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Jurnal Geologi Indonesia, Vol. 5 No.

4 Desember 2010: 269-290

Macroscopic, Microscopic, and Paleo-depositional Features of
selected Coals in Arahan, Banjarsari, Subanjeriji, and South
Banko Regions, South Sumatra
N. Suwarna and Y. Kusumahbrata
Geological Agency, Jln. Diponegoro 57 Bandung - 40122
The Arahan, Banjarsari, Subanjeriji, and Banko Regions, parts of the Bukit Asam coalfield, is
situated in the Lematang Depression of South Palembang Sub-basin, South Sumatera Basin. Twenty two
fresh outcrop and subcrop samples of Seam B, A, Benuang, Enim, and Jelawatan of the Mio-Pliocene
Muaraenim coals have been analyzed macroscopically and microscopically, to assess the characteristics
and depositional environment of the coal present. On the basis of lithotype analysis, accompanied by
organic-petrological and SEM analyses, the coal seams of the Muaraenim Formation show variations in
the predominance of some macerals, indicating successions of environmental changes. Petrographically,
the dominant maceral group is vitrinite, present in high to very high values (69.4 – 97.4 %); whilst the
minor one is inertinite showing a low to moderate amount (0.4 – 22.0 %), followed by low to moderate
value of exinite (0.4 – 18.2 %). Vitrinite reflectance values are present in a low to moderate level,
varying from 0.34 to 0.55 %, with one sample showing value of 0.59 %. Mineral matter dominated by
clay minerals, with minor pyrite and carbonate, displays a low degree (0.4 – 5.4 %), with one sample
of 12.0 %. Organic facies study tends to indicate that the coals were deposited in a wet forest swamp to
limnic zone, within lower delta plain to transgressive area. This condition has supported the depositional
setting interpreted from sedimentary facies associations that shows a shallow-water continental margin
sequence, varying from a fluvial to deltaic environment. The organic facies concept is thus applicable
in basin studies context and has potential to become an additional tool for interpretation of depositional
Keywords: coal, features, paleo-depositional, Bukit Asam coalfield, South Sumatra
Kawasan Arahan, Banjarsari, Subanjeriji, dan Banko Selatan, yang merupakan bagian tambang
batubara Bukit Asam (PTBA), terletak di wilayah Depresi Lematang, Subcekungan Palembang Selatan,
Cekungan Sumatra Selatan. Analisis megaskopis dan mikroskopis terhadap dua puluh dua percontoh
batubara Seam B, A, Benuang, Enim, dan Jelawatan Formasi Muaraenim berumur Mio-Pliosen
dilaksanakan untuk penafsiran karakteristik dan lingkungan pengendapannya. Analisis litotipe yang
diikuti dengan petrologi organik dan SEM menunjukkan bahwa batubara tersebut terendapkan dalam
lingkungan yang berbeda. Secara petrografi, kelompok maseral batubara tersebut didominasi oleh
vitrinit yang kandungannya berkisar antara 69,4 – 97,4 % dan termasuk kategori tinggi – sangat tinggi.
Sementara itu, kelompok inertinit hadir dalam jumlah rendah – menengah, antara 0,4 – 22,0 %. Begitu
pula kelompok eksinit termasuk kategori rendah – menengah, dengan kisaran 0,4 – 18,2 %). Selanjutnya
nilai reflektan vitrinit sekitar kategori rendah hingga menengah, dengan kisaran 0,34 – 0,55 %; namun
satu percontoh nilainya 0,59 %. Bahan mineral yang didominasi oleh mineral lempung, dengan sedikit
pirit dan karbonat termasuk tingkat rendah (0,4 – 5,4 %) dengan satu percontoh bernilai 12,0 %. Kajian
fasies bahan organik cenderung menunjukkan bahwa batubara terendapkan di zona rawa berhutan
basah sampai limnik, dalam lingkungan pengendapan lower delta plain – transgresi. Penafsiran ini
bersesuaian dengan kajian asosiasi fasies sedimen yang menunjukkan lingkungan fluviatil – zona delta.
Naskah diterima 13 April 2010, revisi kesatu: 10 Mei 2010, revisi kedua: 08 September 2010, revisi terakhir: 29 November 2010



Jurnal Geologi Indonesia, Vol. 5 No. 4 Desember 2010: 269-290

Konsep fasies organik ini dapat diterapkan dalam konteks kajian cekungan dan berpotensi menjadi
alat penafsiran lingkungan pengendapan.
Kata kunci: batubara, fitur, lingkungan pengendapan, kawasan batubara Bukit Asam, Sumatra Selatan


Thomas (2002) described that coal having
been defined by numerous authors, essentially is
combustible organoclastic sediments comprising
lithified plant remains. An accumulation of ve­
getable debris in a special environment leads to the
formation of coal of different rank and degrees of
structural complexity, passing through a diagenesis
or coalification process. Therefore, the composition
and character of each coal are firstly determined by
its organic compound or maceral and mineral matter
or inorganic fraction contents. The understanding of
macroscopic and microscopic properties of the coal
is a fundamental significance for the coal genesis
and depositional environment models.
A research, both macroscopic and microscopic
analyses, on selected coals collected from Arahan,
Banjarsari, and Subanjeriji regions (Figure 1) was
performed, in order to gain a better understanding

Macroscopic, microscopic, and paleo-depos­
itional features or characteristics of coals have
been studied intensely by many authors, e.g.
Stopes (1919, 1935), Schopf (1960), Cohen and
Spackman (1972), Hagemann (1978), Stach et al.
(1982), Teichmüller and Teichmüller (1982), Bustin et al. (1983), Hunt and Hobday (1984), Ward
(1984), McCabe (1984, 1987), Daulay and Cook
(1988), Rimmer and Davis (1988), Kalkreuth and
Leckie (1989), Mishra et al. (1990), Marchioni
and Kalkreuth (1991), Diessel (1992), Taylor et al.
(1998), Scott (2002), Thomas (2002), Moore and
Shearer (2003), Davies et al. (2005), Hackley et al.
(2005), Hackley and Martinez (2007), Jelonek et al.
(2007), Belkin et al. (2009), Toprak (2009), Singh
et al. (2010), and Widodo (2010).




























Studied area



Figure 1. Locality map of the studied areas situated in the PTBA coal field, South Sumatra.




1960. basically the main coal lithotype can be divided into bright (vitrinite-rich) and dull (vitrinite-poor) components. Generally. Diessel. Subanjeriji. related to coal investigation in the area. From each subseam. Microscopic. Banjarsari.P. South Sumatra (N. Micropetrographic Analysis The laboratory techniques deal with organic petrology of the coal. 1980. dullness or vitrinite contents. (1964) introduced vitrinite-A and B terms used as convenient terms to separate the structured vitrinite macerals from the unstructured or degraded vitrinites. the study localities have to be reached on foot. Variation in petrography of lithotypes is a function of their origins (vegetation and depositional setting) and contributes to variations in their properties due to the different characters of the maceral components. Primary fieldwork activity is focused on coal lithotype analysis. 1975. Predominantly. Overall objectives are to advance our understanding of geological processes in the formation and origin of the Mio-Pliocene Muaraenim coals. Suwarna and Y. nomenclature changes have also been suggested (Schopf. evaluate. describe the implications of lithotype and maceral variation on the interpretation of coal facies and depositional environments. The studied area covering the northern and eastern parts of the Bukit Asam Coalfield. the study adresses paleo-depositional environments of those selected coal seams based on the coal petrography conducted. 1998. 1 cm was chosen as the minimum thickness for the delineation of individual lithotypes. The aims of the research are to establish macroscopic and microscopic features or information obtained from selected Mio-Pliocene Muaraenim coals in part of the Bukit Asam coalfield. vitrinite content increases whilst inertinite.Macroscopic. Cameron. in terms of brightness vs. 1982). 1965. exinite. 1963) proposed the term lithotype to designate the macroscopically distinguishable bands of humic coals which Stopes (1919) had previously described and named. vitrinite reflectance. supported by stratigraphic observations. Brown et al. is easy to perform. because the coal seams to be observed are almost well-outcropped. A systematic variation in typical petrographic compositions of lithotypes is shown by studying bituminous coals carried out by several authors (Diessel. Usually. 1971. the macroscopic 271 features can predict the microscopic constituents of coals once a correlation between the two has been established. and analyze those coal lithotype and ma­ ceral features. telocollinite. Seyler in 1954 (I. A lithotype log forms a very useful basis for sampling and describing vertical variations in a seam relative both to macroscopic and broad microscopic properties. whereas vitrinite-B includes . determine.and micro.C. and (b). and Paleo-depositional Features of selected Coals in Arahan. Kusumahbrata) on their features and paleo-depositional environments. during the fieldwork. Macerals telinite. a channel sample was taken for petrographic analyses. collection of field data and samples for coal petrographic and SEM analysis purposes were conducted. the coals were determined in macroscopic appearance or lithotype characteristics. geologic field investigations and laboratory techniques were used.C. In describing lithotype sequences. This analysis is important for having a better understanding of the maceral and mineral matter contents.petrographic techniques. Specific objectives are to: (a). Moreover. 1978). by means of macro. Cameron. Detailed petrographic studies of the individual samples have been carried out following ICCP procedures (ICCP. In order to avoid confusion with maceral and microlithotype terminology and to avoid implied correlation between lithotypes and their petrographic compositions. On the basis of this character. Methods and Techniques In order to achieve the aims of the study. 1963. Sampling and Macropetrographic/Lithotype Analysis During the fieldwork. and Hower and Wild. Marchioni. and mineral matter contents decrease with increasing bright components. and South Banko Regions. and also characteristics of the coal. and 2001). Lithotype logs can also serve as a basis for an interpretation of the succession of mire conditions during the seam formation. 1965. using lithotype classification proposed by Diessel (1965). Surficial and subcrop coal studies. 1978. and in-situ corpocollinite are included into vitrinite-A sub-group. Then..

The maceral analysis determines the petrographic composition of the coals. The anticlinorium shows two trends of fold axis. Several previous unpublished reports and publications. in accordance with the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM. which can be used as supporting data to petrographic analysis results. Geologically. macrinite. whilst the unstructured one consists of sclerotinite. Similarly. Both structural trends are displayed in Figure 2 (Gafoer et al. led to the basin formation developping in a back-arc setting. The analysis based on 500 counts on each sample (including mineral matter) under reflected white light. The measurement. The uppermost part of the Airbenakat Formation. Stratigraphy The oldest formation in the studied area is the Airbenakat Formation. The maceral and mineral matter are determined based on their morphology and colour. Vol. the vitrinite reflectance measurements were conducted according to the Australian Standard AS 2486 – 1981 and American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM. Geological Setting The Bukit Asam coalfield occupies the Lematang Depression of South Palembang Sub-basin. Moreover.g de Coster (1975) have described the geologic setting and history of the Bukit Asam region. those are maceral and mineral matter ana­lysis. Tertiary terrestrial to marine clastics with minor limestone predominantly fill the depression. the study area is situated in the Muaraenim Anticlinorium. Structured inertinite comprises semifusinite and fusinite. is a standard and accurate procedure to determine the rank of the coals. underlying conformably the Muaraenim Formation. suggested the sediment unit was deposited in a shallow marine environment. during the Late Cretaceous . 4 Desember 2010: 269-290 desmocollinite. and then mounted in epoxy resin. comprises mainly light to dark gray siltstone and sandy siltstone. and was formed in a back-arc basin. Tectonics controlled the sedimentation of the Tertiary sedimentary units. trending parallel to the Sumatera axis. of a fluvial to deltaic condition occurring during a . performed on the vitrinite macerals of each coal polished briquette that follows the ICCP 1971’ procedure. Sappal (1986) and Struckmeyer & Felton (1990). Maceral observation and reflectance measurements were carried out on a Leitz MPV-2 photomicroscope. overlain conformably by the Muaraenim Coal Measures or Formation.. Ordinary white reflected light from a tungsten lamp and violet-blue light from a high-pressure mercury lamp to initiate fluorescence were used for illumination.Early Tertiary. By using standard procedures. Petrographic analysis was performed in two modes. South Sumatera Basin. Additional measurements of vitrinite reflectance were perfomed in 2010. and reflectance measurement. gelocollinite and detrital corpocollinite. which in turns is unconformably overlain by the Kasai Formation and other Quaternary deposits (Figures 1 and 2).SE fold axis direction. The subduction of the Indian-Australian Plate beneath the Southeast Asian Plate.2009). The analysis result reported is expressed in semiquantitative volumetric percentages. The methods used for estimation of organic matter abundance and maceral composition are outlined in Cook & Kantsler (1982). those are the ‘Gumai Trend’ with E-W fold axis and the ‘Garba Trend’ having NW . The preparation and polishing techniques are conducted according to Standard Association of Australia (1977). 1986) presented as the Geological Map of the Bukit Asam (PTBA) coalfield. e.2009). was performed microscopically on polished briquette sections. 1986).272 Jurnal Geologi Indonesia. the samples were present as polished briquettes. SEM analysis conducted on selected coal polished sections were focused on qualitative and semi-quantitative maceral and mineral obser- vations. 5 No. inertinite maceral group is divided into structured and unstructured types. and degraded inertinite. The Muaraenim Formation is gently folded. and in general a well-defined conformity separates along their lower and upper contacts of each rock unit. based on the Standard Association of Australia ( fine-grained sandstone and striation of coal matter occasionally. Both types of sediments contain laminae or thin beds of light gray very fine. Moreover. prepared from crushed 1 mmsize coal samples representing each seam. commonly calcareous and glauconitic.

Banjarsari. Banjarsari Area 1. South Sumatra (N. East Subanjeriji Area 2. Muaraenim Fm. and Paleo-depositional Features of selected Coals in Arahan. South Banko Area 3. part of the Lahat Quadrangles (after Gafoer et al.o o Syncline Oil seep Kasai Fm. 1986). Arahan Area. Microscopic. Intrusion Qtk Qpva Young Volcanics Anticline Qhp Air benakat Fm. Studied Area: MUARA ENIM Figure 2. Geological map of the studied areas. Tma Tmpm 103 30 Legends: LAHAT 2 o 103 45 4 4. and South Banko Regions.. Subanjeriji.5 10 km o 104 00 Macroscopic.5 5 Scale 7. 4 50 o 3 45 1 0 3 2. Suwarna and Y. Kusumahbrata) 273 .

A2. The dull banded lithotype recognized within the A1 sub-seam and C Seam. 03 HS 01. tuffaceous sands and clays. Suban (B). are included into dull banded to banded lithotypes. The banded lithotypes were formed under somewhat much drier conditions influenced by open moor conditions with lower tree density. Enim. some are finely to moderate laminated. By determining megascopically. collected from Gegas River show dull and banded lithotypes. and moderately banding (Figures 8c and 8d). shows brownish black streak. 03YK. 03 YK 05. From the Banjarsari region. macerals. The M4 Subdivision is a sequence between the bottom of the Enim Seam and the base of the Kasai Formation (Figure 3). in which the Benuang Seam is situated. and Jelawatan Seams. and 03 HS 02. 03YK. lithotype. Benuang.01. and Petai (C) Seams (Figure 4). on the basis of the differences in petrographic composition and the occurrence or absence of facies diagnostic macerals. belonging to the E Seam. 03 YK 04 and 03 YK 05. The formation unconformably overlies the Muaraenim Formation. the main lithotype varies from dull banded to banded types. the uppermost seam (Benuang Seam) occurs as a dull coal. were collected for analysis purposes (Table 1). five coal samples. seam type. Lithotype of the coal samples varies from dull to banded types. dominantly characterized by dark brownish black streak. 6. 1991. characterized by brownish black streak. and type of coal seam. B. In these coal. These two distinct types were recognised within the dull lithotype.. 4 Desember 2010: 269-290 depositional regression. occurring during accumulation of the coal precursor. 5 No. However. respectively). carried out on the outcrop samples of A1. and plenty of resin. uneven fracture (Figures 8a and 8b). volcanic concretion. location. Subanjeriji.. observations. uneven fractured. massive. it is suggested that these differences are due to formation in distinct mire facies. 1991).04. The A Seam samples. four coal seams of the M2 Subdivision. were gained from macroscopic and microscopic analyses.03. i. The youngest unit is the Plio-Pleistocene Kasai Formation consisting of gravel. Selected coal sample numbers collected. from the oldest to youngest are M1. respectively. those are 03HS. and 7. M2. The deposit of Enim Seam characteristically containing resin fragments. indicates that the depositional environment was a swampy condition within a high moor. The rests. M3 and M4 Sub-divisions (Figure 3). lack woody structure. with decreasing inertinite and mineral matter contents from the dull to bright to types is shown by the mean petrographic compositions of the lithotypes.05 (Figure 5). pumice.02. are defined from the lithotype variations within the seams. position. The fieldwork investigation comprises detailed determination. In Arahan region. Then. Field Investigation In the North and South Arahan coalfields. . Mangus (A). and measurements on lithotype. and mineral matter. together with vitrinite reflectance. tiny specks of pyrite are frequent recognized macroscopically. and 03YK. under the influence of open moor or raised mire conditions. Marchioni and Kalkreuth. maceral. the M3 Subdivision. the banded type of B Seam and B1 Sub-seam displays subvitreous luster. Vol. as the Barisan Mountains were being uplifted. from top to bottom can be recognized. is a sequence which bounded by the top of A1 (Mangus) Seam in the bottom and the bottom of Enim Seam in the top (Figure 3). in general coals collected from the four studied areas comprise lithotypes ranging from dull (D) to banded (BD) type (Table 1). uneven fracture. with some resin substances. a little to plenty resin content. together with the data of maceral and mineral matter variations or their petrographic composition. whilst the brighter ones are considered to have been formed in a more wet and densely forested swamp and fens (Lamberson et al. A general trend to increasing vitrinite. The general tendencies of coal features projected in aspects of coal lithotype. and mineral matter analyses results both of the field and laboratory investigation are displayed in Table 1. and tuff. The Muaraenim Formation is subdivided into four units. Furthermore. 03HS. This subdivision dominantly crops out in the Banjarsari. Furthermore. Benuang. and South Banko regions (Figures 5. predominantly massive. Result of Investigations Facies changes.e.274 Jurnal Geologi Indonesia.

10 DEPOSIT KASAI Description Unconsolidated sediments: gravels. At the horizon 100 m above the A seam. and South Banko Regions. MKI.40 C (PETA 1) Thin coal seams (C1 Seam) are accompanied just below 170 . Tuffaceous sandstones often contain granule to pebble sized pumice. Sandstones contain plenty of interbedded lenticular marls layers. mostly without partings Fine-grained sandstones and siltstones. Sandstones and siltstones. The uppermost part 10 . and Paleo-depositional Features of selected Coals in Arahan. Sandstones (around 120 m below the E Seam) contain neritic molluscan fossils. Transgression occurred at least twice. Figure 3. Coal seams are poorly contained over the area.11 10 m.15 9 .20 Partings composed of tuffaceous siltstones and coaly siltstones Without partings Predominantly consisting of siltstones with sandstones and coaly siltstones B (SUBAN) Thick coal seam. 1998). Subanjeriji. South Sumatra (N. Kusumahbrata) Age Q Formation Thickness (m) Lithologic Graphics Coal Seam & Key Bed QUATERNARY 0 .20 Dark brownish grey tuffaceous hard sandstone with abundant pumice PUMICE TUFF Tuffaceous sandstones and siltstones with fine pumice 20 .11 M1 AIR BENAKAT FORMATION Two coal seams of 1 to 3 m thick Sandstones and siltstones A2 (MANGUS) 10 . sand. 20 m thick 350 + Without partings.LA TE M I O C EN E) 200 . Siltstones include lenses. siltstones and sandy siltstones. Sandstone and siltstones contain neritic molluscan and bioturbations. the Burung Seam 2 . Banjarsari. 275 .10 1 .20 M2 (Middle to lower part) Predominantly siltstones with lenses and nodule of marls. Suwarna and Y. consisting usually of massive fine sandstone 10 to 20 m thick FORMATION BURUNG M3 BENUANG 6 . partly tuffaceous. laminae or thin beds of sandstones frequently. Siltstones and sandy siltstones contain laminae or thin beds of sandstones frequently.210 D (MERAPI) Siltstones and sandstones.3 m thick is consistently embedded.Macroscopic.60 4 . 1 to 2 m thick on the northern flank and 6 to 8 m thick on the southern flank Sandstones. and silts > 100 Tuffaceous sandstones and siltstones 5 .20 ENIM (upper part 100 m thick) Alternating sandstones and siltstones with 8 to 9 coal seams less than 4 m thick. 120 . Generalized stratigraphic column of Bukit Asam Coalfield (Modified from PT. usually laminated 30 . Thin coal seams and coaly siltstones are intercalated occasionally.220 9 . Microscopic. D Seam and a few coal seams are rarely intercalated 1 .15 JELAWATAN Few or no partings M4 Alternating sandstones and siltstones with tuffaceous materials and 3 to 5 coal seams less than 3 m thick 90 10 .130 M U A R AE N I M T E RT I A R Y ( M I D D L E .15 A1 (MANGUS) 15 .20 m thick.8 E (KLADI) 5 .

which are almost low grade. Transitions from wet and very wet forested swamps to slightly drier conditions with lower tree density are indicated by the dulling up sequences. and South Banko (Figure 7) regions. Some irregular sub-seams are also present between those Jelawatan and Enim Seams. 1994). 5 No.000 250 0 250 750 1250 m River Figure 4. The seams were formed under intermediate conditions of stability in respect to flooding events. The Enim (E) and Jelawatan (J) Seams as the youngest coal seams are recognized in the Banjarsari (Figure 5). Predominance of banded lithotypes. which is equivalent to lignite A (ASTM. Outcrop sample and observation locality map of North and South Arahan areas. on the borderline of class 3 and 4 (ISO. and (2) seams containing only minor thin clastic beds indicative of a relative stability of water levels during formation of the coal precursors. . whilst a reverse trend is indicated for the dulling up sequences. Vol. dull lithotypes near parting and brightening and dulling up sequences characterizes the seams. 4 Desember 2010: 269-290 90 000 m Ut as Riv e E F1 7 r C B A F1 6 gR iver Ge g nt an g E F1 3 A1 A2 B r ive iR E F14 Pu ta River 88 Pe er Riv C YK02 NORTH ARAHAN SYNCLINE Pu n ta n YK01 89 Kili Bes ar 96 87 A1 A2 B C C A1 A2 B C F7 A2 B C F5 F8 C es iB Kil ar ESO1 E us an R E E NS02 C C B A2 NS05 A2 B C B A2 F2 E E A2 B MUARA TI GA F3 C ESO4 E 83 F1 0 E F9 C B A2 F1 3 C MUAR A TIG A ANT ICLI N r E ive F4 F3 84 E er Riv p Ta 85 A1 A2 B C NS01 A1 A2 B C E A2 B C 86 A12 A B F1 2 F6 F1 1 F7 d En ESO3 F1 Pa yo KR ah A2 E SYNCLI NE B C F1 82 m Le at an g er Riv 81 3 42 000 m Tm 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 51 50 (Basemap and Seam Distribution Modified from DGGMR and NEDO. Subanjeriji (Figure 6). 2009). Two types of seam development occurring: (1) seams occupied by a high proportion of clastic beds indicate frequent floodings of the swamps. Those two main seams occur as hard brown coals. Transitions from dry forest swamps to wet and very wet forest swamps are represented by the brightening up sequences.276 Jurnal Geologi Indonesia. 2001) Legend : Sample and Observation Locality E N E Seam A A Seam Fault B B Seam Syncline Axis C C Seam Anticline Axis D D Seam Road 750 SCALE 1 : 40.

01 and 02) representing A and Enim Seams from Banjarsari area (Figure 5).05. Enim Seam between 0. South Sumatra (N. Benuang Seam of 4. and 03HS. and Paleo-depositional Features of selected Coals in Arahan. However. whilst Jelawatan Seam is 2.01. Exinite in the B Seam ranges from 1.Macroscopic.03. DOC Camp er F8 LEMAT ANG RI VE R Laboratory Analyses Ten selected coal samples (03ES.2 % to 97. The vitrinite maceral group recognized in the B Seam varies from 78.02. suberinite. and 03RH. and traces of fusinite (Table 2). A Seam between71. Kusumahbrata) 96 94 000m Ut Then.4 %. 03NS. 03NS. macrinite.0 %.6 % – 12. and 05.8 %. Suwarna and Y. Sporinite is present with its typical elongated shape. exinite maceral group is composed of resinite. however it is more discernable when determined under fluorescence mode.8 – 18. 04. liptodetrinite.02A) representing Seam B. vitrodetrinite and corpocollinite are also identified.2 %.8 %. N SCALE 1 : 30. Resinite (Figures 9d and 9e) is often obscured by clay minerals. inertodetrinite (Figure 9g). Furthermore.0 % to 18. show that vitrinite comprising telocollinite (Figures 9a and 9b) and desmocollinite (Figure 9c) is the predominant maceral group. Analysis results as presented in Table 1. Subanjeriji. Banjarsari.0 %. and five samples (03NS. and exsudatinite macerals. 03YK.000 750 250 0 250 750 m . Funginite as fungal bodies show their characteristics having single to numerous cells/ chambers. A Seam of 0.2 % and 95.2 %. two samples of Enim and Jelawatan Seams from Subanjeriji (03NS. The inertinite group consists of semifusinite (Figures 9f and 9g). 03ES 05 and 06.06) (Figure 6).8 %. sclerotinite or funginite. inertinite content of B Seam is from 2. A. 03NS. Enim Seam ranges from 0.4 % to 13. five samples (O3YK. Benuang Seam is 69.6 %. A Seam of 0.0 %. whereas Jelawatan Seam is 3.4 % and 6.6 %. and Benuang of the Arahan area (Figure 4).01-04.02.03 and 03YK.6 % to 4. cutinite (Figure 9d).04. with rare sporinite. whilst Jelawatan Seam is 90.8 %. 03YK. Microscopic.0 % to 96. Benuang Seam of 22. and 03YK.2 %.01.6 %. 2001) Legend : Sample and Observation Locality Seismic Line E E Seam Fault J Jelawatan Seam Syncline Axis K Top of Kasai FM Anticline Axis River Road 277 Figure 5.4 %. Riv J E Ge g as F6 K F7 J K Banjarsari Station F4 K F1 F7 E Mau TA River E TA BA N JA TA RSA R I 93 K J AN T IC LIN K F1 J E E K F3 Gegas River J K 0 F1 E J L2 BA N JA F9 92 E Enim E F3 LI E F2 YK04 YK03 RSA RI HS 1 & 2 J SYN C LIN E Ku la an Ri ve r K 91 55 000m Tm 56 57 58 E er i Riv 3 a La w E E 59 60 61 62 63 (Base Map and Seam Distribution Modified from DGGMR and NEDO. Outcrop sample and observation locality map of the Banjarsari area. and South Banko Regions. either empty or filled with clay minerals (Figures 9b and 9g).01 and 02) representing Enim Seam from South Banko (Figure 7) are collected for megascopic and laboratory analyses. Enim Seam from 71.

4 9570 A NIRU 10 T. Outcrop sample and observation locality map of South Banko area.3 12 5 RIMBO BANE Tanjung Karangao 12 AL EN GI RH02 o g o G RIMBO UWUEL AK 5 A Tanjung Agung s in g 200 9565 Se A 200 125 lin g MUNGGU SELUI Ta rik an 17 125 ES05 A A EN IM 125 s 5 NS04 TANJUNG AGUNG 10 0 12 5 17 5 175 A Gambir TEBING PENINJAUAN N Legenda : Trans Sumatera Highway Sample and Observation Locality Plantation Road Village/Settlment Area River Contour 100 SCALE 1 : 62. 1 Km 2 Km 3 Km 4 Km 1 2 3 Km .278 Jurnal Geologi Indonesia.500 0 Village/Settlement Area Figure 6. Vol.500 0 Figure 7. 5 75 RH01 12 0 12 10 0 5 10 9575 Penyand ingan 10 0 0 10 0 10 0 PG ABIK T 1867 145. 5 No. TANJUNG AGUNG 50 PLTU BUKIT ASAM 50 Legend : Trans Sumatra Highway Contour 100 N Sample and Observation Locality Oil/Timber Company Road River SCALE 1 : 62. 4 Desember 2010: 269-290 365 0 370 0 375 0 50 75 75 75 75 50 Muara Enim 75 RA AT M Y SU A S HW AN IG TR H LAHAT KEC MUARA ENIM 0 10 50 9 595 KEC.1866 116. GUNUNG MEGANG 75 50 25 100 YK 06 50 75 50 50 AE nim 50 0 75 10 9 590 NS 03 50 50 50 50 KEC. Outcrop sample and observation locality map of the Subanjeriji area.

40 %.4 % – 3.8 %.2 %. and pyrite of 0. The vitrinite reflectance is one of indicators of the coalification degree or coal rank. weathered dull banded (DB) coal outcrop of the C Seam. situated in northeast of Arahan area showing good development of face and butt cleats. Moreover. pyrite between 0. cleated dull banded (DB) coal outcrop of A1 Seam at Arahan.41 % and 0. Banjarsari. Subanjeriji.0 %.6 % to 11. granules. Suwarna and Y. Sparse pyrite replaces inertinite macerals. b. The presence of epigenetic pyrite tends to indicate that a marine incursion took place in the coal mire during coalification process. the Enim Seam shows vitrinite reflectance values of 0. Moreover. Kusumahbrata) a b c d 279 Figure 8. at Petai River.51 %. and South Banko Regions. sheared banded (BD) coal of B 1 Seam at Arahan showing irregular fractures due to a compressive stress. Microscopic.43 % to 0.6 %.8 % with pryrite of 0.43 %. Then. It is dominated by clay minerals (Figures 9c and 9g) mainly recognized as kaolinite flakes (Table 2). The A Seam contains clays of 0. and Paleo-depositional Features of selected Coals in Arahan. Clay minerals of B Seam ranges from 0. The Jelawatan Seam.4 % to 2. Those ranges of vitrinite reflectance values tend to indicate that in . Photographs of coal outcrops in studied area: a. c.34 % – 0. A minor amount of pyrite (Figures 9h and 9i) and carbonates (Figure 9j) are also determined.55 %. Mineral matter content of all coal seam samples recorded is included into low to medium grade. South Sumatra (N.59 %.2 % and 0. clays in Benuang Seam of 3. is characterized by the clays content of 3. in the Enim Seam. with pyrite of 0. and specks associated with vitrinite and inertinite.2.2 %).2 %. Arahan Area showing intensive face cleats. and carbonates from 0. whilst pyrite and carbonates have a similar value (0.2 %. the amount of clays varies from 0. Pyrite is present as framboids. A Seam between 0. whilst the Benuang Seam is 0. and Jelawatan Seam of 0.4 %. d.Macroscopic. fine disseminated grains and rounded concretionary bodies (Figures 9h and 9i). The vitrinite reflectance of the B Seam ranges from 0.6 %.2 % to 0. banded (BD) coal outcrop of B Seam at a small river.

6 0.4 8.4 0.51 Enim Enim Enim Enim Enim Enim 0.2 4.6 - 1.0 13.8 3.6 15.4 73.and Micro .4 0.6 56.4 - - - - - - 0.6 66.43 0.0 21.6 54.4 0.50 2.0 50.4 0.01 NS.2 2.0 Gv % 91.4 - 2.2 4.6 Cu.4 3.4 0.6 90.6 45.6 Sf % - - - - 0.6 - 1.0 2. YK.6 8.2 - 0.2 0.2 18.0 4.38 0.02 9.2 4.8 0.4 - 1.0 77. Table 1.4 Int.3 - - - - - - - - - - - 0.6 4.4 Py Carb Clay MM % % % % 4.43 0.2 2.0 5.6 0.2 0.4 15.02 NS.4 5.2 94.8 12.6 54.ES.2 0.2 0.6 0.0 DB 19.6 1.6 84.4 0.6 2.4 5.6 1.2 82.0 0.2 - 0.4 36.6 54.2 0. 18. ES. Results of Macro .8 4.8 3. 2.4 2. D DB YK.4 2.4 2.0 3.4 6.6 70. % - - - - - 0.4 D BD DB DB BD DB B.0 0.0 37.2 4.0 15.4 - - 0.02 15.2 0.01 ES.0 5.6 32.0 0.4 2.6 27.4 0.6 52.4 2.39 0.46 0.2 - - 0.2 48. Exu.04 3.6 1.4 2.6 5.0 1.0 0.45 0.0 0.4 3.2 1.2 - - 0.4 - - - - - 2.8 97.8 0.6 18.4 0.44 0.0 49.8 Rs.2 0.55 0.2 4.4 0.6 0.2 4.2 - - 0.6 72.52 11.4 4.0 0. % 5.0 3.4 2.4 88.0 9.6 0.0 57.4 49.4 - - - - - - 0.6 93.4 4.4 - - - 1.02 5. NS.6 0.2 0.2 - 0.2 0.03 ES.4 - 1.59 0.2 - 0.2 3.8 3. % - 2. ES.6 1.2 - - 1.2 0.4 0.01 7.0 0.2 6.8 4.0 - 0.8 2.4 13.2 - - 0.6 0.0 0.6 1.2 2.0 3. YK.4 73.02 A NS.2 0.6 1.03 YK.0 96.0 5.4 0. Sample No. YK.02 1.Jeriji BB BD D D BD DB BD BD DB BD 55.2 6.4 1.8 4.0 3.4 22.0 - 4.4 1.4 34.4 2. % 0.4 2.2 1.4 55.0 21.6 1.0 41. YK.43 0.8 0.01 14. 5 No.4 0. % Lith.0 1. Vol.2 2.40 0.0 0.4 0.2 3.04 22.8 0.4 1.4 3.05 19.8 2.2 4.4 1.49 Rv % 0.4 - - - - - - - - - 1.34 0.6 0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - 0.6 30.6 85. including clays Rv: mean vitrinite reflectance N: unstructured Str: structured RH.6 1.6 34.0 4.0 0.4 - 0. 6.8 1. 4 Desember 2010: 269-290 .2 2.2 3.6 1. (03) No.0 11.4 1.0 0.Sari 40.8 2.0 2.0 0. HS.4 2.4 0.4 BD BD Tl.8 0.2 0.0 1.8 1.01 HS.0 18.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - 2.4 0.4 0.6 1.4 10.4 24.6 - 0.0 V % 3.4 2. 12.2 3.6 0.6 67.6 0.4 1. S.6 - - - - - - - 0.4 0.6 0.6 83.6 0. including framboidal type Carb: carbonate Clay: clay minerals MM: mineral matter.6 3.2 0.0 1.4 1.4 1.0 0.51 0.4 0.2 71.0 - - 1.4 0.2 0.6 64.0 1.6 2.6 7.3 1.47 0.0 0.0 3.8 2.8 0.petrographic Analyses of the selected Muaraenim Coals 280 Jurnal Geologi Indonesia.4 90.4 7.6 1.41 0.8 0.2 0.8 0.4 0.06 17.2 1.Banko S.49 0.0 0. RH.8 1.2 97. 28. Scl.4 1.6 0.6 Lpt.0 0.05 13. % % 0.4 3.4 95.40 Jelawatan 0. % - - - - 1.06 NS.4 7.6 0.4 6.2 0.6 4.6 4. 21.0 3.4 69.0 72.8 Enim Enim A Enim A A1 A1 Benuang A2 B A2 A2 B B1 B1 Seam 0.44 0.0 2.4 0.6 0.2 0.2 90.04 11.2 37. ES.0 0.6 3. Arahan Area 10.6 1.4 2.2 3.0 1.4 3.6 BD 66.6 78.4 0.0 10.0 I % 1.0 1.2 0.8 0.8 0.4 12.0 0.03 16. 4.0 92.6 Dv % - - 2.4 30.2 1.0 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.0 0.6 4. 20.6 - Sub.05 YK.4 1.0 1. E % % % Legends: Tl: telocollinite Dv: detrovitrinite Gv: gelovitrinite V: vitrinite Sf: semifusinite Mac: macrinite Scl: sclerotinite Int: inertodetrinite I: inertinite Rs: resinite Sp: sporinite Sub: suberinite Cu: cutinite Lpt: liptodetrinite Exu: exsudatinite E: exinite Py: pyrite.6 6.6 36.6 81.4 31. 8.2 1.4 17.2 Sp.0 Mac.

Location: South Banko. Sclerotinite. Telocollinite associated with furginite of A Seam (A2 Subseam). Association of desmocollinite. Location: Subanjeriji. Framboidal pyrite. g. and inertodetrinite of B Seam. f.06. Sample 03 NS 03 (Reflected light). . Location: Arahan. Sample 03 NS 01 (Reflected light). Microscopic. Subanjeriji. Sample 03 NS. b. c. i. Location: Banjarsari. j. (Reflected light). (Reflected light). 05. Sample 03 ES 01 (Reflected light). clays. Location: Subanjeriji. 04. and Paleo-depositional Features of selected Coals in Arahan. Sample 03 YK. Carbonates associated with vitrinite. Location: Arahan. telocollinite. d. Semifusinite of Enim Seam Sample 03 ES. Sample 03 NS. and semifusinite of Enim Seam. h. Suwarna and Y. Telocollinite maceral of Jelawatan Seam. 04 (Fluorescence light). Sample 03 YK. 02. Banjarsari. 05 (Fluorescence light). Location: South Banko. Kusumahbrata) a b c d e f g h I 281 j Figure 9. e. 06 (Reflected light) . (Reflected light). Location: Arahan. Photomicrographs of macerals and mineral matter: a. (Reflected light). Semi-elongated resinite of A Seam (A2 Subseam). Location: South Banko.Macroscopic. South Sumatra (N. An assemblage of resinite filling in cairities in-between cutinite (upper part of figure) Sample 03 NS. semifusinite. semifusinite. and clay minerals of B1 Seams. and South Banko Regions. Sample 03 NS. Enim Seam. Location: Arahan. Pyrite (including framboidal type) associated with vitrinite and clay minerals of A Seam.

Jelonek et al. few sporinite and cutinite. Sparse kaolinite flakes and rare pyrite. sclerotinite and inertinite. Sparse clays and pyrite. sparse sporinite. sclerotinite. Location Seam Lithotype Maceral & Mineral Matter 1. few cutinite. phlobaphinite. rare . rare cutinite and resinite. few sporinite and cutinite. Sample No. Discussion Many parameters of coal seams such as thickness. sparse . 1986. Sparse kaolinite and rare pyrite 3. minor telocollinite. few desmocollinite. 18. sclerotinite with subordinate semifusinite. 03 NS 03 Jelawatan D Telocollinite and desmocollinite. sparse sporinite. Clays are common and pyrite is rare to sparse. 03YK 01 Benuang D Telocollinite and some detrovitrinite. Rare pyrite and clays. resinite and rare sporinite. The next process is vitrinization. cutinite & sporinite. sporinite. sporinite. 03 YK 03 Enim DB 12. sporinite and resinite. subordinate detrovitrinite and telocollinite. rare fusinite and sclerotinite. are atributed to the depositional environment in which the coal-precursor formed (Horne et al. 9. sclerotinite. Teichmüller and Teichmüller. The dominated macerals are telocollinite (Figures 9a and 9b). Attrinite. cutinite and sporinite. 1982.. detrovitrinite and few telocollinite. 03ES 03 B BD Predominantly telocollinite.common cutinite. 1987. sclerotinite and inertinite. Sparse pyrite replacing inertinite macerals. Kaolinite with rare pyrite. continuity. some desmocollinite. micrinite and few sclerotinite. Moore and Shearer. 2009. rare clays.282 Jurnal Geologi Indonesia. Sparse clays and pyrites. 03 HS 02 Enim BD Desmocollinite.A level. Cohen et al. 1991. 19. 7. resinite. Clays and few pyrites. 1982. Clays and pyrite (sparse) 6. sclerotinite and rare semifusinite. By understanding its depositional setting.. some pyrite. Sparse clays and pyrite. sulfur. sclerotinite. sclerotinite and micrinite. probably kaolinite. 2. and ash. Common kaolinite flakes and rare . 03YK 02 A1 DB Telocollinite and desmocollinite. and cutinite. sclerotinite and micrinite. Sparse clays and pyrite. The process led to the majority of textinite change to ulminite and attrinite to densinite. 5. rare . and few telocollinite. rare to sparse clays. Moreover. few inertinite. Characters of the Coals studied under SEM Mode No. detrovitrinite. and vitrodetrinite. 03 RH 01 Enim D Desmocollinite and some telocollinite. 17. sclerotinite. exsudatinite. few pyrites. 03NS 01 A2 DB Predominantly desmocollinite. sclerotinite and few semifusinite. 14. 2010). the coal rank falls under subbituminous C . 03 YK 04 A D 13. 03ES 02 B1 BD Telocollinite with some desmocollinite. 03 NS 04 Enim D Prominently telocollinite. 11. 03 ES 05 Enim D Telocollinite and desmocollinite. resinite. Rare pyrite and clays. 1991.. rare resinite. 03 RH 02 Enim D Telocollinite and corpocollinite (phlobaphinite). sclerotinite. 21. coal lithotype and composition are also the important parameter in interpreting coal depositional environment (Diessel. Kaolinite. Some kaolinite flakes and pyrites. resinite. Arahan Banjarsari East Subanjeriji South Banko Desmocollinite and telocollinite. Clays and rare pyrite. 16. sporinite and resinite. Harvey and Dillon. cutinite and resinite. 03 YK 06 Enim DB Desmocollinite. 5 No. sporinite & resinite. 03 HS 01 Enim DB Desmocollinite. 03NS 02 B DB Telocollinite. and Singh et al. This condition shows that the intensive gelification level in the early stage of coalification occurred.sparse telocollinite. accordance with ASTM classification. rare inertinite. semifusinite. subordinate desmocollinite. rare inertinite. Kalkreuth et al. and 1992. roof and floor sediments. the characteristics of coal seam can be predicted. rare inertinite. Coal composition studied is dominated by maceral group of vitrinite. 03 YK 05 A BD Attrinite and few telocollinite. Toprak. 2007. rare cutinite and sporinite.sparse pyrites. 2003.. 4. desmocollinite (Figure 9c). 20. 03ES 04 A2 DB-BD Desmocollinite. and exsudatinite. resinite. 03NS 05 A2 BD Telocollinite and some desmocollinite. cutinite and sporinite. 1978). few resinite and cutinite. Common clays. semifusinite.sparse sporinite and resinite. Vol. rare inertinite. Marchioni and Kalkreuth. 4 Desember 2010: 269-290 Table 2. 8. semifusinite and sclerotinite. Rare clays and pyrite. Sparse clays and pyrite.. where the ulminite . sporinite. 1986. rare sclerotinite. 03YK02A A1 DB Telocollinite. 10. 15. resinite. resinite with some sporinite. 03ES 01 B1 BD Desmocollinite and telocollinite. Common pyrite.

mainly from arborescent vegetation (Rimmer and Davis. Kusumahbrata) maceral was deposited within a reed marsh condition or limited influx clastic marsh. However. but also in clastic clay minerals indicate that the coals were deposited in wet forest swamp of upper delta plain and fluvial environments. Structured inertinite (semifusinite and fusinite) derived from woody vegetation.03 20 v 12 16 19 v 75 17 = YK. bacterial activity. Semifusinite and fusinite are due to the existence of weak oxidation in the peat surface or fire. attrinite. Coals rich in vitrinites (wet forest swamp).02 7 = NS.04 v 22 2 v 6 14 3 A 25 E v B 21 = RH. F-Dry (oxic) condition v v F 50 v v 50 v v v v 25 D 8 50 v v 1 15 17 v v 75 5 = NS. Figure 10).03 12 = YK. or densinite) or vitrinite (telocollinite and desmocollinite). South Sumatra (N.Macroscopic.02 3 = ES. within a rapid burial condition (Diessel.01 6 = NS. High content of degraded vitrinite was derived from a greater degree of degradation of woody tissue.01 4 v 7 21 9 = YK. with increasing maceration and microbial attack or bacterial activity and increasing anoxic condition (Figures 10 and 11). mildly oxic to anoxic with good tissue preservation E-Reed marsh. Bustin et al. Singh et al. pH.05 8 = YK. . besides rich in cellulose. 1982. Stout and Spackman.01 15 = HS. mainly influenced by the type of vegetation. and Paleo-depositional Features of selected Coals in Arahan. Sclerotinite or funginite is originated from fungus fossil. Banjarsari.02 A 11 = YK. 1992) (Figure 11).03 4 = ES. 1994) or by mixed environmental conditions across the peat swamp (Marchioni and Kalkreuth. 1989. The C v v A-Vitrinite (Telinite+Telocollinite) + Terrestrial Exinite B-Vitrodetrinite+Liptodetrinite + Corpocollinite C.01 2 = ES. mildly oxix to more anoxic environment with good tissue preservation (Teichmüller and Teichmüller. 1988). 2010). diagram. increasing anoxic.05 14 = HS.01 22 = RH. and temperature of peat (Teichmüller and Teichmüller.05 20 = ES. increasing maceration and bacterial activity. 1983. Ternary facies diagram of coals studied showing their paleodepositional facies (based on Singh et al’s. Thereby.04 5 18 13 9 11v v 10 50 13 = YK.06 v 1 = ES. This condition leads to coal formation that is dominated by maceral huminite (ulminite.02 Figure 10.02 10 = YK. and South Banko Regions. depth of water.Inertinite 283 v v 75 v v 75 D-Forest swamp.04 19 = ES. 1982. 2010. Subanjeriji. 1991). the angiosperm contains high lignin content. Suwarna and Y.02 16 = HS. the existence of funginite is related to the humid aerial environment. Shearer and Moore.06 18 = NS. under relatively dry oxidizing conditions. and densinite macerals change to be telocollinite and desmocollinite. The dominance of desmocollinite or unstructured vitrinite reflects that the majority of coal-precursor was derived from shrubs (herbaceous) or plants that are high in soft cellulose content (angiosperm). Inertodetrinite was originated from the disintegration of structured inertinites. Microscopic. Abundance of structured vitrinite is suggested that coal was deposited in a wet forest swamp of telmatic zone.

0 1 15 Upper delta plain 19 18 12 5. and mineral matter. Inertinite content is slightly higher than exinite and .5 1.TELMATIC 100 4 10 Li.0 1.284 Jurnal Geologi Indonesia.01 Li = Limited Influx F = Fusinite 9 = YK. 1989) of coals studied that displays their paleodepositional environment.02 3 = ES. Coal facies diagram of TPI versus GI (Diesel 1965. V 20 Regressive Back barrier 0. 03ES05.04 5 = NS.. V 1.01.03 4 = ES.03 I = Inertinite 17 = YK.03 12 = YK. that are relatively high in vitrinite macerals are indicated by the overall petrographic characteristics of seam sections. that the presence of finely disseminated and laminated mineral matter leads to the dullness of coals rich-in vitrinite. 1986 .5 2. Vol.06. in general.02 16 = HS.01 22 = RH. The dry maceral comprises structured inertinites and macrinite.5 I>V Indet > Sf + F 0. are suggested to be due to their significant contents of dry and wet macerals. and alginite.06 21 = RH.05 14 = HS. Kalkreuth et al. 5 No.02 Sf = Semifusinite Struc = Structured Deg = Degraded Figure 11.01 15 = HS. Additionally.01 2 = ES.0 Lower delta plain 11 10 13 LIMNIC GELIFICATION INDEX (GI) 50 21 22 14 Wet Forest Swamp 3 2 V>I Struc V > Deg . 4 Desember 2010: 269-290 % Tree Density (lignified tissue) decrease 19 increase 7 17 TELMATIC LIMNO .02 7 = NS.05 8 = YK.1 0 Piedmont plain Dry Forrest Swamp Open Marsh I>V Sf + F > Indet TERRESTRIAL 2. 03YK.5 3.02 A 11 = YK. discrete macrinite. and also predominant vitrinite B. The seams. The dullness in coals studied.05 20 = ES. Depositional Facies Coal composition and diagnostic macerals are the primary important parameters in studying facies analysis. sporinite. who recognized in several Western Australian coals. Clastic Marsh 16 9 5 6 Transgressive Fen 8 V>I Deg V> Struc. This case is in accordance with Diessel (1982) who stated that the “dullnes” of coal may be due to the content of dry and wet macerals.01 6 = NS. it is also concommittant with Sappal’s statement (1986).04 19 = ES. whilst the wet ones are inertodetrinite.06 18 = NS.0 TISSUE PRESERVATION INDEX (TPI) 1 = ES. although their whole vitrinite contents can be categorized as a high level (Table 1).04 V = Vitrinite Indet = Inertodetrinite 13 = YK. as recognized in samples 03YK. and 03ES. mineral matter.0 0.02 10 = YK.04.

02. 03.00 2. 0.38 159. Microscopic. 0.24 34.01. and 03YK.24 10. and 05.06.00 8. and 04. and 04. a diagram created by Diessel (1965 and 1986) which then modified by Lamberson et al. with minor content of semifusinite.67 19. Then. whether its tree (lignified tissue) density increases or decreases. 02. 03YK. On the other hand. 1.27 16.01. 02. 03NS.10 4.06. A Seam is more dominant in a reed marsh.05 and 06. Based on a triangular facies diagram (Figure 10) of Singh et al. 03NS. 03. and 04. 1.19 46.27 4. 2. 02A. Suwarna and Y. 02.54 19. 03. the reconstruction of depositional environment cannot be performed on the basis of these macerals.01.01. 03NS. 02.50 18. 03HS. mildly oxic to anoxic with good tissue preservation.05 and 06) occupy reed marsh with increasing maceration and bacterial activity. 1. Maceral Petrographic Indices (TPI and GI) of the selected Muaraenim Coals No. Banjarsari. If the GI is very high (samples 03ES. the cutinite is very easy to be destroyed by marine water. Kalkreuth et al. 05.01 and 02) fall under forest swamp.96 21. Subanjeriji.97 243. Petrographic indices obtained from facies diagnostic macerals (Table 3) display that the accumulation of the coal precursor under a vicinity of open to closed conditions occurred characterized by the nearly similar input of degraded and structured vitrinite macerals.94 3.21 15. 3. 03RH.40 14. From upper delta to lower delta. 04.01. whereas telocollinite from woody plant (Teichmuller. 03HS.43 6. Kusumahbrata) mineral matter that are present in a nearly similar content. 0. 02. 0. 0. and it was followed by the decreased development in plant variation.97 13. 0. 03RH.05. South Sumatra (N.02 7.11 11. 1. 03NS. 0.01 and 02.69 41.00 12. vitrinite will be associated with cutinite (desmocollinite).58 66. and inertodetrinite. and 04. Furthermore.63 6. 02A.01.27 48. 03. 2.42 4.’s (2010).92 17. . In the case of TPI < 1 or unstructured vitrinite > structured vitrinite (represented by samples 03ES. (1991). A combination of desmocollinite.06). the influence of groundwater represented by GI play an important role. and also a little of telinite and telocollinite.01. and also increasing anoxic facies (Figure 23).07 7. shows that the coal is originated from soft tissues of shrubs within a marsh environment. This character tends to suggest mixed facies conditions (Figure 11).01 and 02.00 5. 03YK. 0. plenty of cutinite. 02. 03YK. 1989) which cannot grow in a marsh condition. TPI>1 or structured vitrinite > unstructured vit­ rinite (samples 03ES. marine water influence increases.33 0. 02. 1. 03. Benuang Seam Table 3. and Diessel (1992) (Figure 11) tends to show that delta development and groundwater fluctuation lead to changes in TPI (Tissue Preservation Index) and GI (Gelification Index). 0. High GI with variated or low TPI (samples 03ES. 03YK. 03NS.05.Macroscopic. and South Banko Regions. Therefore. and Paleo-depositional Features of selected Coals in Arahan.01 and 02) tends to show that the coal is derived from woody plant. The figure shows that the B Seam predominantly was deposited in a forest swamp zone. 03YK.39 3. However.15 9.12 13. 03. However. 2. and 05). 0. The GI is low to very high. whereas the Enim Seam varies from reed marsh to forest swamp characters. the desmocollinite is well-known to be derived from shrubs (Angiosperm) growing in a marsh area. whilst the TPI is low to moderate (Table 3). Jelawatan Seam in a reed marsh. (1991). 02A.70 10. 04. TPI is related to the type of plant input.05. 03. 0. whilst twelve samples (03NS. it should contain plenty of vitrinite and micrinite.01. and 04. 04. 03ES. ten coal samples (03ES.61 45. TPI GI 1.66 31.05.80 22. and 05) shows that the depositional environment is marsh to fen under limno-telmatic to telmatic condition.34 243.00 20. these three coal samples are dominated by telocollinite and desmocollinite.46 16.58 43. 1.41 10. 0.96 285 indicates a reed marsh origin. 03.

.01 tend to indicate fen depositional environment influenced by limited marsh clastic input. Styan and Bustin (1983) concluded that peat originated from shrubs may produce various types of coals. This condition is shown by the high GI and low TPI (Lamberson et al.06). organic matter degradation highly depends upon temperature (Teichmüller and Teichmüller. 03. 03HS. 1987. 5 No. and 03RH. and accumulation rate.01.01 and 02). groundwater level. 02.. within rapid accumulation and is slightly oxidized will produce coal that rich in desmocollinite and vitrodetrinite. Additionally. 1986. Rimmer and Davies (1988) stated that the lack of telinite indicates a slow burial and high pH of swamp water. and 05). exinite. 03HS. Figure 11 displays that the dom­ inant coal samples fall under lower delta plain. The GI .01. 03YK. liptodetrinite. under a falling water table condition commonly coupled with increasing inherent ash content. (1982) and Teichmüller (1989) emphas­ . Increasing in oxidation process leads to a decreasing gelification process (Lamberson et al. such as sporinite. 1991). 02. Plenty of desmocollinite or unstructured vitrinite. it is suggested that its depositional environment was an open-marsh where a dessication activity.01 and 02. may in­­d­icate the shrubby vegetation rather than forest one (Figure 9a). 4 Desember 2010: 269-290 For coal seam low in GI and TPI values (sample 03ES. the peat is deeply degraded. in woody plant peat swamps of several decimeter depths below peat surface. low values of inertinite reflect an occurrence of low degree of oxidation. Lamberson et al. bacteria present within peat change rapidly cellulose under a biochemical process. TPI>1 and GI>1 (Figure 11) tends to indicate the depositional environment of the coal is generally wet forest swamp zone varying from telmatic to limnotelmatic condition (samples 03ES. 02A. The coal originated from tropical plants is more highly degraded than the Miocene brown coal deposited in a subtropical condition. 03NS. On the other hands.02 and 05. Peat deposited in a limnic condition. 03. and humic detritus.06. transgressive. On the basis of the presence of pseudovitrinite and vitrodetrinite. 1982). Moreover. Due to the limited aerobic degradation process of cell structure.01. Vitrodetrinite sometimes present as structured vitrinites. Cohen et al. 04.. (1991) stated that variation in coal composition is based upon its depositional environment. Vol. and regressive areas. and also slightly rich in mineral matter (Table 1). Those types of coals. and is related to vegetation type. Furthermore. 1991) TPI < 1 and GI > 1 (Figure 11) tends to show that the depositional environment of the coal is generally marsh zone with limited clastic input (samples 03ES. 03. Furthermore. Teichmüller and Teichmüller (1982) stated that in Sumatera.TPI combination can predict a de­ gradation level of woody tissue structure of plant remnants. 03RH. 1984). Another theory says that vitrinite-derived material (huminite) may be formed subaerially within an always wet-condition. the inertinite content is very low. with a little minerals is concomitant with the marsh environment condition. the vitrodetrinite is derived from both shrubs and woody plants. Teichmuller.. samples 03ES. Association of cutinites with varieties of vitrinite B (Figure 9a) especially with corpocollinite. Lamberson et al. and 05. together with a high content of mineral matter is probably due to a transportation. he then modified the formula of GI and TPI of Diessel’s 1986. The concept assumes that the process of gelification took place below groundwater level. Limited aerobic degradation can be due to a period­ ical dry season or lowering of the groundwater level (McCabe.. with minor upper delta plain. Teichmüller and Teichmüller (1982) stated that the presence of resistant maceral. and inertinite. is formed due to intensive degradation process within early stage of peat deposition (McCabe. suggests a leaf source for the peat. However. they are also rich in telocollinite. but poor in telinite. evidenced by the almost similar content between structured and unstructured vitrinite. but the presence of high vitrinite B or unstructured vitrinite content is impossible for the marsh condition. and 04. 04. 1991. decomposition level. High amount of vitrinite A or structured vitrinite coincides with the wet forest swamp rich in high plant producing high lignified tissue.05. inertodetrinite. 03YK. The abundance of resiniterich leaf remains observed. Vitrinite formation is well developed if the peat (coal precursor) is always in wet condition (Diessel. Calder et al.01. In conclusion. corpocollinite. other than containing high content of desmocollinite and vitrodetrinite. Within temperature varying from 35 to 40oC (tropical climate). 1984). 1991). 1989. Stach et al.286 Jurnal Geologi Indonesia.

Organic facies of the coals studied tends to show a variation of wet limnic-telmatic zone. PA 19428 – 2959. 05. A low amount of inertinite is indicative of the absence of severe oxidation/ dehydration during accumulation of the peat. probably dominant in herbaceous type with a smaller contribution from for- • • 287 est swamp type. Suwarna and Y. ASTM International. present in a low to moderate quantity showing amount of 0. Gaseous Fuels. Main peat-forming plant communities contained stable lignin and rich in cellulose. respectively. On the other hands. The presence of syngenetic pyrites and carbonates suggests that a marine incursion took place during coal deposition in the mire. Pajar Hariadi from PTBA-Tanjungenim. S. A low to moderate quantity mineral matter comprises clay minerals. followed by dull (D). Acknowledgments---The field activity was carried out in 2003 under the Coal Bed Methane Development Project (Proyek Pengembangan Coal Bed Methane). A. high pyrite contents in coal are associated with the occurrence of marine incursion. Predominance of desmocollinite or unstructured vitrinite in some sample suggests that the main peat-forming plant communities were poor in stable lignin and rich in soft cellulose. Suhedi and Ir. for their support during fieldwork. to telmatic wet forest swamp under rapid burial condition. and South Banko Regions. The authors also thank Nining Sudininingrum. West Conshohocken. Coal beds are mainly characterized by high contents of vitrinite (71.8 %. in a limited-clastic influx marsh.97. 2009. A mixed reed moor or limited clastix influx marsh with moist forest swamp facies is assumed for these coals. Subanjeriji. M. with increasing maceration and microbial attack activity. Moreover. Rachmat Heryanto. Therefore. the authors are grateful to the manager of the project for the finance.2 % and 0.8 – 18. is an important substance in facies analysis.g. South Sumatra (N. since its precipitation was contemporary with peat accumulation. Kusumahbrata) ized that the inertodetrinite. of dominant lower to upper delta plain depositional environment. mildly oxic to anoxic with good tissue preservation. Teichmüller and Teichmüller (1982). On the other hands. Vitrinite reflectance data indicate the coal rank falls under subbituminous C . and Mery. some samples rich in structured vitrinite tend to indicate that the main peat-forming plant communities were rich in stable lignin and cellulose.A level. Eko Susanto. Microscopic. liptodetrinite.Sc.T.T. and clays suggest a subaquatic facies. who worked together with the first author in analyzing coal petrography. Coal and Coke. Styan and Bustin (1984). and Paleo-depositional Features of selected Coals in Arahan. e. epigenetic pyrite recognized locally and filling in cleats and cracks of the macerals tends to indicate that precipitation was started after gelification.06. with low values of pyrite and carbonates. and are suggested to be dominant in higher contribution from forest swamp type. Standard Test Method for Microscopical Determination of Vitrinite Reflectance of Coal (D 2798 – 09) and Standard Test Method for Microscopical Determination of the Maceral Composition of Coal (D 2799 – 05a).Macroscopic. In: Annual Book of ASTM Standards 2009: Petroleum Products. and also Dr. Ir.. Ir. Syngenetic pyrite. Lubricants. a program of the Research and Development Centre For Oil and Gas Technology (Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Teknologi Minyak dan Gas Bumi ) “LEMIGAS”. and is also supported by the presence of vitrinite B. Mackowsky (1982).Hakim. and Casagrande (1987) accepted that in general. and Fossil Fuels. They were probably composed of herbaceous and shrub types with a high level of groundwater table.2 % . • • Conclusions • • • • Coal lithotypes determined predominantly comprises banded (BD) and dull banded (DB) in a similar quantity. with minor banded bright (BB) types. Exinite and inertinite content is in a similar content. The assumed facies are in accordance with the result of GI and TPI characteristics. Banjarsari. the authors are greatly indebted to Ir.4 – 18. References American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard. The dullness character of vitrinite-rich coal is interpreted due to the significant content of dry and wet macerals. M.2 %). . Section 5. framboids.

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