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]

LESSON 1

Function Models Revisited

One of the most important and controversial problems in Earth and space science today

is measuring, understanding, and predicting global warming. There is deep concern that

the average annual surface temperature on Earth has been increasing over the past

century and that this change will have important consequences for industry, agriculture,

and personal lifestyles.

Many scientists believe that the most likely variable contributing to the increase in

world temperature is greenhouse gases that reduce radiation of energy from Earth’s

surface into space. The next graph gives data on change in atmospheric greenhouse

gases over the past 1,007 years.

Atmospheric Concentrations of Carbon Dioxide, 1000–2007

**Source: www.earth-policy.org/Indicators/CO2/2008_data3.htm
**

Think About This Situation

**The challenge for atmospheric scientists is deciding how current trends in greenhouse gas amounts
**

world temperature change should be projected into the future. Different projections imply different

corrective actions

a.

b.

c.

**In what ways do you imagine that future global warming could change Earth’s atmosphere
**

your own life?

Based on the data given in the graph on the previous page, what strategy for projecting ch

global temperature would make most sense to you?

Based on the data given in the graph above, what strategy for projecting change in atmosp

carbon dioxide makes most sense to you?

Functions and models

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**Investigation 1: Variables Related by Data in Tables
**

One way to investigate particular relationships is to study a table of values containing

typical pairs of values, (input, output). Consider the following situation.

People can be found of many shapes and sizes. You may have noticed if you are taller,

shorter, or about the same height as your classmates. Some people, such as doctors,

have some concerns about what is average for people of various ages. Because of this,

many almanacs and reference sources include tables such as the following, showing

average heights of American females at specific ages

Age (yrs)

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

Height (cm)

51

84

99

112

127

137

147

Source: The World Almanac and Book of Facts. NY: Pharos Books. 1992

1.

14

158

What can you say about the relation between the age and the average height?

**Age and height are numerical or quantitative variables, and we can say that height
**

depends on age or height is a function of age. Because height depends on age, it

should seem reasonable to think of age as the input variable and height as the output

variable in the relation. According to the table, the average height of 14-year-old

females is 158 centimeters. Mathematicians and scientists might use the symbolic

shorthand form H(14) = 158 to convey this information.

We read "H(14) = 158" as "H of 14 equals 158."

Use of notation like this indicates a relation in which one variable is a function of another. In this case, height is a function of age.

There are many interesting questions that you can answer by examining data in the

table For example:

2.

**How much does the average height of females increase from birth to age
**

two? How does that increase compare to the increase between ages 16 and

20?

These changes may be calculated by subtraction:

Height at 2 — Height at 0 = H(2) — H(l) = 84 — 51 = 33.

Height at 20 — Height at 16 = H(20) — H(16) = 165 — 160 = 5.

Thus the average height increases by 33 centimeters in the first two years and

only by 5 centimeters in the four-year period between ages 16 and 20.

3.

**At what age does the average height of females reach 100 cm?
**

The table shows that average height is 99 cm at age 4 and 112 cm at age 6; so

the average height reaches 100 cm for some age between 4 and 6 years.

Functions and models

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16

160

18

163

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4.

**During which 2-year period shown in the table does the average height of
**

females increase the most? The following table shows the height differences,

and the largest one has been marked.

Age (yrs)

Change in height

(cm)

a.

0 to 2

84-51

2 to 4

4 to 6

6 to 8

8 to 10 10 to 12 12 to 14 14 to 16 16 to

When the greatest increase occurs? Why?

**The age and height data given in the table of Situation 2.1 are averages. The actual
**

growth pattern for any individual girl might be quite different from those averages.

Consider the following data for Elda, who found the information in health checkup

records that her mother had kept

Age (years)

Height (cm)

5.

0

56

2

85

4

90

6

102

8

113

10

125

12

152

14

169

**Elda's height is a function D of her age.
**

a. According to the table, what was Dawn's height at age 4? That is,

complete the following statement.

b. D (4) =_______

c. According to the table, at what age was Dawn's height 102 cm?

That is, complete the following statement.

d. D (______) = 102.

e. What information is conveyed by "D (18) = 183"?

f. Did Dawn grow more between the ages of 6 and 8 or between the

ages of 14 and 16?

g. Was Dawn shorter or taller than the average height for females at

age 4? What about at age 10? Age 12?

h. In which two-year interval did Dawn grow the fastest? By how

much did she grow and how does this compare with the increase

in average height for females between the same ages?

Summarize the mathematics

Functions and models

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16

178

18

183

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**Check your understanding
**

1. The table below gives the average heights of American males at specific

ages

Age (years)

Height (cm)

0

52

2

87

4

6

8

10

12

14

103

116

127

138

150

163

Source: The World Almanac and Book of Facts. 1992.

16

174

18

177

**The average height of males is a function M of age.
**

a. At what age is the average height of males 150 cm?

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

**Use functional notation to write the sentence, "The average height
**

of males at age 14 is 163 cm." Hint: M(

)=

Complete the following statement: M(2) =

Write in words the meaning of M(8) = 127.

In which of the two-year periods shown by the table does the

average height increase the most? What is that increase?

How does the pattern of change in average height for males

compare to that for females?

**On your own
**

1. The Talent Show advisor found the following record of profits from

previous Talent Shows. Note: Negative profit means the show lost money.

Year

Profits ($)

1980

-221

1981

-155

1982

-18

1983

233

1984

847

1985

1838

1986

1750

1987

2133

**Profit can be considered a function P of the year.
**

a. In which year did the Talent Show make the greatest profit?

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

2.

**The amount of profit is a function of the year. What does P (1981)
**

= —155 tell about Talent Show profit?

In 1985 the Talent Show had a profit of $1838. Using functional

notation, express this fact.

In which year did Talent Show profit increase the most from the

previous year? Write the calculations needed to find each year-toyear change as follows: P(1981) — P(1980) = (-155) — (-221) = 66.

Then use your calculator to find the results.

Between which consecutive years did the profit decrease?

Describe the overall trend in Talent Show profits shown in the table

and make a prediction about profit that could be expected from the

1988 show.

**The following table gives the number of record albums sold in the United
**

States for some recent years.

Year

Albums solds

(millions)

a.

1973

1975

1977

1979

1981

1983

1985

1987

290

333

345

330

280

230

195

178

**What trend, or pattern of change, do you see in the data in the table?
**

Offer a possible explanation for this trend.

Functions and models

Page 4

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b.

c.

d.

e.

3.

**The number of albums sold, A, is a function of the year. What
**

information does the following sentence, written in functional

notation, give about album sales? A (1981) = 280 million.

Write the following statement in functional notation: 330 million

albums were sold in 1979.

In which two-year period did the reported sales change the most?

What was that change?

What estimate do you believe is most reasonable for album sales

in 1989?

**A fast-food restaurant found that the number of orders of french fries that it
**

sells depends on the price of an order of fries

Price ($)

Orders of fries

per day

a.

0.60

0.70

0.80

0.90

1.00

1000

850

700

550

400

250

**Describe the relation between price and number of orders that you
**

see in the table and explain why it is or is not reasonable to you.

Write functional notation for each of the following. Hint: Since the

number of orders depends on the price, a reasonable way to write the

relation might be N(price) = number of orders.

b.

i.

ii.

When the price is fifty cents, 1000 orders of fries are sold.

**Only 250 orders are sold when one dollar is charged
**

Explain in words the meaning of each of these symbolic statements

i.

N(0.80) = 550

ii.

N(0.60) = 850

c.

4.

0.50

d.

**If the manager wants to sell at least 500 orders each day,
**

what price (s) should the restaurant charge?

e.

**If the restaurant chain will only allow the price of fries to be
**

between seventy and eighty cents an order, how many orders

of fries will be sold each day at this location?

**Suppose that the manager of the restaurant in problem 4 decides to try a new
**

large size order of fries. Using the table and any trends that you observed with

regular size fries above, estimate the number of orders of large fries that might

be sold at the following prices.

Price ($)

Orders of fries

per day

a.

b.

c.

0.80

0.90

1.00

1.10

1.20

1.30

**List some factors besides price that might affect the
**

number of orders of large fries sold.

Suppose the manager wants to use a special to bring in

more customers. List some factors in the business that

might be changed.

Pick two variables from part b that might have a cause-and-effect

relationship. Indicate which you think would be the input variable

and which you think would be the output variable. Explain your

answer.

Functions and models

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Functions and models

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**Investigation 2: Variables Related by Data in Graphs
**

The ways in which two variables might be related are not always shown clearly by

tables of input-output data. Patterns in the data may be lost amid all the specific

numbers. However, when data are displayed in a graph, it is often much easier to see

trends and therefore to make predictions

1.

**The table displays ordered pairs of data (age, height). Each pair also can be
**

considered as coordinates which locate exactly one point on the graph. For

example, the point with coordinates (16, 160) represents the fact that at age

16 the average height of females is 160 centimeters.

2.

**It is customary to indicate values of the input variable on the horizontal (left
**

to right) axis and values of the output variable on the vertical (up and down)

axis. In our example, that means age is on the horizontal axis (each tic mark

represents one year), and height is on the vertical axis (each tic mark

represents 10 centimeters).

3.

**To locate or interpret data pairs that do not hit given grid points exactly, it is
**

necessary to estimate position and coordinates. For example, the data pair (2,

84) corresponds to a point located about halfway between (2, 80) and (2, 90).

This means that the average height of females of age 2 is about midway

between 80 and 90 centimeters.

4.

**A graph also shows patterns of change in related variables by the horizontal
**

and vertical movement needed to get from point to point. For example, the

graph of the function relating age and height shows that the average height of

females increases by 20 cm from age 8 to age 12. The difference in height

coordinates of (8, 127) and (12, 147) is 147 --127 = 20.

5.

**You can also estimate pairs, (age, height), not given in the table. For
**

example, the following graph shows an in-between point with coordinates

approximately (7, 120), suggesting that the average height of 7-year-old

females is about 120 centimeters

**The exploration and homework exercises will sharpen your skills in constructing and
**

reading graphs.

Functions and models

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**A drought in the African veldt causes the death of many animals. For example, a
**

typical herd of wildebeest might suffer losses like those indicated in the following table

Length of

drought (months)

Number of

wildbeets

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

500

400

300

250

200

175

150

125

100

90

75

1.

Plot the

2.

Give the

ordered pairs of data given in the table above

**coordinates for the points that answer the following questions
**

a. What was the population after three months of drought

b. How long had the drought been going on when the herd reached a

population of 125?

c. For what length of time did the population remain above 200?

3.

What pattern in the graph shows the drop in population?

Summarize the mathematics

Functions and models

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**Check your understanding
**

When NASA sends a space shuttle on a mission, scientists and

engineers monitor conditions on the shuttle with many different

instruments. For example, heat sensors in the nose cone steadily send

temperature readings to NASA computers. These readings are watched

closely from several hours before liftoff until the shuttle lands safely.

The table below gives a sample of readings, (time, temperature), for a

typical mission. Temperature of the nose cone is a function of time in

the mission. Notice that time before liftoff is indicated by negative

numbers and that temperatures also take on both positive and negative

values

Mission time

(min)

Nose cone

temperature

(Celsius)

-25

-20

-15

-10

-5

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

-10

-10

-5

-5

0

10

75

90

115

130

105

80

20

-5

30

-40

1.

**Plot the data pairs, (time,
**

temperature), given in the

table.

Notice that points

showing "negative time" (time

before liftoff) are located on

the left side of the vertical

axis and that points showing

negative temperature are

below the horizontal axis. The

axes divide a coordinate grid

into four "quadrants." The

upper right quadrant is called

the first quadrant. The upper

left quadrant is the second

quadrant. The point shown on this grid is in the third quadrant. Each

horizontal grid unit represents 5 minutes of time; each vertical grid unit

represents 10°C temperature.

2.

**For parts a through d, temperature C (in degrees Celsius) is a function of time
**

in minutes. For each part, do the following.

i. Write the value that correctly completes the statement.

ii. Give the coordinates of the data point, (input, output), that supplies

your answer.

iii. Write the completed statement in words.

a.

C(15) = ______

b.

C(-10) =______

c.

C(

) = —30.

d.

C(

) = 90.

3.

**With your classmates, discuss the factors in a shuttle flight that affect nose
**

cone temperature. Explain the temperature pattern shown in the graph in terms

of flight conditions.

Functions and models

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1.

**ON YOUR OWN
**

SET A

List the coordinates of each of the labeled

points as an ordered pair. Estimate where

necessary.

2.

**On graph paper, draw a pair of
**

coordinate axes. Label the axes with

appropriate units, then plot the following ordered pairs. At each point, make a

heavy dot and write the coordinates

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

h.

i.

j.

k.

l.

(0, 0)

(-3, 8)

(8, -3)

(-8, -3)

(-5, 0)

(0, -5)

(5, 0)

(6, -4)

(3, 3)

(7, 7)

(-5, -5)

(-7, -7)

1.

A certain

function has the graph

shown in the figure below.

a.

Copy

and complete the

following table for this

function

x

y

3.

0

1

**List the coordinates of each labeled point as an ordered pair. Notice
**

that each horizontal grid unit represents 10 and each vertical grid unit

represents 25

Functions and models

Page 10

2

3

4

[ Type the document t itle]

4.

Time (min)

Altitude (m)

0

0

15

100

**A hot-air balloon is launched at noon, and the balloonist records the altitude in
**

meters every 15 minutes. The recorded data are given in the following table

30

750

45

875

a.

60

900

75

950

90

900

105

920

120

500

135

625

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

165

0

**Choose reasonable scales for the horizontal (time) and vertical
**

(altitude) axes. Plot the data given in the tabl;e above on a pair of

coordinate axes using the scales you have chosen. Copy the diagram

show here to help you begin

**Answer each of the following
**

questions about the flight and

give the coordinates, (input,

output), you used to get the

answer. Estimate where

needed.

b.

150

300

**What was the
**

altitude 1

hour into the

flight?

What was the

altitude 0.5

hour into the

flight?

What was the

altitude 2.25 hours into the flight?

At what time (s) was the altitude 750 meters?

At what times was the altitude under 300 meters?

What was the change in altitude during the first hour?

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h.

i.

j.

k.

5.

**What was the change in altitude during the second hour?
**

What was the maximum altitude?

At what time (s) was the balloon rising most quickly?

When was the balloon falling most rapidly?

In each of the following situations you are given data relating two variables. In

each case, choose reasonable scales for axes on a graph and plot the given

data. Then write a sentence describing the pattern in the graph and what it

says about the relation between the two variables.

The mass of an average American young person, in kilograms, is a function of

the person's age in years. Here are some sample data

Age (years)

Mass (kg)

0

3

2

11

4

15

6

20

8

26

10

31

12

38

14

49

**A newspaper delivery person’s weekly pay is a function of the number of
**

papers delivered each day. Here are some sample data.

Papers delivered

Pay dollars

50

70

100

120

150

170

200

220

300

320

500

520

**Animal populations tend to rise and fall in cycles. Suppose the following data
**

shows how squirrel populations in a central Pennsylvania city varied from

1975 to 1984

Year

population

75

750

76

700

77

520

78

680

79

730

80

650

81

550

82

625

83

780

84

700

Set 2

1.

2.

**Find the values of x and y.
**

a. (x, 2x) = (3, 6)

b.

( x+ y, x+5 )=(6, y)

( 2 x2 ,3 y+4 )=(x+1, y 2)

c.

(5x-1,

2 ) = (-11, 4)

d.

e.

(3x +1, 2y – 5) = (3, -2)

f.

x

**The coordinate graph makes it possible
**

to study geometry figure by means of

numbers because each point of the figure

can be located by a pair of numbers. The

following graph shows a circle whose

center is (5, 5). What are the coordinates

of each point on the circle that is

identified by a letter.

Functions and models

Page 12

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Functions and models

Page 13

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**One of the most important and controversial problems in Earth and space science today
**

is measuring, understanding, and predicting global warming. There is deep concern that

the average annual surface temperature on Earth has been increasing over the past

century and that this change will have important consequences for industry, agriculture,

and personal lifestyles.

The graph that follows shows the pattern of change in average world temperature over

the past 147 years. While the average global temperature has increased by less than a

degree, this is still a large amount relative to historical data. This recent temperature

increase is four to five times faster than any other climate change in the past

millennium.

Annual Deviation from Average Global Temperature,

1961–1990

Source: The Washington Post, October 13, 2005; www.cru.uea.ac.uk/cru/info/warming/

Functions and models

Page 14

V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 15

Many scientists believe that the most likely variable contributing to the increase in world temperature is greenhouse

gases that reduce radiation of energy from Earth’s surface into space. The next graph gives data on change in

atmospheric greenhouse gases over the past 1,007 years.

Atmospheric Concentrations of Carbon Dioxide, 1000–2007

**Source: www.earth-policy.org/Indicators/CO2/2008_data3.htm
**

Think About This Situation

The challenge for atmospheric scientists is deciding how current trends in greenhouse gas amounts and

world temperature change should be projected into the future. Different projections imply different

corrective actions

d.

e.

f.

In what ways do you imagine that future global warming could change Earth’s atmosphere and

your own life?

Based on the data given in the graph on the previous page, what strategy for projecting change in

global temperature would make most sense to you?

Based on the data given in the graph above, what strategy for projecting change in atmospheric

carbon dioxide makes most sense to you?

Graphs are used so often because they tell a story more easily than it can be told with words or numbers. The story in the

following graph is apparent at a glance: The number of tropical storms in the Atlantic increases to a maximum around the

end of August, then falls off rapidly. There is a moderate increase in early October, after which the decreasing pattern

resumes

Functions and models

Page 15

V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 16

The following activity asks you to reflect on several familiar real-world situations in which one quantity is related to a

second. You will be asked to think about how graphs describing these situations might appear. Look for patterns and

trends as you analyze the possibilities. Focus on features you consider to be important in the graphical models.

Functions and models

Page 16

V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 17

Functions and models

Page 17

V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 18

**stigation 1: Warm-up activity
**

Note that the graphs in the activity (as others you will be asked to draw) are shown without numerical scales. They show

qualities that capture the key features of the situation (patterns and trends), but do not show exact quantities.

For each of the following six scenarios, a context and a figure showing several graphs are given. After discussing the

context with your partner or group, answer the following questions for each situation.

**Examine each of the graphs in the figure. Which graph best models the situation?
**

What features made you choose that particular graph? What features made you discount the other graphs?

What are the two quantities or variables in the situation?

1.

Situation #1: The height of a person over his or her lifetime.

2.

Situation #2: The circumference of a circle as its radius changes.

3.

Situation #3: The height of a ball as it is thrown into the air.

4.

**Situation #4: The amount of observable mold on a piece of bread sitting at room temperature from the time it is
**

baked to several months later.

5.

**Situation #5: The daily average low temperature in degrees Fahrenheit in Fairbanks, Alaska from January 1 to
**

December 31.

6.

Situation #6: The temperature of a cold drink left in a warm room

Situation 1

Functions and models

Situation 2

Page 18

V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 19

Situation 3

Situation 4

Situation 5

Situation 6

**stigation 2: Relations and Functions
**

Use this machine to answer the questions on the next page.

DVD Vending Machine

Functions and models

Page 19

V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 20

1.

**Suppose you inserted your money and pressed Al. What item
**

would you receive?

2.

**Suppose you inserted your money and pressed C2. What item
**

would you receive?

3.

**Suppose you inserted your money and pressed B3. What item
**

would you receive?

4.

**If the machine were filled properly, what would happen if you
**

pressed any of those same buttons again?

Each time you press a button, an input, you may receive a DVD, an output.

5.

**In the DVD vending machine situation, does every input have an
**

output? Explain your response.

6.

**Each combination of input and output can be expressed as a
**

mapping written input output. For example, B2 Wizard of Gauze

a.

**Write as mappings each of the possible combinations of buttons pushed and DVDs received in the
**

vending machine.

**b. Mappings relating values from one set of numbers to another set of numbers can be written as ordered
**

pairs. Write the following numerical mappings as ordered pairs.

Functions and models

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V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 21

**A relation is a set of ordered pairs. The list of ordered pairs that you wrote in Item 6(b) is a relation.
**

Relations can have a variety of representations.

Consider the relation {(1, 4), (2, 3), (6, 5)} shown here as a set of ordered pairs.

This relation can also be represented in these ways.

7.

**You represented the vending machine situation using
**

mappings in Item 6. Other representations can also be used to illustrate how the inputs and outputs of the

vending machine are related.

**a. Create a table to illustrate how the inputs and outputs of the vending machine are related.
**

b. In representing the vending machine inputs and outputs, what decisions would need to be made to

create the graph?

A function is a relation in which each input is paired with, at most, one output.

8.

Compare and contrast the DVD Vending Machine with a function.

1.

Suppose when pressing button C1 button on the vending machine both Finding Dreamo and Raiders of the

Mossed Bark come out. How does this vending machine resemble or not resemble a function?

10.

Imagine a machine where you input an age and the machine gives you the name of anyone who is that age.

Compare and contrast this machine with a function. Explain by using examples and create a representation of

the situation.

11.

Create an example of a situation (math or real-life) that behaves like a function and another that does not behave

like a function. Explain why you chose each example to fit the category.

a.

Behaves like a function:

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V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 22

b.

**Does not behave like a function:
**

12.

Identify whether each list of ordered pairs represents a function. Explain your answers.

13.

Using positive integers, write two relations as a list of ordered pairs below, one that is a function and one that is

not a function.

Function:

Not a function:

The set of all inputs for a function is known as the domain of the function. The set of all outputs for a function is known

as the range of the function.

14.

Consider a vending machine where inserting 25 cents dispenses one pencil, inserting 50 cents dispenses 2

pencils, and so forth up to and including all 10 pencils in the vending machine.

15.

a.

What is the domain in this situation?

b.

What is the range in this situation?

For each function below, identify the domain and range.

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V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 23

16.

Each of the functions that you have seen has a finite number of ordered pairs. There are functions that have an

infinite number of ordered pairs. Describe any difficulties that may exist trying to represent a function with an

infinite number of ordered pairs using the four representations of functions that have been described thus far.

17.

Sometimes, machine diagrams are used to represent functions. In the function machine below, the inputs are

labeled x and the outputs are labeled y. The function is represented by the expression 2x + 5.

a.

If x = 7 is used as an input, what is the output?

**b. If x = —2 is used as an input, what is the output?
**

c.

If x = 1is used as an input, what is the output?

d. Is there any limit to the number of input values that can be used with this expression? Explain.

Consider the function machine below.

18.

Use the diagram to find the (input, output) ordered pairs for the following values.

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V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 24

a. x = -5

b. x= 5

c. x= —10

19.

**Make a function machine for the expression 10 — 5x. Use it to
**

find ordered pairs for x = 3, x = —6, x = 0.25, and x = 4.

Creating a function machine can be time consuming and awkward. The function represented by the diagram in Item 17

can also be written algebraically as the equation y = 2x + 5.

19.

**Evaluate each function for x = —2, x = 5, x = 4, and
**

For each x-value, find the corresponding y-value. Place the results in a table.

a.

x = 0.75.

y = 9 — 4x

b. y =

When referring to the functions in Item 20, it can be confusing to distinguish among them since each begins with "y =."

Function notation can be used to help distinguish among different functions.

For instance, the function y = 9 — 4x in Item 20(a) can be written:

21.

To distinguish among different functions, it is possible to use different names. Use the name h to write the

function from Item 20b using function notation.

Function notation is useful for evaluating functions for multiple input values. To evaluate

x=2

, you substitute 2 for the variable x and write

f ( 2 )=1

22.

f ( 2 )=9−4 ( 2 )

**Use function notation to evaluate f(x) shown above at x = 5, x = —3, and x = 0.5.
**

23. Use the values for x and f(x) from Item 22. Display the values using each representation.

list of ordered pairs

b. table of values

Functions and models

Page 24

for

Simplifying the expression yields

.

a.

f ( x )=9−4 x

V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 25

c.

mapping

d. graph

24.

**Evaluate each function for x = —5, x = -10
**

a.

f ( x )=2 x−7

b.

g ( x ) =6 x−5

c.

h ( x )=−2−x

PRACTICE EXERCISES

Write your answers on notebook paper. Show your work.

1.

**The set {(3, 5), (-1, 2), (2, 2), (0, -1)} represents a function. Identify the domain and range of the function. Then
**

display the function using each representation.

a.

a table

b.

a mapping

c.

a graph

2.

Explain why each of the following is not a function.

3.

**Evaluate the functions for each domain value indicated.
**

a.

p ( x )=3x+14

b.

h ( t ) =t2 −5t

for x = —5, 0, 4

for t = —2, 0, 5, 7

ON YOUR OWN

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V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 26

Determine which of the following relations is a function . Give the domain and range

1

2

3

4

5

In exercises 6 – 11, the d mains D and rules of some functions are given. Find the range of each function

6.

F :→3−2 x; D={0,1,2,3}

7.

ϕ : x→3 x−5; D={0,1,2,3}

8.

g : x→x −2; D={−2,0,2}

9.

f : x→ 1−x 2 ; D={−1,0,1}

10.

G: x →x 2−4 x+4 ; D={0,1, 2,3}

11.

m: z →1−|z|; D={−2,−1,0,2}

2

Give the domain of each function

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V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 27

Let

3

12.

x −2

13.

g (x )=

2

x +3

14.

h ( x )=

2

x 2 +3

15.

F ( x )=√ 2x−1

16.

f ( x )=

17.

G ( x )=

1

x +5 x +6

2

2

( x−1 ) (x+2)

2

f ( x )=x −1

and

18.

g(1)

19.

f (1)

20.

g ( 2 )−f (1)

21.

3f ( 2 )−g(−2)

22.

f ( 5 ) −2g(2)

23.

f

24.

g ( x ) =1−2 x

. Find the indicated values

1

g(3)

( )

1

g

( f (3) )

25.

g ( a+1 )−g ( a )

26.

f ( a+1 )−f (a)

27.

g ( x+h )−g (x)

h

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V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 28

Si

{

−1 , si x <0

f ( x )= 0 , si x=0

1, si x >0

28.

f (0 )

29.

f ( 1)

30.

f (−1)

31.

f (4)

32.

f (−2)

, find the indicated values

**MATHEMATICAL REFLECTION: Which representation of a function do you feel is most useful? Why? Which one do
**

you feel is least useful? Why?

estigation 3: Domain and range of continuous functions

Roller coasters are scary and fun to ride. Wooden roller coasters shake and rattle as part of the thrill of the ride. Below is

the graph of the heights reached by the cars of the wooden roller coaster, Thunderball, over its first 1250 feet of track.

The graph displays a function because each input value has one and only one output value. You can see this visually

using the vertical line test.

Study this graph to determine the domain and range.

The domain gives all values of the independent variable: distance along the track in feet. These values are graphed

along the horizontal or x-axis.

The domain can be written in set notation as:

{all real values of x: 0

≤

x

≤

1250}

Read this notation as: the set of all real values of x, between 0 and 1250, inclusive.

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V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 29

The range gives the values of the dependent variable: height above the ground in feet. The values are graphed on the

vertical or y-axis.

The range can be written in set notation as:

{all real values of y: 10

≤

y

≤

110}

**Read this notation as: the set of all real values of y, between 10 and 110, inclusive.
**

The graph above shows data that are continuous. The points in the graph are connected, indicating that domain and range

are sets if real numbers with no breaks in between. A graph of discrete data consists of individual points that are not

connected by a line or curve.

la.

Use set notation to write the domain and range for the graph below. Does this graph appear to represent a

function? Justify your answer. Are the data discrete or continuous? Why?

1 b.

The graph below shows the relationship between t, the length of time of the bath (from the time water starts

running through the time the tub is drained) and d, the depth of the water in the bath tub. The graph represents

function d (bath water depth). What are the dependent and independent variables? Explain. Use set notation to

write the domain and range of function d. Are the data discrete or continuous and why?

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V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 30

EXAMPLE 1: Give the domain and range of the function

f ( x )=

1

(x−2)2

graphed below.

**Step 1: Study the graph.
**

The sketch of this graph is a portion of the function represented by the equation

f ( x )=

1

(x−2)2

.

Step 2:

Look for values for which the domain causes the function to be undefined. Look how the graph

behaves near x = 2.

Solution:

The domain and range for

Domain:

f ( x )=

1

2

(x−2)

{all real values of x: x

≠

can be written:

2}

**Range: {all real values of y: y > 0}
**

TRY THESE

a.

Give the domain and range of the function

f ( x )=8+2x−x 2

graphed below

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V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 31

b.

Give the domain and range for the equation y = 2x - 1. Explain whether this equation represents a function and

how you determined this.

Technology Time

Work with a partner to investigate the equations listed in the chart using graphing technology. Every equation

given here is a function.

Determine the domain and range for each function from the possibilities listed below the chart.

Select the appropriate domain from choices 1-6 and record your answer in the Domain column. Then select the

appropriate range from choices a-f and record the appropriate range in the Range column.

** When the chart is complete, compare your answers with those from another group.
**

Function

Domain

y=−3 x+4

2

y=x −6 x+5

2

y=9 x−x

y=|x+1|

y=3+ √ x

y=

1)

Possible domains

all real numbers

2)

all real x, such that x

4

x

Possible Ranges

b) all real numbers

≠−2

Functions and models

a)

all real y, such that y

Page 31

≠

0

Range

V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 32

3)

all real x, such that x

≠0

b)

all real y, such that y

≥

4

4)

all real x, such that x

≠2

c)

all real y, such that y

≥

0

5)

all real x, such that x

≥0

d)

all real y, such that y

≥

1

6)

all real x, such that x

≥0

e)

all real y, such that y

≥

3

**ON YOUR OWN
**

Write your answers on notebook paper. Show your work.

1.

Give the domain and range for the function graphed below. Explain why this graph represents a function.

2.

A student calculates how far away a lightning strike is, based on when the thunder is heard. The student makes

the table below using tkm/sec as the average speed of sound under rainy conditions. If the thunder is only heard

when the lightning strike is within 15 km of the listener, what are the domain and range for this model? Is this

relation a function? How do you know?

**Time until thunder is heard (sec)
**

Distance from lighting strike

(km)

3.

1

2

3

4

1

3

2

3

1

1

5

1

3

1

6

2

3

2

Give the domain and range of the function

f ( x )=−4 x−5

4.

The graph below shows five points that make up the function h. Give the domain and the range for the function

h.

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V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 33

5.

Jeff walks at an average rate of 125 yards per minute. Mark's house is located 2000 yards from Jeff's house. The

graph below shows how far Jeff still needs to walk to reach Mark's house. Give the domain and range for this

model. Is this model a function? Explain.

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V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 34

6.

Capital letters sketched in the coordinate plane may or may not be functions. Pick one letter that represents a

function and two that do not. Use the vertical line test as part of the explanation for your selections.

7.

**MATHEMATICAL REFLECTION: Describe at least three different methods for determining if a relation is a
**

function. Which method do you prefer and why?

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V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 35

PERFORMANCE TASK : Representations of functions

While on vacation, Jorge and Jackie traveled to Bryce Canyon National Park in Utah. They were impressed by the

differing elevations at the viewpoints along the road. The graph describes the elevations for several viewpoints in terms

of the time since they entered the park.

E(t)

Time (min) after entering the park

1. The graph above represents a function E(t). Describe why the graph represents a function. Identify the domain

and range of the function.

**2. Is this discrete or continuous data? Explain.
**

While at Bryce Canyon National Park, Jorge and Jackie went hiking on the Under the Rim trail to Yellow Creek. The

table shows their progress down to Yellow Creek. The grid is provided for optional use to help you answer the

questions below.

Descent

Time (min)

0

10

20

30

Elevation (ft)

7900

7500

7100

6700

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V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 36

3. Find the slope for the data in the table. Interpret the slope as a rate of change, including units.

4. On the descent, what was the elevation 18 min after Jorge and Jackie began? Justify your answer.

5. On the descent, when were they at 7000 ft? Justify your answer.

Functions and models

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V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 37

SON 2

Lineal Functions

**Think About This Situation
**

Think about the connections among graphs, data patterns, function rules, and problem

conditions for linear relationships.

a How does Barry's daily pay change as the number of applications he collects increases? How is

that pattern of change shown in the graph?

b If the linear pattern shown by the graph holds for other (number of applications, daily pay) pairs,

how much would you expect Barry to earn for a day during which he collects just 1 application?

For a day he collects 13 applications? For a day he collects 25 applications?

b. What information from the graph might you use to write a rule showing how to calculate daily

pay for any number of applications?

Functions and models

Page 37

stigation 2:

V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 38

Investigation 1: Warm-up activity

1.

**Using the axes like the ones below, sketch a graph to illustrate
**

this situation

2. Compare your graph with those drawn by your neighbors.

Try to come to some agreement over a correct

version

3. Write down en explanation of how you arrived at your answer.

In particular, answer the following questions

Should the graph ‘slope upwards’or ‘slope downwards’? Why?

**Should the graph be straight line? Why?
**

Should the graph meet the axes? If so, where? If not, why not?

**Working under pressure
**

When a diver descends in a lake or ocean, pressure is produced by the weight of the water on the diver. As a diver swims

deeper into the water, the pressure on the diver's body increases at a rate of about 1 atmosphere of pressure per 10 meters

of depth. The table and graph below represent the total pressure, y, on a diver given the depth, x, under water in meters

a.

Match each function rule with its graph. Explain how you could make the matches without calculations or

graphing tool help.

b.

What do the numbers in the rules for Darryl's and Felicia's account balances tell you about the values of their

purchases and their monthly payments?

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V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 39

x

y

0

1

1

1.1

2

1.2

3

1.3

4

1.4

5

1.5

6

1.6

**1.Write an equation describing the pressure exerted on a diver when under water.
**

2.What is the slope of the equation of the line that you found? What are the units of the slope?

1.What is the y-intercept of the line?

Slope-Intercept Form of a Linear Equation

y=mx +b

where m is the slope of the line and b is the y-intercept.

**2.Identify the slope and y-intercept of the line described by the equation y = —2x + 9.
**

5.

**Create a table of values for the equation y = —2x + 9. Then plot the
**

points and graph the line

Functions and models

Page 39

Unit

2

F.

Linen! Functions

115

V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 40

6.

Explain how to find the slope from the table.

7.

Explain how to find the y-intercept from the table.

8.

Explain how to find the slope from the graph.

9.

**Explain how to find the y-intercept from the graph
**

EXAMPLE 1: Write the equation, in slope-intercept form, of the line that passes through the point (1, 4) and has a slope

of —3.

Step 1:

Find the y-intercept by substituting the coordinates of the point and the slope in the equation.

y=mx +b

Substitute -3 for m, 1 for x, and 4

for y

4=−3 ( 1 )+b

4=−3+b

4+3=−3+b+3

The y intercept is 7

7=b

Step 2:

Substitute the slope and y-intercept into the slope-intercept form.

y=mx +b

y=−3 x+7

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V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 41

Solution:

Point-Slope Form of a Linear Equation

y=−3 x+7

y− y 1=m(x−x1 )

where m is the slope of the line and (

on the line.

TRY THESE A

a.Write the equation, in slope-intercept form, of

x1 , y1

) is a point

the line with a slope of 4

and a y-intercept of 5.

a.Find the equation, in slope-intercept form, of

the line that passes through

the point (-3, 7) and has a slope of — 3.

b. Write the equation of the line shown in the

You get this form of the equation by solving the slope

for

y− y 1

by multiplying both sides by

graph at the right.

formula

m=

y− y 1

x−x 1

x−x 1

The variable y is the dependent variable, and x is the independent variable. You may use this form when you know a

point on the line and the slope.

EXAMPLE 2: Write the equation of a line with a slope of that passes through the point (2, 5).

Step I:

Substitute the given values into point-slope form.

y− y 1=m(x−x1 )

1

y−5= (x−2)

2

Step 2: Solve for y

1

y= ( x−2 ) +5

2

Solution:

1

y= ( x−2 ) +5

2

TRY THESE B

Find the equation of the line given a point and the slope

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V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 42

2

3

(-2, 7),

m=

b. (6, -1),

m=

a.

c.

(86, 125),

−5

4

m=−18

The town of San Simon charges its residents for trash pickup and water usage on the same bill. Each month the city

charges a flat fee for trash pick-up and a $0.25 per gallon usage fee for water. In January, one resident used 44 gallons

of water, and received a bill for $16.

10.

**If x is the number of gallons of water used during a month, and y
**

represents the bill amount in dollars, write a point (x1, y1).

**11. What does the $0.25 per gallon represent?
**

12. Use point-slope form to write an equation that represents the bill cost y in terms of the number of gallons of

water x used in a month.

**13. Write the equation in Item 12 in slope-intercept form. What does the y-intercept represent?
**

EXAMPLE 3: Write the equation of the line that passes through the points (6, 4) and (3, 5).

Step 1:

m=

Find the slope by substituting the two points into the slope formula.

y 2− y 1 5−4

=

x 2−x 1 3−6

Substitute (6, 4) for (

(3, 5) for (

m=

x1 , y1 ¿

and

x2 , y2 ¿

5−4 1 −1

= =

3−6 −3 3

Step 2:

Substitute the slope and one of the points into point-slope form.

y− y 1=m(x−x1 )

y−5=

−1

(x−3)

3

Substitute (3, 5) for (

−1

3

−1

y= ( x−3 ) +5

3

Functions and models

for m

Solve for y

Page 42

x1 , y1 ¿

, and

V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 43

y=

Solution:

−1

( x−3 ) +5

3

TRY THESE C

a.

Find the equation in point-slope form of the

b.

**Find the equation in point-slope form of
**

passes through the point (1, —3).

c.

Find the slope and a point on the line-

**line shown in the graph.
**

the line with a slope of 5 that

2

y=3− ( x+3 )

3

d.

**Find the equation of the line that passes
**

(2, 3).

e.

Write the equation of the line from Item

**through the points (-2, 1) and
**

(d) above in slope-intercept form

**Standard Form of a Linear Equation
**

Ax + By = C

where A

≥

0, A and B cannot both be zero, and A, B, and C are integers whose greatest common factor is one.

14. You can use the coefficients of this form of an equation to find the slope, x-intercept and y-intercept of a

line.

a.

Write Ax + By = C in slope in-intercept form to find the slope.

b.

Find the the x intercept

c.

Find the y intercept

**15. Find the slope and y-intercept of the line described by the equation 3x + 2y = 8.
**

16. Write 3x + 2y = 8 in the slope-intercept form of an equation.

17.

Given the equation

1 2

y= x+

2 5

Functions and models

of a line, write it in the standard form of a linear equation

Page 43

V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 44

CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING

1.

Write the standard form of the equation of the line with a slope of 7 that passes through the point (1, 2).

2.

Write the equation 3x — 2y = 16 in slope-intercept form.

3.

Write the equation y = —4 + 6(x + 1) in slope-intercept form.

4.

Write the equation in standard form of the line that is represented by the data in the table.

1.

As a diver descends into fresh water, we have determined that for every 10 meters of depth, the pressure on the

diver increases by one atmosphere. Find the equation of the line if we know the diver is at a depth of 25 meters

and has a pressure of 3.5 atmospheres.

1.

**MATHEMATICAL REFLECTION Rate yourself on a scale of 1 to 5 on your perceived understanding of
**

equations of lines for Slope-intercept, Point-slope, and Standard forms of a line. The lower the rating the lower

the level of understanding. What can you do to bring your level of understanding to a higher level?

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V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 45

stigation 3:

**Crossing the axes: X and y intercepts
**

Frank is reading Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird for his English class. The book is 280 pages long. He estimates he

will need seven hours of reading time to finish the book. Displaying y on the vertical axis as pages left to read and x on

the horizontal axis as time spent reading in hours, the intercepts have been connected to form a line.

1.

Identify the x-intercept, y-intercept, and slope from this model. What does each represent in the problem

situation?

2.

Write the equation of this line using the intercepts. Identify the form of the equation that you have created.

3.

Write the equation of the line in the standard form.

4.

Divide each side of the equation in Item 3 by the constant term and simplify so that there will be a 1 on one side

of the equal sign.

5.

What do you recognize about the denominators of the equation you wrote in Item 4?

6.

**The equation below is a variable representation of the equation that you created in Item 4. As a historical
**

mathematician, you have the honor of naming this form of the line. Write your choice of name for this form and

explain your decision using mathematical vocabulary.

EXAMPLE: The graph of y = 2x — 6 below shows the line crossing the x-axis at 3 and the y-axis at —6.

a.

Verify the intercepts based on the definition.

b.

Then write the equation in the form shown in Item 6.

Functions and models

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V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 46

**Step 1: Use the definition of intercept.
**

From the definition, the y-intercept is the y-coordinate where x = 0.

y=2 x−6

y=2 ( 0 ) −6

Substitute 0 for x

y=−6

Write as an ordered pair (0, —6). The y-intercept is —6.

Functions and models

Page 46

V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 47

From the definition, the x-intercept is the x-coordinate where y = 0.

y=2 x−6

0=2x−6

Substitute 0 for y

0−2x=2 x−6−2 x

**Solve for x by subtracting 2x from both
**

sides

Simplify by dividing both sides by -2

−2 x=−6

x=3

**Write as an ordered pair (3, 0). The x-intercept is 3.
**

Step 2: Use algebra to write the equation in the form used in Item 6.

To write

y=2 x−6

in the form

x y

+ =1

a b

, isolate the constant to t right of the equal sign. Then divide through

n appropriate number to create the 1 to the right of the equals sign

y=2 x−6

−2 x=−2x

Subtract 2x from each of the equation

−2 x+ y=−6

Simplify the 0 pair (2x-2x=0)

−2 x y −6

+ =

−6 −6 −6

Divide each term by -6

x y

+ =1

3 −6

Simplify

Solution: The y intercept is -6, and the x intercept is 3. The equation of the line is

Functions and models

Page 47

x y

+ =1

3 −6

V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 48

TRY THESE A

a.

Write the equation 3x — 4y = 24 in intercept form. Verify the intercepts for this equation algebraically.

**b. Write the equation y=
**

c.

−2

x−4

3

in intercept form.

Write the intercept form of the equation that has a y-intercept of —5 and an x-intercept of —4.

The Booster Club is planning to sell refreshments as a project at the upcoming Fall Bazaar. Tim makes the following

proposals to the Club.

Tim's proposal:

Buy 120 bottles of water for $21 to sell for $1.50 each.

To support his proposal, Tim has developed a function to calculate the profit P based on n bottles sold.

Tim's function:

P = 1.50n — 21.00

7.

What are the intercepts for Tim's function?

8.

Graph Tim’s function?

9.

What is the zero of Tim's function? What does it represent in terms of the problem situation?

**10. What is the domain of Tim's function from the previous page?
**

11. Write Tim's function in its intercept form.

TRY THESE B

g (x )=

−3 1

x+

4

2

a.

Find the zero of the function

b.

Estimate the zero of the function graphed below

Functions and models

.

Page 48

V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 49

a.

If the equation of the function in part b above is f (x) = 3x + 7, would you consider your estimate of the zero to have

been a good one? Explain.

Functions and models

Page 49

V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 50

Check your understanding

Write your answers on notebook paper or grid paper. Show your work.

1.

Matt sells used books on the Internet. The cost of the weekly website fee is $7.50, and he earns $1.50 on each

book that he sells. Matt uses the linear equation

y=1.5 x−7.5

to figure his weekly earnings where y

**equals earnings in dollars and x equals the number of books that he sells.
**

a. Graph this function. Set up your axes as shown below.

b. Write the equation in intercept form.

c. What meaning do the x- and y-intercepts have in the context of this problem?

Functions and models

Page 50

V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 51

Assume that each line crosses the x- and y-axes at integer values. Match lines c and d on the graphs with the intercept

form of the equations.

What are the zeros of the linear functions graphed below?

a.

a.

x y

+ =1

−8 4

b.

x y

+ =1

7 3

c.

x y

+ =1

4 −8

d.

x y

+ =1

3 −7

3.

**Given the intercepts (0, 5) and (-4, 0).
**

a.

b.

**Graph the line that contains the points.
**

Write the intercept form of this line.

Functions and models

Page 51

V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 52

4.

The slope-intercept form of a line is

y=

−2

x−6

3

. Write this equation in the intercept form. Give the

zero of this function.

5.

6.

Does the point (2, 210) lie on the line

x y

+

=1

10 300

? Explain your reasoning.

**MATHEMATICAL REFLECTIONS Give two instances when knowing the intercept form of the line would be
**

most beneficial. Justify your answer.

.

Functions and models

Page 52

V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 53

Investigation 4: Equation from data

How fast can you and your classmates pass a textbook from one person to the next until the book has been relayed

through each person in class?

1.

Suppose your entire class lined up in a row. Estimate the length of time you think it would take to pass a book

from the first student in the row to the last. Assume that the book starts on a table and the last person must

place the book on another table at the end of the row.

Estimated time to pass the book:__________________________

2.

As a class, experiment with the actual time it takes to pass the book using small groups of students in your

class. Use the table below to record the times.

Number of Students Passing

the Book

3

6

9

11

13

15

**Time to Pass the Book
**

(nearest tenth of a second)

3.

Based on the data you recorded in the table above, would you revise your estimated time from Item 1?

Explain the reasoning behind your answer.

Functions and models

Page 53

Unit 2 Linear Functions

127

V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 54

4.

Graph the data in your table from Item 2 as a scatter plot on the coordinate grid

5.

Are the data that you collected linear data?

a.

Explain your answer using the scatter plot.

b.

Explain your answer using the table of data

**6.Describe how the time to pass the book changes as the number of students increases.
**

7.Work as a group to predict the number of seconds it will take to pass the book through the whole class.

a.

Place a trend line on the scatter plot in Item 4 in a position that your group feels best models the data.

Then, mark two points on the line.

b.

**In the spaces provided below, enter the coordinates of the two points identified in Part (a).
**

Pont 1: (_____, _____)

c.

Point 2: (_____, _____)

Why does your group think that this line gives the best position for modeling the scatter plot data?

8.

Use the coordinate pairs you recorded in Item 7(b) to write the equation for your trend line (or linear model) of

the scatter plot.

9.

Explain what the variables in the equation of your linear model represent.

**10. What is the meaning of the slope in your linear model?
**

11. Use your equation to predict how long it would take to pass the book through all the students in your class.

Predicted time to pass the book:______________________________

12. Using all of the students in your class, find the actual time it takes to pass the book.

Actual time to pass the book:_____________________________

13.

**How do your estimate from Item 1 and your predicted time from Item
**

11 compare to the actual time that it took to pass the book through the entire class?

Functions and models

Page 54

V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 55

14.

**Suppose that another class took 1 minute and 47 seconds to pass the
**

book through all of the students in the class. Use your linear model to estimate the number of students in the

class.

Functions and models

Page 55

V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 56

CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING

Write your answers on notebook paper or grid paper. Show your work.

The table shows the number of days absent and the grades for several students in Ms. Reynoso's Algebra 1 class. Use

the table for Items 1-8.

Days Absent

Grade (percent)

0

3

6

1

2

2

4

98

88

69

89

90

86

77

1.

Create a scatter plot of the data using days absent as the independent variable.

2.

Are the data linear? Explain using the scatter plot and the table of data.

3.

Based on the data, how do grades change as the number of days absent increases?

4.

Draw a trend line on your scatter plot. Identify two points on the trend line and write an equation for the line

containing those two points.

1.

What is the meaning of the x and y variables in the equation you wrote?

2.

What is the meaning of the slope and the y-intercept of the trend line you drew?

3.

Use your equation to predict the grade of a student absent for 5 days.

4.

**Sixty percent is a passing grade in Ms. Reynoso's class. Use your equation to find how many days a
**

student could be absent and still earn a passing grade.

Functions and models

Page 56

V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 57

5.

6.

Write the equation of a line passing through the given pairs of points.

a.

(-2, 5) and (5, 6)

b.

(0, 6) and (-4, —8)

**MATHEMATICAL REFLECTIONS: What would be the sign of the slope of a trend line on a scatter plot
**

that compares the sale prices of cars to ages of cars? Why do you think so?

Functions and models

Page 57

V a r i a b l e s a n d f u n c t i o n s | 58

PERFORMANCE TASK

Jim was serving as a finish-line judge for the Striders 10K Run. He was interested in finding out how three of his

friends were doing out on the course. He was able to learn the following information from racing officials at different

locations along the course.

"Matuba is running at a strong, steady rate of 320 m every minute after running the first 1400 m in a time of 5

minutes."

"Rodriguez ran the first 2000 m in 6 minutes, before he settled into his steady pace passing the 4400 m mark at

14 minutes"

"According to his calculations, Donovan feels he can equal his best running time of 32 minutes for 10,000 m

over this course."

Answer Items 1-3 below based on the information Jim received about his three running friends. Use x as the number

of minutes since the race began and y as the number of meters completed.

1.

Create three linear models for each runner's progress toward the finish line.

2.

Explain the order in which the three runners will finish the race based on the models you formed using this

information.

3.

Using the models you formed, in what order would the runners have passed the 5K mark in the race?

For the linear models you created, find the following numeric answers. Explain the significance, if any, for each answer

in the context of the problem situation.

4.

5.

6.

**the domain of the linear model for Donovan
**

the y-intercept for Matuba's linear model

the slope of the linear model for Rodriguez

Functions and models

Page 58

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