to model the rock compaction. Abnormally Pressured (only available if reservoir fluid is set to Gas) • No Normal method using fixed. Tank Model • Simple • Multi Tank In this mode. or use the TAB button. the MBAL runs a single tank reservoir model. the currently selected tank will be modelled.11: Options menu To select an option. This model is as described in A Semianalytical p/z Technique for the Analysis of Reservoir Performance from Abnormally Pressured Gas Reservoirs. Ronald Petroleum Experts .10 – 110 Chapter 8 . To move to the next entry field. In this mode.The Material Balance Tool Figure 8. PVT Model The options relating to the PVT models in MBAL have been described in Chapter 6. correlated or table of rock compressibilities. If this model is selected when more than one tank exists. Input Fields Reservoir Fluid These options are listed and explained in Chapter 6 of the manual. the MBAL runs a multiple tank reservoir model with potentially different PVT per tank. click the field to highlight the entry. click the arrow to the right of the field to display the current choices.

In this case.A. and T. It is recommended that you read this paper before using this method. The Type Curve Plot displays the data as Ce(Pi-P) vs (P/Z)/(P/Z)i. Reference Date MBAL User Guide . Below this pressure a second straight line develops which is due only to the gas expansion. A number of type curves are displayed to guide you to the best match.Chapter 8 . The compressibility function Ce(Pi-P) that is developed from this theory is defined by three parameters:• OGIP Apparent • OGIP Actual • P/Z Inflection The OGIP apparent is the OGIP calculated from the early line on the P/Z plot. Below this pressure this Ce(Pi-P) remains at a constant value. Production History • By Tank This option requires you enter the production history for the each tank. SPE 71514. this method is based on the pattern of two straight lines often seen in the P/Z plot for abnormally pressured reservoirs. The P/Z plot allows two straight lines to be drawn to make a first estimate of the three input parameters. To summarize. Once you have defined the Ce(Pi-P) model using the history methods. The only difference is that the calculation of the pore volume at each pressure uses the new Ce(Pi-P) function rather than the input rock compressibility. you will have to enter the production history for each well and also the allocation factor to each tank – MBAL will then calculate the production history for each tank which can then be used in history matching. At a certain pressure the reservoir stops compacting. Blasingame. • By Well This option should be used if you have production history per well and the wells either take production from more than one tank or more than one well takes production from a single tank. If this method is selected then the normal history matching plots are replaced by two plots. Vico Indonesia. Texas A&M University. SPE. a P/Z Plot and a Type Curve Plot. There is also an automatic regression calculation to find the best fit for the three input parameters. SPE. Compositional Model These options are listed and explained in Chapter 6 of the manual. The P/Z inflection is the pressure at which the two lines intersect. The value of the Ce(Pi-P) function increases as the pressure drops to the P/Z Inflection value. The OGIP actual is the OGIP calculated from the late line on the P/Z plot. The early straight line is due to the rock compaction.110 Gunawan Gan.The Material Balance Tool 11 . The tank production history can then be used for history matching. the material balance calculations in the history simulation production prediction are performed exactly as before.

4.12 – 110 Chapter 8 . The format is selected for the time unit type in the Units dialog. • Time A decimal number of days. weeks. 23/12/2001 or 02/28/98. The Well Parameters dialog box is used to enter the pressure and the cumulative production or injection history for a well or group of wells.Wells Data menu and click on the Setup tab. If you have selected days. Figure 8. select the Input . weeks.The Material Balance Tool The format that time data is displayed in MBAL can be of two types:• Date A calendar date displayed in the format defined by Windows e.g. months or years since a reference date.1. 8. A screen similar to the following will appear: Petroleum Experts .4. 8.1 Setup To access the Well Parameters dialog.12: Options menu 8. months or years (rather than date format) then this field allows entering the reference date.1 Wells Data This option is enabled only if the “By Well” option is chosen of the Production History field in the Options menu.4 Input The following sections describe the MBAL program Input menu.

Setup A well can be creating by clicking on the + button shown above. MBAL User Guide . enter the cumulative production plus the static pressure in each well’s drainage volume where available.Chapter 8 . Note that for the current release we assume the same perforation heights for all the tanks that intersect this well.Wells Data menu and select the Production History tab. For existing wells. Perforation Bottom (for Variable PVT only) Defines the depth of the bottom of the perforation where the well perforates the tanks.4. Similarly.110 Figure 8. Production data can be entered even when no pressures are available.2 Production / Injection History To access the production/injection history. choose the Input .The Material Balance Tool 13 . Note that for the current release we assume the same perforation heights for all the tanks that intersect this well.1.13: Well Input Data . Input Fields Well Type Define the flow type of the well selected in the Setup data sheet. Perforation Top (for Variable PVT only) Defines the depth of the top of the perforation where the well perforates the tanks. a well can be deleted or copied by using the – or x buttons. 8.

To access the production allocation. GOR and CGR entered must be cumulative. 8.The Material Balance Tool Figure 8.3 Production Allocation This screen is used to allocate the well production to the different tanks if the well is producing from more than one reservoir (multi-layer system). Note  The that Cumulative GOR = Cum Gas / Cum Oil. A screen similar to the following will appear.1. You can connect/disconnect tanks to the current well by selecting or deselecting the tank in the Producing From list. choose the Input | Wells Data menu and select the Production Allocation tab.4.14 – 110 Chapter 8 .15: Well Input Data Production Allocation First select the producing tanks: The Producing From list shows which tanks are connected to the current history well. This enables the program to consolidate the tank production history on which history matching will be done.14: Well Input Data Production History production/injection. Figure 8. Petroleum Experts . The tank will be added to the allocation table.

The Reservoir Allocation tool can also be used to determine reservoir production allocation.4.0 allocates the complete well production/injection to a particular reservoir. allocation factor requires the user to decide the fraction of production  The that came from each layer. 8. 1. (See 'Reservoir Production History'.110 Next allocate a production fraction to each well: Allocation Fraction The fraction of the well production or the injection history to be allocated to the tank. MBAL User Guide . Any value between 0 and 1 is valid. taking into account the IPR of each layer as well as the rate of depletion.4. This is done by raising or lowering all the factors by the same proportion as required. This defines the multiplying coefficient to use for this well when the well histories are consolidated.2 Tank Input Data This section describes the options under: Figure 8.16: Well Input Data Production History 8.) Use the Normalise button to automatically change the allocation factors to obtain a total allocation of 1. If this fraction changes over time.The Material Balance Tool 15 . Each row should define the time at which the allocation factor takes effect.0.3 Tank Parameters This input data sheet screen is used to define the different tank parameters that are applied in the calculations. enter more than one row in the table.Chapter 8 .

the temperature will remain constant throughout the calculations. The “Calculate Pb” button will display the bubble point of the fluid for the reservoir temperature entered. Initial Pressure Defines the original pressure of the reservoir and is the starting point of all the calculations. tank with an initial gas cap. Although each reservoir model can have a different temperature from the others. Connate Water Saturation This parameter is used in the pore volume and compressibility calculations. If necessary.17: Tank Parameters Input Fields Tank type For the General fluid model.16 – 110 Chapter 8 . Petroleum Experts . This will effect how the input data is specified and define the wetting phase used in the relative permeability calculations. A water tank can be used to connect several hydrocarbon tanks to the same aquifer. this option can be used to specify the tank as predominantly oil or condensate.The Material Balance Tool Figure 8. this option allows the definition of a water tank. make sure the initial pressure of the  Intankan oilequals the Bubble Point pressure calculated at reservoir temperature in the PVT section of this program. Porosity The porosity entered here will be used in the rock compressibility calculations if the correlation option is selected the compressibility page. Temperature The reservoir models are isothermal.

Note that an initial oil leg can only be used if the General fluid model has been selected in the Options menu. MBAL User Guide . the program back  When calculates the water FVF from the compressibility. Initial Gas Cap (OIL Tanks Only) Defines the original ratio of the volumes occupied by gas and oil at tank conditions. the program will use an internal correlation to evaluate the water compressibility as a function of temperature. pressure and salinity. It can be defined as m = (G * Bgi) / (N * Boi) where G and N are volume at surface. This parameter will be disabled if the Initial Pressure is above the Bubble Point Pressure calculated by the PVT section at Tank Temperature. the program will interpolate/extrapolate from the PVT tables. the program will assume the water compressibility does not change with pressure. as accurate as possible. If a number is entered.The Material Balance Tool 17 . This is to avoid inconsistencies between different computations in the program. enter an approximate value as every Aquifer Influx model will give a different value for this parameter. Initial Oil Leg (CONDENSATE Tanks Only) Defines the original ratio of the volumes occupied by the gas and oil at tank conditions. • If left blank. If you plan to use the History Matching section. Start of Production The point in time when production started. It can be defined as n = (N * Boi) / (G * Bgi) where G and N are volume at surface. and if some values have been entered in the Water FVF column of the PVT Tables. Original Oil/Gas in Place This is usually the parameter you are interested in. a value.If the PVT Tables are in use. In this case. The correlation results can be read in the calculation screens or reports. If you do not plan to use the History Matching facility of this program. some using the water compressibility (Graphical and Analytical Methods). . the water FVF correlation used and displayed in the PVT section is ignored.110 Water Compressibility (This parameter is optional) The user has the choice of entering water compressibility or let the program use internal correlations. The same is used for the aquifer model connected to this reservoir model. or if there is no data for this parameter in the PVT tables.Chapter 8 . the others using the rate of change of water FVF (Simulation and Prediction).If the PVT Tables are not used. a 'Use Corr' message is displayed which indicates the program will do one of the following during the calculations:-: . must be entered. the water compressibility is specified.

For all new files the option is always switched on. if no fluid contact depth calculation is to be performed or the required data is not available. the production prediction will calculate the GOR for a layer using a gas coning model rather than using the relative permeability. This is ratio of the vertical permeability and the average radial permeability of the tank. MBAL is therefore applying material balance to the total pore volume (oil leg plus gas cap) so it can successfully model oil being pushed into the initial gas cap. If this option is selected. De-select the option. Water cut will still be calculated from the relative permeability curves. Select this option. In predictive mode. this option will make no difference to the results. you will be able to select water coning for any of the layers connected to this tank in the Production Prediction . Therefore the initial gas saturation in the pore volume is (1-Swc) *m / (1 + m) with m = (G*Bgi) / (N*Boi).Well Definition dialog. The gas coning model can be matched for each layer in the Production Prediction . you will be required to fill in the table in the 'Pore Volume Fraction Vs Depth' tab of the Tank Input dialog. Anisotropy (Gas/Water Coning Only) This is only required if the gas coning option for oil tanks is switched on. If gas coning is used. • Monitor Fluid Contacts Select this option if the program is to calculate the depth of the Gas/Oil.Well Definition dialog. When this option is selected. If water coning Petroleum Experts .18 – 110 Chapter 8 . If oil never encroaches into the initial gas cap.Well Definition dialog. It must also be selected if you also wish to select the Use Total Saturations option . • Gas Coning (oil fields only) This option can only be selected if Use Total Saturations and Monitor Contacts are also selected. • Dry Gas Producers (oil fields only) This option is only available if you read old data files. The gas coning model is based on reference 32. See section below on the method of calculation of fluid contacts. This is simply the average radial permeability of the tank. the initial pore volume is considered to be the gas cap + the oil leg. A check indicates the option is ‘On’. (See the Well Type Definition dialogue box). this table allows the triggering of gas/water breakthrough on the depth of the fluid contacts instead of the phase saturations. If selected. if the primary gas cap is being produced by dry gas producer wells. Oil/Water or Gas/Water contacts.see below for more information on this option. see Appendix B.The Material Balance Tool Permeability (Gas/Water Coning Only) This is only required if the gas coning option for oil tanks is switched on. • Water Coning (oil fields only) If selected. you will be able to select gas coning for any of the layers connected to this tank in the Production Prediction .

• Model water pressure gradient (gas fields only) Select this option. A check indicates the option is ‘On’. MBAL will the total saturations to determine the relative permeability’s. The changing pressure is then used to give the gas FVF of the trapped gas. After breakthrough the Wc develops roughly proportionally to the log of the Np. Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME. We then calculate the pressure from the current GWC down to the initial GWC using the density of the water. 1971". The water coning model can be matched for each layer in the Water Coning Matching Dialog. The water coning model is based on "Bournazel-Jeanson. any gas that expands beyond the Sgr will immediately move back to the gas cap. This method obviously has limitations if the fluid in the different PVT definitions is significantly different. We assume a constant Sgr so we assume that if the pressure drops within the water zone.110 is used. • PVT Definition (Multiple Tank Model Only) Select the PVT definition to use for this tank. to model the effect of changing pressure on the residual gas saturation trapped behind the advancing water front. • Calculate Pb (Oil tank only) Click this button to display a dialog that allows you to calculate the bubble point pressure. Within the material balance calculations we take into account the gas trapped behind the water as a separate phase using the Bg as calculated above. GOR will still be calculated from the relative permeability curves.The Material Balance Tool 19 . We calculate a gas FVF for the residual gas saturation. If different PVT definitions are used for different tanks. For low rates the breakthrough may never occur. Monitor contacts must also be selected if you wish to use this option as we need the GWC.Chapter 8 . The time to breakthrough is proportional to the rate. If there is no gas originally in the tank. particularly if the amount of gas injected is small compared with the total pore volume. In addition you must specify the Total Pore Volume for the gas storage tank. This is done by taking the tank pressure to be the pressure at the current GWC. to model gas injection into a tank containing water (and gas if specified). MBAL User Guide . When oil/gas/water moves from one tank to another. then leave the gas in place field at zero – otherwise enter the amount but ensure that the down-hole GIP is not greater than the total pore volume. MBAL treats them in a simple manner. the production prediction will calculate the Wc for each layer using a water coning model rather than using the relative permeability. So it is likely that water breakthroughs will be required on any production wells. • Total Pore Volume (Gas Storage Only) Enter the total pore volume for gas storage reservoirs as described above. to a maximum water cut. In prediction you may setup a scheme of injection and production to simulate the injection of gas for storage and its later retrieval. it immediately takes on the properties of the PVT definition associated with the tank into which the fluid is flowing. • Gas Storage (gas fields only) Select this option.

Model Select one of the different aquifer models available with this program.1 Water Influx This screen is used to define the type and properties of the aquifer.The Material Balance Tool 8. The remainder of the screen will change with respect to the aquifer model selected. System Defines the type of flow prevailing in the reservoir and aquifer system. system and boundary type selected. A description of each variable is only listed if there is some useful additional explanation. Boundary Defines the boundary for linear and bottom drive aquifers. choose Input .4.Tank Data and select the Water Influx tab. if any. Petroleum Experts . Radial Aquifers Reservoir Thickness This parameter is used to calculate the surface of encroachment of the aquifer by multiplying it with the radius and encroachment angle.18: Tank Input Data Water Influx Input Fields The particular input variables depend of the model. Choose none if no water influx is to be included. Sealed boundary means that the aquifer has only a finite extent as the aquifer boundary (not in contact with the hydrocarbon volume) is sealed. Constant pressure means that the boundary between the hydrocarbon volume and the aquifer is maintained at a constant pressure. Reservoir Radius This parameter is used to calculate the surface of encroachment of the aquifer by multiplying it with the thickness and encroachment angle. To access the water influx screen.3. A dialog box similar to the following is displayed: Figure 8. Infinite acting means that the aquifer is effectively infinite in extent. Otherwise please refer to Appendix C which describes the use of each variable within the Aquifer Functions.20 – 110 Chapter 8 .

2 Rock Compressibility This screen is used to define the Rock properties.3.4. Vertical Permeability Defines the aquifer vertical permeability.110 Outer/Inner Radius Ratio Defines the ratio of the outside radius to the inside radius of the aquifer model. See appendix C for details of the water influx equations. choose Input Tank Data and select the Rock Compressibility tab. Reservoir Width This parameter is used to calculate the surface of encroachment of the aquifer by multiplying it with the reservoir thickness. Then go to the next tab or press done to accept the changes or Cancel to quit the screen and ignore any changes. It is used to calculate the aquifer fluid expansion when reservoir pressure declines. or modify the data as required.Chapter 8 . A dialog box similar to the following is displayed: MBAL User Guide . Linear Aquifers Reservoir Thickness This parameter is used to calculate the surface of encroachment of the aquifer by multiplying it with the reservoir width. 8. Encroachment Angle Defines the portion of the reservoir boundary through which the aquifer invades the reservoir. Aquifer Volume Defines the amount of fluid in the aquifer. To access this screen. Bottom Drive Aquifers Aquifer Volume Defines the amount of fluid in the aquifer.The Material Balance Tool 21 . Enter. It is used to calculate the aquifer fluid expansion when reservoir pressure declines.

porosity) 2. you may enter rock compressibilities that vary with pressure.6e-6 if porosity < 0.6e-6 + (0.The Material Balance Tool Figure 8. However if you only have the Cf based on tangents. On Tangent:The Cf at pressure P and V is defined using the formula:1 dV Cf = − V dP where dV/dP is the derivative at pressure P.8e-05 Variable vs Pressure If this option is selected. This formulation means that the results are not dependant on the time steps selected. On Original Volume:The Cf at pressure P and V is defined using the formula. The internal correlation used is expressed as: if porosity > 0. There are two ways of defining the compressibility. the program will use an internal correlation to evaluate the compressibility as a function of the porosity.3 then Cf = 2.3 .3 then Cf = 2. The program ALWAYS uses the original volume Cf so this column must be entered to make the dataset valid. on original volume and on tangent.19: Rock Compressibility screen Input Fields From Correlation If this option is selected.415 * 7. Petroleum Experts .22 – 110 Chapter 8 . you may enter this column instead and then use the Calculate button to calculate the Cf based on original volume. 1 (V − Vi ) Cf = − Vi (P − Pi ) Where Vi and Pi are the pore volume and pressure at initial conditions.

the user must enter the formation compressibility and the program will assume that the compressibility does not change with pressure. The pore volume at each pressure will then be calculated using PV = PVi * Compaction Factor(P) See Table Data Entry for more information on entering the compaction data. the pore volume will not increase back to the original volume if the reservoir re-pressurises. Enter the P vs compaction factor. Calculate This option is available if Variable v Pressure is selected. MBAL User Guide .Cf(Pi-P))*Compaction Factor(P) Tank Control Fields See Tank Control Fields for more information. Command Buttons Plot This option is available if Variable v Pressure is selected. It will display a plot of the table data entered.110 User Defined If this option is selected. If you do not select this option. WARNING: The program will allow both the rock compaction and rock compressibility model at the same time. It can be used to calculate the Cf based on original volume from the Cf based on tangents (and visa-versa). If both models are used the program calculates the PV using:PV = PVi *(1.3 Rock Compaction Use this tab to define the Rock Compaction. Input Fields Enable Select this option to enable the model.The Material Balance Tool 23 .4. Reversible Select this option to make the model reversible.Chapter 8 .0 . This model can be used to help match to reservoir simulator data. 8.3.

20: Pore Volume vs Depth Petroleum Experts . choose Input .4.Tank Data and select the Pore Volume vs. To access this screen.20: Rock Compaction 8. A dialog box similar to the following is displayed: Figure 8.24 – 110 Chapter 8 .4 Pore Volume vs.The Material Balance Tool Figure 8. Depth tab.3. Depth. Depth This screen is used to define the Pore Volume vs.

as no geology is provided. either gas oil contact or oil water contact.The Material Balance Tool 25 .110 Material Balance analysis for reservoirs is based on treating the system as a dimensionless tank. In MBAL the addition of Pore Volume vs. Depth table. However. then the increase in the OWC can be calculated based on the PV vs. for the case below: MBAL User Guide . The traditional approach does not allow modelling of contact movements. The definitions for entering Pore Volume fractions are displayed in the Definitions section in this page as shown above. if the increase in water saturation is related to a pore volume fraction.(pore volume from top of oil leg to depth of interest)/ (total gas cap volume) For example. The definitions will automatically change depending on the fluids present in the tank at initial conditions. This tab is enabled only if the Monitor Contacts option in the Tank Parameters data sheet has been activated. The table displayed is used to calculate the depth of the different fluid contacts. This table must be entered for variable PVT tanks. Let us assume a situation where an aquifer is providing support to an oil reservoir. Depth for Oil Reservoirs: Below GOC: Pore Volume Fraction = (pore volume from top of oil leg to the depth of interest)/ (total oil leg pore volume) Above GOC: Pore Volume Fraction = . The aquifer will provide water that will encroach in the tank. Some details are provided below: Pore Volume vs. Depth table introduces a means of allowing contact movements. the water saturation in the tank will increase as a single number (no variation of Sw in the reservoir). thus increasing the water saturation. Pore volume is directly related to saturations of phases in the reservoir and these in turn are related to a given depth through this table.Chapter 8 . In classical material balance calculations.

0 8200 0.25 Oil pore volume fraction at 8600' from GOC = 2 / 2 = 1.0 Gas pore volume fraction at 8000' = .26 – 110 Chapter 8 .25 8350 1.0 So enter PV vs.The Material Balance Tool Total gas cap pore volume = 5 MMRB Total oil leg pore volume = 2 MMRB Oil pore volume fraction at 8200' = 0.0 Oil pore volume fraction at 8350' from GOC = 0.0 8600 For Gas/condensate Reservoirs:Above GOC: Pore Volume Fraction = (pore volume from top of gas cap to the depth of interest)/ (total gas cap pore volume) Below GOC: Pore Volume Fraction = 1. Depth table:PV TVD -1.5 / 5 = -1.0 8000 0. for the case below:- Petroleum Experts .0 + (pore volume from top of oil leg to depth of interest)/ (total oil leg volume) For example.5 / 2 = 0.

However.0 So the PV vs. left behind.e.0 Oil pore volume fraction at 8600' = 1 + 0. depth table to calculate the corresponding depth.21: Calculation Type Normal: The method of calculating the fluid contacts depends on the fluid type of the reservoir.5 / 0. Depth table can be entered as: PV 0.5 MMRB Gas pore volume fraction at 8000' = 0. then a given saturation can be set as trapped.0 0.0 TVD 8000 8120 8500 8600 There are three calculation methods related to this option: Figure 8.0 2.5 = 2.e. when a phase invades Pore Volume originally occupied by another phase. In each case we calculate the pore volume swept by the appropriate phase. the Sgr in the original gas cap and the Sor in the original oil leg.4 Gas pore volume fraction at 8500' from GOC = 5 / 5 = 1. We then use the pore volume vs.Chapter 8 . Model Saturation trapped when phase moves out of original zone: This method uses the same rules as the old method for the residual saturations of the phases in their original locations i.110 Total gas cap pore volume = 5 MMRB Total oil leg pore volume = 0.4 1.0 Gas pore volume fraction at 8120' from GOC = 2 / 5 = 0. This can MBAL User Guide .The Material Balance Tool 27 . i.

This screen defines the Residual Saturations and the different phase Relative Permeabilities.28 – 110 Chapter 8 . the gas saturation starts increasing immediately.5 Relative Permeability Relative permeabilities are required for production prediction and multi-tank history matching.3. as soon as the pressure drops below the bubble point.22: Trapped Saturation entry Residual Gas saturation trapped in oil zone (oil tank only): In the normal calculations. If this option is activated.The Material Balance Tool effectively be seen as “sweep efficiency” with a lot of flexibility in specifying the saturations trapped by each phase invading the pore volume originally occupied by a different phase: Figure 8. 8. Any further gas evolving out of the oil will create a gas cap. Petroleum Experts .4. then the gas will remain in the oil pore volume until the critical gas saturation is reached.

Gas Sweep Efficiency (oil reservoir only) The Gas Sweep Efficiency is used in the calculation of the depth of the Gas/Oil contact. .110 Figure 8. Modified Select from No. This parameter is only used in the calculation of the water contact and can be adjusted to match the measured depth when the production simulation does not reproduce the observations. . See section on Relative Permeability Hysteresis below for more information.23: Relative Permeabilities Input Fields Water Sweep Efficiency The Water Sweep Efficiency is used in the calculation of the depth of the Oil/Water contact or Gas/Water contact.The Material Balance Tool 29 .Corey Functions.The connate saturation for the water phase. MBAL User Guide . Corey Functions Residual Saturations Defines respectively: .User Defined input tables.The critical saturation for the gas phase. Hysteresis Select this option if you wish to apply hysteresis.The residual saturation of the oil phase for water and gas flooding. or . Rel Perm From Select whether the relative permeabilities are to come from . This parameter is only used in the calculation of the gas contact and can be adjusted to match the measured depth when the production simulation does not reproduce the observations. Stone 1 or Stone 2 modification. See Appendix C.2 for details of these modifications.Chapter 8 .

3.4.30 – 110 Chapter 8 . 8. A value greater than one will give a shape that curves below the straight line. it corresponds to its relative permeability at So = (1-Swc). Maximum Residual Saturations Enter the residual saturation that the system will return to if the reservoir reaches the maximum saturation. A value of 1. The program will interpret the residual saturation as the highest saturation with a relative permeability of zero.The Material Balance Tool These saturations are used to calculate the amount of oil or gas ‘by-passed’ during a gas or water flooding. Table Entry Enter the table data as requested. End Points Defines for each phase the relative permeability at its saturation maximum. Corey Exponents Defines the shape of the rel perm curve between zero and the end point. However if the hysteresis option is activated. then a different relative permeability curve will be used as the saturation drops.5. Consider the following relative permeability diagram: Petroleum Experts . See section on Relative Permeability Hysteresis below for more information. A value less than one will give a shape which curves above the straight line. For example for the oil.1 Relative Permeability Hysteresis The normal model assumes that the relative permeability curve follows the same path when the saturation increases as it does when the saturation decreases.0 will give a straight line.

4 Entering the Tank Production History To access the tank production history. 8.4. MBAL will display the calculated table. The calculation will automatically insert the residual saturation and maximum saturation into the table if they are not already specified in the input. in reality we rarely encounter a situation where the saturation increases to the maximum possible saturation before dropping again.3.5. It can also be calculated from the well production and allocation data entered in the Well Data Section using the Production Allocation table described below. User Selected:Enter a list of the saturations that you require to be calculated.3. This case is shown by the broken curve. Of course. when the saturation starts to rise it follows the normal curve from Sr to SMax. 8.5. Note that if you click the Reset button the start and end steps will be reinitialised to the residual saturations and maximum saturations. it will follow the broken curve back to the normal curve and then continue up the normal curve. If we had no hysteresis then the Kr would follow the same path when the saturation starts to fall. Note that if you click the Reset button all the user selected values will be removed. Then click Done to calculate the corresponding table. Now if the saturation drops from SMax it will follow a different path. It is more likely it will increase part of the way to the maximum possible saturation before dropping again.3 Production History This tab is used to enter the pressure and cumulative production/injection history of the tank. If the saturation starts to rise again. After completing the calculation.0 and rises to Kr=KrMax when S=SMax.3. However with hysteresis on. 8.The Material Balance Tool 31 . There are two ways to specify the input saturations:Automatic:Enter the start and end of the range of saturations you require and the number of steps into which the range should be divided.5.2 Calculate Tables from Corey Functions This feature can be used to calculate the equivalent relative permeability tables from the Corey functions. As before.Chapter 8 . In this case we scale the SrMax by comparing the maximum possible saturation and the actual maximum saturation so far in the reservoir.4. Similarly the calculation will exclude calculation of any saturations below the residual saturation or any saturation above the maximum saturation.4. we also enter the SrMax value. You must specify the saturations of each phase at which the tables should be calculated. The curve it follows has the same shape as the normal path but is transformed so that the Kr=0.0 when S=SrMax.110 The normal curve we enter begins at S=Sr where Kr=0. choose Input⏐Tank Data and select the Production History tab: MBAL User Guide .

Click on 'Variable' to select another data column to plot. When you supply the CGR. Calc Rate Calculates the tank production history rate only. the program automatically calculates the condensate cumulative production. Active only for By Well production history entries only.in this case the pressure value will be interpolated.32 – 110 Chapter 8 . Work with CGR (GAS Tanks Only) Check this box if you want to enter the cumulative CGR instead of the condensate cumulative production. GOR and CGR data points versus Time. Plot Displays the different production / injection. Report Allows creation of reports of production history data. reservoir pressure fields can left be blank if no data are available.The Material Balance Tool Figure 8. When you supply the GOR. Petroleum Experts . Active only for By Well production history entries only. Command Buttons: Calc Calculates the tank production history rate and pressure.24: Tank Input Data Production History Input Fields Work with GOR (OIL and CONDENSATE Tanks Only) Check this box if you want to enter the cumulative GOR instead of the gas cumulative production. Import Accesses Data Import (Chapter 4) facilities. the program automatically calculates the gas cumulative production. Â Some These points can optionally be included in the Graphical and Analytical Methods .

a detailed description of the geology is required. The program will combine the input tables using the ‘allocation factor’ defined for each well.5 Calculating Pressure the Tank Production History and Clicking Calc will consolidate the different well production tables entered in the Well Data Production History tabs. 8. This is because we can not calculate the consolidated pressure without knowing which wells are producing from which PVT layer and we do not know the PVT layer depths over time until we have done a full material balance. the old production history table will be destroyed and the new calculated one will be displayed. the cumulative productions are consolidated by adding the cumulative production/injection of each well corrected for its allocation factor. The average tank pressure is calculated from the static pressure of each well assuming that: ∑ p *V p= ∑V i i i i i The Vi is calculated from production history and PVT evaluated at the current reservoir pressure. these assumptions are in any way invalid. However if we assume an isotropic reservoir and all the wells start and stop at the same time. MBAL User Guide . To calculate an average pressure.4. Refer to Well DataProduction History above for the definition of the allocation factor.Chapter 8 . At each time step.5. In this case the calculations must be done outside of MBAL or with the Reservoir Allocation tool in MBAL.The Material Balance Tool 33 . we can estimate a drainage volume proportional to the rate.110 Calc and Calc Rate buttons are not available if the variable PVT model  The has been selected. After the calculations. then the calculation will yield  Ifincorrect answers.3.

There are two differences between the Calc button and the Calc Rate.3.34 – 110 Chapter 8 . 8.4.3. The purpose of two buttons is to allow different well allocations to be used when calculating pressures and rates.25: Tank Input Data Tank Production History Calculate 8.4. Figure 8. it does not calculate the tank pressures. Firstly.5.6 Calculating the Tank Production History Rate Only Clicking Calc Rate will consolidate the different well production tables entered in the Well Data Production History tabs.7 Plotting Tank Production History Clicking Plot displays the production data from the different wells.26: Tank Input Data Plotting Tank Production History Petroleum Experts .The Material Balance Tool Figure 8.5. Secondly it does not delete the existing tank production history table but uses the existing times and pressure at which to recalculate the rates.

This tab simply shows a different view of the data entered in the Production Allocation data page in the Wells Data dialogue.110 Production Allocation This tab is visible only if the by Well option of the Production History field in the Options Menu is selected. Next allocate a production fraction to each well: Allocation Fraction The fraction of the well production or injection history to be allocated to the tank.0 allocates the MBAL User Guide . de-select the well name in the list. Any value between 0 and 1 is valid. each table shown is per tank . Figure 8. To access.3. In this tab.each column in the table is for one of the wells connected to the current tank. In the Wells Data dialog each table shown is per well .Chapter 8 . Defines the multiplying coefficient to use for this well. 1.8 35 .The Material Balance Tool 8.each column in the table is for one of the tanks connected to the current well. choose Input⏐Tank Data and select the Well Production Allocation tab. To disconnect a well. highlight the well in the Wells list.4. These can then be used to calculate the tank production history from the Well Production History. You may enter allocation factors that change over time. when the well histories are consolidated. To connect a well. This will remove the well from the table.27: Production Allocation First select the producing wells: The Wells list shows which history wells are connected to the current tank. The Well Production Allocation tab is used to enter the allocation factors for each tank. You can connect/disconnect wells to the current tank by selecting or deselecting the well in the Wells list.5. The well will be added to the allocation table.

0 switches this well off completely. choose Input⏐ Transmissibility Data and select the Setup tab: Petroleum Experts .4. Figure 8. (See 'Reservoir Production History'.The Material Balance Tool complete well production /injection to the tank. 8. enter more than one row in the table. 0.4.36 – 110 Chapter 8 . The Transmissibility Parameters dialog box described in the following section is used to establish the different communication links between tanks.4 Transmissibility Data This option is enabled only if the Multi Tanks option is chosen in the Options menu.28: Transmissibility Data 8.1 Transmissibility Parameters To access the Transmissibility Parameters tab. Each row should define the time at which the allocation factor takes effect.4.) If this fraction changes over time.

Input Fields Tank Connection Defines the tanks connected through this transmissibility. Qg and Qw using the relative permeability curves. Permeability Correction of Transmissibility MBAL User Guide .Chapter 8 .110 Figure 8. The relative permeability curves can be corrected to maintain their shape but starting from the breakthrough saturation. Two tanks must be specified. C is the transmissibility constant. P is the pressure difference between the two tanks. Data sheets containing invalid information for the connection selected will automatically be highlighted RED. Data sheets containing missing but not invalid data will be highlighted MAGENTA. This is only a warning. i is the viscosity permeability of phase i. If relative permeability curves have been entered for the transmissibility. Press Validate to run the validation procedure and pinpoint any possible errors. Certain phases can be prevented from flow by using the Breakthrough Constraints described below. it will use those belonging to the transmissibility. Qt is then split into Qo.29: Transmissibility Input Data – Setup Select transmissibility from the list to the right of your dialog. The µi where: Qt is the total downhole flow rate. Otherwise it will use the relative permeability curves from the producing tank – this will depend on the sign of the P.The Material Balance Tool 37 . The connection between the tanks can also be created on the main plot (see Manipulating Object section above) Transmissibility This parameter defines the transmissibility between the transmissibility model implemented in MBAL is the following. Kri is the relative permeability of phase i. Kr Qt = C * ∑i i * ∆P tanks.

If you wish the relative permeability to increase smoothly after reaching the breakthrough saturation. If a value is entered. If the two tanks have different pressures. As a simulation or prediction progresses and the tank pressures change from their initial values.38 – 110 Chapter 8 . This will shift the relative permeability curve so that it starts at the breakthrough saturation but maintains the shape of the original curve. enter an asterix in these fields (‘*’). one or two phases can be prevented from flowing until the corresponding phase saturation reaches a pre-set value. As soon as the pressure difference increases to above the threshold pressure. The permeability decrease is proportional to the ratio of the current pore volume to the initial pore volume raised to a power. it is assumed that this was caused by the tanks being at different depths and the pressure difference is purely due to hydrostatic effects. As the prediction or simulation progresses. the transmissibility is assumed to have started to flow and we model it as for 'No Threshold' above. If Use Own is selected then the user must click 'Edit' and enter a set of relative permeability’s specifically for the transmissibility. the relative permeability will jump from zero to the value at the breakthrough saturation. MBAL checks if the pressure difference across the transmissibility is above the threshold pressure. it will never close again for a particular Petroleum Experts . Three important points:Once the pressure difference increases above the threshold and the transmissibility starts to flow. it will tell the program that the corresponding phase will not flow until the phase saturation in the upstream tank reaches this value. The formula used is:- k = k i (1. A transmissibility is assumed to allow flow between tanks as soon as the pressure difference changed from the initial pressure difference. In other words the transmissibility does not require a significant pressure difference before it allows fluid to flow. Pressure Threshold No Threshold Tanks which are joined by transmissibilities are assumed to have equal potentials.The Material Balance Tool This factor can be used to correct the transmissibility for changing permeability in the tank as the pressure decreases. MBAL always subtracts the initial pressure difference to remove the effect of hydrostatic pressure differences. Rel Perms Used to select which set of relative permeability’s should be used. the transmissibility is modelled as not allowing flow between the tanks. Use Threshold with Equal Potentials This option allows the user to specify a pressure threshold. If not. In other words there is no flow between tanks when they are at their initial pressures. If Use Tank is selected then the relative permeability’s are taken from the tank from which the fluid is flowing. Breakthrough Constraints In an attempt to take into account the geometry of the reservoir. select the Shift Relative Permeability to Breakthrough option.0 + C f (P − Pi )) N Where N is the entered value. If no breakthrough constraints are required. When the saturation reaches the breakthrough value.

To do so check the From History check box and fill in the Production History tab described below. This means that any pressure difference calculated is simply the difference between the current tank pressures and it does NOT subtract the initial pressure difference. Note that for this case.Chapter 8 . we do not subtract the pressure threshold. So any pressure difference is always the current pressure difference minus the original pressure difference. flow rates between tank can be obtained from a look-up rather than computed using the above equation. MBAL User Guide . This is true even if the pressure difference drops below the threshold pressure. This option can be useful if the fluxes between the tanks have been calculated in a reservoir simulator.The Material Balance Tool 39 .110 simulation/prediction. The transmissibility production history will then be used for a history simulation and any history simulation at the beginning of the production prediction. MBAL still obeys the rule that tanks are initially at equal potentials. MBAL assumes that the pressure threshold works in both directions so it always checks the absolute pressure difference being above the pressure threshold. Once the transmissibility has started to flow we do all transmissibility calculations on the normal pressure difference i. Use Threshold with Unequal Potentials This option is exactly the same as the ‘Use Threshold with Equal Potentials’ except for the following difference:MBAL now assumes that the initial pressure difference in the tanks was not due to hydrostatic differences but due an actual potential difference which was supported by the pressure threshold in the transmissibility. Use Production History If need be.e. It can also be used to calculate an equivalent transmissibility which can be used in prediction.

30: Transmissibility Input Data . Select a transmissibility from the list to the right of your dialog. As inputs it uses the production history.The Material Balance Tool 8. This can be used in a history simulation and also in the history simulation part of a prediction. such fluxes can be entered in this screen. the program will use this table as a lookup table to estimate the fluxes between tanks rather than using the correlation.40 – 110 Chapter 8 .Production History If the fluxes between the tanks are known. The matching is performed after the MBAL history simulation run. This data can be used to calculate an equivalent transmissibility. the relative permeability curves of the producing tank and the PVT. 2. Petroleum Experts . Enter the time and cumulative rates. This data may be used in two different places. Although the table has columns for Delta Pressure and the pressure of the two adjoining tanks. When this screen is re-entered. Match: This option allows you to calculate a transmissibility equivalent to the production history. choose Input - Figure 8. these values are calculated internally by MBAL – so there is no need to enter anything in these columns. See Transmissibility Matching below for more information.4. the columns will be updated automatically. tab. 1.2 Transmissibility Production History To access the Transmissibilities Production History Transmissibility Data and select the Production History tab.4. for example from a reservoir simulation run. If the ‘Use Production History’ check box is checked on the Transmissibility Parameter screen.

not work if MBAL User Guide . there is always a unique saturation for which such a ratio has a particular value. If you click on the Regression menu item. It is done as follows:- • • Calculate the Fw/Fg/Fo from the production history Fw/Fg/Fo can also be expressed as a ratio of relative permeabilities e. and thus a unique set of Kr values. Either enter curves for the transmissibility in the Setup tab or enter the rel perm curves for both tanks connected to the transmissibility.4. Enter a set of production history points in the Transmissibility Data dialog. the total rate and delta pressure can be simply calculated from the production history. MBAL plots the total downhole rate versus the delta pressure between the two tanks.3 41 . However the relative permeabilities are more complex.110 Transmissibility Matching This plot can be used to calculate C by matching on production history for that transmissibility. This is done simply by minimising the error in the basic transmissibility equation:⎛k k rg ⎞ k ⎟ Qtot = C∆P⎜ ro + rw + ⎟ ⎜µ µ µ w g ⎠ ⎝ o In this process. MBAL calculates the transmissibility factor (C) which best matches the data. This method of transmissibility matching does  breakthroughs on fluid contact depths have been used. It also calculates the total mobility for each point. If you wish to increase/decrease the weighting on a data point then double click the point to display the Match Point Status dialogue. The Match Point Status dialogue will be displayed on releasing the mouse button and the new setting will be assigned to all the points within the area selected. To set the weighting for a group of points at once. Note that only transmissibility production history can be used which is normally only available from reservoir simulators.g.Chapter 8 . k rw Fw = • µw k rw k ro + µw µ o Since relative permeabilities for different phases have opposite trends. For each point in the transmissibility production history data.4. The following must be performed before matching can take place:Enter the PVT.The Material Balance Tool 8. select a range of data points whilst holding down the right mouse button. Enter the relative permeability curves. The transmissibility can be matched on a transmissibility-by-transmissibility basis.

please refer to Chapter 13 of this manual.6 Input Summary This menu option displays the results table of the validation procedure.5 Transfer from Reservoir Allocation If an initial analysis was done with the Reservoir Allocation tool in MBAL. the model and results can be directly transferred to the Material Balance tool. For easy identification.7 Input Reports Please refer to Chapter 5.4. Petroleum Experts . Data sheets highlighted in MAGENTA are empty but not invalid . Figure 8.this is only a warning.31: Transfer from Reservoir Allocation For details on the reservoir allocation tool. “Plots and Reports” for an explanation on generating reports.42 – 110 Chapter 8 . This avoids re-entering the same data for the reservoir models and the wells in the system. 8. Invalid data sheets and sections in error are highlighted. data sheets that contain errors are highlighted in RED.4. The table indicates each object entered in the data set by name.The Material Balance Tool 8. 8.4.

MBAL User Guide . Figure 8.The Material Balance Tool 8.32: History Matching Options menu Overview MBAL provides four separate plots to determine the reservoir and aquifer parameters: • Graphical Method • Analytical Method • Energy Plot • Dimensionless Aquifer Function (WD) Plot However if the abnormally pressured gas reservoir option is used.Chapter 8 . Simultaneously To open all the plots. Individually To open one plot.110 History Matching The following sections describe the MBAL program History Matching menu. MBAL provides two different plots: • P/Z Graphical Method • Type Curve Plot All four plots can be displayed individually or simultaneously. select the appropriate plot option from the History Matching menu. The Dimensionless Aquifer Function Plot is only available if an aquifer  model has been activated in the model. select the All option from the History Matching menu.5 43 .

Plots may be tiled or cascaded for an alternate display arrangement.33: History Matching screen Setup History Step Size During a history matching calculation. any change to the reservoir or aquifer properties will automatically be reflected on all plots. If the User Defined method is selected. 3. 4. That is.e. De-synchronising plots can be useful when the calculations are too slow (due to the number of data points for example). The history step size controls these intermediate steps. Plots can be de-synchronised by choosing the Windows⏐Synchronize Plots menu from the display menu. 5. has the input focus. This is due to the complications caused by the Petroleum Experts . If the automatic option is selected. 6. the following applies: 1. This is particularly important if production history data points are far apart. i. 8. When the calculations are finished. will make it active. If this case. it may also perform calculations at intermediate steps to ensure that aquifer responses are correctly modelled. New menu bar options will be displayed to reflect the current active plot. then the calculation step is controlled by the user. only the current active plot needs to be updated. This plot will normally have a blue title bar whereas the inactive plots will have a grey title bar.The Material Balance Tool Simultaneous Plot Display When more than one plot is open is displayed at a time. MBAL will perform calculation steps at least every 15 days (more often if production history points occur more frequently). The menu options vary between plots.44 – 110 Chapter 8 . Clicking on an inactive plot.1 History Setup This dialog is used to set various general inputs for the history matching section of the material balance tool: Figure 8. MBAL will always perform simulation calculations at each production history point to be included in the calculation. By default all plots (active and inactive) are synchronised.5. and the updating of all plots is taking too long. simply clicking an inactive plot will refresh / update it. If you are running a multi-tank model you will quickly be aware of the fact that calculations are slower compared to single tank models. 2. The menu bar always displays the enabled options of the current active plot. Only one plot is active at a time. However.

choose the History Matching⏐Analytical Method option. Note that the leak rates are always added to the analytic plot.2 Analytical Method The analytical method uses a non-linear regression engine to assist in estimating the unknown reservoir and aquifer parameters. the response of the model is plotted against historical data.but they are still not included in the actual regression algorithm. To access the analytical method plot.Chapter 8 . F. In the analytical plot regression the rules are somewhat different.g. the calculations can be significantly speeded by increasing the calculation step size. 1000 days) the calculations will only be done at the times of the production history data points. Since the pressures are estimated. the analytic regression and the history simulation. This method is plot based.34: Selecting the Analytical Method MBAL User Guide .The Material Balance Tool 45 . Qg) displayed on the graphical plots. This step size applies to calculation of all the history matching plots. If the estimated points are to be included in the calculations then the following rules apply: In the plot display it will use the estimated pressure points exactly as if they were normal points. Include transmissibility rates in graphical plots This option allows adding the transmissibility rates to the various rates (e. Also for multi-tank cases it will also use the estimated points in the initial history simulation to calculate the transmissibility rates.110 transmissibility calculations. History Matching Plots Exclude Data Points with Estimated Pressures This option allows you to exclude any history production data points that have no pressure values and normally have the pressure value estimated by MBAL. If no strong aquifers exist in the model. i.g. Figure 8. In fact if a very large number is entered (e. However for the multi-tank option we still use the estimated points in the history simulations that are run every iteration (we only use the rates for the history simulation anyway) . we do not include them in the regression. 8. If this option is selected then the estimated points are excluded from all display and calculations.5.e.

35: Analytical Method plot On this plot. check the PVT properties or tables. This curve is the calculated cumulative production of the reservoir with aquifer (if present) but without the effect of the transmissibilities (by default this is a red dotted line although the colour can be changed) Petroleum Experts . the program calculates the production of primary fluid based on the tank pressure and the production of secondary fluids from the history entered.The Material Balance Tool The following is a typical analytical method plot: Figure 8. If the tank has an aquifer then a second curve will also be displayed. This curve is: - The calculated cumulative production using the reservoir & aquifer parameters of the last regression (a solid line). If it is not the case.46 – 110 Chapter 8 . This line should always under-estimate the production and should always be located on the left hand side of the historical data points. the PVT is determined directly and calculations are considerably faster than it would be to calculate the pressure from all the rates – this is particularly important when doing regression. If using a multitank system. Oil Reservoir Tank Pressure Gas production Water production Gas injection Water injection Calculated Oil production Values Water Influx Inputs Gas Reservoir Tank Pressure Water production Condensate Reservoir Tank Pressure Condensate Production Water production Gas injection Water injection Gas Equivalent production Gas production Water Influx Water Influx The plot always displays at least one curve and the history data points. another curve will also be displayed. The calculation is done this way because it for a given pressure. This curve is:- The calculated cumulative production of the reservoir without aquifer (by default this is a blue line although the colour can be changed) red line (calculated production of the reservoir without aquifer) is  The plotted as a safeguard to ensure the validity of the PVT and other reservoir properties.

Regression Run the regression calculation. we do not recalculate immediately . etc. Use this menu to select the tank that you wish to view. select the Calculate menu item. The analytic plot only shows the response for one tank at a time. Sampling 8. MBAL User Guide . On Time. Before plotting  For the data. cumulative oil for an oil tank and cumulative gas for a gas tank). Similarly the Next and Previous menu items can be used to change the tank that is currently plotted. Regressing on Production History To access the Regression dialog box. the plot displays one tank at a time. We calculate the equivalent of a history simulation where the pressures are calculated for the input oil. we do not display the line without the effect of the aquifer or the transmissibilities.e. If any data is changed.Chapter 8 . This allows you to change the input data directly. click the Regression plot menu option. MBAL first runs a history simulation with the current model to calculate the transmissibility rates. The data displayed on the plot is for one tank at a time. These rates are then added to/subtracted from the tank production history as if it was real production.1 This menu contains various items for changing the data on which the plot and the regression work. The content of this dialogue box depends on the type of reservoir and aquifer selected the existence of a gas cap. use the Tanks. Disable All act on all points in the current tanks production history. We then plot the calculated pressure and input pressure both versus the main phase cumulative production (i.2. Note however that during a regression the complete multi-tank model is calculated for each new estimate.when you are ready to recalculate the plot to show any changes to the tank/transmissibility data. Since we have to run a full simulation for each calculated line. On Reservoir Pressure and On Production History is used to automatically enable only 10 points in the production history. Input Access the standard tank and transmissibility edit dialogs. then for the single tank case the plot is recalculated immediately. As the multi-tank calculation can be very slow. gas and water rates. a multi-tank model. Disable Estimated Points will disable any points that do not have any pressure entered and therefore would normally have the pressure estimated. The tank response can then be calculated as for a single tank model. Exclude Data Points with Estimated Pressures is the same as described in the History Matching Setup section. Show Estimated Pressure Points affects the display only. Enable All. If you wish to change the tank that is plotted. It is used switch on/off the display of points with no pressure value. Previous Tank or Next Tank menu items.5. The sampling will be equally spaced on the quantity in the menu selected.The Material Balance Tool 47 .110 However for generalised material balance we do something different. Menu Commands Tanks Only for multi-tank option.

36: Regression Option When this option is selected. For single tank cases. these values can be reset to the values entered in the 'Reservoir Parameters' and 'Water Influx' dialogue boxes by clicking the Reset command button. the following screen will appear. click on the Yes/No button to the left of the Start column.48 – 110 Chapter 8 . Petroleum Experts . this is done by selecting the tick box to the left of the parameters. press the Filter button .press it again to display them again. If you wish to remove (filter) all unselected parameters from the regression dialog.37: Analytical Method Regressing on Production History Running a Regression: • Select the parameters you want to regress. If necessary. For multi-tank cases. allowing selection of parameters to regress on and to perform the regression: Figure 8. • Click Calc. • Enter the starting value of the regression in the centre column.The Material Balance Tool Figure 8.

Return to the plot by closing the current dialog box. Depending on the menu option selected. others will not. click the button (for single tanks) or the button (for multitanks) in the centre column between the values. Command Buttons Calc Start the regression calculation. The program will copy the value across. The program will display in the right hand column the best set of parameters found up to that point. Start a new regression by clicking Calc. Reset This button re-initialises the regression starting values to the original set of reservoir and aquifer parameters entered in the Reservoir Parameters and Water Influx dialogue boxes.1 = 0 for oil reservoirs (F . 8.2 History Points Sampling It is sometime an advantage in the first stages of a study to reduce the number of history data points used in the regression. MBAL offers a simple tool of automatically reducing to 10 the number points used in the regression.2. After a few iterations (maximum 500) the program will stop.5. click the button (for single tanks) or the button (for multi-tanks) between 'Start' and 'Best fit'.1 = 0 for gas or condensate reservoirs To obtain a dimensionless error term. the program will sample the data based on 'equal' time. • The regression can be stopped at any time by clicking the Abort command button. cumulative production or pressure steps.1 usually indicates an acceptable match.Chapter 8 .We) / (G*E) . note that the 'best mathematical fit' may not necessarily be the best  Please solution. The plot now shows the production calculated using the latest set of parameters.110 The program regresses on the So + Sg + Sw = 1 equation. The program will then immediately recalculate the new production. MBAL User Guide . The program will automatically copy the values in the centre column into the fields of 'Reservoir Parameters' and 'Water Influx' dialogue boxes.The Material Balance Tool 49 . Some of the parameters may seem probable.We) / (N*E) . For the multi-tank case the standard deviation is the total error in pressure divided by the number of points in the regression. To use the regression results for one of the parameters as a starting point for the next regression. and display in the right hand column the set of parameters giving the best mathematical fit. To transfer all the parameters at once. the standard deviation shows the error on the material balance equation re-written • • • • (F . • For single tanks. A value less than 0.

The above dialogue box appears. Data points considered to be more accurate than others can be set to HIGH to force the regression to go through these points.Set Match Point Status (Single Point) Using the LEFT mouse button. the point weighting (High / Medium / Low) and/or status (Off/On). Points that are switched off will Petroleum Experts .39: Analytical Method .The Material Balance Tool Figure 8.3 Changing the Weighting of History Points in the Regression Each data point can be given a different weighting in the Regression. double-click the history point to be changed. as shown above. The Enable All option cancels any sampling previously performed and resets the weighting of all the points to 'medium' (see below).50 – 110 Chapter 8 . Secondary or doubtful data points can be set to LOW or switched OFF completely.38: Sampling Select the Sampling menu option followed by one of the sub-options available. Choose as required.5. displaying the point number selected. Figure 8.2. 8.

Figure 8.40: Selecting multiple points When the mouse button is released. they will appear as shown in the diagram below: MBAL User Guide .40: Analytical Method – Set Match Point Status (Multiple Point) All the history points included in the 'drawn' box will be affected by the operation.110 not be taken into account in the regression or production calculations. Click Done to confirm the changes. Choose the points' weighting (High / Medium / Low) and/or status (Off / On) as desired. If points are switched off. draw a dotted rectangle over the points you want to modify as shown below: Figure 8. Click Done to confirm the changes. Using the RIGHT mouse button and dragging the mouse.The Material Balance Tool 51 . a dialogue box similar to the above will appear. displaying the number of points selected.Chapter 8 .

The Material Balance Tool Figure 8.42: Selecting the Graphical Method Petroleum Experts . choose History Matching⏐Graphical Method: Figure 8.52 – 110 Chapter 8 .3 Graphical Method This graphical method plot is used to visually determine the different Reservoir and Aquifer parameters.41: Point status on or off Points ON Points OFF 8. To access the graphical method plot.5.

For this purpose. please refer to the appendices and relevant literature. the MBAL User Guide .44: Campbell Graphical Method The aim of most graphical methods is to align all the data points on a straight line. The examples (quick start or Appendix A also provide some detail with regards to Campbell or Cole plots in particular) The different plots can be selected from the Graphical Plot menu as shown below: Figure 8.Cole ((F-We)/Et) .P/Z .Odeh (over -pressured) .43: Campbell Graphical Method The following different methods are available: • For Oil reservoirs • For Gas/Condensate reservoirs . in some cases the slope of the straight line) gives some information about the hydrocarbons in place. a 'straight line tool' is provided to attain this information.Odeh (water drive) -(F-We)/(Eo+Efw) vs Eg/(Eo+Efw) .P/Z (over pressured) .Havlena .Chapter 8 .F-We versus Et . .The Material Balance Tool 53 .Havlena .110 The following is a typical Graphical Method plot: Figure 8. The intersection of this straight line with one of the axes (and. This line 'tool' can be moved or placed anywhere on the plot.F/E versus We/Et.Havlena-Odeh. Depending on the method selected.(F-We)/Et versus F (Campbell) . .Roach (unknown compressibility) For a more detailed description of each method.

The Material Balance Tool slope of the line (when relevant) and its intersection with either the X axis or Y axis is displayed at the bottom part of the screen. Transmissibility and Aquifer parameters can be changed without exiting the plot by clicking on the Input. the program will automatically refresh/update the plot(s). 8. menu options: Figure 8. squares may also be seen at the ends of the line which can be moved as well to get a manual fit to the data.54 – 110 Chapter 8 .2 Straight Line Tool The Graphical Method straight line tool is composed of 4 elements: a straight line.3.46: Straight line tool for Campbell plot The line can be moved by dragging the square in the middle of the line. and squares which are used to move the line around the screen: Figure 8...45: Access to Input Data On closing the dialog box.3.1 Changing the Reservoir and Aquifer Parameters Reservoir. Depending on the method chosen.5. 8. Petroleum Experts .5.

5. 8.4 Locating the Straight Line tool If the straight line 'tool' disappears or becomes to small due to a change of scales. 8. Moving the line 'tool' also  Care changes the Oil or Gas in place value in the Input⏐Reservoir Parameters dialogue box. values for each match point: MBAL User Guide .3.Chapter 8 . − Only portions of the results can be shown at one time because of the huge amount of data to be displayed.3. depending on the Graphical Method used. Underground Withdrawal.45: Graphical Method Results The Results screen shows the Expansion. Aquifer influx etc.3 The Best Fit Option The 'Best Fit' menu option will automatically find the best fit for the line 'tool'.3.5. − Click the Report button to send the results directly to the printer.5. 8.The Material Balance Tool 55 . the Windows clipboard or save the results to file. use the horizontal and vertical scroll bars.110 should be taken when moving the line 'tool'. doubleclicking the centre of the plot will re-scale the line and place it across the plot. − To browse through the results. Figure 8.5 Graphical method results The calculations related to this plot can be viewed or printed by clicking Output | Results from the plot menu.

a negligible drive comes from the hydrocarbon expansion. one should concentrate on the initial production points and not the ones at the end of history.5.4 Energy Plot This plot shows the relative contributions of the main source of energy in the reservoir and aquifer system. whereas towards the end of history.The Material Balance Tool Figure 8. Formation Compressibility. Consider the following plot: Figure 8.47: Energy plot At the beginning of history. It does not in itself provide the user with detailed information. (I.). when trying to history match and get the OOIP.56 – 110 Chapter 8 . Water Influx. but indicates very clearly which parameters and properties should be focused on. some energy comes from the expansion of the fluid in place. Petroleum Experts . Therefore.e.46: Graphical Method Results 8. PVT.

Chapter 8 .5 57 . MBAL User Guide .48: Aquifer function plot Changing rD parameters For Radial Aquifers.5. This plot also indicates the location of the history data points in dimensionless coordinates. An infinite WD solution curve will be calculated for points selected above the maximum displayed rD value.6 Abnormally pressured gas reservoirs In the case where a gas reservoir is abnormally pressured. A Small Pot aquifer  model for example does not have such a plot because of the simplicity of its formulation. To change the current rD parameters. A typical plot will look like this: Figure 8. position the cursor in the value range nearest the point you want to investigate.5. The programme will not calculate rD parameters for points selected below the minimum displayed rD value. The program immediately runs a short regression on the rD to find the type curve passing through the selected point. the rD parameters (ratio of outer aquifer radius to inner aquifer radius) can be changed on the plot.The Material Balance Tool 8. 8. You may note some WD curves displayed by the programme that point to rD values shown to the right of the plot display. This plot is only available with some aquifer types. a model based on SPE 71514 “A Semianalytical p/z Technique for the Analysis of Reservoir Performance from Abnormally Pressured Gas Reservoirs” has been added to so as to provide a means of modeling this situation.110 WD Function Plot The WD plot shows the dimensionless aquifer function versus dimensionless time type curves. Double-click the LEFT mouse button.

The intersection with the X axis defines the OGIP apparent. The intersection gives the true OGIP as normal. Two pots will be available for this method. Petroleum Experts . This is the normal P/Z line expected due to gas expansion only. The late line develops once the abnormally pressured behavior has stopped. One is the abnormally pressured P/Z plot and the other is the Type Curve plot: Figure 8.The Material Balance Tool  It is recommended that this paper is studied before using this method.48: Activating the Abnormally pressured option The model can be used when two straight lines are observed in the P/Z plot. The line must intersect the initial P/Z. The method is activated from the Options menu: Figure 8.58 – 110 Chapter 8 .49: Abnormally pressured method plots P/Z Plot description: The early line develops during the abnormally pressured behavior.

Alternatively you may rotate the line by clicking and dragging on of the end handles.Chapter 8 . WARNING this method should only be used once you have obtained good first estimates by the manual methods. The three curves have different values of OGIP actual / OGIP apparent. First select the range of the data to which you wish to fit the line. This will allow you to manually change the three input values. Then click on either Best Fit Early Line or Best Fit Late Line menu item. This will allow you to perform a numerical regression to obtain the best input values automatically. Remember that the early line will always be forced through the initial P/Z. The purpose of the plot is to allow the user to modify the three input values to the compressibility model:• OGIP Apparent • OGIP Actual • P/Z Inflection To obtain the best match between the plotted data and the actual type curve (displayed in green). The Ce(Pi-P) functions increase as pressure decreases until it reaches its constant maximum value at and below P/Z inflection. The values can be changed in two ways:• Click on the Tune menu item. you can only move the end handle to rotate the line around the P/Z initial point.The Material Balance Tool 59 . The type curve in red has the current value of OGIP actual / OGIP apparent. The lines have three handles shown as small squares. To do this select two points by double-clicking on the points. Alternatively you may manually move the lines. Since the early line must intersect the initial P/Z. You may move the line up and down (but keeping the slope constant) by clicking and dragging the middle line handle. You may use an automatic regression to fit the two lines. The fit will be performed on the data between the two selected points. MBAL User Guide . Type Curve Plot description: The data is presented on a plot of Ce(Pi-P) vs (P/Z)/(P/Z)i. • Click on the Regression menu item.110 The intersection between the two lines occurs at P/Z Inflection. This is the pressure at which the reservoir has considered to have stopped compacting. The value of this ratio is written next to the curve. Three type curves colored in green are displayed to help guide the user to a solution.

5.50: Accessing the Simulation option We can see from the plot that the match could be considered OK. The simulation calculations can serve as a final quality check on the history matching done earlier. The rates are used from the historical data and the reservoir pressure is calculated based on the material balance model. The analytical method plot uses the reservoir pressures entered in the historical data and calculates the production.7 Simulation This dialog box is used for running a production history simulation based on the tanks and aquifer models that have been tuned with the graphical and/or analytical methods. Let us focus on the last point highlighted above.The Material Balance Tool 8. consider the following example where the analytical method gives the analytical plot shown below: Figure 8.60 – 110 Chapter 8 . as shown below: Petroleum Experts . The simulation does the opposite. To demonstrate this. The error between model and measured data is the difference in oil production.

110 Figure 8.52: Accessing the Simulation option In forecast mode. the calculated variable is the reservoir pressure. Therefore the quality of the match and confidence in the forecast can be seen directly from the simulation plot.The Material Balance Tool 61 . the difference. then the forecast will more likely be OK as well. since now the reservoir pressure is the calculated variable will be as shown below: Figure 8. This mimics the calculations done in simulation mode. If the match here is good. MBAL User Guide .51: Accessing the Simulation option In the simulation plot.Chapter 8 .

53: Accessing the Simulation option The following dialog box is displayed: Figure 8.54: Production Simulation Calculations can be done by selecting the “Calc” button.62 – 110 Chapter 8 . followed by the “Plot” button in order to look at the comparison between calculated pressures and historical pressures: Petroleum Experts . choose the History Matching⏐Simulation menu: Figure 8.The Material Balance Tool To access the simulation.

different variables or streams can be chosen for plotting. which will then appear as separate stream in the “Variables” screen shown above. Figure 8.Chapter 8 .55: Simulation plot Under the “Variables” option on the plot.The Material Balance Tool 63 .56: Simulation Variables Selecting the “Save” button from the calculation menu allows saving different runs.110 Figure 8. Please ensure that both the Simulation and History streams are selected when comparing the two. MBAL User Guide .

8.In order to generate the relative permeabilities for a transmissibility. for the individual wells or for the transmissibilities. the production history for the transmissibility must be entered in the ‘Transmissibility Data' Input section and the 'Use Production History' flag must be switched on. the history simulation uses the rel perms of the source tank so any Fw/Fg/Fo match will simply generate the entered relative permeability curves. The relative permeabilities can be generated for the tank.8 Fw / Fg / Fo Matching One on the main difficulties of running a Production Prediction is to find a set a relative permeability curves that will give a GOR. WC or WGR similar to the ones observed during the production history. the Relative Permeability for the phase x is expressed as: ⎛ Sx − Srx ⎞ Krx = Ex * ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ Smx − Srx ⎠ where:Petroleum Experts nx . Note that the history simulation has to be run after this input data has been entered. In order for the transmissibility relative permeabilities to be used in the prediction. Choose the item to regress on by selecting the tank. the 'Use Own' option must be set in the ' Transmissibility Data' Input section after performing the Fw/Fg/Fo match. .64 – 110 Chapter 8 . the production history for this well must be entered in the Well Data Input section. In a Corey function. The purpose behind this tool is to generate a set of Corey function parameters that will give the same fractional flows as in the production history at the saturations calculated while running the simulation. .56: Simulation Variables Create a new stream by clicking the “Add” button highlighted above.In order to generate the relative permeabilities for a well.5. If this is not done. transmissibility or the well in the item menu option.The Material Balance Tool Figure 8.

Fo is the oil rate divided by the sum of the gas plus oil rate. Note that the gas rate is the free gas produced from the tank – not the gas produced at surface. the purpose of clarity.Chapter 8 .For Fw matching in a condensate tank. The Fw is calculated from the PVT properties and the current relative permeability curves using: Kw µw Fw = Kw Ko + µw µo When a regression is performed. Fw is the water rate divided by the sum of the water and gas rate. the water fractional flow can be expressed as: Fw = Qw * Bw Qo * Bo + Qw * Bw where: µx is the viscosity. adjusts the Corey terms in the relative permeability curves to best match the Fw from the data points and the Fw from the theoretical curves.110 Ex is the end point for the phase x. Srx the phase residual saturation and Smx the phase maximum saturation. nx the Corey Exponent.The Material Balance Tool 65 . The other matching types are defined as follows:. The phase absolute permeability can then be expressed as: Kx = K * Krx where:K is the reservoir absolute permeability and Krx the relative permeability of phase x. oil and water rates. . For each production history point the Sw value is taken from the value calculated in the production history. Sx the phase saturation. the water saturations are taken from simulation. Fg is the gas rate divided by the sum of the gas. Note that the oil rate is the free oil produced from the tank – not the oil produced at surface.For Fg matching in an oil tank.For Fo matching in a condensate tank. MBAL User Guide .For Fw matching in a gas tank. ’s first step is to calculate the points from the input production history – these are shown as points on the plot. the following detailed explanation describes the  For matching of the water fractional flow in an oil tank. Now taking into account the capillary pressures and the gravity’s. The second step is to calculate the theoretical values – these are displayed as the solid line on the plot. The Fw value is calculated using the rates from the production history and the PVT properties. Qx the flow rate and Bx the formation volume factor of phase x. As for the date points. . . Fw is the water rate divided by the sum of the water and gas rate.

After a few seconds. The breakthrough value can be changed on the plot by simply double-clicking on the new position – the breakthrough should be redrawn at the new position. • There is no production of the phases required for the match.The Material Balance Tool fractional flow matching tool can only be used if a Simulation has been run. particularly after a long production history.) The breakthrough for the saturation that is displayed on the X axis is marked on the plot by a vertical blue line. Click on Regression to start the calculation. the program will display a set of Corey function parameters that best fit your data.8. A plot showing the fractional flow versus saturation will be displayed. The data points weighting in the regression can also be changed using the same technique. Petroleum Experts . No data points will be displayed if: • the simulation has not been run.66 – 110 Chapter 8 . (Refer to the Changing the Weighting of History Points in the Regression section described above. A group of points can also be removed by drawing a rectangle around these points using the right mouse button.57: Fractional Flow Matching Most of the time. These late data points can be hidden from the regression by double-clicking on the point to remove. the late WCT does not really represent the original fractional flows. They usually take into account the Water breakthroughs. Â This It is also important to re-run a Simulation each time input parameters are changed as they will probability affect the saturations and/or the PVT properties.5. choose the History Matching⏐Fw/Fg/Fo Matching menu. This will be taken into account by the regression. 8. and also show the different workovers done to reduce water production. Figure 8.1 Running a Fractional Flow Matching To access the fractional flow matching.

The following dialog appears. Multiple. Note that this option is not available for multi-tank cases. the case of an Oil reservoir. The set of parameters regressed can be copied permanently into the data set by selecting the Save option from the plot menu. GOR mathematical fit for your data. Selecting 20 steps will generate 21 values for the variable from the minimum to the MBAL User Guide .Chapter 8 . The set of parameters can be edited by selecting Parameters option from the plot menu. the solution is not unique.9. To access this option. These parameters have to be considered as a group and the individual value of each parameter does not have a real meaning as. the water fractional flow should be matched  Inbefore the gas fractional flow. 8.58: Sensitivity Analysis 8.9 Sensitivity Analysis This option is used for running sensitivity on one or two variables at a time.5. A certain number of values between a minimum and a maximum can be defined for each variable. The regression uses the point selected in the analytic method along with their respective weighting.5.1 Running a Sensitivity Select the sensitivity variables by checking the corresponding boxes.The Material Balance Tool 67 . most of the time. and WGR between history and forecast. For each combination of values the program will calculate the standard deviation of the error on the material balance equation rewritten: (F – We)/(N*E) – 1 = 0 For oil.110 parameters represent the best  These insuring continuity in the WCT. choose the History Matching | Sensitivity menu. Figure 8. Specify the number of steps the program is to perform between the minimum and maximum values. This set of Corey function parameters will make sure that the fractional flow equations used in the Production Prediction Tool will reproduce as close as possible the fractional flow observed during the history.

a plot of one of the variables versus the standard deviation will appear. Petroleum Experts . In some cases. A sharp minimum indicates the most probable value for this variable.The Material Balance Tool maximum. After a few seconds. When two variables are used. Select Variables to change the variable being plotted. these values can be reset by clicking the Reset command button. A flat minimum indicates a range of probable values.68 – 110 Chapter 8 . If necessary. Selecting 20 steps for each variable will perform (20+1)*(20+1) runs. This means there is an infinite number of solutions and that one of the variables must be fixed in order to calculate the other. the program will show that for each value of the first parameter. Click Plot to start the calculation. the plotting of the standard deviation will also indicate the uniqueness of the solution. there exists a value for the second parameter that gives the same minimum standard deviation.

69-110 Chapter 8 . All the gas cap producers are connected to the same gas cap production manifold. . The program can switch from history simulation to prediction mode at a date selected by the user. All the gas injectors are connected to the same gas injection manifold. The pressure of the five manifolds can be set independently. All the aquifer producers are connected to the same aquifer production manifold.The Material Balance Tool 8.6 Production Prediction The production prediction section of the program is used to forecast the reservoir performance. All the water injectors are connected to the same water injection manifold. The model assumes the following: • • • • • • All the producers are connected to the same production manifold.

if some are not relevant to the model.70 – 110 Chapter 8 . however. Please refer to the “Quick Start Guide” example for information on performing forecasts with and without wells.61: Production Prediction Menu  The various options on performing forecasts are best explained through examples. Performing a forecast involves following the Production Prediction menu from top to bottom: Figure 8.The Material Balance Tool The program provides different types of prediction depending on the fluid chosen. they will be automatically greyed out as shown below: Figure 8.60: Production Prediction Menu The screen above shows all the options active. The sections below will therefore only provide limited information on the forecast screens. Petroleum Experts .

In this the mode of forecast should be first selected.63: Production Prediction Menu MBAL User Guide .62: Production Prediction Menu Figure 8. whereas for a gas system. These options are shown in the two screenshots below: Figure 8.Chapter 8 . there are three options available for the prediction. In the case of an oil system. there are two prediction options available as shown below. the first screen to be accessed is the Prediction setup.6.The Material Balance Tool 8.1 71-110 Prediction Setup Following the options from top to bottom.

The data relevant for these options can then be entered in the “Production and Constraints” screen. then the gas and water production rates have to be provided as well (since the mechanism for calculating these is the relative permeabilities. 1. and the corresponding production of water and gas if the rel perm options have been selected for use. Prediction using well models The third option available for gas systems relates to a prediction of DCQ over yearly periods. then the fields that enable the user to create well models will become active. Figure 8.64: Using rel perms The user can also select options for pressure support that will be part of the forecast by highlighting the relevant check boxes shown above. Prediction of profile with no wells 2. Prediction of profile using well models Selecting this option will enable the use of well models (VLP/IPR for example) for calculation of rates which will then be used to calculate the reservoir pressure drop using the material balance calculations.The Material Balance Tool The first two options in the gas case are the same as the oil example and they are self explanatory.72 – 110 Chapter 8 . as shown below: Petroleum Experts . The program will then calculate the drop in reservoir pressure for the forecast period. Prediction of profile with no wells In this case the production profile needs to be provided by the user (for example the user specifies that the oil production rate will be 5000 bbls/day). If no rel perms are selected. Once this option is selected.

65: Using rel perms Figure 8.Chapter 8 .The Material Balance Tool 73-110 Figure 8.67: Using rel perms MBAL User Guide .66: Using rel perms Predict DCQ using well models and Swing Factors This option is available when dealing with a gas system: Figure 8.

The iterations stop when the DCQ assumed can just be achieved. then the DCQ is increased and the forecast for the same time period is done again. If well definitions and well schedules are provided. However there are usually extra calculation times between the time steps displayed on the results dialogs or reports. An extra calculation time will be inserted whenever there is a change in any of the entries in the Prediction Production and Constraints dialog.74 – 110 Chapter 8 . The program also honours (if physically possible) the constraints entered in the “Production and Constraints” table. This can be changed in the Prediction Setup dialog. Extra calculation times will be inserted based on the prediction step size. the program calculates the production manifold pressure (or compressor back pressure) required to achieve a DCQ for a yearly period. Changes in production and constraints.The Material Balance Tool In this mode the program calculates the maximum daily gas contract quantity that the reservoir can deliver for every year of the prediction period. calculates the transmissibility rates Calculates the gravity of the gas and water phases Calculates the tank’s new saturations and assumes a new reservoir pressure Iterates until convergence of tank pressure Calculation and Reporting Time Steps The Reporting Frequency (or time step . and a maximum swing factor entered in the “DCQ Schedule” Table. Prediction Calculation Technique At each time step MBAL does the following: • • • • • • • • • • Assumes a tank average pressure Calculates the relative permeabilities and fractional flow of the 3 phases Calculates the produced GOR/CGR and WC/WGR Calculates the individual well production or injection rates and flowing pressures based on: • the PVT fluids • the IPR • the tubing performance curve or constant bottom hole pressure • the production/injection constraints • the production schedule Calculates the water influx for this reservoir pressure and time Calculates the tank overall productions and injections For multi-tanks.see the Reporting Schedule dialog box) can be set by the user to determine the times displayed in the results dialogs. Petroleum Experts . If the production can be sustained throughout the year. • • The prediction step size defaults to 15 days. This can be useful when determining the DCQ quantities to be set in a gas contract. The program takes into account a seasonal swing factor entered in the “DCQ Swing Factor” Table. The program in this mode will assume a DCQ and perform a forecast for a year.

6.2 75-110 A calculation time will be inserted if and when the calculation changes from history to prediction mode. The sections below will therefore only provide limited information on the forecast screens. The various options on performing forecasts are best explained through examples.The Material Balance Tool • • • Â 8. A calculation time will be inserted whenever a well is started or shut in as defined in the Well Schedule dialog. The number and content of the columns will vary depending on the prediction mode and injection options selected in the Prediction Set-up dialog box. Meaning There is no constraint on this parameter. the parameter will remain constant until redefined. This parameter will remain constant from that time onwards The numbered button on the left hand The corresponding line is ignored side is depressed MBAL User Guide . This table allows entering the different column parameters versus time. A calculation time will be inserted whenever there is a change in any of the DCQ inputs. Please refer to the “Quick Start Guide” examples to see how to perform forecasts with and without wells. When Slope is.Chapter 8 . Production and Constraints This dialog box describes the production and injection constraints for the tank. Each column has a combo-box at the top of the column. Use this to switch the interpolation mode for the column. When Step is displayed. The following rules apply: Condition A column is left entirely empty A column contains only one value. displayed the program performs a linear interpolation between 2 consecutive values of in the column.

Otherwise you will have to enter all three phase rates. Voidage Replacement is independent of the Water/Gas Recycling and Water/Gas Recycling Cut-off constraints.68: Production and Constraints Input Fields Man Pres Defines the production manifold pressure for predictions with wells.g. Maximum Oil/Gas/Liquid Rate Defines the maximum production rate constraint. Minimum Oil/Gas/Liquid Rate Defines the minimum production rate constraint. When one of these constraints is triggered. This means it is effectively an abandonment constraint.The Material Balance Tool Figure 8. the program raises the production manifold pressure in order to satisfy the constraint. Oil/Gas/Water Rate Defines the production rates if using prediction type 'Reservoir Pressure only from Production Schedule'.76 – 110 Chapter 8 . The option can be started or altered at any time during the production of the reservoir and to stop the replacement you must enter a value of 0%. When one of these constraints is triggered. See Voidage Replacement and Injection for details of using these two options together. you will only need to enter the principal rate (e. If you have selected to use relative permeabilities in the prediction setup. the program shuts down all the production wells (apart from gas cap and aquifer producers). Gas Injection Manifold Pressure Petroleum Experts . Voidage Replacement Defines the fraction of the reservoir pore volume to be replaced with the injection fluid and can be larger than 100% if you intend to raise the pressure of the reservoir. When injection wells have been defined in the Well Definitions screen and are also included in the Drilling Schedule the prediction will calculate the rates required from these wells to achieve the Voidage Replacement target. oil rate for oil tank).

and N2. N2 Mole % Defines the mole percent of impurity in the gas injected. This is parameter may be overridden by the minimum / maximum Manifold Pressure. H2S. and N2 is the same than the gas produced. the program changes the gas injection rate in order to satisfy the constraint. Maximum Gas Injection Rate Defines the maximum gas injection rate constraint. the program assumes that the content in CO2. When one of these constraints is triggered. Water Injection Rate Defines the production rate of the main phase. Minimum Gas Injection Rate Defines the gas injection rate constraints. Gas Recycling Cut-off Defines the cut-off GOR for the Gas Recycling. The original constraints of the gas in place are defined in the PVT section.The Material Balance Tool 77-110 Defines the gas injection manifold pressure. This parameter may be overridden by the minimum / maximum water injection rate parameter. this re-injection is taken into account in the calculation of the maximum gas injection rate above. H2S. This is parameter may be overridden by the minimum / maximum Manifold Pressure. These percentages are used to calculate the reservoir average gas content in H2S. Injection Gas Gravity This value is used to calculate the average gas gravity of the gas cap (if any). the program shuts down all the gas injection wells. CO2. the program reduces the gas injection manifold pressure in order to satisfy the constraint. Minimum/Maximum Water Injection Manifold Pressure MBAL User Guide . If these fields are left blank. Minimum/Maximum Gas Injection Manifold Pressure Defines the pressure constraints on the gas injection manifold. CO2. Gas Recycling The Recycling input field signals the program to automatically re-inject this fraction amount of the gas production. Water Injection Manifold Pressure Defines the water injection manifold pressure. On the other hand. Gas Injection Rate Defines the production rate of the main phase. Leave blank if the injected gas gravity is the same as the gravity of the gas produced. The program stopped the gas recycling if the producing GOR exceeds this value. When one of these constraints is triggered.Chapter 8 . When one of these constraints is triggered. It affects the gas cap PVT properties. The gas is re-injected without using Tubing Performance Curve and these injection wells do not need to be included in the Well Schedule. This parameter may be overridden by the minimum / maximum gas injection rate parameter. The original gravity of the gas in place is defined in the PVT.

Maximum Water Injection Rate Defines the maximum water injection rate constraint. The program stopped the water recycling if the producing WCT exceeds this value. the program reduces the water injection manifold pressure in order to satisfy the constraint. The maximum gas rate constraint is treated as the maximum gas rate from the oil wells plus the gas from the gas cap producers. Maximum Gas Cap Manifold Rate Defines the maximum gas cap manifold rate constraint. Leave blank if the salinity of the injected water is the same than the salinity of the water produced. The amount of gas lift gas is controlled by pro-rating the operating gas lift injection for each well so that the total gas lift rate in all the wells is equal to the maximum entered. the program reduces the gas cap manifold pressure in order to satisfy the constraint. The process is as follows:. this re-injection is taken into account in the calculation of the maximum water injection rate above. Water Recycling The Recycling input field signals the program to automatically re-inject this fraction amount of the water production. It affects water compressibility calculation.Calculate the oil wells and modify the oil well manifold pressure to obey the gas rate constraint if necessary. So the relative reduction of the gas lift rate compared to the entered operating gas lift rate for the well will be the same for all wells. Water Injection . Minimum Water Injection Rate Defines the minimum water injection rate constraints. When one of these constraints is triggered. It defines the maximum total artificial gas rate that can be injected into all the gas lift wells. When one of these constraints is triggered. When one of these constraints is triggered. The original water salinity is defined in the PVT. the program changes the water injection rate in order to satisfy the constraint. Petroleum Experts .Maximum Rate This value can be used to model a situation where we have a total fixed amount of gas available for gas lift wells. The water is re-injected without using Tubing Performance Curve and these injection wells do not need to be included in the Well Schedule. the program shuts down all the water injection wells. Water Recycling Cut-off Defines the cut-off WCT for the Water Recycling. There are special rules applied to the maximum gas cap rate constraint if a maximum gas rate has also been entered.78 – 110 Chapter 8 . On the other hand. Gas Lift .The Material Balance Tool Defines the pressure constraints on the water injection manifold.Water Salinity This value is used to calculate the average water salinity of the water in the pore volume. When one of these constraints is triggered.

some special rules apply. The first situation is when both options are selected but there are no injection wells of the corresponding fluid. At each time step. there are options to have different manifold pressures for the oil wells and the gas wells.1 Voidage Replacement and Injection When voidage replacement and injection options are selected in the Prediction Setup. MBAL will raise the manifold pressure in order to satisfy this constraint. It can be used to copy the current calculated history simulation results into the corresponding constraint columns. 8. At each time step.The Material Balance Tool 79-110 . These rules are true whether the voidage replacement and injection is selected for gas or water. No wells are needed to do MBAL User Guide . It will then raise the manifold pressure in order to satisfy the calculated maximum gas constraint. In this case a pressure must be entered for the oil leg manifold and the gas cap manifold. This means it is effectively an abandonment constraint.Chapter 8 . Different min/max rate constraints can be entered for the oil leg manifold and the gas cap manifold productions. A Copy button is available in single tank mode. the program shuts down all the gas cap producer wells. DCQ Max (For Reservoir Pressure and Production from manifold Pressure Schedule prediction type) Defines the maximum gas DCQ. Minimum Gas Cap Manifold Rate Defines the minimum gas cap manifold rate constraint. This can then be used to verify the relative permeability curves by checking if the simulation results can be reproduced in prediction mode. In this case. MBAL will calculate the amount of injection fluid required to replace all the fluid produced for each time step.2. MBAL will calculate the minimum gas constraint from the maximum DCQ and the swing factors. This means that if the oil wells reach the maximum gas rate then production from the gas cap producers is stopped. When one of these constraints is triggered. It will then inject that amount of fluid into the tank for that time step. the program shuts down all the production wells (apart from the aquifer producers). If this is less than the gas cap maximum rate then reset the gas cap maximum rate to the difference.6. NOTE: For the Generalised Material Balance option. MBAL will calculate the maximum gas constraint from the maximum DCQ and the swing factors. When one of these constraints is triggered. It then factors this injection rate by the voidage replacement percentage entered in the Production and Constraints dialog. DCQ Min (For Reservoir Pressure and Production from manifold Pressure Schedule prediction type) Defines the minimum gas DCQ.Calculate the difference between the gas rate from the oil wells and the maximum gas rate constraint. The program checks this constraint against the average rate. DCQ Max (For DCQ from Manifold Pressure Schedule and Swing Factor prediction type) Defines the maximum gas DCQ that MBAL should calculate.

However.The Material Balance Tool this so MBAL always injects the full amount. Figure 8. rather than simply injecting this amount.80 – 110 Chapter 8 . Note also that both of these situations can occur in a single prediction run as MBAL will check at each time step if any injection wells are in operation and if a voidage replacement percentage greater than zero has been entered. In this case MBAL again calculates the amount of injection needed including the voidage replacement percentage (as described above).3 DCQ Swing Factor (Gas reservoirs only) This dialog box describes the daily gas contract (DCQ) swing factor over a period of one calendar year. This means that the full amount will only be injected if the injection wells can achieve this injection rate . The second situation is when both options are selected but injection wells of the corresponding fluid are currently in operation as specified in the well schedule. MBAL will set the value as a maximum injection constraint. Since we only have one maximum injection constraint for the whole system which can only be controlled by a single injection manifold pressure.69: DCQ Swing Factor Petroleum Experts .6. If a maximum injection constraint has also been entered then it will honour the lesser of the two values.otherwise it will only inject what it can. The instantaneous gas production rate is the product of the DCQ and Swing Factor. 8. Note that the voidage is recalculated at each time step. this second method can only be guaranteed to work if there is only one tank and one injection well.

4 81-110 DCQ Schedule Figure 8.5 Well Type Definitions This dialog is used to define the properties and constraints of a well or group of wells. Swing Factor Depending on the gas contract. these definitions are used through the well schedule to drive the production prediction calculations. then additional deliverability would be needed if the peak swing occurred nearer the beginning of the contract period. Swing Factor constant until a new factor is encountered in the list. Once the well type definitions are established. In other words. The program maintains the Max. The dialog is split into three data pages:Setup Define the well type. 8. The timing of the peaks in the Swing Factor and the DCQ schedule breaks may affect the calculated DCQ. the program makes sure that the potential of the reservoir is at least DCQ * MaxSwing.The Material Balance Tool 8.6. Inflow Performance Enter the parameters for the IPR and layer constraints MBAL User Guide .70: DCQ Schedule Input Fields Max. You are only required to enter values when the max swing factor changes.6. The maximum swing factor can be used to insure that the reservoir will be able to produce DCQ * MaxSwing at any time. the gas producer may be required to produce above the DCQ for a short period of time.Chapter 8 . If the maximum swing is required to be produced near the end of the DCQ contract period.

8.The Material Balance Tool Outflow Performance Enter the parameters for the tubing performance and the well constraints Creating a new well definition: If you want to create more new definition click the command button in the Well Data dialog box or press the Add icon button. Enter a well identifier of your choice in the Name field. High-lighted tanks in the list indicate that these are connected to the well. or use the ↑ or ↓ arrows to choose a well. The click on the button.71: Well Setup Input Fields Well Type Defines the flow type of the well. click to highlight the well name. Enter a well identifier of your choice in the Name field. first call up the desired well and display its definition on the screen. Deleting a well definition: To delete a well from the list. If you wish to create a copy of an existing well definition.1 Well Type Setup Figure 8.5. MBAL will ask you to confirm the deletion. Click the command button. select a well from the list display to the right of the Well Data window. Selecting a well definition: To select another well definition. To pick a well definition.82 – 110 Chapter 8 .6. select the well type and supply the rest of the data for the well. first select the well you wish to copy. Petroleum Experts . Tanks (multi-tank only) Defines which tanks the well is connected to (for multi-tank only).

The original method has been significantly altered to allow rate prediction. the tank connected to the current well) for the purposes of the calculation.5. 1971". Set this button to on if you wish to use gas coning for this layer. If water coning is used. Water cut will still be calculated from the relative permeability curves. If gas coning is used. the production prediction will calculate the Wc for a layer using a gas coning model rather than using the relative permeability. GOR will still be calculated from the relative permeability curves. Gas Coning This button is only visible if the gas coning option has been set in the tank connected to the selected layer. Layer Disabled Set this button to on if you wish to temporarily disable the layer (i.72: Inflow Performance Input Fields Layers For multi-layer wells.Chapter 8 . relative permeabilities and the layer constraints. Figure 8.The Material Balance Tool 83-110 8.6. The water coning model is based on "Bournazel-Jeanson. The gas coning model can be matched for each layer by clicking on the Match Cone button. Set this button to on if you wish to use water coning for this layer. this list box is used to select which IPR is being edited in this data sheet. This allows a layer to be removed from the calculation without deleting it permanently. Water Coning This button is only visible if the water coning option has been set in the tank connected to the selected layer. see Appendix B.e. The water coning model can be matched for each layer by clicking on the Match Cone button which displays the Water Coning Matching Dialog. Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME. the production prediction will calculate the GOR for a layer using a gas coning model rather than using the relative permeability.2 Well Inflow Performance This tab is used to enter the IPR data. The gas coning model is taken from reference 32. The time to MBAL User Guide .

Leave blank if you do not wish to apply a maximum drawdown. Inflow Performance Defines the well IPR type. You may choose to use one of these sets for fractional flow calculations instead of the tank relative permeabilities. There are also two other sets of relative permeabilities stored in the layer. Top Perf (TVD) (variable PVT and coning only) Bottom Perf (TVD) (variable PVT and coning only) Petroleum Experts .The Material Balance Tool breakthrough is proportional to the rate. If you click this button it will calculate the shift required to shift the tank pressure datum to the BHP datum depth which is entered in the Outflow Performance tab. After breakthrough the Wc develops roughly proportionally to the log of the Np. we calculate the correction term to the initial permeability for the current reservoir pressure then:• For Straight line and Vogel model we multiply the productivity index by the permeability correction. The formula used is:- k = k i (1. If Use Tank is selected then the relative permeabilities are taken from the tank for the layer. Productivity Index). to a maximum water cut. the program will calculate the dP choke necessary to give the delta P of the formation equal to the entered maximum value (and thus reduce the layer rate). The program will add the shift to the reservoir pressure before calculating the IPR. If the delta P of the formation rises above this value. The permeability decrease is proportional to the ratio of the current pore volume to the initial pore volume raised to a power.g. For low rates the breakthrough may never occur.0 + C f (P − Pi )) N Where N is the entered value. For more information on the different models and the associated data see Inflow Performance (IPR) Models below. • For C&N model we multiply the C term by the permeability correction. Permeability Correction This factor can be used to correct the inflow performance for changing permeability in the tank as the pressure decreases. For variable PVT. a Calculate button is shown next to this field. • For Forchheimer and Forchheimer Pseudo model we divide the Darcy term by the permeability correction. To apply the model. IPR dP Shift This field is used to shift the IPR pressure.84 – 110 Chapter 8 . If Use Rel Perm 1 or Use Rel Perm 2 is selected then the user may click the Edit button to view/edit the selected set of relative permeabilities. The data to be entered for the IPR type selected will be displayed in the panel below the selection box (e. Maximum Drawdown Enter a value in this field if you wish to enforce a maximum delta P of the formation. Frac Flow Rel Perms Used to select which set of relative permeabilities should be used for fractional flow calculations for this layer.

Leave blank if not applicable. When the MBAL User Guide . Abandonment Constraints The layer will automatically be shut-in if one of these values is exceeded. Select the appropriate expression from the combo-box. Abandonment constraints can be specified in different ways e.e.g. WOR. This allows a layer to be removed from the calculation without deleting it permanently. You do not need to enter a production schedule. They are used to define the history production for this layer.3 More Well Inflow Performance This tab is used to enter the more of the IPR data including the layer breakthrough and abandonment data. Start Production History Oil Production History Water Production These fields are used for water coning only. water-oil contact. the tank connected to the current well) for the purposes of the calculation.6. The values are only needed for Variable PVT (where it affects the PVT of the fluid produced from the layer) and the water and gas coning models (where the well position relative to the fluid contacts affects the magnitude of the coning).73: More Inflow Performance Input Fields Layers For multi-layer wells. Production Schedule This is only available if you are using the Production Allocation tool.5.Chapter 8 . Figure 8. up to the start of the prediction calculation. If no schedule is entered then the layer will produce/inject at all times 8. Click on the edit button to enter a production schedule.The Material Balance Tool 85-110 These fields are used to specify the depth of the top and bottom of the perforations for this layer. this list box is used to select which IPR is being edited in this data sheet. water cut. Layer Disabled Set this button to on if you wish to temporarily disable the layer (i.

Whilst the gas injection saturation is below this breakthrough. This has the disadvantage that the relative permeability will suddenly jump from zero to the relative permeability at the breakthrough saturation . When the saturation rises above the breakthrough constraint it will start to flow. a linear interpolation of the two boundary conditions is used. the relative permeability is still zero when the saturation is below the breakthrough value. Select the appropriate expression from the combo-box.not always the physical reality. At this saturation. This is done by a simple linear translation. water-oil contact. Breakthrough constraints can be specified in different ways e. This will mean that injection gas will remain in the tank. It compresses the section of the input relative permeability curves from: The residual saturation to the end point saturation Into The breakthrough saturation to the end point saturation. gas production always contained a mixture of original gas and injected gas based on a volumetric average. This is a control over and above the relative permeabilities that already control the breakthrough saturation by use of residual saturations. Petroleum Experts . the layer will resume production if the abandonment constraint is no longer satisfied.86 – 110 Chapter 8 . In effect it linearly compresses the relative permeability curves. It maintains the character of the relative permeability curve without the sudden large increase at breakthrough. The user may also enter a gas injection saturation at which full recirculation takes place. Between the breakthrough and full recirculation saturation. only injected gas is produced. But after the breakthrough saturation it modifies the relative permeability curves. The relative permeability will now be found by looking up the relative permeability curve as normal. the produced CGR would start to drop. water cut. Leave blank if not applicable. The main benefit is that production of injected gas can now be controlled by use of recirculation breakthroughs. the layer will not produce the fluid in question – it will use a relative permeability of zero regardless of the saturation being higher than the residual saturation in the relative permeability curves.g. Previously. none of the injection gas will be re-circulated. Gas Injection Recycling Saturations This option is only available if Generalised Material balance has been selected in the options dialog. Thus as soon as gas injection started. In this case. Breakthrough Constraints The breakthrough constraints are used to prevent the production of a particular phase until it reaches a particular saturation in the reservoir. When a saturation is below the breakthrough constraint. If no breakthroughs are entered. Therefore MBAL provides a correction to the above method which causes the relative permeabilities to rise more gradually after breakthrough – the Shift Relative Permeability to Breakthrough flag. These constraints will be checked independently and in addition to any well abandonment constraints. WOR. However we are now able to enter a recirculation breakthrough.The Material Balance Tool Allow Recovery after Abandonment flag is checked. this will still be the case.

• Calculate the water and oil saturations that give the Fw. • Calculate the downhole fractional flow from the current water cut.6. The Vogel empirical solution is used below the bubble point.Chapter 8 . • Calculate the water and oil saturations that give the Fw. • Calculate the current mobility M as shown above. The correction will not have any effect on the straight-line part of the IPR. the Vogel curve is straightened out and hence the AOF increases. A straight line inflow model is used above the bubble point. • Calculate the relative oil and water permeabilities using the relative permeability curves and the oil and water saturations. However if you wish to check the shape of the IPR with a particular water cut. the final results will be correct. The IPR plot will now be displayed with the correction for that water cut. MBAL will correct the Vogel part of the IPR for the current water cut. • Get the relative permeabilities for oil and water from the relative permeability curves. Correction for Mobility option on. • Modify the PI using:PI = PIi * M/Mt MBAL User Guide . enter the value in the Test Water Cut field. However if you click the P. However. Note we set Sg=0 as the IPR is already corrected for gas with the Vogel correction. Note we set Sg=0 as the IPR is already corrected for gas with the Vogel correction. As the water cut increases. The process is as follows:• Use the test water cut and the PVT model to calculate the downhole fractional flow Fw.The Material Balance Tool 8. in a prediction. We should actually use the absolute oil and water relative permeabilities but since the only use of the total mobility is when divided by mobility. MBAL will attempt to make corrections for change of fluid mobility using the relative permeability curves. There are two further corrections which can be applied to the IPR calculations (for oil producers only):Water Cut Correction The Vogel part of the IPR model assumes a water cut of zero. The plot of the IPR is normally plotted with a zero water cut. • Whenever an IPR calculation is done:• Calculate the PVT properties using the current reservoir pressure and the PVT model. Mobility Correction A second assumption on the Straight-line + Vogel IPR model is that the mobility does not affect the IPR.4 87-110 Inflow Performance (IPR) Models OIL Straight Line IPR The productivity index (or injectivity index for injectors) must always be entered. • Calculate a test mobility from:Mt = Kro/(µoBo) + Krw/(µwBw) The water and oil viscosities are calculated from the test reservoir pressures and the PVT.I.5. If this option is used you must also enter the Test Reservoir Pressure and Test Water Cut.

Calculate a test mobility from:Mt = Kro/(µoBo) + Krw/(µwBw) The water and oil viscosities are calculated from the test reservoir pressures and the PVT. When calculating the Sw and So for a particular Fw we set Sg=0. You will also be required to enter a Test GOR .0. water and oil saturations that satisfy the Fw. • Get the relative permeabilities for oil and water from the relative permeability curves and the oil. If you wish to take the effect of increasing gas saturation into account then select the Correct Vogel for GOR option.Pw2) on log-log paper. the final results will be correct. Calculate the relative oil and water permeabilities using the relative permeability curves and the oil. a (the turbulent pressure drop) is the Non Darcy input field.0. Petroleum Experts . This option requires direct entry of C and n in the inflow tab.88 – 110 Chapter 8 .this is a produced GOR. • Calculate the downhole fractional flows Fw and Fg from the current water cut and produced GOR.5 for completely turbulent flow. Fg and So+Sw+Sg=1. Whenever an IPR calculation is done:• Calculate the PVT properties using the current reservoir pressure and the PVT model. gas and water saturations. test GOR and the PVT model to calculate the downhole fractional flows Fw and Fg. n is the inverse of the slope and varies between 1 for laminar flow and 0.0.The Material Balance Tool In the above method we do not take into account the reduction in oil mobility due to any increase in the gas saturation. Fg and So+Sw+Sg=1. water and oil saturations that satisfy the Fw. • Calculate the current mobility M as shown above. Calculate the gas. • Modify the PI using:PI = PIi * M/Mt Gas Forchheimer The Forchheimer equation expresses the inflow performance in terms of turbulent and non turbulent pressure drop coefficients expressed as: ( Pr2 − Pwf2 ) = aQ 2 + bQ In the inflow tab. Similarly b (the laminar pressure drop) is the Darcy input field. gas and water saturations. We should actually use the absolute oil and water relative permeabilities but since the only use of the total mobility is when divided by mobility. C and n This is the most common form of the back pressure equation: Q = C ( Pr2 − Pw2 ) n C and n can be determined from a plot of Q versus (Pr2 . The process will now be as follows:• • • • • • Use the test water cut. • Calculate the gas.

• Modify the IPR inputs using:• For Forchheimer and pseudo-Forchheimer a = a / (M/Mt) b = b / (M/Mt) • For C&N C = C * (M/Mt) Note:For gas tanks.Chapter 8 .I. the final results will be correct. Fg and So+Sw+Sg=1. Similarly b (the laminar pressure drop) is the Darcy input field. We should actually use the absolute gas relative permeability but since the only use of the total mobility is when divided by mobility. • Calculate a test mobility from:For Forchheimer : Mt = Krg/(µg. MBAL will attempt to make corrections for change of fluid mobility using the relative permeability curves.Z) For Pseudo-Forchheimer : Mt = Krg For C&N : Mt = Krg/(µg. • Whenever an IPR calculation is done:• Calculate the PVT properties using the current reservoir pressure and the PVT model. a (the turbulent pressure drop) is the Non Darcy input field. • Calculate the gas. MBAL User Guide . Fo and So+Sw+Sg=1. • Calculate the downhole fractional flows Fw and Fo from the current produced WGR and GOR. the oil saturation is always zero.0. water and oil saturations that satisfy the Fw. WGR and CGR. Correction for Mobility option on. • Calculate the relative gas permeability using the relative permeability curves and the oil.Bg) The gas viscosity. If this option is used you must also enter the Test Reservoir Pressure. water and oil saturations that satisfy the Fw. • Calculate the current mobility M as shown above. CGR and the PVT model to calculate the downhole fractional flows Fw and Fo. gas and water saturations.0. • Calculate the gas. m( Pr ) − m( Pwf ) = aQ 2 + bQ In the inflow tab. gas and water saturations. The process is as follows:• Use the test WGR. However if you click the P. • Get the relative permeability for gas from the relative permeability curves and the oil.The Material Balance Tool 89-110 Forchheimer [Pseudo] This is a variation of the Forchheimer equation using pseudo pressures. So we do not need to enter a test CGR and the Fo is always zero. Mobility Correction An assumption in the gas IPR models is that the mobility does not affect the IPR. FVF and Z factor are calculated from the test reservoir pressures and the PVT.

the IPR parameters can be regressed upon to fit the observed rate and pressures.The Material Balance Tool Mobility Corr Rel Perms Some of the above corrections use a set of relative permeability curves. the crossflow injectivity index is the same as the C value. However there are two other rel perms associated with the layer which you may wish to use for the mobility corrections. the crossflow injectivity index is the same as the productivity index. For C&n gas wells. 8.6.5.5 Multirate Inflow Performance If one or several well test data are available.90 – 110 Chapter 8 . This can cause stability problems as the IPR can be very flat as the rate goes negative (particularly for gas wells). For oil and water wells. A screen similar to the following will appear: Figure 8. To access the Multirate IPR screen click Match IPR in the Inflow Performance screen above. This field can be used to define a different IPR for negative rates. the crossflow injectivity index is the same as the Darcy field. This can then be used to reduce the injectivity of a layer and thus give better stability to cross-flow. The n value is set to 1. For Forchheimer gas wells. the IPR function is simply extrapolated for negative rates. By default the relative permeability curves used will be associated tank curves. The Non Darcy value is set to zero for negative rates.0 for negative rates. In this case select Rel Perm 1 or Rel Perm 2 for the Mobility Corr Rel Perms and click the Edit button to enter/edit the relative permeability curves.74: Multirate Inflow Performance Petroleum Experts . If you do not wish to use a crossflow injectivity index (and simply wish to extrapolate the normal IPR) then enter an ‘*’ in this field. Normally if a layer of a production well starts to act as an injector (due to crossflow). Crossflow Injectivity Index This field is only accessible if you are using the multi-tank option and only for producer wells.

Figure 8. Produced GOR Enter the produced GOR for each test point.6 Gas and Water Coning Matching This dialog is used to match the gas and water coning model. Test Reservoir Pressure The tank pressure at the time of the multirate test. please note  Before that well test data can be imported from different sources – including *.The Material Balance Tool 91-110 entering data in this table (a time consuming exercise). at the same tank conditions. See reference 32 or Appendix B for an interpretation of the match parameters. 8. one for gas and one for water. then the coning for that fluid is not enabled.6.MIP files from Petroleum Expert’s PROSPER Single Well Systems Analysis program.75: Gas Coning Match Input Fields Total Liquid Rate Enter the water plus oil rate for each test point.e. You may also directly edit the match parameters.6. MBAL User Guide .Chapter 8 . Gas-oil contact The position of the gas oil contact at the time of the multirate test. 8.6. There are two tabs.5.1 Gas Coning Matching This model is not a predictive model so it should not be used unless matched to test data. Water cut The water cut at the time of the multirate test. If either of the tabs is disabled. The test points should be from a multi-rate test i.5. Up to three test data points can be matched.

If desired. Enter the input fields in the Test Points section of the dialog and then click Calc to calculate the match parameters that best fit the test data. Enter the rate in the Rate field and then click the Calculate button. F3 Second matching parameter.The Material Balance Tool F2 First matching parameter. Exponent Third matching parameter. Petroleum Experts . GOR field. only the F3 and Exponent tuning parameters are matched. the unmatched tuning parameters can be edited directly by the user.92 – 110 Chapter 8 . If only one test point is entered. It is also possible to calculate the produced GOR for a single liquid rate in the Single Test Point Calculation Panel. If two or three test points are entered. only the F3 tuning parameter is matched. The produced GOR for that entered rate will be displayed in the Calc.

The method is based on the paper by "Bournazel-Jeanson. This will allow you to assess the quality of the match. Maximum Water Cut Factor .76: Water Coning Match The time to breakthrough is proportional to the rate. After breakthrough the WC develops roughly proportionally to the log of the Np. This factor is a linear multiplier of the maximum water cut.After breakthrough the water cut develops proportionally to the log of the Np. The model is not a predictive model so should only be used if tuned to test data.The maximum water cut is defined by the maximum Fw = water mobility / ( water mobility + oil mobility ).Chapter 8 . Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME. For low rates the breakthrough may never occur. to a maximum water cut. Then click on the Calc button. Manual matching You may also directly edit the match parameters. This will calculate the predicted Wc for each data point (using the entered match parameters) and display the value in the Calculated Water Cut column in the table. After matching the data. Enter the test points in the dialog and the time of start of production.5. MBAL will automatically calculate the predicted Wc for each data point and display the value in the Calculated Water Cut column in the table. Water Cut Increase .6. Automatic Matching Click Match to regress on the match parameters that best fit the test data. from different times.6.e. 1971" although many modifications have been made to handle non-constant rates.Linear multiplier of the time to water breakthrough. MBAL User Guide . Figure 8. This factor is a linear multiplier of the water cut development. The matching parameters are: Breakthrough .2 Water Coning Matching This dialog is used to match the water coning model to any number of test data points.The Material Balance Tool 93-110 8. The test points should be from historical data i.

) used by the program during the calculations.77: Outflow Performance Input Fields Outflow Performance Defines the well FBHP (flowing bottom hole) Constraints. Minimum FBHP The well is automatically shut-in if the FBHP falls below this value. Select the appropriate option from the list of constraints currently supported.. The well can be re-started if the FBHP later exceeds this value. due to the start of water injection for example. Extrapolate VLPs This option can be used to extrapolate VLPs beyond the entered range. Petroleum Experts .The Material Balance Tool 8. Figure 8. GOR.6. GLR.  It is always recommended that VLPs are generated to cover the whole range of rates (WHPs. If this option is not selected. Click Edit to get access to the FBHP constraints dialogue box.) option of Constant FBHP should ONLY be used with extreme  The caution as it is a non-realistic representation of how the well will flow. Maximum FBHP The flow rate for injectors will be reduced to satisfy this constraint. Leave blank if not applicable.7 Well Outflow Performance This tab is used to enter the outflow performance and the well constraints..5. (See the section on “Tubing performance curves” for more information. Leave blank if not applicable.94 – 110 Chapter 8 . then the VLP will remain at its maximum/minimum value outside of its entered range.

It is only respected for injectors where the well can be choked back to decrease the FBHP. water cut. One can enter this value in two ways:Operating GLR Inj Specify the gas lift GLR injected into the gas lifted well. WOR. Abandonment constraints can be specified different ways e.g.Chapter 8 . Minimum FWHP The well is automatically shut-in if the FWHP falls below this value. Leave blank if not applicable. % Power Fluid (HSP Producer Wells Only) If this well is a HSP well. The well may be re-started after a change in reservoir pressure due to. Minimum Rate The well is automatically shut-in if the calculated instantaneous rate falls below this value. Maximum Rate If the calculated flow rate exceeds this value. When the Allow Recovery after Abandonment flag is checked. Operating Frequency (ESP Producer Wells Only) If this well is an ESP well. water-oil contact. PCP Pump Speed (PCP Producer Wells Only) If this well is a PCP well. Maximum FWHP The flow rate will be reduced to satisfy this constraint. Leave blank if not applicable. Operating GLR Total Specify the total GLR for the well. for example the start of water injection. Operating GLR Inj (Gas Lifted Wells Only) If this well is a gas lifted well. you must enter the PCP pump speed in this field. The well can be re-started if the FWHP later exceeds this value. Abandonment Constraints The well will automatically be shut-in if one of these values is exceeded. Click the button to select the appropriate expression. For a MBAL User Guide . you must enter the % power fluid in this field. you must enter the operating frequency of the pump in this field. the well will resume production if the abandonment constraint is no longer satisfied. the instantaneous rate will be reduced to satisfy this constant. This includes both the gas lift gas injected into the well plus any GLR from the reservoir. This value does not include any gas produced from the reservoir. Leave blank if not applicable.The Material Balance Tool  95-110 This value is ignored for producing wells as there is no way to increase the rate. Leave blank if not applicable. you must enter the operating GLR. Leave blank if not applicable.

8. GOR and Rates. The example below describes the most complicated of all TPC dialog boxes: Gas Lifted Producer. Injector.6. It should not be used for other than sucker rod pumped producers.e. Petroleum Experts . Natural Flowing. It is  The likely to give erroneous results for any constraints applied to the system. GLR.5. 8.). etc. For each WHP. 8. GLR. This option can be used for a quick estimation of injectors’ potential. WCT.1 Constant Bottom Hole pressure Using this option.2 Tubing Performance Curves The Tubing Performance Curve (TPC or VLP) dialog box will appear different depending on the well type selected (i.000 (10*10*10*10*20) possible FBHP entries. Figure 8. there will be one bottom hole pressure. the tubing performance curves table is a 5 dimensional array of FBHP versus WHP. GOR and Rates combination.96 – 110 Chapter 8 .78: Tubing Performance curves In this particular example of a Gas Lifted Well.6.8 Tubing Performance This section describes how to model the performance of the well. 8. Gas lifted.5. the program will maintain the bottom hole flowing pressure constant throughout the prediction. WCT.The Material Balance Tool well with more than one layer these constraints will be checked independently and in addition to any layer abandonment constraints.5. option of Constant FBHP should ONLY be used with extreme caution.8. making altogether 200.6.

.. .The Material Balance Tool WHP 1 WHP 1 .... RATE 20 RATE 1 . GOR 1 GOR 1 .. GOR 10 RATE 1 RATE 2 . WCT....... WHP 1 WHP 1 . depress the table button above the WCT.... ..... displayed as follows: 10..... GLR 10 WCT 1 WCT 2 . RATE 20 .. GOR.. ... • 1 table containing up to 20 rates.. GLRs and WHPs. 1000 1500 1000 1300 75 95 900 1400 Rate FBHP 100 0 200 0 400 0 500 0 ... .....00 0 Lists WHP 200 GLR 200 WCT 0 GOR 200 300 300 10 400 .... FBHP 60 . GLR and WHP values desired........ ... . MBAL User Guide . . GLR 2 GLR 2 .... 100 00 1234 2345 2897 3190 . To minimise data entry.. RATE 20 RATE 1 . FBHP 40 FBHP 41 ...... WCT 10 GOR 1 GOR 2 .... GOR 1 GOR 1 . GOR 1 ...Chapter 8 ... and the Rates only need to be entered once. GLR and WHP combination......... WCT 2 . . the tubing performance curves have been split into 6 tables....... FBHP 20 FBHP 21 .. WCT 1 WCT 1 .... RATE 20 97-110 FBHP 1 FBHP 2 . FBHP 200000 Altogether a total of 50000*5 values that have to be entered and stored.. GLR 2 ... GLR 1 GLR 2 . • 1 2D table containing 10000 (10*10*10*10) lists of 20 FBHPs... 4589 These 6 tables comprise: • 4 tables containing up to 10 values for WHP.. WHP 1 WHP 1 .. GLR.. reduce the amount of memory space required and speed up the calculations. WHP 1 . WCT 1 WCT 2 . WHP 10 GLR 1 GLR 2 . WCT and GOR.... ..... To display the VLPs for another combination of WCs. This means that the GLR.. The FBHPs displayed on the screen are for a given WC.

79: VLP Import File Type This field holds a list of import file types. Fill in the FBHP table for the given rate and GOR. Next enter up to 10 WCT percentages in the third (horizontal) table. An import dialog box is displayed prompting you to select an import file to be read. “Using the MBAL application”. using the scroll bar if necessary.The Material Balance Tool Enter data in a VLP table: 1. Select another combination of GLR. When you have selected the appropriate file. until all GLR. First enter up to 10 WHP values in the first (horizontal) table. Repeat step 6. Follow with the GORs (up to 10) in the fourth lower (horizontal) table 5. press OK.6. 8. Next enter up to 10 GLR values in the second (horizontal) table.MBV and . For information on opening a file. 3.8.1 Importing Tubing Performance Curve data: To import TPC data from another source. 8. 6. please refer to Chapter 3. 7. MBAL currently recognises Petroleum Experts’ .2. 2. Then. WCT and WHP combinations are exhausted. A new table of FBHP is displayed. enter up to 20 rates in the vertical table for this combination. Several file formats may are available. click the Import command.5. WCT and WHP by depressing the buttons above the desired values. This will open the file and reformat the data according to the type of file selected.98 – 110 Chapter 8 . Figure 8. 4. The procedure displays an import Petroleum Experts .TPD and GeoQuest ECLIPSE format lift curves. again using the scroll bar if necessary.

You will be informed when the translation is finished.] The correlation can be adjusted by entering well test data in the corresponding table and clicking the Match button. An average deviation is MBAL User Guide . Two adjustment parameters are then displayed. GH * C0 = 53. Trans. in.C1 are the matching parameters initially set to 1. R. Tubing depth The true vertical depth of the end of tubing.V.34 Pw ∫ Ps ⎡ p ⎤ ⎢⎣ T * z ⎥⎦ ⎡ p ⎤ 1000 * ( L / H ) * ( Fz * Q) * C1 + ⎢ ⎣ T * z ⎥⎦ 2 *dp 2 where: G L H Q z T d Fr = = = = = = = = gas gravity relative to air length of pipe or tubing.: “Practical Solution of Gas-Flow Equations for Well and Pipelines with Large Temperature Gradients”. [Ref. AIME (1956)207. M.H. Tubing length The measured length of the tubing. friction factor. Figure 8.Chapter 8 . Cullender. ft flow rate in MMscf/D Gas deviation factor temperature. and Smith. °R inside diameter of the tubing.80: Well Definition Cullender Smith correlations Input Fields Type of Flow Select Tubing or Annular flow. ft vertical elevation difference..The Material Balance Tool 99-110 information screen that gives brief details about the file being translated. calculated from the length of the tubing. These indicate the changes that have been applied to the gravity and friction terms respectively. Cullender Smith correlation This correlation estimates the pressure drop in the tubing/annulus for a dry gas well. C0.

Qg 2 = ( Ps 2 − CI * Pw 2 ) /( E * (CI − 1)) E = eX X = 0.100 – 110 Chapter 8 .6. Casing ID (annular flow only) Inner diameter of the casing.3 Witley correlation This correlation estimates the pressure drop in the tubing/annulus for a dry gas well.The Material Balance Tool Tubing Head Temperature An estimate of the well head flowing temperature. Tubing ID (tubing flow only) Inner diameter of the tubing. 8. If possible VLPs should be used rather than this correlation. correlation should only be used with dry gas wells.C3 are the matching parameters initially set to 1.8.23 ) * ( XTUB / DEPTH ) * DD * C1 + (C 2 − 1) *1e −7 CI = 0. Petroleum Experts .C2. Roughness Average roughness of the tubing. The correlation can be adjusted by entering well test data in the corresponding table and clicking the Match button. Three adjustment parameters are then displayed.006644 * ( Z 2 * T 2 / D 5.5. Tubing OD (annular flow only) Outer diameter of the tubing. This option is  This significantly slower than the Tubing Performance Curves.06844 * S * DEPTH /( Z * T ) * C 3 where: • • Qg = total stream rate Ps = Bottom hole flowing pressure Pw = Well head flowing pressure Z = Gas deviation factor @ T and PW T = Reservoir temperature XTUB = tubing length DEPTH = tubing vertical depth For tubing flow D = Tubing inner diameter DD = 1 For annular flow D1 = Casing inner diameter D2 = Casing outer diameter D = D1+D2 DD = [(D1+D2)/(D1-D2)]3 C1.

Witley correlation Input Fields Type of Flow Select Tubing or Annular flow.6 Testing the Well Performance This dialog box lets the user test the solution points of the IPRs and VLPs. Casing ID (annular flow only) Inner diameter of the casing. Tubing length The measured length of the tubing. Tubing OD (annular flow only) Outer diameter of the tubing. correlation should only be used with dry gas wells.81: Well Definition . This option is  This significantly slower than the Tubing Performance Curves. This ‘local’ calculation does not affect the rest of the prediction.Chapter 8 . MBAL User Guide .6. An average deviation is calculated from the length of the tubing. Tubing depth The true vertical depth of the end of tubing. If possible VLPs should be used rather than this correlation. Tubing ID (tubing flow only) Inner diameter of the tubing. It is only provided to check the validity of the IPR / VLP combinations or to troubleshoot certain situations.The Material Balance Tool 101-110 Figure 8. 8.

82: Well Performance Test Input Fields Enter the test conditions (reservoir pressure. 8.83: Well Schedule Input Fields Petroleum Experts . just enter the record at the end of the list you have already created. To suppress an entry. The program automatically sorts the entries.7 The Well Schedule This dialog box describes the well schedule. To add or insert a new record. GOR. simply blank out all the fields in the corresponding row.The Material Balance Tool Figure 8. manifold pressure. Figure 8.102 – 110 Chapter 8 . etc.6. It uses the well definitions previously entered to define the drilling program of future wells. The program displays the solution points for each set of test conditions entered. Water Cut.) and click the Calc button.

The Material Balance Tool 103-110 Start Time Indicates when this well or wells will be started. Leave blank if not to be shutin. Well Type Indicates the well type definition involved (one of the well definitions created in the Well Type Definition dialogue box). just enter the record at the end of the list you have already created. End Time Indicates when this well or wells will be shut-in. The instantaneous rate is used to calculate well head and bottom hole flowing pressures. If 10% is entered then Qavg = Qins * (1 .8 The Reporting Schedule The reporting schedule defined the type of prediction to be performed. To add or insert a new record. MBAL User Guide . it is not taken into account in the prediction calculations. the start and end of prediction and the reporting frequency. The average rate is used to calculate the cumulative production of the well. This facility enables you to run different simulations without physically deleting the information. The program automatically sorts the entries in ascending time/data order. simply blank out all the fields in the corresponding row. Number of Wells Indicates the number of wells involved. This constant can be used to take into account recurrent production shut-down for maintenance or bad weather. Records can be switched off or on temporarily by clicking the buttons to the left of the first column entry fields.1). To remove an entry permanently. Down-time Factor This is a constant defining the relationship between the well average and instantaneous rates. 8.6.Chapter 8 .0. When a record is switched off.

The Material Balance Tool Figure 8.84: Reporting Schedule Input Fields Reporting Frequency This parameter defines when the prediction result is displayed. Keep History This button is only displayed for a prediction setup where the first part is actually running in history simulation mode before changing to prediction mode. Any number of dates can be entered and in any order. • User Defined: The user can defined any date increment in days. weeks. • User List: A list of dates can be set in the table provided. If you select this option then the calculations during the history simulation will be displayed in the results. months or years in the adjacent fields. Petroleum Experts . • Automatic: The programme displays a calculation every 90 days.104 – 110 Chapter 8 .

9 105-110 Running a Prediction You will not be able to run a prediction until all the necessary data has been input. Each sheet corresponds to a tank or transmissibility. There are always three streams present by default:. Each set of results is stored in a stream. change the selection in the stream combo-box at the top left of the dialog. For single tank cases.g. Rates are reported in three ways in the prediction:- • Cumulative rates: This is the total rate produced up to the time at which the rate is reported. if reported time MBAL User Guide . This will create a new stream. the results of the last prediction will be displayed.The Material Balance Tool 8. To run a prediction.The last history simulation .85: Production Prediction Calculation On entering this dialog. The results displayed if you select the stream (rather than one of its sheets) are the consolidated results i.The last production prediction Copies of the current production prediction calculations can be made using the Save button.Production history .Chapter 8 . • Average rate: This is the average rate over the time period from the last reported time and the time at which the average rate is reported.6. This dialog can also be used to display other results. For multi-tank systems. each stream corresponds to the one and only tank. To change the stream displayed. the cumulative results from all the tanks. You may also select a sheet to display in the streams combo-box. Within each stream there are additional items called sheets. the list of streams is more complex. E.e. choose Production Prediction⏐Run Prediction. The following dialog box is displayed: Figure 8. The scroll bars to the bottom and right of the dialog box allow you to browse through the calculations.

• Rate: This is an instantaneous rate at the time reported.9. 8.86: Production Prediction Save Calculation Stream Data Stream Displays a list of the saved data streams. By default you will normally get the three data streams:History (production history entered in the tank data) Simulation (production history simulation) Prediction (production prediction) It also displays any data streams that have been saved (see Add below) Note that you can change the name of any of the streams (apart from the default streams) simply by clicking on the name and editing the name.1 Saving Prediction Results At the conclusion of a prediction run. Note that if a well has a non-zero downtime defined in the well schedule then cumulative and average rates will include the downtime factor but instantaneous rates will not have the factor included. The following screen will be presented: Figure 8. Enter a new meaningful description for this prediction/simulation run.6. Nb Points Petroleum Experts . In addition there are a separate set of rates calculated from the sum of the oil leg producers and the gas cap producers. If you are using generalised material balance.106 – 110 Chapter 8 . you may click Save to save the current run in memory for comparison with other calculations. Description The program automatically provides a default description name.The Material Balance Tool steps are every year then an average rate reported at 01/01/1985 is the average rate over the time period from 01/01/1984 to 01/01/1985. separate sets of rates are reported for the oil leg manifold and the gas cap manifold.

Click Done to implement the stream changes. The stream is given a default name which you may change. The stream is given a default name which you may change.The Material Balance Tool 107-110 Displays the number of calculated points for the prediction/simulation to be saved. Click Cancel to exit the screen and ignore the changes. Remove Deletes the selected stream set from the list. Replace This can be used to replace an existing stream. Select an existing stream (not one of default ones) and click Replace. appears: A screen similar to the following Figure 8.6. You will be prompted to confirm the deletion. click Plot. Command Buttons Add Creates a new stream which is a copy of the current prediction stream.2 Plotting a Production Prediction To access the prediction plotting facility.87: Plot screen MBAL User Guide . The selected stream will be replaced by a copy of the current prediction stream. 8.Chapter 8 .9.

simply click the variable name.The Material Balance Tool To change the variables plotted on the axes. The stream/sheet can be unselected by clicking again on the same name.10 Displaying the Tank Results To display the tank results.11 Displaying the Well Results To display the results of each well on the last prediction run. The following dialog box is displayed: Petroleum Experts .108 – 110 Chapter 8 .6. The following dialog box appears: Figure 8. choose Production Prediction/Tank Results. or use the ↑ and ↓ directional arrow. 8.6. The program will not allow more than two variables to be selected from the Y axis at one time. To select a data stream or sheet.88: Plot Variable Selection This dialog box allows you to choose the X and Y variables to plot. Two variables can be selected from the left list column (Y) and one from the right list column (X). This option allows the user to select the data streams/sheets to be displayed. choose Production Prediction⏐Well Results. This dialog is exactly the same as the Run Prediction dialogs described above except that the Calc and Save buttons are not available. and use the space bar to select or de-select a variable item. To select a variable item. 8. allowing the comparison of the simulation and the prediction on the same plot. click the Variable plot menu option. click on the name of the stream/sheet.

5. • Abd WOR : Abandonment on WOR constraint. • Abd GOR : Abandonment on GOR constraint. • Man Pmin : Abandonment because of Manifold Minimum pressure. • Man Pmax : Rate reduced because of Manifold Maximum pressure. • Abd Wat : Abandonment on Water saturation constraint. The Analysis button can be used to view the well performance for the selected row in the well results. connection to multiple tanks).e. • Man Qmin : Abandonment because of Manifold Minimum rate. • Man Qmax : Rate reduced because of Manifold Maximum rate.The Material Balance Tool 109-110 Figure 8. • Max FBHP : Rate reduced because of Maximum Flowing Bottom Hole Pressure.89: Production Prediction Well Results Select the well to be displayed from the Stream combo-box. • End Date : Automatic Well shut-down according to well schedule.Chapter 8 . If a well has more than one layer (i. If compositional tracking is also selected. • Abd Gas : Abandonment on Gas saturation constraint. This is the same dialog as can be viewed from the well definition dialog – see section 8. • Max DwDn : Rate reduced because of Maximum Drawdown on the formation. • Gas Brk : Gas breakthrough. • Gas Levl : Abandonment on Gas Contact depth. These may be: • Abd CGR : Abandonment on CGR constraint. the program shows any special conditions for that well. It will extract all the relevant data from the well results required for the Well Performance Test and display a dialog to allow calculation and plotting of the IPR/VLP and the operating point.6 above. • Man Wmax : Rate reduced because of Water Rate constraint. this button can also be used to view the details of the composition of the well for the selected row. • Abd WGR : Abandonment on WGR constraint. • Man Gmax : Rate reduced because of Gas Rate constraint. • Abd WCT : Abandonment on WCT constraint. • Min FBHP : Abandonment on Minimum Flowing Bottom Hole Pressure. In the Status column. • Max Rate : Rate reduced because of Maximum Well Rate. then the results for each layer will be shown as separate streams. • Min Rate : Abandonment on Minimum Well Rate. MBAL User Guide .

The Material Balance Tool • Neg TPC : The IPR intersects the TPC on the negative slope of the TPC. • No OptGl : Optimum GLR could not be provided a Gas Lifted Well because of a constraint on the maximum gas lift gas available. • No Solut : No IPR / TPC intersection. • Out TPC : Program working outside of the TPC’s generated range. • Wat Levl : Abandonment on Water Contact depth. Petroleum Experts .110 – 110 Chapter 8 . • Wat Brk : Water breakthrough.

basically the PVT properties and the pore volume. • Fixed Value : Value = Constant • Uniform Distribution : This distribution is defined by a minimum (Min) and maximum (Max) value with an equal probability for all values between these 2 extremes. the Swc will be weighted to be near the top of the range. Depending on the number of cases (NC) chosen by the user. We link the probability of Swc and porosity to reflect physical reality. Value = Min + (Min . The NC values of each parameter are then crossmultiplied creating a distribution of values for the hydrocarbons in place.Max) *Probability Figure 9. are represented by statistical distributions. The results are presented in the form of a histogram. the program generates a series of NC values of equal probability for each of the parameters used in the hydrocarbons in place calculation. If the porosity is near the bottom of the probability range.2 Technical Background The program supports five types of statistical distributions: In the definitions below represents the distribution relative frequency and P the distribution cumulative probability.1 Program Functions The Monte-Carlo technique is used to evaluate the hydrocarbons in place.1: Monte-Carlo Technique Uniform Distribution . The same method is used to link the GOR and oil gravity. 9. the Swc will be weighted to be more likely to be near the bottom of the range.9 Monte-Carlo Technique 9. Similarly if the porosity is near the top of the range. Each of the parameters involved in the calculation of reserves.

2-6 Chapter 9 .Monte-Carlo Technique • Triangular Distribution: This distribution is defined by a minimum.3: Monte-Carlo Technique Normal Distribution • Log Normal Distribution: This distribution is defined by an average (Avg) and a standard deviation (Std) with: Value ⎛ Std ⎞ ⎟⎟ * = exp(log( Avg ) ) + log⎜⎜1 + Avg ⎝ ⎠ ( Ln(1 p 2 ) ) Figure 9. maximum and mode value with: At value Mode: P mod e = (Mode − Min) (Max − Min) If P < Pmode: If P > Pmode: P Value = Min + ( Mode − Min) * P mod e 1− P Value = Max − ( Max − Mode) * 1 − P mod e Figure 9.4: Monte-Carlo Technique Log Normal Distribution Petroleum Experts .2: Monte-Carlo Technique Triangular Distribution • Normal Distribution: This distribution is defined by an average (Avg) and a standard deviation (Std) with: Value = Avg + Std * ( Ln(1 p 2 ) ) Figure 9.

The regression allows you to match your PVT data to real data. The parameters for these correlations can be changed to match real data using a non-linear regression.Chapter 9 . • After making your entries in the Options menu. To move to the next entry field. Input Fields Reservoir Fluid • Oil This option uses traditional black oil models. This section describes the 'Tool Options' section of the System Options dialogue box. Refer to Chapter 7 for information on the PVT. or use the TAB button.3 Tool Options On selecting Monte-Carlo as the analysis tool in the Tool menu. go to the Options menu to define the primary fluid of the reservoir. Working with the tool Before you begin working with the Monte-Carlo analysis tool. The liquid is put back into the gas as an equivalent gas quantity. • Gas (Dry and Wet Gas) Wet gas is handled under the assumption that condensation occurs at the separator. Figure 9. proceed to the Pvt menu to enter the PVT properties of the fluid in place. The pressure drop is therefore calculated on the basis of a single phase gas.Monte-Carlo Technique 3-6 9. click the field to highlight the entry. Four correlations are provided.5: Monte-Carlo Tool Tool Options To select an option. • Retrograde Condensate MBAL uses the Retrograde Condensate Black Oil model. Refer to Chapter 6 of this guide for more information on the User Information and User Comments sections. These models take into account liquid dropout at different pressures and temperatures. unless water is present. click the arrow to the right of the field to display the current choices. MBAL User Guide .

4-6 Chapter 9 . and enter the values required. Temperature Defines the reservoir temperature. select the appropriate distribution type from the list box available for each field entry. When all the necessary parameters have been entered.6: Monte-Carlo Technique Distributions Input Fields Number of Cases Defines the number of segments of equal probability the distribution will be divided into.Monte-Carlo Technique • Next choose Distributions to enter the reservoir parameters.4 Distributions Figure 9. The following dialogue box is displayed: Petroleum Experts . Histogram Steps Defines the number of steps that will be plotted on the histogram. click Calc to enter the calculation screen. Pressure Defines the reservoir initial pressure. 9. Method The pore volume can be calculated using: • Bulk Volume * N/G ratio • Area * Net Thickness Distribution Type For each reservoir parameter listed (Area → Gas Gravity).

A screen similar to the following appears: MBAL User Guide . The following dialogue box is displayed Figure 9. The new distribution results are displayed when the calculation finishes.8: Monte-Carlo Technique Results summary To view the calculations graphically. click the Result command. Click the Calc command to start a new calculation. To view the results of the 10%. 50% and 90% probabilities.7: Monte-Carlo Technique Calculations This calculation dialogue box displays the results of the previous calculation.Monte-Carlo Technique 5-6 Figure 9.Chapter 9 . click the Plot command.

Monte-Carlo Technique Figure 9.9: Monte-Carlo Technique Plot screen For more information on the plot menu commands. Petroleum Experts .6-6 Chapter 9 . refer to Chapter 5.

refer to Chapter 6 of this guide. By integrating equation ¦ . a is the hyperbolic decline exponent. t is the time. It uses the hyperbolic decline curves described by Fetkovich based on the equation: q = qi (1+bi *a *∆t ) − 1 a ¦ where: q is the production rate. 10.1 Programme Functions This tool analyses the decline of production of a well or reservoir versus time. the cumulative production can be represented by: for a≠1 ⎛ 1⎞ ⎞ 1 qi ⎛ ⎜ 1− ⎟ ⎝ a⎠ − 1 P= + bi * a * ∆ t 1 ( ) ⎜ ⎟ a − 1 bi ⎝ ⎠ for a=1 P= qi * ln(1 + bi * ∆t ) bi The program also supports production rate 'breaks' or discontinuities. Once you choose Decline Curve as the analysis tool in the Tool menu. Figure 10. bi is the initial decline rate. For information on the User Information and User Comments sections.2 Tool Options The Decline Curve analysis tool can be used for Production History Matching and/or Production Prediction. etc. This section describes the 'Tool Options' section of the System Options dialogue box. These breaks can be attributed to well stimulation. go the Options menu to define the primary fluid of the reservoir.10 Decline Curve Analysis 10. change of completion. the program uses a non-linear regression to determine the parameters of the decline. qi is the initial production rate. For Production History Matching.1: Decline Curve Analysis Tool Options .

. 10. Production History . However. but are usually simpler.2-9 Chapter 10 . gas and retrograde condensate. Input Fields Reservoir Fluid Choose from oil.By Well The well by well option requires you to enter the production history for each well or group of wells. To move to the next entry field. You will then be allowed to match the production of individual wells and select the list of wells to be included in the production prediction computation. click the arrow to the right of the field to display the current choices. the choice only affects the input and output units of the rates as the theory does not take any fluid properties into account. Some screens will differ slightly if the Reservoir mode is used. or use the TAB button.Decline Curve Analysis To select an option. click the field to highlight the entry. • ∫ Next choose Input ⏐Production History to enter the production history. Please note that the remainder of this chapter describes the features of the program using the Well by Well mode. along with the time or date of the eventual production rate breaks.By Tank This option requires you enter the production history for a single well or the reservoir as a whole. The following dialog box appears: Figure 10.2: Decline Curve Analysis Production History Petroleum Experts .3 Production History This screen is used to enter the well production history.

Chapter 10 - Decline Curve Analysis 3-9

Input Fields
Well List
A list of all the wells created in this data set. This list box can be used to scan
the well models entered, by clicking on the name of the well you wish to
display. This list box is only displayed if you have selected to enter the
production history By Well in the options dialog.
The well name is usually preceded by a marker indicating the status of the
well:
-

indicates that the well data is valid. This well can be used in the
production prediction calculation.

-

No marker and the well name appear in red. The well data is
incomplete or invalid. This well cannot be used in the production
prediction calculation.

Well Name
A string of up to 12 characters containing the well, tank or reservoir name. This
name is used by the plots and reports.
Decline Type
Select the type of decline curve analysis; hyperbolic, harmonic or exponential.
Description (optional)
A brief description of the well, tank or reservoir.
Production Start
This field is used as a date origin for plot displays and reporting purposes only.
It is used to produce plots and reports with date references, when the production
history is entered in days or years. When the production history is entered by
date, the reports and plots can be generated in days or years.
Abandonment Rate (optional)
This field is defines the minimum production rate for this well.
Decline Rates
Use this table to enter a list of decline periods (initial rate + decline rate) versus
time. At least one decline period rate must be entered. Several decline periods
can be entered if there is a discontinuity in the decline rate of the production of
the well. This can be due to a well stimulation, a change of completion,
extended shut-down period, etc. Note that the exponent is the same for all the
decline period. Only the initial rate and the decline rate are changing.
This table can be filled in by using the Match option (see Matching the Decline
Curve section that follows). Records can be switched 'Off' or 'On' by depressing
the buttons to the left of the column entry fields. When a record is switched 'Off',
it is not taken into account in the calculations.
Production History (optional)
Use this table to enter the production rate history. Records are automatically
sorted in ascending order by time, or date.

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4-9 Chapter 10 - Decline Curve Analysis

To view more records, use the scroll bar to the right of the columns. To delete a
record, simply blank out all the fields in the corresponding row. To add or insert
a new record, just enter the records at the end of the list you have already
created, and the program will automatically sort the records in ascending order.
Records can be switched 'Off' or 'On' by depressing the buttons to the left of the
column entry fields. When a record is switched 'Off', it is not taken into account
in the calculations.
The production history is used to automatically generate the exponent, initial
rates and decline rates. This can be done by clicking the Match button (see
Matching the Decline Curve section that follows).
Enter the required information, and press Done to confirm the input data and exit the
screen. If you want to check the quality and validity of the data, click the Plot command
button.
Command Buttons:
Plot

Displays the production history profile versus time.

Reset

Initialises the current tank/well data.

Match

Allows the calculation of the exponent, initial rates and decline rates
from the production data.

Import

Reads a data file generated by other systems which contains
production history data. (see Chapter 4)

Add

Creates a new well. For By Well input only.

Del

Removes the well currently selected for the well list. The data
contained in the well is lost. For By Well input only.

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Chapter 10 - Decline Curve Analysis 5-9

10.4 Matching the Decline Curve
To access the history matching screen, click in the Match from the production history
screen A screen plot similar to the following plot appears:
Figure 10.3
Decline Curve Analysis
History matching plot

On first entry into this screen, only the matching points are displayed.
Choose Regress to start the non-linear regression and find the best fit. The Decline
Curve parameters corresponding to the best fit found by the regression are displayed in
the legend box the right of the plot.

Changing the weighting of history points in the regression
Each data point can be given a different weighting in the Regression. Important and
trustworthy data points can be set to HIGH to force the regression to go through these
points. Secondary or doubtful data points can be set to LOW or switched OFF
completely.
Changing Single Points:
Figure 10.4:
Decline Curve Analysis
- Set Match Point Status
(Single Point)

Using the LEFT mouse button, double-click the history point to be changed. The above
dialogue box appears, displaying the point number selected.
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6-9 Chapter 10 - Decline Curve Analysis

Choose as required, the point weighting (High / Medium / Low) and/or status (Off / On).
Points that are switched off will not be taken into account in the regression. Checking
the Insert Rate Break option creates a new entry in the decline rate table i.e. indicates
to the program the occurrence of a discontinuity in the rate decline.
If a rate break has already been inserted at that point, the following screen is displayed:
Figure 10.5:
Decline Curve Analysis
- Remove rate break
(Single Point)

Checking the Remove Rate Break removes the corresponding entry from the decline
rate table.
Click Done to confirm the changes.
Changing Multiple Points:
Figure 10.6:
Decline Curve Analysis Set Match Point Status
(Multiple Point)

Using the RIGHT mouse button and dragging the mouse, draw a dotted rectangle over
the points you want to modify. (This click and drag operation is identical to the
operation used to re-size plot displays, but uses the right mouse button.) When you
release the mouse button, a dialogue box similar to the above will appear, displaying
the number of points selected.
All the history points included in the 'drawn' box will be affected by the selections you
are about to make. Choose the points' weighting (High / Medium / Low) and/or status
(Off / On) as desired. Click Done to confirm the changes. If you have no right mouse
button, the button selection can still be performed by using the left mouse button and
holding the shift key down while you click and drag.

Petroleum Experts

Chapter 10 - Decline Curve Analysis 7-9

Do not forget to choose Regress again to start a new regression with the new
values.

Menu Commands:
Axis

Allows you to select different types of scales for the X and Y axes.
You can also choose to display the estimated cumulative production
based on the last regression parameters.

Prior

Plots the production data of the previous well in the well list of the
production screen above.

Next

Plots the production data of the next well in the well list of the
production screen above.

Regress Starts the non-linear regression and finds the best fit. The Decline
Curve parameters corresponding to the best fit found by the
regression are displayed in the legend box the right of the plot.
Decline
Type

Select the type of decline curve analysis; hyperbolic, harmonic or
exponential.

10.5 Prediction Set-up
This option is used to enter the production prediction parameters to access the
prediction parameters screen, choose Production Prediction - Prediction Set-up.
The following dialogue box appears:
Figure 10.7:
Decline Curve Analysis Prediction Set-up

Input Fields
Start of Prediction
This field defines the start date of the prediction.
Prediction end
This parameter defines when the program will stop the prediction.
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8-9 Chapter 10 - Decline Curve Analysis

Abandonment rate (optional)
This field defines the minimum production rate for the prediction.
Wells to include (only displayed if By Well selected in the Options dialogue)
Select the wells to be included in the prediction. Only valid wells are presented
in this list.

10.6 Reporting Schedule
The reporting schedule defines the type of prediction to be performed, the start and end
of prediction and the reporting frequency.
Figure 10.8:
Decline Curve Analysis Reporting Schedule

Input Fields
Reporting Frequency
This parameter defines when the prediction results are displayed.
• Automatic:
The program displays a calculation every 90 days.
• User List:
The user can specify a list of up to 60 dates in the table provided.
• User Defined:
The user can define any date incremented in days, weeks, months or
years in the adjacent fields.
Enter the required information, and press Done to confirm the input data and exit the
screen.

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Chapter 10 - Decline Curve Analysis 9-9

10.7 Running a Production Prediction
To run a prediction, choose Production Prediction⏐Calculation.
dialogue box is displayed:

The following

Figure 10.9:
Decline Curve Analysis Production Prediction
Calculation

This screen shows the results of the last prediction. The scroll bars to the bottom and
right of the dialogue box allow you to browse through the calculations of the last
prediction run.
To start a new prediction, click Calc. To abort the calculations at any stage, press the
Abort command button.
The Layout button allows you to display a selection of variables if you are only
interested in a few of the calculation results. This option may also be used for printing
reports.
Plotting a Production Prediction:
To plot the results of a prediction run, choose Production Prediction⏐Plot. This plot
allows you to select the variables to display.

MBAL User Guide

The box is divided into cells for which average water/gas and oil saturations are monitored.11 1D Model 11. • The production and injection wells are considered to be perforated across the entire formation thickness. At each time step and for each cell. 11. Figure 11. A time step is computed based on the injection rate and the overall size of the reservoir. using the fractional flow and Buckley-Leverett equations. • The saturation distribution is uniform across the width of the reservoir. The calculation is performed from the producer well to the injector. with an injector well at one end and a producer at the other. • The fluids are immiscible. with an injector well at one end and a producer at the other. The fractional flow of each fluid based on their relative permeabilities. so as not to produce brusque changes in the cells' saturations. the program calculates: • • • The water/gas and oil relative permeabilities based on the cell saturations.1 Program Functions This tool allows the study of the displacement of oil by water or gas. even in the vicinity of the wells.2 Technical Background The reservoir is a rectangular box. . • Linear flow lines are assumed. the program calculates the production from cell to cell.1: 1D Model Theory Diagram The model assumes the following: • The reservoir is a rectangular box. The model does not presuppose any displacement theory. • The displacement is considered as incompressible. At each time step. • Capillary pressures are neglected. The cell productions into the next cell based on the fractional flows. • The injection rate is constant.

2.2-8 Chapter 11 .2. gives: kkroA ∆ρg sin θ 1− × qtµo 1. neglecting the capillary pressure gradient with respect to x.1 Simultaneous Flow In the case of displacement of oil by water.1D Model • The new cell saturations from the productions. 0133 × 10e6 fw = . the one dimensional equations for simultaneous flow of oil and water can be expressed as:- qo = ρog sinθ ⎞ kkroA ⎛ δPo − ⎟ ⎜ × 10e6 ⎠ µo ⎝ δx 10133 . 11. µw kro 1+ × krw µo For a displacement in a horizontal reservoir the equation is reduced to M 1 fw = = µw kro 1 + M × 1+ krw µo µo krw × . 11. qw × 10e6 ⎠ qtµo ⎝ δx 10133 fw = = µw kro qw + qo × 1+ krw µo which. with the end point mobility factor defined as M = kro µw Petroleum Experts .2 Fractional Flow The Fractional Flow can then be expressed as: ∆ρg sin θ ⎞ kkroA ⎛ δPc − 1+ ⎜ ⎟ . qw = ρwg sin θ ⎞ kkrwA ⎛ δPw − ⎜ ⎟ × 10e6 ⎠ µw ⎝ δx 10133 . and where: q = rate ρ = density k = permeability A = cross section area µ = viscosity P = pressure g = acceleration of gravity.

1D Model 3.2: 1D Model -Tool Options Input Fields Reservoir Fluid The only fluid selection for this tool is oil. Two main menu options then become available: • Input to enter the reservoir. • Calculation to run a simulation and produce result reports and plots. Click Done to accept the choices and return to the main menu. Figure 11.3 Tool Options On selecting 1D Model as the analysis tool in the Tool menu. MBAL User Guide . Refer to Chapter 6 of this guide for more information on the User Information and User Comments sections. This section describes the 'Tool Options' section of the System Options dialogue box. go to the Options menu to define the primary fluid of the reservoir.8 11.Chapter 11 . fluids and injection parameters. Supply the header information and any comments about this analysis in the appropriate boxes.

Used to calculate the total gas production (free + solution).4 Reservoir and Fluids Properties To access the reservoir. Water/Gas Viscosity Viscosity of the injected fluid at reservoir conditions.R.3: 1D Model Reservoir and Fluids Parameters Input Fields Injection Fluid Choose between water and gas. injection and fluids properties dialog box. Solution GOR For gas injection only. Oil Density Density of the oil at reservoir conditions. A screen similar to the following appears. Water/Gas Density Density of the injected fluid at reservoir conditions. Figure 11. choose Input Reservoir Parameters or press ALT . Injection Rate Defines the injection rate of the injection fluid. Water/Gas FVF Injected fluid Formation Volume Factor at reservoir conditions. Petroleum Experts .4-8 Chapter 11 . Oil FVF Oil Formation Volume Factor at reservoir conditions.1D Model 11. Start of Injection Used as the origin of the date system. Oil Viscosity Viscosity of the oil at reservoir conditions.

Chapter 11 .8 .1D Model 5.

User Defined input tables.P. Petroleum Experts . Figure 11. Corey Exponents Defines for each phase the relative permeability at its saturation maximum.5 Relative Permeability To access the relative permeabilities dialog box.6-8 Chapter 11 .1D Model 11. Command Buttons: Reset Initialises the relative permeability curve Plot Displays the relative permeability tables in a graph. For example for the oil.Corey Functions. or .The connate saturation for the water phase. Copy Copy a relative permeability curve from elsewhere in the system.Relative Permeabilities or press ALT .The residual saturation of the oil phase for water flooding. For example for the oil. it corresponds to its relative permeability at So = (1Swc).5: 1D Model Relative permeabilities ∫ See Corey Relative Permeability Equations in Appendix C2 Input Fields Rel Perm From Select whether the relative permeability’s are to come from . it corresponds to its relative permeability at So = (1Swc). choose Input . Residual Saturations Defines respectively: . . End Points Defines for each phase the relative permeability at its saturation maximum. These saturations are used to calculate the amount of oil ‘by-passed’ during a water flooding. A screen similar to the following will appear.

Chapter 11 . Enter the relevant information. 11. or Cancel to quit the screen. Click Calculate from the window menu to start a simulation run.1D Model 7. Corey Exponents Defines for each phase the relative permeability at its saturation maximum.8 Click Done to exit and return to the main menu screen. A screen similar to the following will appear.The connate saturation for the water phase. it corresponds to its relative permeability at So = (1Swc). it corresponds to its relative permeability at So = (1Swc).The residual saturation for the oil phase.The critical saturation for the gas phase. Input Fields Residual Saturations Defines respectively: . . MBAL User Guide .Run simulation.6: 1D Model –Simulation The display shows most of your input parameters. Figure 11. ∫ Please note that relative permeabilities are always represented as functions of water saturation. . For example for the oil. End Points Defines for each phase the relative permeability at its saturation maximum. choose Calculations . For example for the oil. or press ALT C R. and click the Plot button to check the quality and validity of the data.6 Running a Simulation To run a simulation.

Two variables can be selected from the left list column (Y) and one from the right list column (X). choose Output . To select a variable item.Plot. and then choose the new plot variable.6. and use the space bar to select or de-select a variable item. When changes to the input parameters are completed. press Calculate to start a new simulation. The bottom right portion of the screen displays the values of different parameters at Breakthrough and at the end of the simulation. 11. For more information on the plot display menu commands. or use the ↑ and ↓ directional arrow.1D Model The program displays the change in the distribution of the injected phase saturation. If the calculations are not stopped. Petroleum Experts . the program ends the simulation at the cut-off value entered in the 'Reservoir and Fluids Parameters' dialogue box. To change the variables plotted on the axes. Full details of the calculations behind the plot can be viewed by choosing Output Result. The calculation can be stopped at any time by clicking the Abort button. Each curve represents a distribution of saturations for a given pore volume injected (indicated on the plots as PV injected). refer to Chapter 5. They may be printed and plotted differently using any of the options provided. The program will not allow more than two variables to be selected from the Y axis at one time. simply click the variable name. Input parameters can be accessed throughout the Input menu option.8-8 Chapter 11 . click the Variable plot menu option.Result . first de-select the unwanted variable. ∫ If you have already selected 2 variables for the Y axis and want to change one of them. A dialogue box appears which allows you to choose the X and Y variables to plot.1 Plotting a Simulation To view other calculated parameters.

porosity and permeability. • Enter the PVT description. The steps include:• Specify the injection phase (gas or water) • Specify the calculation type. Buckley-Leverett. Each layer has its own set of relative permeability’s. Communicating Layers or Simple. The model considers the incline of the reservoir in all calculation types apart from Stiles method. A single pressure and temperature is entered for the reservoir which is used to calculate the required fluid properties. • Calculate a pseudo relative permeability curve for the reservoir using the Fw/Fg match plot. • Enter reservoir description • Enter the layer description • Calculate the production profile for each layer and combine all the layers into a consolidated production profile.12 Multi Layer Tool 12. Since we are only interested in the relative layer response. we use a dimensionless model wherever possible (e. If required the pseudo-layer calculated from the multi-layers created by the above steps can then be reused as a single layer in a new model.1 Programme Functions The purpose of this tool is to generate pseudo relative permeability curves for multilayer reservoirs using immiscible displacement. Or one could even run two different multi-layer communicating models and use the two pseudo-layers as input to a multi-layer Buckley-Leverett model. These can then be used by other tools in MBAL such as Material Balance. Stiles. length=1 foot and injection rate =1 cf/d).g. For example a pseudo-layer calculated from a communicating multi-layer model can be used as input for a single layer Buckley-Leverett model. A single PVT description can be entered. . thickness.

This method does not apply the gravitational correction to the calculation of Fw or Fg. Note that if the dip angle is non-zero then the Fw or Fg calculation applies the gravitational correction. The results are reported (as much as possible) at equal intervals of injection saturations. The program calculates the production profile of each layer individually and the results are output for time vs. It then combines the production of each into a consolidated set of results for the whole reservoir using the artificial time frame as the reference points. AIME. Width=Length=1. Therefore the unit dimensionless rate is distributed between layers proportionally to the kh of the layer. M. AIME.C. Trans." The model assumes the same pressure difference across the length of all layers. Np. and Leverett. AIME. Stiles This calculation is based on the method from "Stiles.J. Petroleum Experts . H. Gp/Wp. We assume dimensionless values in all other cases e.. this method does not first calculate separate responses for each layer. L. 195.E. Qo. Unlike the other multi-layer calculation types. Qo. For this calculation it will use the rate and reservoir width entered in the reservoir parameters (the rate is again distributed proportionally to the kh of the layer.Multi-Layer Tool 12. We assume dimensionless values in all other cases e. It then combines the production of each into a consolidated set of results for the whole reservoir using the artificial time frame as the reference points. Wc/GOR and fluid properties. A Simplified Method for Computing Oil Recovery by Gas or Water drive. The results are reported (as much as possible) at equal intervals of injection saturations.2-8 Chapter 12 . Trans. Np. 1949.E. Width=Length=1. W.g.P. Instead it first calculates and reports the modified relative permeability tables taking the vertical distribution of saturations due to capillary pressure into account. Qg/Qw. 146. Buckley-Leverett This calculation is based on the methods from "Buckley. 1952. 1942 Mechanism of Fluid Displacement in Sands. Trans. S. and Section 10..0. Gp/Wp. Fundamentals of Petroleum Engineering.0.. Communicating Layers This calculation is based on the method from "Dake.. The program calculates the production profile of each layer individually and the results are output for time vs. 186:9. Therefore the unit dimensionless rate is distributed between layers proportionally to the kh of the layer." and "Welge. In the case of Stiles this is a simple step function.g.” The model assumes the same pressure difference across the length of all layers.8".2 Technical Background There are four calculation types described below. Use of Permeability Distribution in Water Flood Calculations. Qg/Qw. 91-98. Wc/GOR and fluid properties. 107-116.

Multi-Layer Tool 3-8 It then calculates and reports the production profile of the complete reservoir using these modified relative permeability tables. Width=Length=1. Simple This calculation is a simple method of combining several layers to give the reservoir response.Calculated from Communicating Stream". Note that if the dip angle is non-zero then the Fw or Fg calculation (used to calculate the production profile) applies the gravitational correction. • Delete all the layers using the Reset button. For this calculation it will use the rate and reservoir width entered in the reservoir parameters (the rate is again distributed proportionally to the kh of the layer. Qg/Qw. If there is no dip angle then the result of the layer calculation will correspond exactly to the input relative permeability curves. For this calculation it will use the rate and reservoir width entered in the reservoir parameters (the rate is again distributed proportionally to the kh of the layer. At each time steps it calculates the fractional flow at the production end based on the current saturations. The single layer model performs a simple single cell simulation. To run a Buckley-Leverett calculation using the modified relative permeability curves:• Run the communicating model as described above.Chapter 12 .g. It then updates the saturations in the cell based on these rates. MBAL User Guide . Wc/GOR and fluid properties. The program calculates the production profile of each layer individually and the results are output for time vs. Note that if the dip angle is non-zero then the Fw or Fg calculation applies the gravitational correction. • Go back to the layer input dialog.0. • Run the calculation again. Qo. This layer has the table of relative permeabilities calculated taking into account the capillary pressures. Gp/Wp. it is similar to the 1D model with a single cell. • Go back to the options dialog and change calculation type to BuckleyLeverett. The model assumes the same pressure difference across the length of all layers. In effect. Therefore the unit dimensionless rate is distributed between layers proportionally to the kh of the layer. We assume dimensionless values in all other cases e. It splits the calculation into a number of time steps. Np. • Click the Copy button and select the "Multi Layers . The results are reported (as much as possible) at equal intervals of injection saturations. It then combines the production of each into a consolidated set of results for the whole reservoir using the artificial time frame as the reference points.

Figure 12. Refer to Chapter 6 of this guide for more information on the User Information and User Comments sections. click the field to highlight the entry. This section describes the Tool Options section of the System Options dialogue box.3 Tool Options On selecting Multi Layer as the analysis tool in the Tool menu. • Calculation to run a simulation and produce result reports and plots. Two main menu options then become available: • Input to enter the reservoir. fluids and injection parameters. Click Done to accept the choices and return to the main menu. go to the Options menu to define the primary fluid of the reservoir.Multi-Layer Tool 12. Petroleum Experts .1: Multi-layer -Tool Options To select an option. click the arrow to the right of the field to display the current choices.4-8 Chapter 12 . Input Fields Reservoir Fluid This tool currently handles water flooding into an oil reservoir. or use the TAB button. Supply the header information and any comments about this analysis in the appropriate boxes. To move to the next entry field.

Click the Reset button to delete all the layers and their relative permeability curves. Figure 12. Porosity Porosity of the layer. A screen similar to the following appears. Click Done to accept and return to the main menu. Then click on the corresponding Rel Perm button to enter the relative permeability curve for each layer.2: Multi-layer Layer Properties Input Fields Thickness Thickness of the layer.Chapter 12 . A tick will appear next to the Rel Perm button to indicate that a valid relative permeability curve has been entered. Enter the information for each layer in the reservoir.Multi-Layer Tool 5-8 12. Permeability Absolute permeability of the layer.4 Layer Properties To access the layer properties dialog box. choose Input-Layer Properties. MBAL User Guide .

4.Corey Functions. Residual Saturations Defines respectively:. . For example for the oil.1 Relative Permeability To access the relative permeabilities dialog box for a particular layer.The residual saturation of the oil phase for water flooding. End Points Defines for each phase the relative permeability at its saturation maximum. These saturations are used to calculate the amount of oil ‘by-passed’ during a water flooding. A screen similar to the following will appear. Corey Exponents Defines for each phase the relative permeability at its saturation maximum.The connate saturation for the water phase. For example for the oil. Petroleum Experts . click on the Rel Perm button. it corresponds to its relative permeability at So = (1Swc). or .User Defined input tables.3: Multi-Layer Relative permeabilities  See Corey Relative Permeability Equations in Appendix C2 Input Fields Rel Perm From Select whether the relative permeability’s are to come from:.Multi-Layer Tool 12. Figure 12. it corresponds to its relative permeability at So = (1Swc).6-8 Chapter 12 .

Enter the relevant information. Copy Copy a relative permeability curve from another location in the program e. Click Done to exit and return to the main menu screen. Prev Edit the rel perms for the previous layer in the table.Chapter 12 . or Cancel to quit the screen. choose Calculations⏐Run Calculation.g. 12. A screen similar to the following will appear. Next Edit the rel perms for the next layer in the table. and click the Plot button to check the quality and validity of the data. MBAL User Guide . The calculation can be stopped at any time by clicking the Abort button. At the end of the calculation. Figure 12. another layer. the calculated pseudo relative permeability curve is displayed.5 Running a Calculation To run a calculation. note that relative permeabilities are always represented as functions  ofPlease water saturation.Multi-Layer Tool 7-8 Command Buttons: Reset Reset the relative permeability curve Plot Displays the relative permeability tables in a graph.4: Multi-layer – Calculation Click the Calculate button to start a simulation run.

refer to Chapter 5. Petroleum Experts . For more information on the plot display menu commands.do not select File-New or FileOpen at this point or the table will be lost. select the Copy button and the pseudo relative permeability curve should appear in the list labelled as Multi Layers – Reservoir. To do so:- Calculate the pseudo relative permeability curve as described above.Multi-Layer Tool Click on the Plot button to view the relative permeability curve.8-8 Chapter 12 . - In the relative permeability dialog for the other tool. - Select the other tool that you wish to use . The pseudo relative permeability curve that is calculated here can be used by the 1-D Model and Material Balance Tool.

provided that the layers include fluid and rock of the same properties. Setting up a material balance model that accounts for the rate of depletion and correcting the inflows at each timestep. as well as being of the same size. Most wells produce from layers which are not of the same size and do not have fluid and rock of the same physical behaviour. The allocation over time depends on the properties of each layer (inflows) and the pressure depletion of each layer. The method can be best explained by using the following diagrams (not to scale): . The new technique involves the following steps: a. Using the inflows for each layer allocation can be done on a timestep basis b. PetEx was not satisfied with this approach and a new allocation technique was developed to account for the actual representation of the inflows as well as the rate of depletion of each layer. This could be assumed constant over time. Both these assumptions are not widely valid in multi-layer systems.1 Background One of the major challenges faced during any study that involves wells producing from many layers is the production allocation. The traditional approach in tackling the allocation problem involves doing the allocation based on a constant K*h for the layers and is used widely in the industry in the absence of any other allocation method. that is how much each layer is contributing to the total cumulative observed at the surface.13 Reservoir Allocation Tool 13.

Therefore. These are Petroleum Experts .2-12 Chapter 13 . the presence of only two layers was assumed.Production Allocation Tool13 Production Allocation Tool Pwf Inflow layer 1 Total inflow Inflow layer 2 Q1 Q Using the reservoir properties. Since the IPRs have to be corrected to the same depth. Pwf Pwf1 Q3 Q2 Q1 Q Since now the total IPR is constructed by adding the rates of the two individual IPRs. one can determine the amount of fluid that was produced from each layer. Starting from Day 1of production. there can only be one Pwf pressure for that rate at the given depth (basic principle of nodal analysis). the inflows of the layers producing into the same well can be calculated. In the diagram above and for simplicity. let us assume that the cumulative measured rate for the day is Q1. this Pwf can be determined from the total IPR.

the new reservoir pressures can be determined and the new IPRs plotted. In doing this. The next step involves determining the IPRs for the second day. one can use the same C and n parameters for the originally generated IPRs.Chapter 13 . However. For simplicity. The pressure at the next time step is then calculated using either material balance or decline curve calculations. The procedure is then repeated and the allocation for each layer throughout the time of the well’s life is determined. which is provided by MBAL. This new tool improves on the k*h method. which is the third parameter that determines the IPR construction. one needs to determine the reservoir pressure. MBAL User Guide . A reservoir model is therefore needed. The reservoir model can predict the reservoir pressure when a given amount of fluid is withdrawn from the reservoir. This is the allocation for the first day of production. consider that the P/Z diagram for the two layers will look like this: P/Z Q3 Q2 Gp According to the production from the layers calculated on Day1. The effect of the aquifer. pore volume compressibility and connate water expansion are all taken into account in the reservoir model. In particular:At each time step the model will calculate the current layer rates using the current layer pressures and the input IPR.Production Allocation Tool 3-12 signified as Q2 and Q3 on the diagram above.

13. Both production and injection wells. the aquifer and PVT model.2 Reservoir Allocation Tool Capabilities The tool can handle: • • • • Any number of wells and tanks and connection between the wells and tanks. gas or condensate reservoirs. This is essentially the same interface as is used by the material balance tool. The fractional flow is calculated either using the relative permeability curves and current saturations.Production Allocation Tool13 Production Allocation Tool 13. At the beginning of each time step:• • • • MBAL performs a regression to calculate the layer rates that add up to the total well rate. It can use an input table of Np/Gp vs. The fractional flow from each layer is then used to weight the layer productivity to give Qo. GOR/Wc/etc. Oil. It takes into account the inflow performance and current tank pressure. MBAL then calculates the pressure at the end of the time step taking into account the new cumulative layer rates.3 Graphical Interface The Reservoir Allocation tool uses a graphical interface to build the reservoir and well models. Qg and Qw (but always respecting the total well Qo/Qg/Qw). Petroleum Experts . pressure to lookup the new pressure. This can be done in two ways:• • It can use the material balance calculations to calculate the new pressure taking into account the OOIP/OGIP. Layers producing only over a defined schedule. or using an input table of Np/Gp vs.4-12 Chapter 13 .

click the field to highlight the entry. Figure 13. This section describes the Tool Options section of the System Options dialogue box.1: Reservoir Allocation Tool Options To select an option. H2S and N2 can be tracked in the model for comparison with measured percentages at the end of the allocation MBAL User Guide . or use the TAB button.Chapter 13 . gas and retrograde condensate fluids. Track impurities CO2.4 Tool Options On selecting Production Allocation as the analysis tool in the Tool menu. To move to the next entry field. go to the Options menu to define the primary fluid of the reservoir. Input Fields Reservoir Fluid This tool can handle oil. click the arrow to the right of the field to display the current choices.Production Allocation Tool 5-12 13.

choose Input-Tank Data.6-12 Chapter 13 .2: Use Tank Response 13.5.1 Tank Input Data To access the layer properties dialog box.5 Input Data The data for this model can be entered from: Figure 13.Production Allocation Tool13 Production Allocation Tool 13.3: Use Tank Response Select this option if you wish to use a table of data to model the time dependant response of the tank. The main differences are: Tank Parameters Tab Use Input Tank Response Figure 13. Petroleum Experts . The dialog is mostly the same as the tank input for the material balance tool. See Tank Response Input below for more information.

4: Use Tank Response data entry The main column in the table is the cumulative principal fluid. 13. Tank Response Tab The table entered is used to model the time dependant behaviour of the tank. This gives us the Np/Gp at the end of the time step. Once we have the Np/Gp we can then read off the Pressure. and WGR etc from the table by interpolation. choose Input-Well Data.5. Once the production allocation calculation is done.Chapter 13 . GOR. For oil tanks this is Np and for gas/condensate tanks this is Gp. Figure 13. The well data dialog has three tabs: MBAL User Guide . Production History Tab For Production Allocation this is actually OUTPUT data so it does not need to be entered. This tab is only accessible if the Use Input Tank Response option is switched on in the tank parameters tab.Production Allocation Tool 7-12 Do not select the option if you wish to use the material balance calculations to model how the pressure will change in the tank and how the fractional flow will evolve.2 Well Input Data To access the well data dialog box. In the production allocation tool we calculate the rate at each time step for each tank. the calculated tank history will be written into this table.

This tab has nearly all the same inputs as the material balance prediction well inflow tab.8-12 Chapter 13 . Production History Tab The production data for the well is used to drive the production allocation calculation.5. The inputs are the same as the production history tab in the Material Balance History Well Production History tab. For consistency. The total layer calculated for each well will always respect the input production data. 13. pressures can be entered in the Production data. Inflow Performance Tab This tab is used to enter the inflow performance for each layer.3 Transfer from Material Balance This option can be found under: Petroleum Experts . This is used to distribute the total well rate between layers.Production Allocation Tool13 Production Allocation Tool Figure 13. It is the same functionality as the setup tab for prediction well.5: Well Input data Setup Tab This tab is used to set the well type and which tanks the well perforates.

13. In addition the prediction wells will be copied from the material balance tool and the connections between wells and tanks will be rebuilt.7: Calculation Menu MBAL User Guide . This option allows the whole data input set from the material balance tool to be transferred into the production allocation tool. Then all the tank and PVT data will be copied from the material balance tool.6 Calculations Once the model is set up. On selecting the menu options.Chapter 13 . you will be asked to confirm that all the existing production allocation tool input data will be overwritten by the material balance tool data. then the calculations can be performed from the calculation menu: Figure 13.Production Allocation Tool 9-12 Figure 13. Both tools use tanks and wells (although some sections of the tank and well data are different).6: Transfer from Material Balance tool The input data model for the production allocation tool and the material balance tool has many similarities.

A smaller time step can be used to more accurately predict cases with larger aquifers.2 Run Allocation This dialog box is used to run a production allocation as described at the beginning of the chapter. 13. the results will only be reported at the time steps defined in the well production history. This dialog is used to enter the setup parameters for the production allocation calculation: Figure 13. Larger time steps will speed up the calculation.6.10-12 Chapter 13 .Production Allocation Tool13 Production Allocation Tool 13. choose Calculations-Setup menu item. then MBAL will use the default time step of 15 days. Note that even if a small internal time step is used. Selecting the “Calc” button will perform the allocation: Figure 13.6.1 Setup To access the setup dialog box.8: Setup Allocation Step Size Set the size of the internal time steps used in the calculation.9: Calculations Petroleum Experts . If this option is left to automatic.

10: Calculations The results can be plotted as shown below: Figure 13.Chapter 13 .3 Tank Results This dialog box is used to display the tank and results from a production allocation: Figure 13.11: Tank Results MBAL User Guide .6. Rate: This is the rate at the time reported. the program will automatically transfer the cumulative rates calculated for each tank into the tank production history in the tank objects. When the calculation is finished. 13.Production Allocation Tool 11-12 Rates are reported in two ways in the prediction:Cumulative rates: This is the total rate produced up to the time at which the rate is reported.

From the plot variables.Production Allocation Tool13 Production Allocation Tool 13.12: Selecting variables From the plot one can then compare these parameters: Figure 13.12-12 Chapter 13 . the GIIP or IPR if the layers need to be adjusted so that the CO2 measured and calculated agree. the measured and calculated CO2 content can be selected for viewing: Figure 13. This can be a powerful quality check on the initial assumptions used to build the model.13: Comparing measured and calculated CO2 content In the case above.6. the two do not agree. this can be done from the well results option. Therefore. Petroleum Experts .4 Well/Layer Results In the case where the calculated and measured CO2 content of the stream needs to be compared.

Click File . Chapter 9.1 Setting up the Problem Begin the session by clearing all previous calculations. This example is designed to show the Oil-in-Place and aquifer parameters are determined for a reservoir under water drive. A1. Save changes to your previous work if required.P. 1978).Material Balance. . and then click Options from the main menu.Appendix A Examples A1 Water Drive Oil Reservoir The data file containing this example is OIL_TST.New. The options to be studied are: • • • • • • Setting modelling options Entering PVT properties and performing a correlation match Entering reservoir and aquifer properties Entering production history data Performing a history match Using regression to improve the match This example is based on data from Fundamentals of Reservoir Engineering by L. Dake (Elsevier.MBI. The following selections can be made: Figure A-1: Selecting the options Click Done to return to the main menu. Select Tool .

Fluid Properties and enter the following PVT data: Figure A-2: PVT entry screen The PVT correlations will now be matched to lab PVT data (available in page 320 of the book).2 PVT Menu Click PVT . the “Match Button” is selected again and this will prompt the regression screen: Petroleum Experts .Examples A1.40 Appendix A . Figure A-3: Match Data Entry screen As soon as the data is entered.2 .

Examples 3 .40 Figure A-4: Matching the data to the correlations As soon as the calculations are finished. the “Match Parameters” screen will allow selection of the correlation that best matches the data: Figure A-5: Selecting the match parameters screen MBAL User Guide .Appendix A .

the next section will describe how the reservoir data are entered: Petroleum Experts . Glaso is chosen and selected in the main PVT screen: Figure A-7: Setting the chosen correlation As the PVT is now done.40 Appendix A .4 .Examples Figure A-6: Choosing the best correlation From this.

40 A1. such as the reservoir temperature. Select the User Specified button and enter the following:Rock Compressibility 4.0e-06 This value is specified in the exercise.Appendix A .5 Relative Permeability The next step is to select the Relative Permeability tab: MBAL User Guide . A1.3 Reservoir Input The data used in this section are shown in Dake. page 317. page 317. The PVT data are given as tables with no temperature defined so we are using 115 deg F in the example.Examples 5 . Figure A-8: Reservoir data screen Please note that some of the data are not available in the book. A1.4 Rock Properties Next click on the Rock Properties tab.

69 50. Enter the following production data: Time d/m/y 01/08/1994 01/08/1995 01/08/1996 01/08/1997 01/08/1998 01/08/1999 01/08/2000 01/08/2001 01/08/2002 01/08/2003 01/08/2004 Reservoir Pressure Psig 2740 2500 2290 2109 1949 1818 1702 1608 1535 1480 1440 Cum Oil Produced MMSTB 0 7.8 85348.1 79228.14 58. A1. Click on the Production History tab.43 This data are taken from page 320 of Dake.40 Appendix A .88 18.39 70.42 29.9 26818 39672.6 Production History The next task is to set up the production history. table 9. The rel perms are in any case not used in the history matching process (apart from the connate saturations of course).74 74.3 89818.8 .54 77.Examples Figure A-9: Relative permeability screen In Dake’s example. straight line rel perms have been used for simplicity.42 65.8 15564.6 .5 62217.15 40. no rel perms are given for the fluid so in this case.3 Petroleum Experts Cum Gas Produced MMscf 0 5988.3 71602.8 51393.

All and 3 tiled windows showing the available methods will be displayed. Figure A-10: Accessing the history plots screen Figure A-11: History matching plots MBAL User Guide .Examples 7 .7 History Matching The purpose of this section is to illustrate a methodology for carrying out the matching process and compare the results obtained using a number of different methods. Bear in mind that the set of reservoir data entered in the Input section is used only as the starting point for the history matching. This will enable us to assess if an aquifer is present or not. Click History Matching .Appendix A .40 A1. The aquifer was initially disallowed.

an aquifer is selected based on Dake’s recommendation: Petroleum Experts . The increasing trend in the data on the Campbell plot suggests that an aquifer may be the source of the increasing energy. This plot displays:(F – We)/Et vs.Examples Display the graphical plot full size by double clicking on its window title bar. Going back to the tank input data screen. Figure A-12: Graphical Method plot The graphical plots are based on the basic material balance formula:F = N*Et + We Where F = Total Production We = Water Influx Et = Total Expansion N = Original Oil in Place The Campbell method is displayed by default. F Theoretically the data would be expected to fit to a horizontal line whose intersection with the Y axis gives the OIP.40 Appendix A .8 . an aquifer needs to be added to the model. In this case.

Appendix A .Examples 9 .40 Figure A-13: Selecting an aquifer model Going back to the “History Matching/All” page: Figure A-14: History matching plots including aquifer. On the Analytical method. we select the “Regression” option: MBAL User Guide .

40 Appendix A . On the regression screen. the variables which we are least sure of are selected: Figure A-16: Selecting the variables for regression Petroleum Experts .10 .Examples Figure A-15: Selecting the Regression option.

Appendix A - Examples 11 - 40
Figure A-17:
Regressing on the selected
parameters

The best-fit button above will transfer all the calculated data onto the model and the
necessary updates will be performed automatically when “Done” is clicked.

Figure A-18:
Campbell Plot and Analytical
method after the match

And from the Simulation Screen:

MBAL User Guide

12 - 40 Appendix A - Examples
Figure A-19:
Simulation Results

It can be seen that the match is OK.
The following is a comparison of the results in Dake and the results of MBAL:

OOIP
Outer inner radius

DAKE
312 MMstb
5

MBAL
312.7 MMstb
5.1

A2 Well by Well History Matching
A fundamental issue in forward predictions using material balance principles is the
accurate forecast of water cut and GOR (free gas from gas cap). As no geological
model exists, the way this is handled in MBAL is through pseudo relative permeability
curves, from which fractional flow is calculated as a function of saturation.
In previous examples (the quick start guide), the matching of “reservoir wide” pseudo
rel perms was illustrated. In the case where many wells exist in the system, they will
produce at different water cuts and this behaviour needs to be captured through
individual rel perm curves.
This example will show how historical data can be entered on a well by well basis,
which will in turn allow one set of pseudos to be created for each well in the system.
Start this example from the “Well by Well Starting Model” under the “Well by Well”
folder in the samples directory of MBAL.
Please note that all the PVT and basic history data have already been entered in the
model and we will only concentrate on entering the historical data, history matching and
creating the rel perms on a well by well basis.
Petroleum Experts

Appendix A - Examples 13 - 40

Step1. Activating the Options
Under the Options Menu:

Figure A-22:
Options Menu

The option to enter Production History by well needs to be enabled as shown above.
Step 2. Creating history wells
This is done under “Input/Wells Data” as shown below:

Figure A-23:
Selecting the Wells Data
screen

In the following screen, a history well can be created by selecting the + button:
MBAL User Guide

14 - 40 Appendix A - Examples

Figure A-24:
Creating a history well

This will create the well and open the well Setup screen as shown below. A history well
in MBAL is defined by the Setup Screen (where the type of well is defined), the
production history screen and the production allocation screen (defines how much each
reservoir contributed to the total production in multilayer systems).
As soon as the well is created, then the type of production from this well needs to be
selected. The drop down menu below provides different types of well MBAL can
handle:

Figure A-25:
Setting the well type

The well is selected as an “Oil Producer” and the “Next” button will lead us to the
production history screen:

Petroleum Experts

Appendix A - Examples 15 - 40
Figure A-26:
Well production history
screen

The production history can be copied and pasted directly from Excel. This can be found
in the spreadsheet called “History”, under the “History Well by Well” folder in the MBAL
samples directory. In this spreadsheet, there are two worksheets, each containing the
production history of the two wells that will be built into this system:

Figure A-27:
Spreadsheet
history

containing

The history that needs to be copied into the well in MBAL is the one corresponding to
well 1.

MBAL User Guide

16 - 40 Appendix A - Examples
Figure A-28:
Production history copied
from spreadsheet

The “Next” button will then lead to the “Production Allocation” page:

Figure A-29:
Production Allocation
screen

In this screen, the program is simply told that all the production entered as history in the
well comes from the same reservoir. In multilayer systems where the well is connected
to more than one reservoir (layers), then the allocation needs to be done before this
screen is invoked.
Note: In multilayer systems, MBAL has a tool specifically designed to calculate
the layer by layer allocation. This tool is called “Production Allocation” and uses
an approach based on IPRs and rates of depletion rather than simply a kh
allocation.

Petroleum Experts

Appendix A - Examples 17 - 40

Now the model will look like this:

Figure A-30:
Tank model with history
well

As soon as the second history well is constructed in MBAL (using the same procedure
as for the first well), the model will look like this:

Figure A-31:
Tank model with both
history wells completed

Step 3: Transferring the production to the tanks
Now that both history wells have been constructed, the historical production needs to
be transferred to the reservoir model so that history matching can be done. Going to the
tank “Production History screen:

MBAL User Guide

40 Appendix A .18 . The reservoir pressures will now be averaged and the cumulatives added in order to capture the total production from the reservoir: Petroleum Experts . relating to the limitation of the method used to average the reservoir pressures: Figure A-33: Reservoir pressure averaging Selecting “Calc” will now allow the program to perform the calculations. The program can now sum up the cumulatives entered in the two wells if the “Calc Rate” button is selected: Note: The following warning message will now be prompted.Examples Figure A-32: Transferring historical production from wells to tank It can be seen here that there are two buttons that only appear if the history is entered on a well by well basis.

to match the model: MBAL User Guide .Appendix A . the relevant plots can be now used to deduce possible drive mechanisms: Figure A-35: History matching plots And the regression engine can be used.40 Figure A-34: History transferred reservoir model to Step 4: Performing the history match The history matching can be now done as normal. as in previous examples.Examples 19 . Under “History Matching/All”.

40 Appendix A . being a non-dimensional system.Examples Figure A-36: History matching completed The results can also be confirmed with the “Simulation” feature: Figure A-37: Simulation results Step 5: Preparing the model for predictions (creating rel perms for each well) In preparing the model for predictions. In MBAL. the concept of different GORs and water cuts per well is captured using different sets of pseudo relative permeabilities. These are created under: Petroleum Experts . one must ensure that the water cut and GOR seen by each well is captured at the start of the prediction period.20 .

Examples 21 .Appendix A . then one needs to bring up the production and equivalent curve for one particular well: MBAL User Guide . the program will prompt the fractional flow curve for the reservoir: Figure A-39: Fractional Flow curve for the reservoir If rel perms on a well by well basis need to be created.40 Figure A-38: Accessing the Fw matching screen Selecting the Fw matching option.

Examples Figure A-40: Selecting the fractional flow curves for the wells Figure A-41: Fw curve for well That can then be matched by using the “Regress” feature: Figure A-42: Regressing to match Fw curve Petroleum Experts .22 .40 Appendix A .

40 This will result in a fractional flow curve that can reproduce history. A prediction well can be created under: Figure A-44: Creating a well model for predictions After the + button is selected.Examples 23 . Step 6: Transferring the matched rel perm curves to the prediction wells In the Quick Start example for MBAL. along with the type of well. the IPR screen for the prediction well can be invoked: MBAL User Guide . and be used for forward predictions: Figure A-43: Matched Fw Curve Please note that two sets of rel perms need to be created as history for two wells in the system is available.Appendix A . The same options will be followed in this section. The procedure of matching them is the same. concentrating more on the options for selecting the matched relative permeability curves to be used for the forecast. the procedure in creating a prediction well in MBAL was explained.

Petroleum Experts .40 Appendix A .24 .Examples Figure A-45: Rel perm selection The menu can be dropped down as shown above: Select one of the two empty sets of rel perms (either Rel perm 1 or 2 will have the same function): Figure A-46: Accessing the rel perm screen Clicking the “Edit” button. will prompt the screen where the relative permeabilities can be entered.

Appendix A . This will show a screen where a list of all the rel perms that have been matched earlier in the Fw matching feature. Here. these rel perms will be transferred onto this screen now: MBAL User Guide . one can select the rel perms that correspond to this particular well: Figure A-48: Transferring rel perms from previously saved sets When the “Copy” button is selected.Examples 25 .40 Figure A-47: User defined Rel perm screen In the screen above. select the “Copy” button.

40 Appendix A . Figure A-50: Rel perms OK The same procedure can be used for the second well model now and once this is finished. the model will look like this: Petroleum Experts . on which the rest of well model options can be completed.Examples Figure A-49: Rel perms transferred Selecting “Done” will lead back to the well screen.26 .

then there they can be modelled as separate MBAL are totally open. MBAL has an advanced feature whereby the user can create multitank models with time dependent transmissibility between the tanks that allows modelling of these complex reservoirs. so the WC and GOR evolution will reflect what is actually happening in the wells in accordance with their historical production. of different compartments. in the “Multitank example” directory.40 Figure A-51: Final model with history and prediction wells After the rest of the input data are completed. then the whole reservoir However. A3 Multitank modelling Almost all fields in the world are made up faults that can be closed or open (partially or is no communication between the tanks and reservoirs. In the other extreme. Please open the MBAL file called “Multitank Starting Point.Examples 27 . if the faults separating different compartments are semi-permeable. then there is a transient transfer of fluid from one compartment to the other (governed by the pressure difference between the compartments). separated by totally). This procedure will have the added advantage of using different rel perms for every well.mbi” Step 1: Initialising the model The Multi-tank feature can be activated from the options menu: MBAL User Guide . forecasts can be made as normal. the MBAL starting model is provided under the MBAL samples. For this example. if the faults can be modelled as one MBAL reservoir. If the faults are closed.Appendix A .

Petroleum Experts . Most of the data have already been already entered for convenience. as can be seen from the screen below: Figure A-53: History data page The production history can be copied here from the Excel file present in the same directory as above. The data for the production history are missing.Examples Figure A-52: Selecting the Multitank Option All the relevant data can be entered as per previous examples.40 Appendix A .28 .

40 Figure A-54: History entered Step 2: Concentrating on First Reservoir Under “History Matching/All” all the history plots can be seen as normal. This signifies that initially the reservoir does not see any energy from outside sources. then we will match the second reservoir. Figure A-55: History Matching plots Two different trends indicate change in energy The Campbell plot shows the energy given by the reservoir (flat line initially) and then there is an increasing trend to the data. This energy cannot be an aquifer (since it would show from day 1) and we can conclude from the above that a fault has been broken and a second reservoir is supporting the first.Examples 29 . After we match the parameters of the first reservoir. however. MBAL User Guide .Appendix A . concentrating more on the later period of production. at some point there is energy coming from somewhere. we will first concentrate on the period where the first reservoir is acting alone. In history matching this situation.

30 .40 Appendix A . the following screen will appear: Figure A-57: Deactivating selected points The points can now be set to “Off”. as shown below: Figure A-56: Selecting points for deactivation When the mouse button is released. The Analytical method will look like this: Petroleum Experts . one can manipulate history points by dragging with the right mouse button and creating an area with the points to be selected.Examples In the Analytical plot in MBAL.

This will now allow us to history match the first reservoir based on the production period it was being produced without any external support. the model needs to be re-calculated by selecting the “Calculate” button on the Analytical method plot.Examples 31 .40 Figure A-58 Points deactivated Please note that for changes to take place. the history matching plots will look like this: MBAL User Guide .Appendix A . Selecting the Regression Option as normal: Step 3: Matching first reservoir parameters Figure A-59: Regressing on Oil in Place The original Oil in place is set as a regression parameter and once the calculations are finished.

a second reservoir will be created and connected to the first one. This can be done in the same way they were de-activated (use the right mouse button).Examples Figure A-60: Plots after history matching The Campbell plot is now a straight line and the model can reproduce the data we have matched on in the analytical method. the rest of the data need to be activated. For the next step. This can be done in the same way they were de-activated (use the right mouse button). Figure A-61: Additional Points Activated In order to match the later response in the production data.40 Appendix A . Step 4: Activating region where both reservoirs are seen on production data For the next step. Initially. the rest of the data need to be activated. we will create a copy of the first reservoir by selecting the X button shown below: Petroleum Experts .32 .

the second reservoir will appear on the main screen of MBAL: Figure A-63: Multitank model These reservoirs will now be connected by selecting the “Connect” button on the side panel of MBAL: MBAL User Guide .40 Figure A-62: Creating second reservoir As soon as this is done.Appendix A .Examples 33 .

Petroleum Experts . This will now create a link between the reservoirs and the transmissibility screen will automatically be prompted: Figure A-65: Transmissibility options A transmissibility C of 5 can be entered as a first guess.34 . Going back to the main screen. drag and drop from one reservoir to the other.Examples Figure A-64: Selecting the “Connect” button Using the mouse. the two reservoirs will now appear connected.40 Appendix A .

MBAL User Guide . Right click anywhere in the history page of the second reservoir and select “Clear Table”.Appendix A . it can now be seen that the second reservoir has had an impact on the overall performance of the model.Examples 35 . Figure A-67: History deleted from copied reservoir model Going back to the “History Matching/All” page. This needs to be removed as only the first reservoir was being produced.40 Figure A-66: Reservoirs connected Note: Since the second reservoir has been created as a copy of the first one. it also includes the production history. This will delete all the historical production.

40 Appendix A . the second reservoir should only be allowed to provide support after the pressure in the first reservoir has dropped to the point shown in the figure above. In other words.36 .Examples Figure A-68: Analytical method when second reservoir is active Point at which second reservoir start providing support Since we know that the barrier between the two reservoirs had been closed for some time before it was broken. MBAL allows the transmissibility to become active after a certain pressure drop has been reached between the reservoirs. If the pressure threshold option is activated: Figure A-69: Activating the Pressure Threshold options The analytical method will now show the effect of the second reservoir only when the DP between them becomes 1000 psi: Petroleum Experts . this needs to be captured in the model. This is done using the Pressure Threshold options.

Examples 37 .Appendix A .40 Figure A-70: Analytical method Regression can now be done as normal. considering only the new parameters: Figure A-71: Regression on OOIP of second reservoir and Transmissibility And the result is a good match between history and Model: Figure A-72: Analytical method at the end of the match The same result can be confirmed from the simulation calculations: MBAL User Guide .

40 Appendix A . Petroleum Experts .38 . we can select the “Variables” button and in the following screen select to view the Tank pressure of both reservoirs: Figure A-74: Selecting to view the pressure evolution for both reservoirs It can be seen from the following plot that the second reservoir is not depleting until the DP between the two reservoirs reaches 1000psi.Examples Figure A-73: Simulation calculations In order to investigate how both tanks have been depleted.

Examples 39 .Appendix A .40 Figure A-75: Difference in Pressure evolution MBAL User Guide .

MBI Used by the STEP1.XLS open server example. FRACT FLOW MATCH2.XLS open server example. SIMPLE2. STEP1. STEP2.MBI Used by the FRACT_FLOW_MATCH2.MBI Used by the DA1.MBI Used by the FRACT_FLOW_MATCH1.MBI Example of a multi-tank gas example. Petroleum Experts .40 .MBI Example of a variable PVT example.MBI Example of a multi-tank oil example.XLS open server example.MBI Used by the STEP3.XLS open server example. MULTIOIL.XLS open server example. GAS.Examples Other Example Files This section describes the other example MBI files that are installed with MBAL and a brief explanation. STEP3.MBI Example of a single tank oil example. OIL. MULTIPVT. CALCWELL.MBI Used by the STEP2.XLS open server example.XLS open server example. FRACT FLOW MATCH1.MBI Example of a single tank gas example.XLS open server example.MBI Used by the CALCWELL.40 Appendix A . MULTIGAS.MBI Used by the DA2. DETAILED2.

L." Bureau of Standards. AIME (1943) 151. U. R. Fetkovich." 6.M. A.: "Bubble Point Pressure Correlation..B. et al. 896-900. L. and Odeh. AIME (1949) 186.S.." JPT (February 1967)." Vol 3: Petroleum Property Evaluation." JPT (December 1977).A. V. H.. Argawal." Trans. 379381. C.. and Campbell. J.C. D. Kazemi. and Ciucci. Campbell. 1533-1538. 10. and Hurst. P.. Dake. 12. Lasater. 82-92. 287-291." JPT (November 1965) 1336-1342. L." JPT (August 1963). AIME (1958) 213.S.: "A Reservoir Simulator for Studying Productivity Variation and Transient Behaviour of a Well in a Reservoir Undergoing Gas Evolution. Havlena. H.R. R. .L. Jr. Pub." OGJ (June 1973). 5.J. 13.J." SPEJ December 1973) 328-334.: "Thermodynamic Properties of Petroleum Product. J." Institute of Petroleum. Cragoe.: "A New Equation of State for Z-factor Calculations. AIME (1975) 259.: "Accelerated Blowdown of a Strong Water-Drive Gas Reservoir.: "Material Balance for a Bottom-Water Drive Gas Reservoir. 4. W..R. C. 15.G.References 1. Hurst. 2. Purvis. 14. (1980). 8.: "Natural Gas Engineering. G. K." Trans.: "Application of the Laplace Transform to Flow Problems in Reservoirs. W. IP 74-008 (1974). Hall.: "Water Drive Gas Reservoirs: Uncertainty in Reserves Evaluation From Past History.." JPT (March 1965). Al-Hussainy. Lutes.F. 1401. D. R. Pizzi. Dranchuk." PennWell Publishing Co.Sr.. No.: "Fundamentals of Petroleum Engineering. 16. 3.A. R. A. and Ramey. van Everdingen. 237-244.M.Appendix B . J. Bruns." Trans." Trans.: "The Effect of Water Influx on P/Z Cumulative Gas Production Curves.S. 304-324B.: "Water Influx into a Reservoir and Its Application to the Equation of Volumetric Balance.: "Mineral Property Economics.M. 9. Dumore. Ikoku.A. and Yarborough. 7 (1929) 26. J.M..: "The Importance of Water Influx in Gas Reservoirs. J. 11. Chierici.U.: "Computer Calculation of Natural Gas Compressibility Factors Using the Standing and Katz Correlation. M. G. and Meitzer. 7. 57. Department of Commerce Misc. and Robinson. Campbell Petroleum Series (1978).: "The Material Balance as an Equation of StraightLine.. G.

Oct.A. 1664-1670.A. presented at the 1970 SPE Annual Fall Meeting. and Boffin II. and Reheis.. B. Texas." paper SPE 4275 presented at the 3rd Symposium on Numerical Simulation of Reservoir Performance. Tehrani. and Teasdale. Wichert.: "Volumetric and Phase Behaviour of Oil field Hydrocarbon Systems. D. AIME (1936) 118. 30. W. 32." paper SPE 10125.F. paper SPE 16484 presented at the 1987 Petroleum Industry Applications of Microcomputers Meeting. Year) pg-pg. Standing. Yang. presented at the 1981 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition..K. B. B. Wang.P. D. and Wang. 22.M. Houston. Houston Texas. M. and Farshad.: "Calculation of Z's for Sour Gases.: "Active Oil and Reservoir Energy" Trans. M. June 26-28. June 23-26.: "A More Accurate Water Influx Formula with Applications. 24. No. Vol. D. B. 2. Litvak.: "Optimization of Well Rates under Gas Coning Conditions.B. 10 25." Oil Weekly (June 12." JPT (September 1985). and Wattenbarger. 21-23. 18. 1973. 119-122. J. J. and Katz. Ding.H. Wang.B. S. 29." Trans. Petroleum Experts . July 19-22. 1977. T.: "Reservoir Simulation of Variable Bubble-Point Problems. Wattenbarger. R. 23.: "Accurate Formulas for Calculating the Water Influx Superposition Integral".".A. B. J. Vogt.. Urbanczyk. G.. C.P. and Wang. San Antonio Texas. Houston Texas. Tehrani.J. 2. San Antonio. 21. Schlithuis. Tarner.2-2 Appendix B . W. B. Lumpkin. Steffensen. K.J. Thomas. 4-7. Standing. 19.. 1994)." paper SPE 2969. paper SPE 19125 presented at the 1989 SPE PCC.L. Ramagost.: "How Different Size Caps and Pressure Maintenance Affect Ultimate Recovery.: "An Analysis of Volumetric Balance Equation for Calculation of Oil in Place and Water Influx." SPE Advanced Technology Series.: "OILWAT: Microcomputer Program for Oil Material Balance with Gascap and Water Influx. October 1981. Pittsburgh Pennsylvania.. Montgomery Texas. E. 33-52." SPE AIME. 28. and Startzman.S.P.: "Reservoir Simulation of a Collapsing Gas Saturation Requiring Areal Variation in Bubble-Point Pressure. JCPT (Month.: "Density of Natural Gases. and Aziz. 32.B.: "The Use of a Semianalytical Method for Matching Aquifer Influence Functions".: "Simultaneous Solution of Oil-in-Place and Water Influx Parameters for Partial Water Drive Reservoir with Initial Gas Cap. R." Trans." 51(5) 1972. 26. 64-66. AIME (1942) 146.W. 27.: "GASWAT-PC: A Microcomputer Program for Gas Material Balance with Water Influx". Texas. R. R." paper SPE 24437 presented at the 1992 SPE Petroleum Computer Conference. 31. Dallas. AIME (1976) 261. and Sheffield.References 17.L. Oct. R. paper SPE 17066 presented at the 1987 SPE Eastern Regional Meeting. F.: "P/Z Abnormally Pressured Gas Reservoirs. 20. M. L. G.H.H. Vogt.

when there is no aquifer influx. . Please refer to a basic reservoir engineering text for a detailed treatment of graphical history matching techniques.1 OIL F = NE + We Where the underground withdrawal F equals the surface production of oil. We = 0. If the aquifer model is correct. the following manipulation shows that a plot F − We = NE of F-We against E will yield a straight line with a slope of N.Appendix C -MBAL Equations C1 Material Balance Equations The following pages show some of the equations used in the MBAL program. The procedure is to adjust the aquifer model until the best straight line fit is obtained. connate water. For example. pore volume compaction and the gas cap. E = ( Bo − Boi ) + ( Rsi − Rs ) * Bg + m * Boi ( Bg Bg 1 ) ⎛S *C +C ⎞ − 1 + (1 + m) * Boi * ⎜ wc w f ⎟ * ( Pi − P) ⎝ 1 − Swc ⎠ Graphical interpretation methods are based on manipulating the basic material balance expression to obtain a straight line plot when the assumptions of the plotting method are valid. We/E will yield a straight line with unit slope and a y-axis intercept at N. This plot is a good diagnostic for identification of the reservoir drive mechanism. the plot of F/E vs. and: F = NE F =N E A plot of F/E should be a horizontal straight line with a Y axis intercept equal to the oil-in-place N. water and gas corrected to reservoir conditions: ( ) ( ) ( ) F = N p * Bo − B g * R s + B g * G p − Gi + Wp − Wi * B w and the original oil in place is N stock tank barrels and E is the per unit expansion of oil (and its dissolved gas). A more sensitive plot is obtained by dividing through by E as follows: W F =N− e E E When the aquifer model is accurate. C1.

P/Z Method 2: 2. C1.3 OGIP Calculations n σ (Y ) = 100 (Y σ (−YY) max min where: σ (Y ) = ) ∑( Ycj −Y j ) 2 j =1 n −1 C1.2 . RF Modified P/Z Method: 3.5 Abnormally Pressured Reservoirs ( F = G E g + E fw Re-arrange the equation to obtain: P Z ) [1 − C ( P − P)] = 1.MBAL Equations C1.2 GAS F = GE + We Where: ( ) ( F = B g * G pe − Gi + Bw * Wp − Wi ) and ⎛ S wc * C w + C f ⎞ E = B g − B gi + B gi * ⎜ ⎟ * ( Pi − P ) ⎝ 1 − Swc ⎠ ( ) C1.17 Appendix C .4 Natural Depletion Reservoirs F = G Eg Can be converted to a more popular form = P Z Pi Zi [1 − G w gp G ]. HO Straight Line Method: e F Eg i ( = G 1 + B gi ce Pi Z1 Pi − P Eg (1 − ) Gwgp G ) ℵ then the water influx (We) is defined as We = U ( Pi − P) and equation F Eg Petroleum Experts ( = G + B gi G ce +U ) Pi − P Eg ℵ becomes: .

We (t ) = 5.1a) where Va = aquifer volume Pi = Initial pressure Pn = Pressure at time t.P. this equation on integration gives. The influx from the aquifer is related to the pressure drop through the total average compressibility of the system (water + rock).6 Water Drive Reservoirs F = G E g + We P/Z Methods P Z = Pi Zi G-G wgp G-Y where: Y= G wgp Bg Eg =G+ Pi Z i Psc Tsc T (W e − Wp B w ) Cole Method: We − Wp B w Eg HO Straight Line Method: F Eg = G + U S(EP . The equation describing the influx is thus given by. C2. the various aquifer models available in MBAL are described along with the references.: “Fundamentals of reservoir engineering”. It approximates the water influx function by.2a) where.1 Small Pot This model assumes that the aquifer is of a fixed volume Va and the water influx from the aquifer to the reservoir is time independent. MBAL User Guide . Ac is the productivity constant of the aquifer in RB/psi/day.2 Schilthuis Steady State This model assumes that the flow is time dependent but is a steady state process. Assuming it is constant over time.t ) g C2 Aquifer Models In the following sections. Chapter 9 for more details.615(C w + C f )Va (Pi − Pn ) (Eq1. Cw = Water compressibilty Cf = Rock compressibility See Dake L.MBAL Equations 3 .17 C1. C2.Appendix C . dWe = Ac (Pi − P ) dt (Eq1.

MBAL Equations t We (t ) = Ac ∫ (Pi − P )dt (Eq1. t We = ∫ 0 Ac (Pi − P ) dt log(α × t ) (Eq1.17 Appendix C .3c) .H. The influx is defined by the following equation dWe Ac (Pi − P ) = dt log(α × t ) (Eq1. n (Pj + Pj −1 )⎤ ⎡ W e (t ) = 10 −6 Ac ∑ ⎢ Pi − ⎥ (t j − t j −1 ) 2 j =1 ⎣ ⎦ (Eq1. SPE 2969 for more details.4 . C2.2b) 0 The numerical approximation for this integral is done using the following formula with We expressed is MMRB. n (Pj + Pj −1 )⎤ (t j − t j −1 ) ⎡ W e (t ) = 10 −6 Ac ∑ ⎢ Pi − ⎥ 2 j =1 ⎣ ⎦ ln (α × (t j − t 0 )) Petroleum Experts (Eq1.3a) The influx is found by integrating.3b) The numerical approximation to this integral is with the influx in MMRB.2c) The pressure decline is approximated as shown in the following diagram Reservoir Pressure decline approximation with time See Tehrani D.3 Hurst Steady State It is another simplified model.: “Simultaneous Solution of Oil-In-Place and Water Influx parameters for Partial Water Drive reservoirs with Initial Gas Cap”.

Appendix C . SPE 2969 for more details.4a) where rD = r ro ro being the outer radius of the reservoir ⎛ φµ (C w + C f )ro2 ⎞ ⎟ t D = = t /⎜ ⎟ ⎜ α k ⎠ ⎝ t (Eq1.4b) α is pressure diffusivity of the system and is also called tD constant in MBAL.4 Hurst-van Everdingen-Dake All the models previously discussed with the exception of Hurst simplified are based on the assumption that the pressure disturbance travels instantaneously throughout the aquifer and reservoir system. On the other hand if we do not make this assumption but rather say that the speed will depend on the pressure diffusivity of the system. Radial System The pressure diffusivity equation representing the behaviour for a radial system can be written as. We = U × ∆P × WD (t D .: “Simultaneous Solution of Oil-In-Place and Water Influx parameters for Partial Water Drive reservoirs with Initial Gas Cap”. this diffusivity equation solved for constant terminal pressure i.119 Aeφh(C f + C w )ro2 360. C2. constant pressure at reservoiraquifer boundary gives the following general solution.17 Where Ac is the aquifer constant entered in the aquifer model input and has units RB/psi/day.e. φ = Porosity µ = Viscosity of water Cw = water compressibility Cf = Formation compressibility k = Permeability of the aquifer. In modelling aquifer behaviour since we are interested in finding rates with pressure changes.MBAL Equations 5 . 1 ∂ ⎛ ∂PD ⎜ rD rD ∂rD ⎜⎝ ∂t D ⎞ ∂PD ⎟⎟ = ⎠ ∂t D (Eq1. See Tehrani D.H. Alpha is the time constant.0 MBAL User Guide .4c) where RD = reservoir radius/ aquifer outer radius U is called aquifer constant and in field units it is given by. RD ) (Eq1. U= 1.

MBAL Equations Ae h = = Encroachment angle in degrees Reservoir thickness in feet Similarly the tD constant in oil field units (day-1) is given by. n −1 We (t ) = 10 −6 ∑U∆PjWD (α (t n − t j ). this terminal pressure (at the reservoir-aquifer boundary) does not remain constant.e. α= 2. except for the definition of tD constant and U.25φµ w (C f + C w )ro2 The function WD is called dimensionless aquifer function and is depends on dimensionless time and the size of the aquifer with respect to the reservoir.615 Where. There are algebraic approximations to the WD function available3 this form is the most general form of the equation as it gives the behaviour of the pressure diffusivity equation for both the finite and infinite acting aquifers (bounded) depending on the value of RD.309k a 365. n −1 We (t ) = 10 −6 ∑U∆PjWD (α (t n − t j )) j =o α= 2.4c and approximating the pressure decline as a step function shown as dashed lines in figure1. They found the real-time water influx using Eq1.4d) j =o And.e.6 . the first. RD ) (Eq1. The water influx equation thus after superposition is given by.17 Appendix C .309k 365.25φµ w (C f + C w )L2a U = 106Va (C f + Cw ) 5. Hurst-Van-Everdingen and Dake using the principle of superposition solved this problem. These are defined as. use Pi i. but changes. In real production. 106Va La = (Wrφh ) Va = Aquifer volume Wr = Reservoir width La= length of the aquifer Petroleum Experts (Eq1. initial reservoir pressure. The form of the solution is exactly similar to the radial one. instead of Pj-1 Linear Aquifers The pressure diffusivity equation as represented for the radial can also be set up for linear aquifers and a constant terminal pressure solution found.4e) . ∆Pj = (Pj −1 − Pj +1 ) 2 If j=0 i.

JPT May 1964.MBAL Equations 7 . However for finding tD constant the value of La can be an arbitrary constant. the value of aquifer length is infinite.5 Hurst-van Everdingen-Odeh The Hurst-van Everdingen-Odeh model is essentially the same as the Hurst-van EverdingenOdeh model. C2. while doing summations during superposition. MBAL User Guide . Chapter 9 and Nabor et al.: “Fundamentals of reservoir engineering”. The only difference is instead of entering all the aquifer dimensions to evaluate aquifer constant and tD constant we enter the values of the constants as directly. The dimensionless solutions i.e.309ka 365.17 Bottom Drive The bottom drive aquifer models are the same as the linear models.4e the form of the influx function depends on the boundary conditions considered at the outer aquifer boundary. Constant pressure boundary This form assumes that during the whole time the outer boundary of the aquifer is at a constant pressure. U value components like compressibility and PVT properties are evaluated at the current reservoir pressure.: “Linear Aquifer behaviour”. Sealed boundary This form takes the aquifer to be finite with a length La and finds the aquifer function as of this value.Appendix C . See Dake L.P. However in MBAL.25φµw (C f + Cw )L2a U = 106Va (C f + Cw ) 5. The boundary conditions available within MBAL are Infinite acting This form assumes that the aquifer length is infinite. These are calculated in oil field units as follows α= 2. The only difference from linear models is the surface through which the influx is taking place.615 Where La 10 6 V a = π r o2 φ ( ) In equation Eq1. SPE 791 for more details. In MBAL we choose a very large value for Va and then estimate La. The length used for finding the tD constant is the dimension perpendicular to this surface. Note In all the original models the constant U is treated as constant all through the time. WD functions are still the same as of the Hurst-van Everdingen Dake method. For bottom drive aquifers the surface available from influx is rw2.

8 ..7 Fetkovitch Semi Steady State In the semi-steady state model. Material balance equation is used to find that the changed average pressure in the aquifer.6 Vogt-Wang This model is exactly the same as the Hurst-van Everdingen-Dake modified model. the function still is linear. and Wang B. the pressure within the aquifer is not kept constant but allowed to change. Otherwise.7c) 0 This substitution into the water influx function gives the following result with influx as MMRB n −1 t Dj j =o o We (t n ) = 10 U ∑ ∆Pj ∫ W D (t D ) × t D −6 ∆P0 = Where if j = 0.17 Appendix C . ∆Pj = (Eq1.P. it uses the convolution theorem to give the following expression for influx. For different flow geometry the values of these two constants are:- Petroleum Experts .MBAL Equations C2.. SPE 17066 for more details. C2. Based on this fact the influx is worked out to be.. ∆P D W D (t D − τ )dτ We = U × t D ∫0 t (Eq1.9a) Where Wei is the maximum encroachable water influx. We = ⎡ ⎛ Wei (Pi − P )⎢1 − exp⎜⎜ − JPi Pi ⎝ Wei ⎣ ⎞⎤ ⎟⎟⎥ ⎠⎦ (Eq1.7a) Since. It also assumes a linear pressure decline in each time step.”.7b) For each time step the convolution integral for each time step can be broken into two integrals by change of variable from as follows. W t d W t d ⎢ ⎥ D Dn D Dn ∫ t D 2 − t D1 t∫D1 ⎢ t D1 0 ⎥ We (t Dn ) = U ⎢ ⎥ t Dn ⎢+ Pn −1 − Pn W (t − τ )dτ ⎥ ⎢ t Dn − t Dn −1 t ∫ D Dn ⎥ Dn −1 ⎣ ⎦ (Eq1.: “Accurate Formulas for Calculating the Water Influx Superposition Integral. Pi is the initial pressure and P is the reservoir pressure. To find the influx in each time step. it uses superposition and the water influx is approximated as. J is the aquifer productivity index. t Di +1 ∫ W (t D Dn − τ )dτ = t Di t Dn − t Di t Dn − t Di +1 ∫ W (u )du − ∫ W (u )du D D 0 (Eq1.7d) P1 − P0 α (t1 − t0 ) Pj +1 − Pj − Pj − Pj −1 α (t j +1 − t j ) α (t j − t j −1 ) See Vogt J. t ⎡ Pi − P1 t D1 ⎤ P1 − P2 D 2 ( ) ( ) − + − + τ τ τ τ ...

MBAL Equations 9 .Appendix C .615 .17 Radial Model ( ) ( ) 5.

10 .0µ w log 2 (Rd ) Linear J= 0. Pn = Pn −1 − Pn 2 and n −1 ⎛ ⎜ ∑W j j =1 ⎜ Pan = Pi ⎜1 − Wei ⎜⎜ ⎝ P0=PI ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟⎟ ⎠ Based on these the superposition formula gives the following result for aquifer influx in MMRB.8a) In the steady state model. SPE 2603 for more details. Petroleum Experts . dWe = J (Pi − P ) dt (Eq1.9d) Where X = JPi (t j +1 − t j ) Wei ⎛ W PL = Pi ⎜⎜1 − last Wei ⎝ ⎞ ⎟⎟ .17 Appendix C .0 − e − X ⎜⎜ Paj − j 2 ⎠ ⎝ ( ) (Eq1.Finite Aquifer System”. the productivity index is calculated similar to a Darcy well inflow model.J. ⎠ Wlast being the aquifer influx up to j-1 time step.Finite Aquifer System”. See Fetkovich M. SPE 2603 for more details. the influx rate is a function given as.00708 Ae k a h 360.: “A Simplified Approach to Water Influx calculations --.00381k aπrw2 J= µ w La See Fetkovich M.J.8 Fetkovitch Steady State The Fetkovich theory looks at water influx as well inflow calculated using productivity index. Depending on the geometry the PI is calculated as follows in oil field units:Radial J= 0.00381k a hWr µ w La Bottom Drive 0. n −1 Wei j = 0 Pi We = 10 −6 ∑ P + Pj +1 ⎞ ⎛ ⎟⎟ 1. C2. This PI is supposed to remain constant.: “A Simplified Approach to Water Influx calculations --.MBAL Equations These are calculated as follows. Thus.

The main difference is the manner in which the pressure decline is approximated. tD We = ∫ WD (t D ) 0 dP dt D dt D (Eq1. This approach allows us to have varying rate within a time step rather than it being constant as in the original method.17 C2. given by. dP dt D is a constant equal to slope of the linear pressure decline. In the modified one it is approximated as a linear decline for each time step. MBAL User Guide .9 Hurst-van Everdingen Modified This method is similar to the Hurst-van Everdingen Dake model. As shown in the solid lines of figure1. Thus.Appendix C . if we approximate the pressure decline by a series of linear declines. P We = U ∫ WD (t D )dP (Eq1. We (t n ) = 10 −6 n −1 ∑α t j =o ∆Pj U j t Dn − t j +1 t∫Dj W D (t D )dt D (Eq1. we can use superposition again. the water influx solution is given by. tD constant and U depend on the model being linear.6b) Since pressure decline with time is linear.6a) Pi This solution changed into time domain becomes.6d) Where the form of WD. dP 1 Pi − P = dt D α t The influx function thus becomes for the linear decline.MBAL Equations 11 .6c) 0 Since the functions are still linear. We = U × (Pi − P ) t α ×t D ∫ W (t )dt D D D (Eq1. The solution for this case is the integral of the dimensionless solution of the constant terminal pressure case. bottom drive or radial and are same as the ones used in original Hurst-van Everdingen model. In the original model the decline is approximated as a series of time steps with constant pressure.

See Carter R.MBAL Equations C2.309ka 365. 1960. As such because of the constant rate solution being the generator.D. Carter Tracy model on the other hand uses the constant terminal rate solution and expresses the aquifer influx as a series of constant terminal rate solutions.10) Where the various constants are defined as. ∆Pj = (P0 − Pj +1 ) t Di = α (t i − t 0 ) α= U= 2. n −1 We (t n ) = 10 U ∑ −6 ∆Pj − We (t n −1 )PD' (t Di ) j =o PD (t Di ) − t Di PD' (t Di ) (t Di +1 − t Di ) (Eq1. but only the water influx up to previous time step.17 Appendix C .10 Carter-Tracy The principal difference between this method and the Hurst-van Everdingen models is as follows.W. The water influx equation thus by Carter Tracy method is. Also.119 Aeφh(C f + C w )rw2 360. The Hurst-van Everdingen models assume a constant pressure over a time interval and thus use the constant terminal pressure solution of the diffusivity equation with the principle of superposition to find the water influx function. SPE 2072 for more details. alpha is calculated using the fluid properties with the pressure at time tj. The dimensionless function thus is the pressure written ad PD function. JPT Sep. it is basically a steady-state model. it is used only for radial geometry. and Tracey G.12 .: “An Improved Method for Calculating Water Influx”.25φµw (C f + Cw )rw2 1. Petroleum Experts . For each term in the summation MBAL uses the fluid properties at the pressure for the time in the summation term.0 The form of the equation is such that we do not need superposition to calculate the water influx. This is an improvement to the original model where the fluid properties were taken from the pressure at tn. So in the summation formula above.

The phase absolute permeability can then be expressed as: Kx = K * Krx where: . Srx the phase residual saturation and Smx the phase maximum saturation.0 – Sg/(1. nx the Corey Exponent.Krx the relative permeability of phase x. C3. Kro is calculated using both oil relative permeability curves.0 – Swc – Sorg) Next correct the saturations:So = (So – Som)/(1. oil relative to water only and oil relative to gas with only connate water.MBAL Equations 13 . Sx the phase saturation. First calculate Som (combined residual oil saturation):Som = a.1 Corey Relative Permeability Function In a Corey function.Sorg where a = 1.0 – Swc – Som) Sg = Sg/( 1.K is the reservoir absolute permeability and .2 Stone method 1 modification to the Relative Permeability Function Krw and Krg are calculated as for normal function.Appendix C .0 – Swc – Som) Sw = (Sw – Swc)/(1.0 – Swc – Som ) Finally:- k ro = ⎡ k row k rog ⎤ So (1 − S w )(1 − S g ) ⎢⎣ k ro (S wc )⎥⎦ MBAL User Guide .Sorw + (1 – a).17 C3 Relative Permeability The equations shown below cover the Corey functions and Stones modifications to the relative permeability functions. the Relative Permeability for the phase x is expressed as: ⎛ Sx − Srx ⎞nx ⎟ Krx = Ex * ⎜ ⎝ Smx − Srx ⎠ where:Ex is the end point for the phase x. C3.

Petroleum Experts .14 .MBAL Equations C3.17 Appendix C . Krow = oil relative permeability in the presence of oil and water only. gas and connate water. Krocw = oil relative permeability in the presence of connate water only.3 Stone method 2 modification to the Relative Permeability Function ⎛ ⎛ Krow ⎞ ⎞ ⎛ Krog ⎞ Kro = Krocw * ⎜ ⎜ + Krw⎟ * ⎜ + Krg⎟ − Krw − Krg⎟ ⎠ ⎝ Krocw ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ Krocw ⎠ Krog = gas relative permeability in the presence of oil.

gas and water & formation underground withdrawal Gi GLp cumulative gas injection Gp Gt cumulative dry gas production Gwgp h cumulative wet gas produced HCPV hydrocarbon pore volume cumulative condensate produced trapped wet gas net thickness Kc Ktd condensate conservation factor Ktd k theoretical dimensionless time coefficient Krg Kro Kw Kwrg dimensionless time coefficient absolute permeability gas relative permeability oil relative permeability to gas effective permeability to water in the aquifer effective permeability to water at residual gas saturation L1 distance of linear gas reservoir at current gas water contact L2 distance of linear gas reservoir at original gas water contact MLc m N Np OGWC molecular weight of condensate initial gascap size.MBAL Equations 15 . defined as the ratio of initial gascap HCPV to initial oil zone HCPV original oil in place cumulative oil production original gas water contact P average reservoir pressure P1 average pressure in front of current gas water contact MBAL User Guide .Appendix C .17 C4 Nomenclature Awe Bg Fraction of reservoir area invaded by water influx gas formation volume factor Bo Bt single-phase oil formation factor Bw Cf water formation volume factor two-phase oil formation factor formation compressibility Cw Efw water compressibility Eg Eo expansion of gas Er Et recovery efficiency Ev F volumetric sweep efficiency Ft total trapped gas volume in HCPV G original gas in place expansion of water and reduction in pore volume expansion of oil and solution gas overall expansion of oil.

17 Appendix C .MBAL Equations P2 Pb pressure at original gas water contact Pt Pwf average pressure in water invaded region qo oil production rate qw water influx rate Qd r1 dimensionless water influx r2 rg ra aquifer radius re external radius rg radius of gas reservoir at original gas water contact ro radius of oil reservoir at original oil water contact rw wellbore radius Rp Rs cumulative gas-oil ratio S bubble-point pressure flowing bottomhole pressure radius of gas reservoir at current gas water contact instantaneous producing gas-oil ratio well skin factor Sgc Sgr critical gas saturation Sor Swi residual oil saturation to water S(P.16 .t) residual gas saturation initial water saturation aquifer function T reservoir temperature t time tD TDF dimensionless time dimensionless time adjusting factor U aquifer constant U theoretical aquifer constant Vaq W pore volume of aquifer width of linear reservoir We cumulative water influx Wi cumulative water injection Z gas deviation factor φ porosity Θ dip angle µ viscosity Ψ influx encroachment angle γc γw specific gravity of condensate specific gravity of formation water σ normalized standard deviation Petroleum Experts .

1 Subscripts a aw minimum abandonment pressure condition watered-out abandonment condition g gas i initial condition j index of loops o oil 1 location at current gas water contact 2 location at original gas water contact sc standard condition t trapped gas in water invaded region w water MBAL User Guide .Appendix C .17 C4.MBAL Equations 17 .

Appendix D-Fluid Contacts Calculation details D-1 Pore Volume vs. . The table displayed is used to calculate the depth of the different fluid contacts.Tank Data and select the Pore Volume vs. choose Input . To access this screen. A dialog box similar to the following is displayed: Figure D.1: Pore Volume vs. The definitions for entering Pore Volume fractions are displayed in the Definitions section in this page as shown above. The definitions will automatically change depending on the fluids present in the tank at initial conditions. Depth This screen is used to define the Pore Volume vs. Depth This tab is enabled only if the Monitor Contacts option in the Tank Parameters data sheet has been activated. Depth. This table must be entered for variable PVT tanks. Depth tab.

(pore volume from top of oil leg to depth of interest)/(total gas cap volume) For example.2 .0 8000 Petroleum Experts .0 Oil pore volume fraction at 8350' from GOC = 0. for the case below:- Total gas cap pore volume = 5 MMRB Total oil leg pore volume = 2 MMRB Oil pore volume fraction at 8200' = 0.5 / 2 = 0.Fluid Contacts Calculation details Pore Volume vs.5 / 5 = -1.17 Appendix D .25 Oil pore volume fraction at 8600' from GOC = 2 / 2 = 1.0 Gas pore volume fraction at 8000' = .0 So enter PV vs. Depth for Oil Reservoirs: Below GOC: Pore Volume Fraction = (pore volume from top of oil leg to the depth of interest)/(total oil leg pore volume) Above GOC: Pore Volume Fraction = . Depth table:PV TVD -1.

0 + (pore volume from top of oil leg to depth of interest)/(total oil leg volume) For example.5 / 0.0 8200 8350 8600 For Gas/condensate Reservoirs:Above GOC: Pore Volume Fraction = (pore volume from top of gas cap to the depth of interest)/(total gas cap pore volume) Below GOC: Pore Volume Fraction = 1.0 0.5 MMRB Gas pore volume fraction at 8000' = 0.25 1.4 Gas pore volume fraction at 8500' from GOC = 5 / 5 = 1.0 MBAL User Guide . for the case below:- Total gas cap pore volume = 5 MMRB Total oil leg pore volume = 0.5 = 2.0 Gas pore volume fraction at 8120' from GOC = 2 / 5 = 0.Fluid Contacts Calculation details 3 .17 0.Appendix D .0 Oil pore volume fraction at 8600' = 1 + 0.

Depth table:PV TVD 0. Petroleum Experts . you will be asked to enter the saturation of each phase trapped by each other phase.Fluid Contacts Calculation details So enter PV vs. Oil Reservoir (normal method) In this method we assume that the Sgr always remains in the original gas cap. the water will leave the Sorw behind the water front. In each case we calculate the pore volume swept by the appropriate phase.0 8500 2. We first calculate the PV fraction swept by water for the current Sw. we assume that Sorg is left behind the gas front. The sweep efficiencies can be used to further increase the amount of saturations trapped behind the moving fronts. We then use the pore volume vs. If the water moves into the original oil zone.0 8600 If you select the option to model saturation trapped when a phase moves out of its original zone. the Sgr will be bypassed thus decreasing the GOC. Similarly if the gas moves into the original oil zone. The hysteresis option is not taken into account in these calculations.0 8000 0. So the GOC will increase more quickly.17 Appendix D . Swc and Sor are taken from the relative permeability curves entered in the tank dialog.4 . depth table to calculate the corresponding depth.4 8120 1. In all cases the Swc is assumed to be evenly distributed throughout the reservoir thus reducing the sweepable volume.e. This calculation assumes that the WOC does not rise above the original GOC so we only consider the residual oil. D-2 Standard Fluid Contact Calculations The method of calculating the fluid contacts depends on the fluid type of the reservoir. In all cases the Sgr. If Stone's correction is not used then Sorw = Sorg = Sor. For this option the saturations are defined with respect to the total reservoir i. the original oil leg and gas cap. More information will be provided below. So if the oil sweeps into the original gas cap.

The gas may have swept into the original oil zone or the oil may have swept into the original gas cap. So the maximum possible movable volume is 1-Swc-Sorg.Sgi.Swc .17 We assume the connate water Swc is distributed evenly throughout the reservoir. So the gas swept pore volume fraction would normally be:PVg = ( Sg .Swc .Swc) / [(1 . The residual oil saturation is Sorw.Fluid Contacts Calculation details 5 .Sg ) / (1 . So the maximum possible movable volume is 1-Swc-Srg. MBAL User Guide .Sgi ) / [(1 .Sorg)*SEg + Sgi / (1 . So the maximum possible movable volume is 1-Swc-Sorw.Swc . So:PVw = (Sw . The residual gas saturation is Srg.Srg) However in addition the gas sweep efficiency (SEg) can be used to further increase the amount of gas trapped by the oil front thus increasing the gas swept PV fraction (technically is should be labeled the oil sweep efficiency).Swc .Sgi ) / [(1 .Srg)*SEg Finally we subtract from the original gas saturation to get the total PVg:PVg = Sgi / (1 . So the current movable water is Sw-Swc.PVo Oil Reservoir (if gas cap production option is off) In this method if the gas moves into the original oil zone.Sorw)*SEw We also calculate the current PV fraction of the gas given the current Sg and the initial Sg (Sgi). So the GOC will increase more quickly.Sg. So the oil swept pore volume fraction in the original gas cap would normally be:PVo = ( Sgi .Appendix D . So:PVo = ( Sgi .Swc ) If the gas has swept into the original gas cap:There is no initial oil in the original gas cap so the current oil that has swept into the original gas cap is Sgi . The Sorw is assumed to be left behind the water front. we assume that Sorg is left behind the gas front.Sorw) However in addition the water sweep efficiency (SEw) can be used to further increase the amount of oil trapped by the water front thus increasing the water swept PV fraction. The Sorg is assumed to be left behind the gas front.Sg ) / (1 .Swc .Sgi ) / (1 .Swc .Swc ) .Swc) / (1 .Sorg) However in addition the gas sweep efficiency (SEg) can be used to further increase the amount of oil trapped by the gas front thus increasing the gas swept PV fraction. So the water swept pore volume fraction would normally be:PVw = (Sw .Sorg)*SEg Finally we add on the original gas saturation to get the total PVg:PVg = ( Sg . If the gas has swept into the original oil zone:There is no initial gas in the original oil zone so the current gas that has swept into the original oil zone is just Sg .Swc . The residual oil saturation is Sorg. The Srg is assumed to be left behind the oil front. So:PVg = ( Sg .

So the water swept pore volume fraction would normally be:- Petroleum Experts .Sorg)*SEg Gas Reservoir (normal method) In this case we assume that the Sgr and Swc are distributed evenly throughout the reservoir and remain there through the life of the reservoir. So the water swept pore volume fraction would normally be:PVw = (Sw . So the current movable water is Sw-Swc. The sweep efficiencies can be used to further increase the amount of saturations trapped behind the moving fronts. So:PVw = (Sw . We assume the connate water Swc is distributed evenly throughout the reservoir. So the maximum possible movable volume is 1-Swc-Sgr. The Sgr is assumed to be left behind the water front.Swc .Swc . The residual gas saturation is Sgr. The residual oil saturation is Sorg. We assume the connate water Swc is distributed evenly throughout the reservoir. the water will leave the Sorw behind the water front. So:PVg = Sg / [(1 . For this option the saturations are defined with respect to the original oil zone. There is no initial gas in the original oil zone so the current movable gas is just Sg.Swc . The residual oil saturation is Sorw. So these residual saturations will reduce the sweepable volume. We calculate the PV fraction swept by water for the current Sw.Sorg) However in addition the gas sweep efficiency (SEg) can be used to further increase the amount of oil trapped by the gas front thus increasing the gas swept PV fraction. So the maximum possible movable volume is 1-Swc-Sorg. The sweep efficiencies can be used to further increase the amount of saturations trapped behind the moving fronts. So the current movable water is Sw-Swc.17 Appendix D . So the maximum possible movable volume is 1-Swc-Sorw. So the gas swept pore volume fraction would normally be:PVg = Sg / (1 .Sorw)*SEw We also calculate the PV fraction swept by the gas given the current Sg.Swc .Swc) / (1 .Swc) / [(1 .6 .Sorw) However in addition the water sweep efficiency (SEw) can be used to further increase the amount of oil trapped by the water front thus increasing the water swept PV fraction. The Sorw is assumed to be left behind the water front.Fluid Contacts Calculation details If the water moves into the oil zone. The Sorg is assumed to be left behind the gas front. In all cases the Swc is assumed to be evenly distributed throughout the reservoir thus reducing the sweepable volume. We first calculate the PV fraction swept by water for the current Sw.

Sgr . The sweep efficiencies can be used to further increase the amount of saturations trapped behind the moving fronts.Sgr) MBAL User Guide .Swc .Sgr)*SEw Gas Reservoir (using Gas Storage option) In this case we assume that the Sgr and Swc are distributed evenly throughout the reservoir and remain there through the life of the reservoir. So:PVg = (Sg .17 PVw = (Sw . So the current movable water is Sw-Swc. We assume the connate water Swc is distributed evenly throughout the reservoir. The Sgr is assumed to be left behind the water front. Condensate Reservoir In this case we assume that the Sgr and Swc are distributed evenly throughout the reservoir and remain there through the life of the reservoir.Sgr . So the gas swept pore volume fraction would normally be:PVg = (Sg . The residual gas saturation is Sgr. The connate water saturation Swc is assumed to be left behind the water front. So these residual saturations will reduce the sweepable volume. it should correspond to the original gas in place entered in the tank parameters dialog. For gas storage we calculate the PV fraction swept by gas for the current Sg (since gas is normally injected into the water). So these residual saturations will reduce the sweepable volume. So the maximum possible movable volume is 1-Swc-Sgr.Appendix D . We assume the residual gas Sgr is distributed evenly throughout the reservoir.Sgr) However in addition the water sweep efficiency (SEw) can be used to further increase the amount of gas trapped by the water front thus increasing the water swept PV fraction.Swc) However in addition the gas sweep efficiency (SEg) can be used to further increase the amount of water trapped by the gas front thus increasing the gas swept PV fraction. In other words.Swc) / (1 . So the maximum possible movable volume is 1-Sgr-Swc.Sgr) / (1 .Swc)*SEg This method means that the Sgr entered in the tank relative permeability curves should be the Sg in the tank at the start of the gas storage production/injection cycle.Swc) / (1 . So:PVw = (Sw . So the current movable gas is Sg-Sgr. So the water swept pore volume fraction would normally be:PVw = (Sw .Swc .Fluid Contacts Calculation details 7 .Sgr) / [(1 .Swc) / [(1 . We first calculate the PV fraction swept by water for the current Sw. The sweep efficiencies can be used to further increase the amount of saturations trapped behind the moving fronts. We assume that any drop out oil is 100% sweepable.Swc .

The Sor is assumed to be left behind the water front. For this option the saturations are defined with respect to the total reservoir i. So the maximum possible movable volume is 1-Swc-Sor. So if the gas or water sweeps into the original oil leg. In all cases the Swc is assumed to be evenly distributed throughout the reservoir thus reducing the sweepable volume.Sgi ) / (1 . So:PVw = (Sw .Swc . Similarly if the oil moves into the original gas cap. The gas may have swept into the original oil zone or the oil may have swept into the original gas cap.Sor)*SEw We also calculate the current PV fraction of the gas given the current Sg and the initial Sg (Sgi).Sgr) Condensate Reservoir (using material balance with an initial oil leg) In this method we assume that the Sor always remains in the original oil leg.Swc .Sor) However in addition the water sweep efficiency (SEw) can be used to further increase the amount of oil trapped by the water front thus increasing the water swept PV fraction. So the GOC will increase more quickly. we assume that Sgr is left behind the oil front.Swc . So the maximum possible movable volume is 1-Swc-Sor. This calculation assumes that the WOC does not rise above the original GOC so we only consider the residual oil. So:PVw = (Sw .Swc) / (1 .8 . We assume the connate water Swc is distributed evenly throughout the reservoir. The residual oil saturation is Sorg. So the water swept pore volume fraction would normally be:PVw = (Sw . The residual oil saturation is Sor. So the current movable water is Sw-Swc. So the gas swept pore volume fraction would normally be:PVg = ( Sg . The sweep efficiencies can be used to further increase the amount of saturations trapped behind the moving fronts. The Sorg is assumed to be left behind the gas front. If the gas has swept into the original oil zone:There is no initial gas in the original oil zone so the current gas that has swept into the original oil zone is just Sg .Swc .Sor) Petroleum Experts . We first calculate the PV fraction swept by water for the current Sw.Sgr)*SEw Then we calculate the PV fraction of the gas left in the reservoir:PVw = (Sg .Swc) / [(1 .Sgr) / (1 .17 Appendix D .Swc) / [(1 .e.Sgi. the original oil leg and gas cap.Fluid Contacts Calculation details However in addition the water sweep efficiency (SEw) can be used to further increase the amount of gas trapped by the water front thus increasing the water swept PV fraction. the Sor will be bypassed.Swc .

So the maximum possible movable volume is 1-Swc-Srg.e.PVo D-3 Trapped Saturation Fluid Contact Calculations The new method uses the same rules as the old method for the residual saturations of the phases in their original locations i.Fluid Contacts Calculation details 9 .Swc .Sor)*SEg + Sgi / (1 .Swc ) If the gas has swept into the original gas cap:There is no initial oil in the original gas cap so the current oil that has swept into the original gas cap is Sgi .17 However in addition the gas sweep efficiency (SEg) can be used to further increase the amount of oil trapped by the gas front thus increasing the gas swept PV fraction.Sor)*SEg Finally we add on the original gas saturation to get the total PVg:PVg = ( Sg . The residual gas saturation is Srg. So the oil swept pore volume fraction in the original gas cap would normally be:PVo = ( Sgi .Appendix D .Sgi ) / [(1 .Sg ) / (1 .Srg) However in addition the gas sweep efficiency (SEg) can be used to further increase the amount of gas trapped by the oil front thus increasing the gas swept PV fraction (technically is should be labeled the oil sweep efficiency). So if the oil sweeps into the original gas cap.Swc . So:PVo = ( Sgi . So:PVg = ( Sg . the Sgr in the original gas cap and the Sor in the original oil leg.Sg ) / (1 . So the GOC will increase more quickly.Sgi ) / [(1 . The sweep efficiencies can be used to further increase the amount of saturations trapped behind the moving fronts. MBAL User Guide . These rules are:Oil Reservoir (normal method) In this method we assume that the Sgr always remains in the original gas cap.Swc . In all cases the Swc is assumed to be evenly distributed throughout the reservoir thus reducing the sweepable volume.Srg)*SEg Finally we subtract from the original gas saturation to get the total PVg:PVg = Sgi / (1 . The Srg is assumed to be left behind the oil front.Sg. Similarly if the gas moves into the original oil zone. the Sgr will be bypassed thus decreasing the GOC. we assume that Sorg is left behind the gas front.Swc ) . the water will leave the Sorw behind the water front. If the water moves into the original oil zone.Swc .

the Sor will be bypassed.17 Appendix D . Condensate Reservoir (using material balance with an initial oil leg) In this method we assume that the Sor always remains in the original oil leg. So the GOC will increase more quickly. The sweep efficiencies can be used to further increase the amount of saturations trapped behind the moving fronts. Similarly if the oil moves into the original gas cap. The sweep efficiencies can be used to further increase the amount of saturations trapped behind the moving fronts.10 .Fluid Contacts Calculation details Oil Reservoir (if gas cap production option is off) In this method if the gas moves into the original oil zone. The sweep efficiencies can be used to further increase the amount of saturations trapped behind the moving fronts. Gas Reservoir (using Gas Storage option) In this case we assume that the Sgr and Swc are distributed evenly throughout the reservoir and remain there through the life of the reservoir. So these residual saturations will reduce the sweepable volume. In all cases the Swc is assumed to be evenly distributed throughout the reservoir thus reducing the sweepable volume. we assume that Sgr is left behind the oil front. In all cases the Swc is assumed to be evenly distributed throughout the reservoir thus reducing the sweepable volume. the water will leave the Sorw behind the water front. So if the gas or water sweeps into the original oil leg. Condensate Reservoir In this case we assume that the Sgr and Swc are distributed evenly throughout the reservoir and remain there through the life of the reservoir. So these residual saturations will reduce the sweepable volume. Petroleum Experts . we assume that Sorg is left behind the gas front. So these residual saturations will reduce the sweepable volume. The sweep efficiencies can be used to further increase the amount of saturations trapped behind the moving fronts. The sweep efficiencies can be used to further increase the amount of saturations trapped behind the moving fronts. So the GOC will increase more quickly. Gas Reservoir (normal method) In this case we assume that the Sgr and Swc are distributed evenly throughout the reservoir and remain there through the life of the reservoir. If the water moves into the oil zone.

Oil trapped when oil moves into original gas cap and is then swept by water. it will still bypass the Sgr as would happen with the standard method.1 is trapped by a sweeping phase. This method allows you to model the situation where some of the gas that moved into the original oil zone is trapped when the oil sweeps back up to the original gas-oil contact. you may enter the saturation of the phase A that is bypassed by phase B. E. Then later in the life of the reservoir the gas cap is produced so that the oil moves back into the gas cap.2.Gas trapped when gas moves into original oil leg and is then swept by oil. Gas Trapped by Oil .Oil trapped when oil moves into original gas cap and is then swept by gas. With this method.Water trapped when water moves into original oil/gas zone and is then swept by gas. Oil Trapped by Gas . With the standard method. Water Trapped by Gas .Water trapped when water moves into original oil/gas zone and is then swept by oil.17 NOTE: In addition this method also allows you to trap phases when they have moved out of their original zone.Fluid Contacts Calculation details 11 .Gas trapped when gas moves into original oil leg and is then swept by water. all the gas that moved into the original oil zone will be swept back into the gas cap. Consider an oil reservoir where the original gas cap moves into the original oil zone because the oil leg is depleted. then enter a total trapped water saturation of 0.1 but another S=0. When this option is selected you will be asked to enter one or more of the following inputs depending on the reservoir type:Water Trapped by Oil .g. MBAL User Guide . Gas Trapped by Water . Oil Trapped by Water .Appendix D . So if any phase A moves out of its original zone. and is then swept out again by another phase B. Note that if the oil sweeps into the original gas cap. the saturation should include the connate water saturation. Note: For trapped water saturations. if Swc=0. we have generalized the calculation.

17 Appendix D .Fluid Contacts Calculation details Example Figure 1 This shows the oil reservoir at initial conditions Petroleum Experts .12 .

Appendix D .17 Figure 2 Some oil has been produced so the Sg increases and so the gas has moved into the original oil leg. The Swc and Sor are left behind the gas front thus increasing the rate of increase of the GOC. MBAL User Guide .Fluid Contacts Calculation details 13 .

Therefore the oil moves upwards in the reservoir. Now in this case we have entered the value for the gas trapped by oil (Sgro). Petroleum Experts .17 Appendix D .Fluid Contacts Calculation details Figure 3 Gas is now being produced so the Sg decreases and the So increases. the Sgro is trapped behind the GOC.14 . So as the oil moves up.

17 Figure 4 We continue to produce gas so the So continues to increase. Now the GOC moves into the original gas cap.Appendix D . It is the same as the standard method except that when gas bubbles out of the oil.initial reservoir conditions MBAL User Guide . D-4 Trapped Saturation Fluid Contact Calculations This method is only available for oil tanks. the extra gas will move directly into the gas cap.Fluid Contacts Calculation details 15 . Once the gas saturation in the oil zone reaches the residual gas saturation. the gas is trapped in the oil zone up to the residual gas saturation. At T0 . In the original gas cap the GOC will bypass the Sgr as well as the Swc.

16 .Fluid Contacts Calculation details At T1 – Gas in oil zone still less than Srg so remains in oil zone.17 Appendix D . Petroleum Experts .

MBAL User Guide . GOC increases quickly. At T3 – New solution gas now moves into secondary gas cap.Fluid Contacts Calculation details 17 .Appendix D .17 At T2 – Gas in oil zone reaches Srg.

this is the upper limit that MBAL uses for the manifold pressure before giving up. E-2 Production Prediction Fails Question: In the Production Prediction-Run Prediction. then MBAL can not control the production if the manifold pressure goes outside of the range of your Tubing Performance Curves. I clicked on the Calc button but immediately got a message box saying that the "The calculation is complete" and no results were displayed. Also in the well definition-outflow tab dialog.Trouble Shooting Guide This appendix describes some of the common problems experienced and questions asked by users of MBAL. There are various remedies for this problem.Appendix E. You may also wish to regenerate your Tubing Performance Curves with a wider range of manifold pressures to ensure accurate results. If not. Also in the well definition-outflow tab dialog. E-1 Prediction not Meeting Constraints Question: The production prediction calculation is not meeting the constraints that I entered in the Production Prediction-Production and Constraints dialog.000 . Answer: The only method that MBAL has to control the production (and thus meet constraints) is to modify the manifold pressure. check that you are not using the constant FBHP. . Answer: There are a number of reasons why this may happen but the immediate reason is usually that the prediction is stopping prematurely because the rate has dropped to zero. • • • In the well definition-outflow tab dialog. check that you have switched Extrapolate TPC's on for all the wells. However it is difficult to diagnose the problem unless MBAL can produce results of some sort. If you are. check that the Tubing Performance Curves have more than one manifold pressure. In this case you must use Tubing Performance Curves to model the well. A symptom of this problem is that the calculated manifold pressures are reported as 40. MBAL has no way to control the production so can not meet constraints. If MBAL is failing to meet the constraints it is most likely that modifying the manifold pressure can not control the production.

In particular.why is this happening? Answer: For the single tank. imagine that the aquifer size has been underestimated. Now rerun the prediction and it should produce results of some sort. E-5 Difference between History Simulation and Analytic Plot Question: I have done a match in the analytic plot and get a good visual match in the final pressure. This means that if there is an error in the estimates of the input data. It should now be possible to diagnose why the calculation fails .Trouble Shooting Guide So the first step is to force the calculation to keep going. E-4 Reversal in the Analytic Plot Question: In history matching-analytic plot the simulated data is going backwards or even looping . MBAL will have to re-inject oil to compensate for the lack of aquifer. the analytic plot calculates the primary phase rate from the input tank pressure and non-principal phase rates (as well as the reset of the tank description). it will calculate the cumulative oil rate from the input tank pressure.2-3 Appendix E . MBAL may only be able to maintain the input tank pressure by re-injecting oil. water production. To summarise. For example. The calculation is done this way because it is much faster than calculating the pressure from all the rates .firstly by examining the well results. Answer: Although there are a number of obscure reasons for this problem the most common reason is errors in the PVT input. For example. I then did a history simulation but get a poor match on the final pressure. E-3 Pressures in the Prediction are increasing (With No Injection) Question: In history simulation or production prediction the pressure is increasing but I do not have any injection. Use the PVT-Calculator option to calculate properties and verify each one in turn. check the Bo and/or Bg as these are crucial to the material balance calculation. water injection and gas injection. the analytic plot calculates the primary phase rate from the input tank pressure and non-principal phase rates (as well as the reset of the tank Petroleum Experts . Answer: For the single tank.and speed is critical when doing a regression. if reversal is observed in the simulated data. for an oil tank. gas production. Go back to Production Prediction-Prediction Setup and change the Prediction End to User Defined and enter a date some time after the start of the prediction. either the estimates of the tank parameters are in error or there are errors in the production data.

water production. it will calculate the cumulative oil rate from the input tank pressure. However because we are calculating the cumulative oil you actually need to look at the horizontal separation between the input and simulated data. Therefore you should be examining the vertical difference between the tank history pressure and the simulated pressure when assessing the quality of the match. water injection and gas injection.Trouble Shooting Guide 3-3 description).it calculates the tank pressure from the various input rates. The history simulation does the reverse calculation . In particular. Select the File – Preferences menu item in MBAL and try each of the options in the Screen Resolution combo box in turn until you find one that displays the dialogs correctly. The simplest fix is to change the Screen Resolution in MBAL. E-6 Dialogs Are Not Displayed Correctly Question: Some of the dialogs in MBAL are not displayed correctly. gas production. for an oil tank.and speed is critical when doing a regression. MBAL User Guide . Answer: This problem is due to screen resolution. A match can appear to be of good quality if you look at the vertical separation but actually be relatively poor if examined in the horizontal direction. For example. Traditionally one tends to look for the difference in the vertical separation between the input and simulated data when assessing the quality of a match.Appendix E . The calculation is done this way because it is much faster than calculating the pressure from all the rates . they are too big for the screen so the buttons are not visible.