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World Oceans Day 2015 Abstracts

Preface

i

Message from the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Chittagong

ii

Professor Dr Iftekhar Uddin Chowdhury

Current Ocean Education and Research and Priorities for Bangladesh

1

Sayedur Rahman Chowdhury

Governance of the ‘High Seas’: Rights Based and Equitable Implementation of UNCLOS
for Bangladesh

2

Md Shamsuddoha, Muhammed Forruq Rahman

Analyzing Legal Framework for Sustainable Management of Coastal and Marine Fisheries
Resources of Bangladesh

3

Mohammad Mahmudul Islam, Soumitra Chandra Dutta, Md. Mostafa Shamsuzzaman

Blue Carbon Stock in the Marine and Coastal Ecosystems of Bangladesh

4

M. Shahadat Hossain, SM Sharifuzzaman

Blue Economy - Bangladesh Perspectives

5

Captain Masuq Hasan Ahmed

Blue Economy – An Overview

6

Commander Mohammad Abul Hasan

Role of NORI in the exploration and exploitation of marine resources of Bangladesh

7

ASM Sharif, MS Parvez, MT Islam, M Zakaria, F Islam

Marine Protected Areas in Bangladesh: Status, Implementation and Legal Regimes

8

M. Enamul Hoq

Mother Shrimp for Hatchery: Present Situation and Future Needs

9

Sheikh Aftabuddin, Md. Monwar Parvez, Zerin Sultana

Geomorphological Dynamics and Hazards Analysis of an Offshore Island in Bangladesh

10

Mohammad Muslem Uddin, Paolo Ciavola

The Helgoland Roads Time Series Station: Long-term Unbroken Coastal Ocean Monitoring Program

11

Subrata Sarker, Karen Helen Wiltshire

Oysters Dynamics: From Individual to Population Modelling

12

M. Shah Nawaz Chowdhury, Aad Smaal, Tom Ysebaert, M. Shahadat Hossain

Sediment Distribution Patterns Along Chittagong Coast of the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh

13

Avijit Talukder, Debbrota Mallick, Milon Kumar Sheuli, Samindranath Mondal, Shubha Sarker

Hormone Induced Spawning of Commercially Important Striped Mullet (Mugil cephalus)
in Bangladesh

14

Ehsanul Karim, M. Enamul Hoq

Assessment of Shrimp Stocks by Using Industrial Shrimp Trawl Catch Log

15

Suman Barua, Nasiruddin Md. Humayun, Md. Iqbal Haroon

Mud crab (Scylla serrata) Marketing and Value Chain Analysis in Chittagong City

15

Md. Jaker Hossain

Extraction of Antioxidant from Shrimp Waste
Selina Sultana

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Preface
The World Oceans Day is observed annually
worldwide to honor the world's oceans, and to
celebrate the goods and services it provides to
humankind. The day was first proposed in 1992
by Canada, since then it is being unofficially
observed in many countries. Finally in 2008, the
General Assembly of the United Nations made the
day's proclamation official and decided that June
8 will be the World Oceans Day every year.
Institute of Marine Sciences and Fisheries
(IMSF) observed the day in several past years

including the first official celebration in 2014. This
year the day's celebration at IMSF is marked by
World Oceans Day Seminar. This publication is a
compilation of the abstracts received for the
seminar.
Nearly all Bangladeshi institutions and
organizations having genuine interests, expertise
and contributions to the maritime affairs and
ocean sciences and few overseas institutions
have contributed to this abstract volume. IMSF
expresses its gratitude to all contributors.

List of institutions of the contributors:
Institute of Marine Sciences and Fisheries, University of Chittagong
Center for Participatory Research and Development-CPRD, Dhaka
Department of Coastal and Marine Fisheries, Sylhet Agricultural University
Marine Fisheries Academy, Chittagong
Bangladesh Navy
National Oceanographic Research Institute (NORI)
Department of Marine Bio-resources Science, Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
Marine Fisheries and Technology Station, Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute, Cox’s Bazar
Marine Fisheries Office, Directorate of Fisheries, Agrabad, Chittagong
IMARES Wageningen, Institute of Marine Resources and Ecosystem Studies, The Netherlands
Aquaculture and Fisheries Group, Wageningen University and Research Center, The Netherlands
Spatial Ecology Department, Royal Netherlands Institute of Sea Research, The Netherlands
Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Germany
Published by:
Institute of Marine Sciences and Fisheries, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331, Bangladesh.
Email: director.imsf@cu.ac.bd, Website: http://imsfcu.ac.bd, Phone: +880 31 710347
Please cite as:
World Oceans Day 2015 Abstracts, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh. 16pp. 2015.

World Oceans Day 2015 Abstracts,
University of Chittagong, Bangladesh.

i

Message of the Vice-Chancellor

Professor Dr Iftekhar Uddin Chowdhury, LLB MA PhD
Vice Chancellor, University of Chittagong

The ocean, which covers over 70% of the
planet, is a key component of the climate system,
a major means of trade, transportation and
communication, and provides humans with
enormous economic and ecological services. The
indirect (uptake of CO2, production of O2) and
direct benefits (fisheries, oil, gas, minerals,
tourism) derived from a healthy ocean is essential
for the maintenance of social and economic
well-being of the society and national prosperity of
Bangladesh. Realizing the importance of ocean in
our everyday lives, the University of Chittagong
has started education and research in marine
science in 1971. However, the recent settlements
of maritime border disputes with neighboring
states have opened up opportunities for
ocean-based economic growth and development,
i.e. the blue growth, in Bangladesh. Using smart
solutions
and
innovations, the
blue
growth/economy concept fosters the idea of
exploring untapped potentials of oceanic
resources for increasing food security, improving

nutrition and health, alleviating poverty, creating
jobs, lifting trade and industrial profiles while
protecting ecosystem health and biodiversity, and
improving regional security and peace.
To this end, the Institute of Marine
Sciences and Fisheries (IMSF) at University of
Chittagong is the only-of-its-kind academic
institution for oceanographic, marine biological,
fisheries and mariculture research in Bangladesh.
Over the past few decades, IMSF have contributed
knowledge in a variety of fields such as ecology,
planktology, fisheries, aquaculture, oceanography,
environmental pollution, microbiology, biodiversity
conservation, coastal and ocean management,
and climate change of the northern Bay of Bengal
and adjacent riverine ecosystems.
Unfortunately, our oceans are threatened in
many ways; therefore, in order to understand
possible impacts on the ocean ecosystem it is
necessary to develop the capacity of academic
staffs and research facilities of IMSF. No doubt
that the future of our oceans depends on

ii

knowledge. The initiative taken by the Government
of Bangladesh, donor agencies and development
partners to support institutions involved in
oceanographic research is highly encouraging.
Moreover, it is important to promote active
interaction and collaboration among like-minded
academic and research organizations to achieve
greater benefits. Therefore, IMSF is very much
keen to work together with other institutions
toward achieving common science goals of the
Bay of Bengal. In particular, IMSF would greatly
benefit by building capacity in ocean monitoring
and forecasting, hydrographic surveys, ocean data

management and in general, in the science of
oceanography. Understanding the drivers,
processes and resultant variability of ocean is of
special
significance
for
formulating
ecosystem/fisheries management strategies and
safe navigation of fishermen, and for sustainable
blue growth activities in Bangladesh. “The more
ocean uses are accounted for, the more society
will benefit”.
I wish all the success to the Institute of
Marine Sciences and Fisheries in the days to
come.

iii

Current Ocean Education and Research and priorities for Bangladesh
Sayedur Rahman Chowdhury
Institute of Marine Sciences and Fisheries, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331
Email: sayedurrchowdhury@cu.ac.bd, sayedurrchowdhury@gmail.com

Bangladesh, Being a coastal state, had
received much attention from governments and
international community with regard to the
importance of ocean education and research even
before becoming a sovereign state. The first
ocean science education program was started in
1970 at the University of Chittagong through
Canadian assistance by opening the Department
of Marine Biology and Oceanography. Since then
this institution is regarded as the leading centre of
ocean science education and research in the
country. Through phased evolution it has
expanded its academic and research agenda and
assumed the current name - Institute of Marine
Sciences and Fisheries (IMSF). Currently three
degree programs at Bachelors level, six
specialized Masters degree programs, and MPhil
& PhD research degrees make it the largest
academic department among Bangladeshi
universities and virtually the uncontested leader in
ocean education in the country. In four decades of
active education and research, IMSF has
presented to the nation more than a thousand
skilled graduates who have scored positively in
research & entrepreneurships, and in turn in
nation-building. The first freshwater prawn (golda)
hatchery, first marine shrimp (bagda) hatchery,
first semi-intensive coastal shrimp farming, first
commercial sea-weed cultivation, crab-fattening all came through the untiring and innovative
research endeavors of IMSF's research staff and

World Oceans Day 2015 Abstracts,
University of Chittagong, Bangladesh.

graduates, with or without collaboration from
partner institutions and individuals. Once those
commercial priorities were met, IMSF has
gradually shifted its academic and research
priorities to other areas of ocean science in line
with national priorities and its own rejuvenation of
strength. IMSF has set its goal to produce another
thousand graduates in many areas of ocean
sciences by 2025.
Every coastal state has its own ocean
science priorities depending on geography,
maritime conditions and socio-economic
objectives. Based on decades of experience IMSF
has identified and set its focus on several
previously understudied aspects of coastal and
ocean sciences, namely, (a) oceanic weather,
climate, and monsoon and socio-economic
implications, (b) tropical cyclone and tsunami
science and preparedness, (c) fisheries
oceanography and fisheries modeling, (d) coastal
geomorphology and erosion-accretion study, (e)
climate change, sea-level rise and societal
implications, (f) operational oceanography,
hydrography and ocean monitoring, etc. in
addition to its regular education and research
agenda. It remains critical for Bangladesh to
acquire clear scientific understanding on all
relevant aspects of the Bay of Bengal in order to
fulfill its objectives of using, managing and
sustaining marine resources for the wellbeing of
the nation.

1

Governance of the ‘High Seas’: Rights Based and Equitable Implementation of
UNCLOS for Bangladesh
Md. Shamsuddoha, Muhammed Forruq Rahman
Center for Participatory Research and Development-CPRD, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Email: m.shamsuddoha@hotmail.com

The ‘High Seas’ are composed of about 60
percent of the ocean and deep seabed beyond
States’ national jurisdiction. This area is open to
all States, therefore, tends to suffer from depletion
of natural resources at a much faster rate
together with growing number of illicit activities.
While the national jurisdiction of seas, extending
to 200 nautical miles from the mean sea level, is
governed by State policies and laws, the ‘High
Seas’ is governed by an international Convention
called ‘UN Convention on the Law of the Sea
(UNCLOS)’ that came into force in 1994. To date,
166 countries and the European Union have
joined in the Convention. UNCLOS sets legal order
on the governance of the ‘High Seas’ to make
them equitably accessible by all States whether
coastal or land-locked. While the governance in
utilization of common resources of the ‘High Seas’
is a key concern, the Convention also includes
military activities, territorial disputes, shipping,
deep-sea mining and fishing with peaceful uses of
the seas and oceans to prevent any illicit activities
in these areas. In relation to prevent illicit
activities, Article 88 and Article 89 of the
Convention provide full rights to every States to
sail ships flying its flag on the ‘High Seas’ but they
cannot be involved in illicit activities like high sea
piracy and transportation of slaves. Article 99 of
the Convention prohibited transportation slaves
and requires every State to take effective
measures to prevent and punish the transport of
World Oceans Day 2015 Abstracts,
University of Chittagong, Bangladesh.

slaves in ships authorized to fly its flag and to
prevent the unlawful use of its flag for that
purpose. However, any slave taking refuge on
board any ship, whatever its flag, shall ipso facto
be free. The recent evidence of horrific conditions
of transportation of ‘illegal migrants’ form
Bangladesh and ‘inhuman violence on the
migrants’ onboard demands rights based and
equitable implementation of UNCLOS. Article 100
requires all States to cooperate to the fullest
possible extent in the repression of piracy on the
‘High Seas’ or in any other place outside the
jurisdiction of any State. The act of piracy not only
looting of assets and properties of other ships
rather consists of any illegal acts of violence or
detention, or any act of depredation against
another ship or aircraft, or against persons or
property on board and in a place outside the
jurisdiction of any State. Consequently, within the
scope of UNCLOS, Bangladesh and its
neighboring coastal countries can undertake
regional initiative to stop transportation of ‘illegal
migrants’ and other illicit activities in the ‘High
Seas’. In this regard, the recent experience of the
Bay of Bengal Large Marine Ecosystem (BOBLME)
project involving Bangladesh, India, Indonesia,
Malaysia, Maldives, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and
Thailand for improving regional management of
the Bay of Bengal environment and its fisheries
would be useful in order to establish governance
of the ‘High Seas’ at regional level.
2

Analyzing the Legal Framework for Sustainable Management of Coastal and Marine
Fisheries Resources of Bangladesh
Mohammad Mahmudul Islam, Soumitra Chandra Dutta, Md. Mostafa Shamsuzzaman
Department of Coastal and Marine Fisheries, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet 3100, Bangladesh
Email: mahmud.cmf@sau.ac.bd

This study analyzes the legal framework
that rules the coastal and marine fisheries
resources utilization and conservation in
Bangladesh, and illustrates the problems of
implementation and enforcement of the laws with
measures to improve compliance levels and
governance. Data were collected through
qualitative fieldwork following individual interview,
key informant interview, informal interview, focus
group discussion and stakeholder analysis,
conducted among three fishing communities of
Barisal and Bhola districts, and also from
secondary literature sources. There are four
components in the analyzed laws such as
prohibitions, prescriptions, penalties and
responsibilities, and majority of the laws are found
complete in terms of prohibitions, prescriptions
and penalties. But, these laws are not properly
applied by the governance system because of
rampant noncompliance. In this regard, corruption

World Oceans Day 2015 Abstracts,
University of Chittagong, Bangladesh.

in local government and law enforcing authorities,
lack of logistic support, insufficient incentive, laxity
in enforcing the conservation rules, limited
livelihood opportunities, political interference, and
lack of fishers awareness concerning the fishing
laws are identified as major limitations. Necessary
measures for improving compliance of the laws
and governance of fisheries resources include
elimination of corruption, removal of administrative
weakness, practice of good governance, updating
and modernizing the rules and policies, reducing
the communication gaps among administrative
units, providing sufficient incentives to all
stakeholders, and raising awareness among
fishers about the benefits of obeying laws and
regulations. Thus, the findings of present study
propose an update to the policy and legal
framework governing the utilization and
conservation of coastal and marine fisheries
resources in Bangladesh.

3

Blue Carbon Stock in the Marine and Coastal Ecosystems of Bangladesh
M. Shahadat Hossain, S.M. Sharifuzzaman
Institute of Marine Sciences and Fisheries, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331, Bangladesh
Email: hossainms@yahoo.com

Marine and coastal ecosystems, such as
mangroves, saltmarshes and seagrasses are
acting as storage house of large amounts of
carbon, often referred to as blue carbon (BC),
typically found in their underlying sediments, living
biomass aboveground (leaves, stems, branches)
and belowground (roots), and within non-living
biomass (litter and dead wood). For example,
about 95-99% of total carbon stocks of saltmarsh
and seagrass ecosystems are stored in the soils
beneath them, while in mangrove systems,
50-90% of the total carbon stock occurs in the soil
and the rest is in living biomass. BC is sequestered over the short term (decennial) in biomass
and over longer time scales (millennial) in
sediments. If left undisturbed, BC repositories are
generally secure for millennia. Bangladesh is
blessed with diverse coastal habitats and the exact
amount of carbon stored therein is still an active
area of research. There are 441,455 ha of

mangrove ecosystems along the coastal belt and
tidal flats, whereas 111,585 ha saltmarshes are
distributed in the islands and accreted coastal
lands. Though seagrass ecosystem is not available
but tide influenced estuarine ecosystem (660,048
ha) and shallow coastal waters of <5 m depth
zone (886,523 ha) are considered suitable as
seagrass habitats. Thus, marine and coastal
ecosystems of Bangladesh could potentially
support yearly sequestration of 19,089,604 tones
BC (Table 1). The science on BC storage, drivers of
conversion and post-disturbance emission rates
are at a nascent stage in many countries including
Bangladesh. Thus, integrated efforts are necessary
for the protection and restoration of BC habitats
(e.g. mangroves, saltmarshes and seagrasses) to
trap atmospheric CO2 and at the same time to
establish resilient coastal ecosystems for sustainable livelihoods.

Table 1. Potential habitats for trapping and storing ‘blue carbon’ in the coastal and marine environment of
Bangladesh

Habitat type

Area (ha)

CO2e/ha/yr
(Tons)

Annual total
(Tons)

Mangroves
Saltmarshes
Seagrasses
River-estuary
Shallow coastal water (<5m)
Total

441,455
111,585

4.73
10.16

2,088,082
1,133,704

660,048
886,523
2,099,611

10.26
10.26

6,772,092
9,095,726
19,089,604

World Oceans Day 2015 Abstracts,
University of Chittagong, Bangladesh.

4

The Blue Economy: Bangladesh Perspectives
Captain Masuq Hasan Ahmed
Principal, Marine Fisheries Academy, Chittagong, Bangladesh
E-mail: masuq590@gmail.com

Bangladesh is a maritime country having
710 km long coast line along the Bay of Bengal of
the Indian Ocean, covering about 1,18,813 km2
exclusive economic zone (EEZ) that remained at
the forefront and highly potential area for growing
‘blue economy’ activities. Food security is closely
related to the sustainable use of biological
resources through discovery and utilization of
marine fisheries resources in Bangladesh. As
mankind moves into the 21st century, integrated
policies of ocean governance are necessary for
sustainable development and use of our sea areas
and its resources as well as for protection of the
marine environment. Towards this end, the Marine
Fisheries Academy at Chittagong is the only
nationalized professional training and research
institute, where the motto of the institution is
oriented with training and research on the
exploration and exploitation of marine resources,
oceanographic and environmental aspects within
the EEZ. Some public universities and particularly,
the Institute of Marine Sciences and Fisheries,
University of Chittagong is also contributing
significantly through research and innovation in
our maritime domain. However, vast areas of the
continental shelf are assumed to be suitable for
practicing mariculture, which at present is absent
but time is knocking at the door to consider

World Oceans Day 2015 Abstracts,
University of Chittagong, Bangladesh.

mariculture as top priority training field by the
academy in the near future. Moreover, within the
platform of blue economy, some other ocean
activities like marine fishery, offshore oil and gas
industry, shipbuilding industry, marine engineering
and construction industry including tourism may
play key roles in the economy of Bangladesh.
The ‘blue economy’ is a new concept to
utilize marine environment and its resources in a
sustainable manner. The concept embodied with
broad aspects of policy for sea uses including
common heritage of high seas for better use of
sea areas for mankind and sustainable
development of EEZ. The Marine Fisheries
Academy under the auspices of Ministry of
Fisheries and Livestock, is contributing for the
development and growth of ‘blue economy’ in
Bangladesh. Therefore, the present paper deals
with the state of marine living resources, and
discusses the inherent problems and prospects of
resource management for the future generation
with emphasis on marine capture fisheries,
aquaculture/mariculture, marine aquatic products,
blue biotechnology, agriculture in saline soils, and
mangrove ecosystems as carbon sinks. The paper
also provides some policy recommendations for
future actions to be taken by various organization
and institutions of Bangladesh.

5

The Blue Economy: An Overview
Commander Mohammad Abul Hasan
BNS SHAIBAL, Bangladesh Navy, Chittagong, Bangladesh
Email: abujafar72@gmail.com

The oceans, mankind's common heritage,
represent in many ways the final frontier for
humanity providing a myriad of opportunities
ranging from food, livelihood, climate preservation
or even storm protection for coastal populations.
However, in spite of all these countless benefits,
human development activities, have gravely
strained the resilience of the marine and coastal
resource base. Since the well-being of ocean and
well-being of humanity are entwined, the
opportunities offered by the oceans have to be
utilized in a sustainable manner in order to
improve human well-being while ensuring social
equity/inclusion. The blue economy (BE) concept
broadly espouses this very objective, but grounded
in a developing world context primarily focusing on
the countries whose future resource base is
marine. The BE is an essential tool for Small Island
Developing States (SIDS) and coastal countries to
address their sustainable development challenges.
Fundamental to the BE approach is the principle of
equity, and through widespread adherence to this
principle at international and national levels would
allow the developing countries to realise greater
revenue from their resources and reinvest the
same in their populace, environmental
management, reduce national debt levels and
contribute to the eradication of poverty and
hunger. Besides, the BE approach also endorses
the productivity of healthy ocean ecosystems as a
pathway for ocean-based economies. However,
there are certain issues that imposes challenges to
World Oceans Day 2015 Abstracts,
University of Chittagong, Bangladesh.

the BE concept include sustainable use of
biodiversity, food security, climate change,
pollution and marine debris, increase in marine
and coastal tourism, governance and international
cooperation, etc.
In addressing few of the challenges
mentioned in the preceding paragraph, the SIDS
and coastal states would require to have naval
capability. The challenges that come under the
purview of navy are protection of seaborne trades
and offshore resources, pollution control,
enforcement of legislation relevant to sustainable
development and environmental protection,
maintenance of good order at sea to promote
seaborne activities connected to BE (e.g. fisheries,
tourism, etc.), maritime domain awareness (MDA),
etc. In order to perform these roles/tasks
effectively and efficiently, the navies first need to
identify their needs in terms of both capability as
well as capacity. Then those capabilities/capacities
are to be achieved through force structuring.
However, in this regard, coordination with all
relevant stakeholders would be necessary for
accurate need-assessment, as well as resources
and expertise sharing. However, considering the
vastness and connectedness of the oceans, MDA
capability cannot be attained by any nation
singularly. Same is the case with enforcement of
regulations. Hence, cooperation between the
navies, both on regional and extra-regional levels,
is a must.

6

Role of National Oceanographic Research Institute in the Exploration and Exploitation
of Marine Resources of Bangladesh
ASM Sharif, MS Parvez, MT Islam, M Zakaria, F Islam
National Oceanographic Research Institute (NORI), Ramu, Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh.
Email: sharifimscu@yahoo.com

National Oceanographic Research Institute
(NORI) located in Ramu, Cox's Bazar is soon to
open fresh window with great expectation to
explore and exploit marine and coastal resources
of Bangladesh for national interest. The institute is
still under development and will soon become a
functional ocean research institute. Bangladesh is
given entitlement on 118,813 sq. km of sea area
in the Bay of Bengal which stands at 121,110 sq.
including major river inlets and estuaries after the
final settlement of maritime border disputes with
her neighboring states in 2012 and 2014
respectively. Marine resources play significant
roles in many of world’s developed economies.
Though there is enormous amount of marine
resources but utilization of these largely untapped
treasures are still in the primary stage which can
be a strong economic driver of Bangladesh if
properly studied and managed. Systematic studies
done by different institutes and organizations are
lying scattered and need to be organized in line
with specific science and development objectives.
Besides doing original research NORI, as the

World Oceans Day 2015 Abstracts,
University of Chittagong, Bangladesh.

national ocean research institute, is entrusted with
the responsibility of integrating all those
fragmentary works. This institute is established to
provide multidisciplinary research on marine and
coastal resources to unveil the potentials for the
blue growth (blue economy) while ensuring
ecosystem health and sustainability. The main
objectives of NORI are to study the physical and
dynamic processes of the sea; the chemical
properties of the sea water and sediments; assess
the living resources and their distribution and to
generate food through mariculture techniques; the
geological and geophysical aspects of the seabed;
collect, process, disseminate and exchange
oceanographic data and information as a national
body; extend co-operation to all organization and
institutes involved in the study of marine science;
foster national and international co-operation in
various fields of oceanography. The institute will
also have a strong focus on innovation and
application of research findings to serve the nation
toward economic security and sustainability.

7

Marine Protected Areas in Bangladesh: Status, Implementation and Legal Regimes
M. Enamul Hoq
Marine Fisheries and Technology Station, Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute, Cox’s Bazar 4700, Bangladesh
Email: hoq_me@yahoo.com

After signing the 1982 United Nations
Convention on the Law of the Sea, Bangladesh
sought new ways to responsibly manage and
conserve its marine resources. It took the first
steps towards this goal by introducing the Marine
Fisheries Ordinance in 1983, which outlined rules
that continue to provide the main legal framework
for controlling activities, conservation and
development in the marine zone. Among other
things, the Ordinance allows for the establishment
of protected areas (PAs) in any part of the
country’s exclusive economic zone (EEZ).
Bangladesh owns nineteen nationally designated
protected areas comprising approximately 2,458
km2, which is 1.66 percent of land area of the
country. Moreover, UNESCO designated three
wildlife sanctuaries at the Sundarbans as ‘World
Heritage Site’. Additionally, the sanctuaries in
Sundarbans are recognized as hotspot for globally
endangered Ganges River dolphin (Platanista
gangetica gangetica) and Irrawaddy dolphin
(Orcaella brevirostris). Subsequently, Bangladesh
has declared country’s first marine protected area
(MPA) in the ‘Swatch of no ground’ of the Bay of
Bengal to preserve the breeding places and
habitats of flora and fauna and to protect
communities and ecosystems. Moreover, the aim
is to maintain natural processes as well as to

World Oceans Day 2015 Abstracts,
University of Chittagong, Bangladesh.

provide facilities for research, education and
recreation. Under the FAO-BOBLME (Bay of
Bengal Large Marine Ecosystem) project a
framework for establishment and management of
MPAs in Bangladesh was initiated by IUCN in
2012. Furthermore, in 2015, the Department of
Fisheries (DoF) has declared 65 days (May 20 to
July 23) ban period for trawl fishing and
shrimping in the Bay of Bengal. In this connection,
Bangladesh has set a target of bringing 5% of the
country under PA by 2015, and planning to
conserve 17% of its terrestrial and inland water
and 10% of coastal and marine areas by 2020
under PA network of Aichi target. Necessary
policies are being framed to regulate different
activities inimical to conservation of biodiversity in
the present PAs and ecologically critical areas
(ECAs). The primary government agencies
concerned with the declaration and management
of MPAs are the Ministry of Fisheries and
Livestock (MoFL) in coordination with the
Department of Environment (DoE) under the
Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF). Other
agencies with a peripheral role in the
management of MPAs include the Bangladesh
Navy and Bangladesh Coast Guard, which are also
charged with enforcing regulations governing the
marine resources more generally.

8

Mother Shrimp for Hatchery: Present Situation and Future Needs
Sheikh Aftabuddin, Md. Monwar Parvez, Zerin Sultana
Institute of Marine Sciences and Fisheries, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331, Bangladesh
Email: aftabims@yahoo.com

Tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) hatcheries
in Bangladesh are solely dependent on wild
broods from the Bay of Bengal. The annual
demand of shrimp postlarvae (PL) is about 8
billion, whereas a total of 57 hatcheries are
producing just 6-7 billion PL, although the
hatcheries are able to produce 15 billion PL. This
study explores various aspects of mother shrimp
used as bloodstock in shrimp hatcheries of
Bangladesh. Thus, data on the supply and demand
of brood shrimp, their harvesting techniques and
transportation processes, and unit cost were
collected from selected hatcheries and trawlers
following participatory tools and field observations,
between September 2012 and June 2013.
Hatchery owners and technicians, trawler skippers
and crews, fisheries officers, aquaculture experts,
and intermediaries/agents were included in the
survey, focus group discussions (FGD) and key
informant interviews (KII) to ensure that
participants could make meaningful comparisons
between the past and present with potential future
trends. The results of this study revealed that 40
trawlers are engaged in shrimp trawling of which
21 trawlers exclusively caught mother shrimps
and supply these broodstock to the hatcheries.
The skippers and crews of trawler confirmed that
shrimp broods are commonly caught from shallow
water depths (30-40m) and also from deeper
depths (80-100m) of the northern Bay of Bengal,

World Oceans Day 2015 Abstracts,
University of Chittagong, Bangladesh.

with average trawling time of 1.5 to 2 hours.
Interestingly, broods of deep water habitat are
larger (±130g) than the broods (±80g) occurring
in the shallow zone. The Kohinoor point, Elephant
point and down of the Saint Martin’s Island are
amongst the most suitable zones for catching
shrimp brood. The trawlers undertake 2-3 days
voyage and catch 100-150 broods in each trip
during January-March followed by as few as
10-20 broods per trip in the months of
July-September. The highest 27,387 broods were
caught in January 2013 and the lowest 1,182
were harvested in September 2012 by the
trawlers. The unit price of shrimp brood varies
considerably from month to month, and is
determined by the interaction of factors that
influence demand for and supply of broodstock.
The average cost of a mother shrimp was US$ 40
during January-March that rose to US$ 75 during
June-July. The present study observed that
January-April was the peak season and
May-September as the dip season for shrimp
brood catching, although the greatest demand for
brood spanned from May-July. The incidence of
diseases in broods by pathogenic microbes (e.g.
WSSV) has serious implications for the
sustainability of the shrimp industry in
Bangladesh. Thus, developing disease resistant
stocks of shrimp brood may be the viable solution
to this problem.

9

Geomorphological Dynamics and Natural Hazards in an Offshore Island of
Bangladesh
Mohammad Muslem Uddin1, Paolo Ciavola2
1

Institute of Marine Sciences and Fisheries, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331, Bangladesh
Department of Physice and Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, Italy
Email: mmu_ims76@yahoo.com
2

The coastal zone of Bangladesh is sensitive
for geomorphodynamic changes due to extreme
hydrometeorological events like flood, cyclone and
erosion. In addition, climate change-induced
vulnerability like sea-level rise is expected to
exacerbate such problem. In order to proper
interpretation of the hazard mechanisms, and to
set up a time demanding management and
precautionary system for reducing the
vulnerability, an attempt was made to understand
the
geomorphological
evolution,
hydrometeorological setting, and socioeconomic
and ecological aspects of an offshore island of
Bangladesh. The study area, i.e. the Sandwip
Island, is located at the confluence of the Meghna
river estuary of the Bay of Bengal that
continuously being shaped and sized by the
hydrometeorological and geomorphological
actions. This constitutes the only international
case study site outside of Europe in the
framework of Risc-KIT FP7 European project
(http://www.risckit.eu/) involved in developing
tools and methods for reducing risk and
increasing resilience in coastal areas. The results
suggest that the Sandwip Island is physically more
prone to coastal erosion, and the situation will
become even worse due to increased frequency
of storm surges and future sea-level rise. Erosion

World Oceans Day 2015 Abstracts,
University of Chittagong, Bangladesh.

rate along the shoreline of the island is much
more intense and exceeds the accretion rates of
silty clay sediments. Moreover, the mean sea-level
rise trend data provide an alarming picture
compared to other nearby coastal areas of
Bangladesh. The Digital Elevation Model (DEM)
showed that the island is almost flat and generally
less than 5 m above the mean sea level, except
for the north-western part. Furthermore, the
physical assets owned by the community have
been declining and thus putting stress on the
socioeconomic conditions of society as revealed
from social survey as well as land use mapping. A
relatively high earthen embankment around the
island together with a cross-dam connecting the
north side to mainland are to be mandatorily
maintained in order to protect the community
from erosion as well as against relative sea-level
rise and storm surge inundation. Besides, a site
specific hydrometeorological warning system and
effective communication (in easily understandable
format) of an imminent danger event to the
communities should be developed. The capacity of
transportation system (infrastructures and modes),
health and required logistic services are also to be
enhanced to prepare for and manage natural
hazards and climate-related events.

10

The Helgoland Roads Time Series Station: A Long-term Unbroken Coastal Ocean
Monitoring Program
Subrata Sarker, Karen Helen Wiltshire
Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Germany
E-mail: subrata.sarker@awi.de; Karen.wiltshire@awi.de

The Helgoland Roads Time Series station is one
of the largest and unbroken time series station in
the history owned by the Biologische Anstalt
Helgoland (BAH) of the Alfred Wegener Institute,
Germany. This time series station has been
collecting biological, chemical and physical
parameters continuously on a daily basis (i.e.
working days) since 1962. Water temperature (°C)
and Secchi depth (m) are measured in situ from
the sampling site. Secchi depth is measured as
the representation of light penetration by lowering
the disc vertically into the water until it is no
longer visible. Inorganic nutrients (such as
phosphate, silicate, ammonium, nitrate and nitrite
in µmol l–1) are measured, using colorimetric
methods described by Grasshoff (1976),
immediately on a filtered sub-sample obtained
from the surface water collected daily. The
phytoplankton samples taken from stations are

World Oceans Day 2015 Abstracts,
University of Chittagong, Bangladesh.

preserved with Lugols’ solution following the
Utermöhl method and whenever possible
identification is carried out to the species level in
order to illustrate long-term changes in relative
abundance and seasonality of different species.
Records on zooplankton species, which has been
collected and analyzed regularly since 1975, are
serving as an invaluable resource for
investigations of zooplankton diversity, trophic
interactions and the phenology. This long-term
data series have been reviewed and quality
controlled by Wiltshire and Dürselen (2004) and
Raabe and Wiltshire (2008), and now sufficiently
understood with problems, errors and corrections
to assess long-term changes in the North Sea
pelagic ecosystem. All data of this time series
station
are
achieved
at
Pangaea
(http://pangaea.de/).

11

Oyster Dynamics: From Individual to Population Modelling
M. Shah Nawaz Chowdhury1,2,3, Aad Smaal1,2, Tom Ysebaert1,4, M. Shahadat Hossain3
1

IMARES Wageningen, Institute of Marine Resources and Ecosystem Studies, Yerseke, The Netherlands
Aquaculture and Fisheries Group, WIAS, Wageningen University and Research Center, Wageningen, The Netherlands
3
Institute of Marine Sciences and Fisheries, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh
4
Spatial Ecology Department, NIOZ Yerseke, Royal Netherlands Institute of Sea Research, Yerseke, The Netherlands
2

Reef forming oysters are increasingly
recognized worldwide as ecosystem engineers for
coastal protection in the face of sea level rise. Is it
possible to make such reef for protecting the
coastal habitats in Bangladesh? Knowledge on
oyster dynamics can aid to find the answer. The
Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model has been
adapted to describe the growth, energy dynamics
and reproduction of oyster (Crassostrea
madrasensis, Preston 1916) as a function of
environmental conditions in the southeast coast of
Bangladesh. The values of the model parameters
were estimated from the available physiological
data and from published information. The erosion
prone Kutubdia Island has been chosen as
reference point for this study. Seasonal water
temperature variation (21.6-30.9 C) and natural
food availability (4.9-12.6 µg Chal-a l–1) were
considered as forcing variables for the growth of
oysters in that region. The simulation result of
DEB model indicates that C. madrasensis can

World Oceans Day 2015 Abstracts,
University of Chittagong, Bangladesh.

grow 21 cm (maximum) in length. This model
outputs were translated to oyster population
modelling by adopting a new tool, the Dynamic
Oyster Reef Growth (DORG) model. Different data
sets viz., survival rate of oyster, number of
recruitments, live oyster biomass, shell budget,
and dimensions of reef substrate were considered
as model parameters to predict the future reef
growth. Model results showed that the reef can
grow at an average rate of 2 cm yr–1 to upward or
horizontal directions. Moreover, 18 kg m–2 of
oyster biomass can grow in prevailing
hydrodynamic conditions even at low survivals
(the instantaneous natural mortality coefficient, Z
= 1.01). Both the DEB and DORG models
simulated results suggest a promising growth of
oyster reefs that even faster than sea-level rise at
Kutubdia Island. This opportunity can be utilized
for enhancing climate proof coastal defence as
well as aquatic food production in the nearshore
coastline of Bangladesh.

12

Sediment Distribution Pattern along the Coast of Chittagong, Bangladesh
Avijit Talukder1, Debbrota Mallick2, Milon Kumar Sheuli2, Samindranath Mondal2, Shubha Sarker2
1

Department of Marine Bio-resources Science, Faculty of Fisheries, Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University,
Chittagong 4225, Bangladesh
2
Institute of Marine Sciences and Fisheries, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331, Bangladesh
Email: talukder.cu_bd@yahoo.com

Particle size characteristics are significant
indicator of deposits distribution pattern that
regulate local geomorphology and other
associated features of the coast. Present study on
sediment distribution patterns which have pivoted
the span of grain size variability for better
understanding the deposition processes and
distribution pattern particularly in tidal areas.
Sampling sites were selected at four freshwater
locations, namely Madunaghat, Kalurghat,
Chaktai, Saderghat; and four saline water
locations, namely 15 Number Ghat, Patenga,
Khejurthali and Salimpur coast. Two sites selected
from each location as highest high tide level
(onshore) and lowest low tide level (offshore) of
the intertidal zone during winter and monsoon of
2013 and 2014. Sediment samples were
collected using the hand corer. Combination of
sieve-pipette method used to determine the
particle size of deposits. Sand particles of
medium, fine and very fine; silt deposits of coarse,
medium, very fine and medium clay percentage
observed from stock’s sedimentation processes.
Distribution pattern of these fine and very fine
grain deposits varies from landward to seaward
sites. Ternary plot and ANOVA test resemble
significant seasonal variation in sand, silt and clay

World Oceans Day 2015 Abstracts,
University of Chittagong, Bangladesh.

which were reflected as 8.8%, 83.96%, 7.24% in
monsoon whereas in winter 9.07%, 79.18% and
11.75% observed respectively at freshwater sites.
In contrast, sand, silt and clay varied as 31.27%,
62.25%, 6.48% during monsoon while 21.30%,
65.98% and 12.72% reported at winter
correspondingly in marine sites. Average
characteristics of coastal deposits found as
silt-clay dominated in every locations except 15
number Ghat and Patenga. Current speed, fluid
density and water viscosity is comparatively high
in 15 number jetty and Patenga rather than other
sites, so deposition of fine particles is tough rather
than coarse particles. Contrariwise, upstream
freshwater locations are far from sea with less
current speed than marine locations, which
increase the suitability of fine grain deposition in
intertidal zone. Moreover, sediment transport,
erosion-accretion patterns, wind driven forces,
tidal actions, wave characteristics and seasonal
inconstancy control the coastal processes and
deposits distribution characteristics. This research
suggests the necessity of periodic observation to
assess deposits characteristics that help to
ensure eco-friendly geomorphology in Chittagong
coastal zone.

13

Hormone Induced Spawning of Commercially Important Striped Mullet (Mugil
cephalus) in Bangladesh
Ehsanul Karim, M. Enamul Hoq
Marine Fisheries and Technology Station, Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute, Cox’s Bazar 4700, Bangladesh
Email: ehsan_toy@yahoo.com

The striped mullet (Mugil cephalus, locally
called Khorul/Bhangan bata) is a euryhaline and
eurythermal marine species of commercial
interest. Commonly, the fry of M. cephalus is
collected from nature and cultured in the
brackishwater tide-fed pond along with tiger
shrimp (Penaeus monodon), but the aquaculture
on a commercial scale cannot thrive solely on the
supply of wild larvae. This study aims to induce
spawning in captive M. cephalus by hormone
injection. Thus, male and female brood fish
(average weight/fish: 1.5 kg), identified following
the method of Live Ovarian Biopsy (LOB), were
stocked at the Niribili Fish Farm at Reju Khal of
Cox’s Bazar between August 2014 and February
2015. The fish were maintained at salinity of
24-25 ‰ and temperature of 22-25°C. Hormone
injections, which injected into deep muscle at the
base of dorsal fin both in female and male, were
initiated after 48 hrs of acclimatization and the
interval between injections varied from 24 to 36
hours. The CPG (1st dose) and LRH A2 (2nd dose)
with a combination of domperidone and calcium
injections were used in varied total dose, and also

World Oceans Day 2015 Abstracts,
University of Chittagong, Bangladesh.

used HCG for the 1st dose of male and both
male/female in the second trial. The effective
dosages were 30 mg/kg CPG, 150 µg LRH A2 with
combinations of 0.3 ml domperidone and 0.5 ml
calcium injection, and a HCG dose of 30000 IU in
female and 5000 IU in male, respectively. The GSI
value ranged from 7.92-12.38, where egg
diameter of ripped brood ranged from 563-594
µm and that of fertilized eggs were 650-680 µm.
Fecundity was 780-900 no./g body weight. Fish
started spawning between 44–48 hours after
injection and average spawning rate (%) and
fertilization rate (%) were 66±5 and 55±9,
respectively. Cell division was observed after the
first hour of spawning, but high mortality occurred
after 12 hours at "Nerulla" stage. Fertilized eggs
were then settled down before starting further
segmentation and finally mass mortality occurred.
The reason of unsuccessful fertilization could be
related to fluctuation of temperature and lack of
quality milt from males. However, successful
captive breeding of M. cephalus can bring a new
horizon to the coastal aquaculture sector of
Bangladesh.

14

Assessment of Shrimp Stocks by Using Industrial Trawl Catch Log Data
Suman Barua, Nasiruddin Md. Humayun and Md. Iqbal Haroon
Marine Fisheries Office, CGO Building no. 1, Agrabad, Chittagong, Bangladesh
E-mail: nasir_dof@yahoo.com

Catch per unit effort (CPUE) data of shrimp
stock through industrial shrimping vessels from
Bangladesh marine waters were used as tuning
series for a stock production model (SPM) fitted
using two different software platforms, namely MS
Excel and Rststistical program, all fitted the data
in a similar fashion and gave roughly the same
parameter estimates. The intrinsic growth rate (r)
was estimated in the range of 0.701048 to
0.7334317, the catchability coefficient (q) ranged
from 0.000065 to 0.000071 and the carrying
capacity (K) ranged from 18915 to 18953 t. It is
observed that many of the model assumptions in
the SPM are violated in this analysis. Apart from
various limitations and violation of assumptions,

the most important violations are the assumption
that there are no species interactions that affect
the abundance and productivity of the shrimp
stock and the assumption of constant catchability.
Though model assumptions are not met with the
Bangladesh shrimp fishery due to nature of
multispecies tropical fisheries, this stock
assessment study using CPUE is roughly elucidate
more reliable information of shrimp stock for
industrial shrimping fleet until and unless to have
information produced from survey vessel. It was
found that the average estimation of MSY, BMSY
and FMSY were 3395 t, 9466 t and 0.35
respectively.

Marketing and Value Chain Analysis for Mud crab (Scylla serrata) in Chittagong City
Md. Jaker Hossain
Institute of Marine Sciences and Fisheries, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331, Bangladesh
Email: hossain.jaker39@gmail.com

Mud crab (Scylla serrata) is one of the
important and valuable fishery items of
Bangladesh with annual production of about 4500
MT at the value of BDT 675 million (1 US$ equals
BDT 78). The present study aims to identify crab
collection sources and marketing networks along
with its value chain in the Chittagong city. The
study area included crab collection sites of the
Karnafully River and the Halishohor-Kattoli coastal
World Oceans Day 2015 Abstracts,
University of Chittagong, Bangladesh.

zone. The study was conducted from February to
November 2014, and data were collected through
semi-structured interview, focus group
discussions (FGD) and key informant interviews
(KII) with relevant stakeholders such as crab
collectors, wholesalers, retailers, middlemen and
exporters. The results indicate that mud crab is
collected within 16 km of the lower Karnafully
River and within 20 km of the Halishohor-Kattoli
15

coastal shallow water zone by using hook (locally
called ‘Koda’) and bamboo trap (locally called
‘Chai’). The river-based crab collection spanned
only 3 months (March-May) and about 30 people
capable of harvesting 10 MT crab, whereas the
Halishohor-Kattoli coastal zone supports a
year-round crab collection of about 50 MT by 45
people annually. The collectors sell legs-on big
size (>150g) live crabs at a cost of 250-350
Taka/kg to the wholesaler, who sell to the
exporters at 550-650 Taka/kg and the exporters
price varies between 800 and 1200 Taka/kg. On

the other hand, the small, broken leg and dead
crabs are sold to local retailers of the Chittagong
city at 100-150 Taka/kg and the consumer price
varies from 150-200 Taka/kg. Together, the
Karnafully River and the Halishohor-Kattoli coast
supply annually about 25 MT crab for export
markets and 35 MT for local consumption.
Moreover, a total of 150-200 people are engaged
in crabbing, crab trading and distribution networks
in the Chittagong. Thus, crab fishery is playing
significant role in generating cash income,
employment and export earnings.

Extraction of antioxidant from shrimp waste
Selina Sultana
Marine Fisheries Academy, Fish Harbour, Chittagong, Bangladesh
E-mail: sultanamfa1995@gmail.com

There are about 135 fish and shrimp
processing plants in Bangladesh that discharge
large quantities of wastes into the surrounding
waters, thus polluting the environment ultimately.
However, shrimp waste is an important source of
natural carotinoid, such as astaxanthin, which
provides the red color of cooked shellfish.
Astaxanthin is an antioxidant with ability to
surpass those of â-carotene or even á-tocopherol.
It belongs to a larger class of phytochemicals
known as terpenes derived from five carbon
precursors, isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and
dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). Astaxanthin is
used as a food supplement for human, animal and
aquaculture consumption. Due to scarcity of
natural astaxanthin, farmers widely use of

World Oceans Day 2015 Abstracts,
University of Chittagong, Bangladesh.

synthetic astaxanthin as carotenoids in shrimp
feeds that represent 10-20% of the feed cost.
This study will be carried out to extract shrimp
waste carotenoids in vegetable oil. For vegetable
oil treatment, soya oil will be added to small
pieces of dried shrimp waste which then mixed
and hit at 90°C for 15 minutes in order to
separate oil fraction and the pigment. Indeed, the
high cost of synthetic pigments and their growing
demand have stimulated the research of
extracting astaxanthin from natural sources. The
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of USA have
approved astaxanthin as a food coloring (or color
additive) for specific uses in animal and fish
foods.

16