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Effective sampling of any surficial media requires well-trained personnel capabl
of recognizing and describing the correct sample material and the sample
characteristics. Samplers should be able to recognize and, if possible, avoid situatio
where contamination from human activity or changes in the natural physicochemi
conditions can produce spurious or unusual results, in most situations, these sampli
duties can be undertaken by trained technical personnel under the supervision
of a
geochemist or geologist with adequate geochemical exploration experience. In som
surveys (e.g. where identification of the correct sample material Is critical,
as in
biogeochemical or glacial till sampling programs), it is prudent to employ qua
specialists (e.g. botanists and Quaternary geologists) to both conduct orientation surveys
and instruct and supervise the sampling teams.
Sampling tools

according to the


and the field

Noncontaminating equipment is essential and care should be exercised in not only choosi
non-contaminating steels for shovels, trowels, augers etc. but also in ensuring that
associated lubricants, adhesives, welds, and solders will not cause problems.
gas can sometimes constitute a potential problem in field vehicles when samples
transported in proximity to leaking containers. This awareness of geochemical cleanliness
extends to the dress of the sampler who should avoid wearing metal buckles, rings, e
and handling coins which might lead to contamination by chipping or transfer of metal

The same caution is necessary in the choice of sample containers.

Kraft p

(with non-contaminating water-proof glue and closures), olefin, and plastic bag containers
of appropriate size are frequently used. Kraft and olefin allow samples to be dried witho

transfer. Plastic bags are commonly used for larger samples. More rigid polypropyle
and special glass bottles can be utilized in water sampling and a variety of sam
devices, many of them patented, are available for the sampling of gases and particulate
It is strongly

advised that all samples

be allocated simple

unique sequ

numbers which at least include a project (or regional office) designator prefix a
nd a
sample type designator suffix. These are best provided by pre-numbered Assa
Geochemical Sample Tag Books. The potential for error and misunderstanding is thereb
minimized and problems in subsequent data management and interpretation are avoided
Some form of coordinates should also be assigned to every sample in order to a
sample location and computer plotting of sample locations and analytical data. In t
case of widely spaced regional reconnaissance samples (e.g. stream sediment) the
Universal Transverse Mercator (U.T.M.) grid location of each site can be determined using
topographic base maps of suitable scale or possibly, a locator instrument (e.g. Magellan)


In more detailed studies tine U.T.M. grid can be used to define the area boundaries, whils
individual samples are located by reference to a local grid.


Sample Media

Some discussion of the potential role of available geochemical sample media in the
exploration sequence has been provided in previous chapters. Media selection will o
course be decided on the basis of orientation studies which will in turn be influenced
the local environment as well the nature of the exploration problem. Reiterating earli
statements concerning the applicability of the more widely used sample medi
a in
reconnaissance studies, the methods used might include:

drainage surveys: sampling stream or lake sediment, stream or lake water,
groundwater, etc.;
glacial deposit surveys: sampling of till, etc.;
rock surveys;


soil surveys: this approach is becoming increasingly popular at samplin
densities as low as 1 sample per 25 km�.

Follow-up studies of promising leads detected in the reconnaissance phase might involve:


closer spaced sampling of one or more of the above mentioned me


stream bank (residual soil or colluvium) surveys;
biogeochemical surveys;
soil gas surveys, or more rarely;
geobotanical surveys;
particulate surveys, and
microorganism surveys.

Exotic techniques such as surveys based on animal tissue sampling, are curre
primarily of academic interest, and unlikely to provide solutions to actual pract
exploration problems.



Geochemical exploration surveys based on systematic bedrock sampling are in
es sence an extension of routine prospecting based on the collection and analysis
relatively small numbers of "specimens" or rock chip "samples" from potentially interesting
bedrock exposures. However, the former aim to achieve consistently representativ
material, and are generally capable of detecting and interpreting far more s
expressions of the possible presence of mineralization than the "character" sampli
normally carried out in prospecting. Unless exposure is exceptionally good, sample
spacing in geochemical rock surveys tends to be less consistent than that achieved in,
say, soil surveys.
As with other types of geochemical surveys, the sampling procedures and the
sample material collected in geochemical rock surveys should be standardized as much
as possible. However, considering the large number of variables that can be introduced
by the processes of weathering and oxidation, the ideal of collecting similarly weathered
material is sometimes impractical. Nevertheless, the geologist or the geochemist
conducting the survey should ensure that individual samples at ail sample sites are
essentially comparable and that observed variations in weathering intensity are properly
-ecorded for interpretation purposes.
Geochemical rock samplino necessarily must take into account the geological
environment and the type of mineral deposit of interest to the explorer. The precise scale
of sampling necessary for detection of svnaenetic and epiaenetic patterns will be

Mn. 150-200 rn Interval e. Ca* Fe. Mg. Their case history study was carried out in an area of British Columbia.2) and degree of skewness of frequency distributions.2-5/krT? K. Pb. Na. (Ba) As. the preferred geochemical rock sample material for the detection of diffusion naloes is likely to be unfractured and the scale of sampling much more detailed. U. Sr. Na". (MG) Fe. Mn. Mo. S 2-30/krTÍ Cu. K. 12. In strong contrast the work of Church et al (1976) demonstrates the potential value of district scale geochemical rock sampling programs in the detection of vein and replacement deposits. Detection of syngenetic patterns may necessitate the regional sampling of individual plutons or more detailed sampling of specific parts of an exposed stratigraphic section. Mo.g. W. he was able to demonstrate that most plutons associated with mineralization could be recognized.g. and certain additional plutons with no known mineralization merited further ■nvestigation.1 summarizes the elements determined and the sampling densities used in past exploration programs for a variety of mineralization types. Na. 30/intrusion but see Appendix 3. (K). Scale Target Regional identification of productive massive plutons sulphides vein and Elements___Sampling density min. Zn. 12. 12. Zn.determined by orientation surveys (see Chapter 8). Mn. 0. possibly. Na. Canada which includes the Mesozoic volcanic sequence hosted Sam Goosly replacement (?) massive sulfide deposit. Rb. Table 12.1). Ag K. Using a variety of techniques. analysis of geochemical rock survey material has the potential of delimiting dispersion patterns beyond visible alteration associated with mineralization. Ni Cu. Both types of mineralization are reflected by large As and somewhat more limited Cu anomalies (Fig. Canada (Fig. (S) . Ta. The latter patterns will require a different approach. Sr. Rb. Sn. A good example of a regional approach capable of discriminating between productive and barren intrusions is provided by the work of Garrett (1973). In contrast. Zn. Zn l-10/kní replacement Local and Mine porphyry massive sulphides Ca. Ba. (Pb) Pb. Sb. Zn. bedding structures.3). and the Upper Cretaceous andesitic volcanic sequence hosted Brandina vein type occurrences (Fig. comparisons of metal concentrations (Fig. Surveys designed to detect leakage anomalies will focus on systematic sampling of fault or fracture zones and. which was based on whole rock analysis of samples from felsic intrusions in the Yukon Territory. Cu. Bi* e. Cu. 12. (Ca). Cu.4). Pb. In all instances. U. Au. including residual scores from a multivariate statistical analytical procedure (principal component analysis).

9=W.g. 13 = W. 12 = Zn-Ag-Pb. 1983) . 25 = Sb (Govett. Elements in parentheses have been shown to be useful in some cases but have uncertain status. Ag 5-10 m interval Pb. 6=Au: 8 = Pb-Zn. (Rb). Aii. Summary of elements to be dstermined and surface sampling density for different targets in regional.1 134= 130= Cretaceous granitoids in the Canadian Cordillera sampied by Garrett. 4��1983)C�4a 5|92i 93 I o 138' 2 I34< 130' 3 ■64= 64®35 O O 36 � 38 �21 4r090„ O T) �2 J�cT 025 I90�«)¿� -€2' 62' 138' _J_ FIG 12. 4=Au.1 Ca. Au-Pb. e. (Sr) (h�O). Cu. 2n. Si should be determined in all cases where petrological variation is expected to cause variation to the content 46 4IO of other elements. and local and mine scale exploration. Black circles are granitoids containing mineralization of the following type: 2 = Ag-Pb: 3 = Cu-Sb. 11=no data. elements with asterisk are expected to be useful but there are little data. 16 = Cu-W: 17 = Cu-Zn.vein and replacetnent TABLE 12. 5 = Au-Pb. 21 =W: 22 = Cu-Zn-W. 1973. Mg. (Govett.

2 94 V"-. source rocks cover rocks ..• * €taCeous . — 4 km i 1 1 � mine .i•* (FDrtPHf». (Govett.O w e n Lake area.. location of Bradina and Sam G o o s i y mineral d e p o s i t s .'i � ® a FIG 12.í? ® Simplified ge o l o g y.� •ralization � • .Cf � « A � � •• • • « •♦ • .. a n d location Distribution of mean Zn content in granitoids in northwest Territories (iM. 1983) .) and Yukon Territory (Y. Canada.1**' ' • --- - - . 7� ' '.T. •-/• % 1~ ' \ f - X � -/ 8 ¿y .' • o � • X'fsv. IkJ�adina*. G o o s l y. Mion�n�} fF- � / . (ocation e f - m • • • É ir lH I «a Li Cí r.). T n •' / � 7* * ® 1y m t- .-.W.—jhost �rocks A(Up. 1983) of rock s a m p l e s .3 FIG 12. Canada.sampl 5�.T. (Govett. British Col umbia.

The extensive nature of the geochemical haloes commonly associated with sediment hosted fine disseminated gold deposits are also illustrated by data from the Carlin District. but their conclusions regarding the need for close geological control and the potential value of parallel mineralogical studies are of universal relevance.11) and the sediment hosted fine disseminated gold deposit (Pinson . their use is often precluded by a lack of sufficient exposure and/or a need for composite samples representing substantial areas. 12. Round Mountain . Canada.5c). Despite the potential advantages of rocks as sample media in many types of geochemical exploration program. 1983) 95 Additional indications of some possible roles rock geochemistry might play in exploration are provided by the discussion in Chapter 8 of the large primary haloes associated with various types of mineralization. which was obtained by Evans and Peterson (1986) in the course of a routine geological mapping program (Figs.Figure 8.Figure 8. Many of these haloes should be readily detectable by systematic geochemical rock sampling. Nevada. British Columbia. Hence .FIG 12.5b and 12.12) examples are of particular relevance in terms of current exploration priorities. A more recent discussion of the subject by Franklin and Duke (1991) is primarily concerned with Canada. if there is sufficient outcrop. An interesting review of the application of bedrock geochemistry in mineral exploration is provided by Govett (1989). (Govett.e.4 Distribution of As and C u in r o ck s around t h e Br adi na and Sam G o o s i y d e p o s i t s . 12. They provide further evidence of the potential value of systematic geochemical rock surveys in exploration for this type of mineralization. The hot spring-type gold mineralization (i.5a.

g. o ■€ O O i L:. „ <13 ■HiS t_ CO CN 4.). X Q> 0) Q.s' U c o (9 Qi a.attention must frequently be concentrated on their surficlal derivative products (e. W X o C LO �■»«. etc. a. stream sediments. soils. C (0 3 U 1a V) re 0) a re CO ■o (0 > <v Z w b _w 0 XI E >1 U) 0 "5) _o 0 0) D1 CO <D « ? o � >• 3 _o re E o c re o ~ ¡r "a 0) o H"C = tn ~ 9 TO U O O n tn evj (O Oi (3 L 01 Taitingis pond S.IS 0 CO 01 C T— 0 c re 0 c 01 _re � o Ü c 0) « k> n oi c tñ O " re re ■3 o £ E a¡ 0) a> o o O) 01 o . ■O c ® « a "D D) fl U> <D LL UJ (B re (U i_ c 0) u 2 I c o ™ w u E Ü CO •V +J U O o OJ v�o c 0 Emm W " CO 3 « c .

.limestone DOb Brecciated and altttred ca r b ona t e rocks S2LURKAN SOc Chert and sh«le J AN D ORDOV ÍC IAN I D Sr m Roberts Mountains For ma ti on SOh } DEVON IAN DEVONIAN AND SILURIAN SILURIAN AND ORDOVIC IAN H an s on Cr eek For ma ti on Oe . 98 12. h yd r ot her ma l l y altered.5c Cariin District.2.ORDOVIC IAN Eureka Quart zite Op Pogonip Gr ou p CAMBRIAN Ch H a mb u r g Dolomite C O N TAC T FAULT—Dotted where concea led THRUST FAULT—Dotted where concea led Tee t h on upper plate LOC ATIO N O F MINE AND (OR) DEPOSIT FIG 12. li mestone DSa. Geological Legen(j Soils Soils vary considerably in composition and appearance according to their genetic.2.Upper Devonian Unnamed limestone J Popovich For ma ti on DSI Undifferentiated limestone DSI.Mine du mp at Cariin mine o Qaf Alluvium .QU ATER N ARY Landslide deposits Qf Fan glome ra te Ts Siltsone Pliocene and (or) MIoccnc Tc Cariin Fo r ma t i on of Rcgnier (1960) Trt RhyolUic weided Cuff TERTIARY Ti b Intrusive breccia Q u a r t s latlte - Tgd Granodlorite Oligocene TERTIARY OR C R E TAC E O U S TKrd Rh yodacite Kqm Q u a r t z monzonite I C R E TAC E O U S Kgd Granodlorlte SIUCEOUS (WESTERN) ASSEMB LAGE TRANS IT ION AL AS SE MB LAGE C A R B O N ATE (EASTERN) AS SE MB LAGE Dp i.

40 m) and "deep" (>300 feet . It is therefore not surprising that geochemical soil (generally C .8 and 12. The resultant geochemical data display anomalous patterns over and in th e immediate vicinity of the known "shallow" (>100 feet . As. utine geochemical soil surveys based on.).9). et al.e. etc. 12. Sb. Residual soils characteristically contain detectable dispersion patterns developed during the weathering of mineralization in the underlying bedrock. Soils are most often sampled alona traverses or grids in the follow-up or detaile d prospecting stages of geochemical programs. orientation programs define criteria such as sample depth or soil horizon to be sampled..g. and/or base of slope (Fig. and the size-fraction f or analysis. say. a 30 m grid. and geograpiiic environment. soils are mixtures of mineral and biologic matter and may be distinctively differentiated into a series of soil horizons. near surfa ce sediment hosted fine disseminated gold deposits in semi-arid areas. . 12. Je rritt Canyon. are commonly reflected by extensive geochemical anomalies in the immature residual soils.6). As has been previously stressed.�1 sample per km�) in geochemical reconnaissance survevs and aeochemica l mapping. Nevada. and Hg.climatic. It is essential that these criteria be observed resolutely through the survey.1 20 These could be readily detected in ro m) ore zones (Figs.horizon) sampling h as assisted in the discovery of a number of these deposits (e. sample interval. Classified into residua l and transported types according to their relationship to their substrate. Alligator Ridge. 12. in recent years increasing attention has been given to low densitv s oil sampling (i. The minus 80 mesh sieved fraction of 1 59 C horizon soil samples were analyzed for a number of elements including Au. Some indication of the size and nature of soil anomalies which might be expected in the vicinity of such mineralization is provided by Bagby. and these patterns are revealed by careful sampling of appropriate soil horizons. As might be expected.7) traverses. in vie w of the size of the deposits and associated primary geochemical haloes. In rugged terrain initial follow-up surveys of reconnaissance stream sediment anomalies is sometimes most readily achieved b y sampling soils along ridge and spur (Fig. Ag . (1984) i n a study of soils over the Dee Deposit. such as Nevada.

� • • 12. & Webb.e. 12. Lateritic soils were sampled on a 4 00 m grid in a UN exploration reconnaissance program for Archean metavolcanics hoste d massive sulfide (i. Republic of Philip¬ Data on -SO-mesh fraction.6 Example of ridge-and-spur soii-sampling pattern. >200 ppm) (Fig. VMS) mineralization in the West African nation of Burkina Fa so. * * */* ** • Heavy-metal content of colluvium (ppm) • >2000 . An example of use of lateritic soils as a regional geochemical reconnaissanc e sample medium is provided by Lewis et al (1989).e. Follow-up soil sampling on a 25 m grid spacing of small weak anomalies detected in t he reconnaissance phase (Fig. pines. 1 979) .10 ) confirmed the existence of a dist inct 550 by 250 m 2n ***' • • •) anomaly (I.500-2000 • < 500 1 )*•••••• • J 1 2 kilometers 500 meters FIG 12.11). Hawi<es. Cebu Project. Subsequent drilling result j *( * ed in the delineation of a major VMS deposit.Deeply weathered residua l soils can also provide useful geochemical sampling media. (Rose.

s *0T xo.o-I.o f -s l op e sampling pattern. . ** � . Example of b a s e1000 .. FIG 12.s»**• o*i.0 1000- .5-3 .7 1100 3k~«A 0>5f e it>5e X X S. 100 District.S Ol. Haw kes & Webb. 1979) Af. . Data on . ■ < 1000 .» + 1..1c m (Rose.Lemieux fraction.s •t. Q u e b e c .M 1100 f.

AA -B 1.0 X . (Bagby et al.llOO TI.*-1.. Outlined samples are those that have element concentrations in the upper two histogram groups and are considered anomalous for this sample population. Deep ore = : shallow ore \\\\ and ////.2 X .7 o I.UI.1. Symbols represent the histogram groups.3-1.• 1100 ■ 1000- I.8 1000- Spatial variation of anomalous soil samples. FIG 12. 1984) 101 .

whereas the two smaller areas contain samples that are anomalous in only one element.FIG 12. 1984) FIG 12.10 Regional soil geochemistry (Zn) in the area around the Perkoa Deposit. 1989) ..8. Ore zones are shown as in Figure 12. Values in ppm. Burkino Faso. B) Outlines of the anomalous areas from Figure 12. The large outlined area contains samples that are anomalous for more than one element. et al.9 102 A) Outlines of areas with samples that contain anomalous values.9a with the addition of smaller anomalies defined by areas containing three or more samples with concentrations in the uppermost histogram group. (Bagby et al. (Lewis.

utilizes the surface residual concentrations of hard rock fragments (generally siliceous a n d / o r ferruginous) which remain after most of the fines have been blown away. 12.13) is thought to reflect leaching and supe rgen e enrichment during post-laterito modification of the weathering profile. Som e s u c c e s s in comparable terrain (Australia and Botswana) has also been claimed (Farrell. Sb. which comprises extensive laterite.12b). in the Fe-oxyhydoxides and Sn and W in resistant minerals during the laterite soil profile development. 1984) on both regional and local scales for a geochemical . In contrast the surface gold halo extends over an area of s o m e 3 km by 1 km (Fig.11 Detailed geochemistry (Zn) in the vicinity of the Perkoa Deposit.8 g/ t Au) Boddingion gold deposit. and s u b s e q u e n t lateral mechanical dispersion (Fig. Bi. displays a surface chalcophile element halo measuring some 30 km by 4 km (Fig.14 illustrates the far larger size of a gold anomaly defined by "lag" samples from a 400x50 m reconnaissance grid. saprolite and supergene resen/es over a primary volcanogenic massive sulfide source.) The "mushroom-form" of the zone of gold concentration in the subsurface saprolites (Fig. < 1 per km�) reconnaissance and higher density follow-up geochemical soil sampling techniques could obviously play useful roles in exploration for Boddington-type gold occurrences. in the strictest sense. Hydromorphic dispersion can sometimes produce epigenetic soil anomalies located s o m e distance from the bedrock source.FIG 12. and has been successfully used in exploration for gold and b a s e metal sulfides. In Australia this sample media is known as "lag" (Carver. The potential effectiveness of this appr oa ch is illustrated by a recent study of surface pisolitic laterites over the Saddleback Greenstone Belt. Figure 12. The data reveals that the large (45 million tonnes at 1. in Western Australia (Smith.12a).e. A similar "soil" sampling method developed in recent years for deeply weathered semi-arid ar ea s with long weathering histories. etc. The Boddington example also demonstrates the need for care when using residual soils as geochemical exploration sample media. Both low density (i. 12.13). 12. co mp ar ed to that displayed by follow-up bulk soil samples from a 100x20 m grid in the Eastern Goldfields Province of Western Australia. 1987). (Lewis. (Thus the soils are not completely residual. Values in ppm.. 1989). et al. Bur¬ kino Faso. The large size of the chalcophile element anomaly in the surface laterite is thought to reflect the retention of As. 12. ei al.. 1989) 103 Geochemical soil sampling can also constitute a useful technique in go!d exploration over lateritic terrain.

extensive soil anomalies. for example. "loam" concentrates). Newfoundland. 12. overlying tills. At Buchans. but meaningful surveys are possible in many areas once the genetic origins of the transported cover are jnderstood.15). southwestward) from suboutcropping volcanogenic massive sulfide mineralizations (Fig. (Smitii. Anomalous "hot-spots" reflect ocally enriched (or better exposed) portions of the dispersion train which are often far 104 Australia. in glaciated areas.e.exploration method b a s e d on the heavy mineral concentrate fraction of soils (i. soils derived from glacial dispersion trains can present far larger targets than the suboutcropping source mineralization. showing dispersion patterns about tine Boddington Au deposit.e. Transported soils present especially difficult sampling problems. 1989) . reflect glacial dispersion trains which extend for s o m e miles "down-ice" (i.

Western Australia. Mo.. In. (Carver et al. Sb. 1989) 105 LAGS 4000E 6000E 4000E SOILS 6000E i 1 km 50000N + -+ i I < 5 ppb Au 49000N \ I < 5 ppb Au m 5 -40 iU 5-30 □ 30-85 40-70 >85 > 70 B FIG 12. Eastern Goldfields Province. whereas Au has undergone ieaching and supergene enrichment during post-laterite modification of the weathering profile. 1987) .13 r Diagrammatic cross-section depict-ing retention of chalcopliile elements such as As. (Smith.FIG 12. and perhaps Ge in the Fe-oxyhydroxides and Sn and W in resistant minerals in tateritic duricrust. Bi.14 Comparison of Au anomalies in -6 + 2 mm lags and -6 mm soils.

in the Hemlo district. humus samples show well defined gold anomalies (Fig. Au distribution patterns in mull (Fig. Gleeson and Sheehan (1987) report an absence of humus response around the Doyon gold deposit in Quebec Province. The seasonal fall of leaves and needles transfers some of the accumulated metals to the surface soil where they are incorporated in the humus. 12. 12-2) 12. They conclude that in the Hemlo district humus sampling is an effective geochemical exploration medium over terrain underlain by up to 5 m of permeable overburden (exotic or otherwise).e. considerable attention has been given to the use of humus as a geochemical sample medium in the Canadian Shield. locally derived till. ano malous . unless the nature of the surficial environment is fully appreciated. whilst "B" horizon sampling should be confined to areas where the till cover is thin or absent (i. As discussed below in the section dealing with geochemical surveys based on vegetation sampling. In glaciated areas. More recently.19). Ao. 12. 12. or Ah material) constitutes an effective geochemical sampling medium. deep rooted plants can sometimes obtain nutrients from anomalous till dispersion trains (related to nearby suboutcropping mineralization) which are obscured by barren oveburden.2INC IN Í > 100 Il~c 100 p p i i £ SCO \j SOILS BftCKSfiOUNC an o malo us Q ■ MODERATE-STflONGk-l" p pm kOTg: DITA RELATE TO MIHUS 106 from their bedrock source. the root penetration of plants sometimes exceeds the thickness of barren cover and obtains nutrients from underlying mineralized bedrock and/or anomalous ground water. presumably due to the presence of 1 m of relatively impermeable glaciolacustrine clay and silt that overlies the 1 m to 2 m of anomalous. Attention is drawn to a useful check list for the organization of soil surveys (Table which also has some relevance to other types of sample media. In this type of situation. The sediment at any point in a stream is a natural composite sample of erosional materials from upstream in the drainage basin and can include clastic. time and effort could be wasted in fruitless searches for mineralized bedrock sources in the immediate vicinity of many of the anomaiy "peaks". However.2.17).16) were found to more dearly reflect glacial sediment covered gold bearing quartz/sulfide veins than the Au distribution patterns for the C horizon soils (Fig. 12. In some areas with barren exotic overburden the soi l humus horizon (alternatively known as mull.3. (1971) in a research study of the Empire mining district. Colorado.18) over gold occurrences and associated anomalous glacial dispersion trains (Fig. An early demonstration of the potential effectiveness of mull sampling in gold exploration was provided by Curtin et al. <1 m). At the Williams property. generally poor response is reported for "B" horizon soils due to the presence of several meters of exotic calcareous till. Stream Sediments Stream sediment is one of the more commonly used media for regiona l geochemica l surveys.

=5 ■n c E E Q. base humid.i: ® "q. -c '3 > . dispersion trains from sulfide-rich metal M _ g deposits may extend downstream for some miles. Q. M W o) a i c -1 <]> (A . In source.E t: oras " c <¿ .� d cn • 1/5 iS�d •w « — 03 r cn AOKHnOSUd J.K|33H3d o l«» T— O O .i: n ffl ■a « Q. = Ü H E . actively oxidizing environments. tn ffl -J « _c r (Q n 0) � ffl X 2 ■d o C) o o> � u •I| E a Q.5» . \ N. Q Q.£ c g .— o " o M W \ O °r oT ffl « j= . and biogenic contributions from any weathering mineralization present. � T" CO cn d 2 'S ? « « to " w ffl — o ffl « c « c o « ■a u c 03 o O CO Ü to o £ Ü oT CO Q. CO � ra c "S « o ® O « a Q. a. The length of anomalous dispersion trains will vary with the nature of the mineralization.= a \ \\ \ . ¿ Oi Q.hydromorphic. a.E ■£ . and the physicochemical environment of the field area or drainage basin.

CO (0 ffl C r X 2 o 12 o G) -JZ ffl £ O) � ) i a s A3M3n03U4 1M33MU .CQ i? g « Q. (Gleeson and in liumus.18 gold Highway zones Metasediments—Metovolcanics -25 400 of coniact ppb ppb ppb Hemlo Gold District.o rg rCJ 108 7+oost: Troas—Canada Ou tline ~ malers I —50 BHBi —500 FIG 12. Q. 1987} . Williams Option . Ontario.

7+OOSt Tra n s — C a n o d o Ou t lin e - 400 meters - of go ld Híghwoy zones Metosedimenfs—Metavolcanics —25 ppb -50 ppb —500 ppb contact .

in batch submitted to laboratory must t>e simple and direct. samples designed to enhance patterns or anomalies related to specific mineral deposit types. . topography. request reanalysis when in doubt manual or computer aided.2 simple unambiguous. 1987) As has been recently pointed out (Plant. leader when. wi th standards.109 Check Item numbers. etc. approximately 500 to 1000 g of fine-grained material is collected from the upper few inches of the sediment near the center of a drainage. Representative samples are the basis of most regiona l geochemica l mappina programs conducted by national survey organizations. for quality of analytical data. etc. office or warehouse ensure good communication with management and other project personnel author of report must be familiar wi th field program Checklist for the organization of a geochenriical soil survey. FIELD PARTY TRAINING BASE MAPS NUMBERING SCHEMES FIELD NOTES QUALITY CONTROL COMMUNICATIONS W ITH LABORATORY SHIPPING LISTS INSTRUCTIONS RETURN OF DATA DATA H A N D L IN G INTERPRETATION MAPS INTEGRATION OF FIELD NOTES STORAGE OF DATA ARCHIVE OF SAMPLES INTEGRATION WITH OTHER EXPLORATION PROCEDURES REPORTING TABLE 12. standards. (Thomson. What procedures are best for your project? prepared Co summarize geochemical features used to qualify interpretation of geochemical data need to be able to retrieve for reinterpretation at laboratory. Only designated personnel should actually give instructions to the laboratory. must accompany every consignment sent to the laboratory give clear unambiguous instructions to the laboratory check duplicates. In most situations samples are best collected with the aid of a (non-contaminating) steel shovel or plastic scoop. as well as some regional geochemical exploration surveys undertaken by mining companies. avoid complex alphanumerics make sure they are taken correctly collect field duplicate samples and insert. They commonly use active stream sediment (i. avoiding sites that may be contaminated or influenced by bank collapse. Ballantyne (1991) recommends use of the latter in flowing streams as the scoop walls help minimize loss of fines. composition.e.. In most of these survey programs. in a wide variety of climatically influenced weathering environments. experience. material constantly or frequently washed by stream waters) that is most representative of catchment erosion products. et al. where. 1989) stream sediment samples fall into two broad categories: (i) (ii) representative samples. by whom appropriate scale. including petrogenic elements.

ai. {Otteson et..20a Water discharge of a river under ordinary conditions with normal amounts of water. Avoidance of more recent (i.20 and 12.20b Water discharge of a river during a major flood. vertical composite samples of "overbank" (i. sedimentation takes place on the river plain.21).e.110 RIVER RIVERPLAIN FIG. 12.. et al. 1989). 111 . 1989) FIG 12. These are derived from many episodes of flood sedimentation and are therefore far more likely to constitute a representative sample of the whole catchment than regular active sediment samples. al.e.. levee or flood plain) materia! have proven more effective (Otteson. 12. as in many parts of Scandinavia and else-where. 1989) Overbani< Where active stream sediment is unrepresentative due to localized nature of current fluvial erosion (Figs. (Otteson et. near surface) sediment in and around industrialized areas helps minimize possible effects from industrial contamination.

1989). a str ea m-se di men t a n o m a l y has d e ve l o p e d wh e r e th e s tre am crosses th e mineralization du e to influence f r o m pa ie o-so urces and a presentl y small. although the recent Nordkallott Project in Northern Scandinavia used a sa mple density of 1 sample per 30 km�.FIG. th e active stream sed im en t is d o m i n a t e d b y sed im en t so u rc e No. In tine stream on the right ha nd side. The results of a fairly smail but successful survey based on this medium are described by Webs ter 112 •t . a reason why the anomaly can be det ec te d onl y in th e o v e r b a n k sediment. 1.>• . diffuse se d i m e n t p r o d u c t i o n o c c u r r i n g along the stream bed. (Otteson et al. in the m id dl e river. 1 sample per 500 km�) was applied in a recent geochemical mapping survey (Fig. This anomaly Is diluted b y sed im en ts f r o m so u rc e 3. As mentioned above. 12.. Even lower density sampling (i.22) of the whole of Norw ay based on "overbank" sampling (Otteson.21 A d i a g r a m m a t i c de pic ti on of h o w g e o c h e m i c a l dispersa patterns f or active stream s ed i m e n t and o v e r b a n k se d i m e n t m a y be influenced b y mineralization and se d i m e n t sources. representative stream sediments are frequently also used a s geochemical sample media in regional reconnaissance exploration program s. 1989) Regional geochemical mapping programs based on representative stream sediment samples generally cover areas of thousands or even tens of thousands of square miles. wh e r e no active sed im en t sources exist in t he u p p er part.e.. et al. 12. A majority of these surveys emplo y sampling densities greater than 1 per 5 km�.

'X �•«■�•*. 1989) 113 and Skey.¿r\ '. • y "� ■ - �t' * -W.í .w �� . Frequently. resulted in the discovery of the Que River massive Pb/Zn sulfide deposit.€� « "S-�.23). Norway..6 • >:'. An anomalous sample down stream from the Nordli deposit is indicated witli an arrow.:.-.'•"iC./-� •*'' �'V 1 *<• » � ■« ■ • • -1..22 200km Hot nitric acid soluble Mo in overbank sediment. 12.. ft Q ?i6-o V -.¿r<* • •.'' "tí- :•%/ T. il ay-i w • ~i> í.� ■' '■.«• « ■ ■ ' •. Geochemicai analysis of stream sediment samples collected at a density of 3 to 5 samples/km� over an area of Cambrian volcanic rocks in northwestern Tasmania (Fig. *.y FIG 12. (Otteson et al. f«. 1979).i' -•'• *'• i ■ •• . as in the Bulk Leach Extractable Gold fBLEG) or Bulk Cvanide Leach (BCD technique which has been used extensively in Australian gold exploration in recent years (Elliott and .*�"".-A • "■ p p m . anomalous response from target mineralization types can be enhanced by subjecting stream sediment samples to selective analytical methods.»- ' .•■'• >7./ .

Towsey, 1989). Large (often 5-10 kg) samples of active stream sediment (minus the
coarser fractions) are exposed to a weak cyanide solution which leaches out accessible
gold. The gold content of the leachate can then be analyzed. The method is extremely
sensitive and helps minimize "nugget effects". Obviously it can only be used where gold
is freely accessible (i.e. in fine particulate form, exposed on mineral surfaces, etc.) io the
leachate, and is most effective in deeply weathered areas and in samples which are free
of refractory materials and the gold is not occluded.
Geochemicai exploration efficiency can in many cases be increased by collection
and analysis of specific fractions of active stream sediments or even alternative drainage
sediment components which, in certain circumstances, display more distinct and more
consistent Indications of the presence of target mineral deposits than do representative
samples of active stream sediments. Probably one of the better examples of this type of
approach is provided by heavy mineral concentrates. These improve contrast for
elements such as tungsten (e.g. Turiel, et al, 1987), barium (Coats, et al., 1981) and gold
(Fletcher, 1985 and Mauhce, 1991) when they are held in resístate mineral phases. They
are sometimes also useful in lateritic terrain where elements of interest are held in iron
In some areas (e.g. southeastern U.S.A.) selective analysis of manoanese and iron
hydroxide coatings on stream sediment particles (boulders down to fines) is an effective
method of detecting hydromorphically dispersed ore and pathfinder elements (Figs.
12.24a and 12.24b) which have been adsorbed and concentrated by these coatings
(Chao and Theobald, 1976; Carpenter, et al., 1975; Nowlan, 1976; Whitney, 1981; Hale
et al., 1984). However, interpretation of the resultant data can sometimes be difficult.
The ultra fine sieved fractions (e.g. minus 200 mesh - minus 75 microns) of stream
sediments have been shown to be effective geochemicai exploration sample medium in
some arid and semi-arid environments. Observed advantages in both base metal
exploration in Australia (Mazzuchelli, 1980; Beeson, 1984), and gold exploration in Nevada
(Mehrtens, pers. comm. 1986) include more extensive and consistent anomalous
dispersion trains than those provided by other sample media such as heavy mineral
concentrates and the coarser sieved sediment fractions. In contrast Moeskops and White
(1980) found the +35 to -18 mesh (+0.5 to -1.0 mm) sieved coarse fraction to be
especially effective in a base metal exploration program in South Australia, whilst Zeegers114

Geoc�e/Tllcol Re$uüs

p p m

- 20�
HCIO4 digestion
A AS Anolysts

Geochemical results for the 1970-71
Tasmania. (Webster and Skey, 1979)

FIG 12.23








76 �




/ 'm aG R U D E R










stream sediment

p •

mine area

Sompte s<t«
Ma�gruder mme
Mmeralii«d zone

Que River Prospect,

FIG 12.24a

Sample location map for Magruder Mine area, Georgia.
(Meyer et a!.. 1979)


Downstream dispersion from zinc, copper, and lead in
minus-80-mesh stream sediments and oxide coatings.
Magruder Mine area. (Meyer et al., 1979)



et al. (1985) recommended use of the
+ 250 mesh (+62 micron) fraction in
desert areas to avoid problems with
dilution by fine eolian sand.
Qroanic drainage samples have
been used in northern Scandinavia
(Fig. 12.25) and elsewhere due to lack
of normal sedimentary material for long
distances in stream channels (Larsson,
In Scandinavia the samples
comprise organic debris in various
stages of humification and often
penetrated by the living roots of
various bog plant species. Elsewhere
other potential drainage sample media
have also been examined.
example, aquatic mosses were studied
by Erdman and Modreski (1984) to
determine whether they might provide
effective geochemical sample media in

and the Cordilleran and and sufficient material background range particularl Appalachian should be collected at each site to allow y regions of North America.2. In areas where no previous experience exists. Moss-trapped stream sediment material was found to provide similar but higher contrast geochemical patterns to those produced by normal stream sediment samples. Densities are frequently in the range 1 sample per 1-3 km�.6.2. whilst 1 sample per 20 km � would be considered unusually low. Lake Sediments hield. stream sediment surveys can be designed to systematically cover areas up to several thousand square miles.4).ments in the Vehkavaara district. in all surveys in new areas. However. a short interval of 150 ft. 1976) area. analytical techniques. the critic al parameters of sample interval. Samples must also be collected from nonreconnais but also within the Fennoscandian Shi eld sance mineralized areas to establisii the technique. mpy. The ide for the determination of optimum size within th al e Canadi terrain for this fractions. (350 m) is recommended. In the regional reconnaissance prospecting mode.1. an Preca akes mbrian S are common. Average sampling densities tend to be significantly higher than those employed in geochemical mapping programs as the emphasis is on detection of dispersion trains related t o individual mineral districts a n d /o r deposits. an interesting variant of the aquatic moss biogeochemical technique was described by Smith (1976) following a limited study of mineralized areas in Norway. (50 m) over an initial downstream distance of 1050 ft. and other technique is where l factors listed in Tables 11. and 11. sediment size fraction. rather than broad mineral provinces. and/or where stream drainages Lake sediment sampling has been are developed into an effective geochemical . significant anomaly contrasts. conditions are swa 12. Pajala areas where steep terrain prevented accumulation of stream sediment fine fractions. and background levels are determined through orientation surveys. As has been discussed previously. This clearly constitutes a biogeochemical exploration method and is therefore described in more detail in Section 12. (Larsson.4. This interval should then be progressively expanded with distance from the metal source to the limits of the known or anticipated dispersion pattern. appropriate analytical procedures.

The sampling generally focuses on the collection of these organic muds using specially designed sampling devices {Fig. The lake sediment technique has successfully indicated the presence of several In important forms of mineralization as the following examples clearly demonstrate. (Rose et al.28). gytia) being deposited on the lake bottoms. Lake water samples {see Section 12. Saskatchewan the Key Lake and Rabbit Lake uranium mineralizations and associated anomalous glacial dispersion trains are reflected by extensive lake sediment anomalies (Figs.a nd -so cke t valve ■5 m Sharpened end of tube for cutting sample FIG 12.2.e.27 and 12. 12. the lak 101 .26). float planes or helicopters. In more mountainous areas. 12.7.V Q. 19 79). Equally impressive anomalies are found in the vicinity of the .. In low relief regions • >1000 501 1000 e .) are commonly collected at the same sites as the lake sediments.~ O' .inaccessible or poorly developed (Coker urjlfiiuni go«n et al.100 sediment medium is d 11 — SO 0 S — tc (0 on the ependen o -< 5 t __ U-f I deposits hydromorphic dispersion of metals into the lake environment through ground waters and the adsorption of this metal onto hydrous oxides and the organic rich muds 117 m 10-3cm Eye f o r attaching line T hreads for attaching rigid rods Outlet vent for water forced through valve Ba l l.. 1979) (i. near shore materials have been successfully used in some programs in the northern part of the Canadian Shield although these are generally subaqueous equivalents of glacial and postglacial sediments on the margins of lakes and not true lake sediments. In most areas satisfactory sample locations are found well away from lake shores and are reached using boats.500 « 51 .26 Cut-away section of sample bailer for lake-sediment sampling. However. fine grained clastic dispersion into the lake sediment becomes a more important factor.

Saskatchewan. >-■/ Í"��~J■ >- ® 0 � Qv FIG 12. Northwest Territories (Fig.0 > O •o- ®. 12. (Coker et al.-•' ( ■■■-!■. - ® (í\\{ Vjp. McConnell and Davenport (1989) carried out extensive orientation studies in Newfoundland based on the geochemical analysis of organic sediment collected from lake centers. 1979) FIG 12.»"-r. 1979) application massive sulfide Agrícola deposit. 1979). 9 ®' t '� ' . Vv... % ® '•■ 'I f ) I •■ . and in fact assisted in its original discovery (Coker.. (Coker et a!. S'Q. It was determined that . Saskatchewan. Location of deposit shown by solid triangle.28 Uranium (ppm) in lake sediments near the Rabbit l_ake uranium deposit... 'OI y '■®:« ■' r�j r' 0�_ -- .27 Distribution of U in lake sediments in the vicinity of the Key Lake U-Ni deposit. .29).'. r��-.. More recently a number of authors have reported on the of lake sediment geochemistry to gold explora¬ tion. a'~• .

Agrícola Lake area. N. but not all known Au occurrences were distinguished METAVOLCANICS ■ by anomalous Au concentra¬ tions in nearby take sediments 12. Cu and Zn) display inconsistent FIG relationships to gold mineraliza¬ tion and it was concluded that 108-"0ü � 7 n N es r s ho r e l8i«:e METASEDIMENTS . (Coker et a!.WT.30 and (Figs.119 most. 12. Pb.90 GRANITES —Geological boundar y � Massive sulphicfe body 12.29 Distribution of Zn (ppm) in nearshore lake bottom materials. Pathfinder elements (Sb. As.31). sediments \ . 1979) .

5. northern Europe. and a number of hi gh elevation areas in the southern hemisphere have presented major challenge s to exploration. Useful reviews of the application of lake sediment geochemistry in mi neral exploration in Canad riske (1991). Glacial Sediments •» Extensive Quat ernary glacial deposits occurring over mos / t of Canada and th e northern United States. >' Í» - «e Mineralized boulde r tracing in glaciated regions is an established technique of th e traditional prospector in Scandinavia and parts of Canada.2. their blanketing presence has become progressively less formidable and effective exploration techniques have been developed. As a better understanding of the origin and formation of these gl acial sediments has grown. methods were developed for 120 "J* �miL iOfit . Geenland. In Finland. They suggest that for detailed exploration a sampling density of at leas t 1 sample per 4-5 km� is necessary.Au is the only universal indicator. dogs h ave been trained to assist the prospector by sensing SOg released from oxidizing sul fide boulders at shallow depths below the surface. a are provided by Hornbrook (1989) and F 12. northern Asia. In Scandinavia.

0.Pttl / 1 .Cu. C ' f�lAM.O-. o CAnoowFenous A 154* d u i Morlfi Brook a«4n»ta 7 StrAMOcrfy MH< Qfarulc OeVONiAN 6 uVin<lCHNylA&s 4Hilf Gnn�ie: 5 MVnOSor P<»ni S f A i p tntfn. -A S- .1�. . §ftff /ffste > S'LURI-AN a<4D0VJCfi*iM 4 Capé Gr*piie tuttS -15 - -S.Aq./ ' .� 6 59.

White (McConnell and Davenport.UttrnmsfK Compf«» Gold in lake sediment./" S..m6 A0 OI�OOviCian 1 long Ñsngt ntM/rc . m�tagré>fw»c»tm.ic a n a tiiifict m�iic vo'cvi'c rociks f CAMeRO' Of�DOViCIAN 5 SOMlf>*rn Whtiv Bay Atlochlhon ion*ht9 §/9� s cft ist . méi�nq* A Ci. Cape Ray (McConnell and Davenport. Newfoundland.4- OOUCERS system® fault -1. p4¿£iro |c5» � FIG 12. «»./* 20 3040506070 80 90 9« t CAf�aONIFEftOUS � D««r Lak» Coup. Qtwnn» 1 jnvnjbo'Kp. area.seúifTi9rft»r<f foc*& ieí3.6 valley"/�/ iacv� 4+'. 1989) //v>\ 'I - Bay area.# � " V . 1 && [-¿4 •7.. A Ca.. 121 . fOC�f.< . g}RPOVK:iAN 3 fo J /0» a rwtaftte «m ffrwntfota r oc *f 2 otitic se/tfft df*o émsfhttufinr ■n C?�#C4�//Snr O�recfVfT fA. emriy.31 ��ci09¡caí r 'f '<l tmjnaé f}f Ptvit A.eistitc & « e ím t n i A í y rocki "f I to o / DE V O N IA N 2 1 10 ?o ao d( >s a« 07 0 ac h 99 7 SÚII LM« Ininjfthv» SuKO: grtntt�.30 i O" OO >1 Fault Newfoundland. fonaui�. 1989) FIG 12.Minfrgifiea JOflt . ¡jaíJfirffl SILUR IA N 6 Soos A r m Croup.i / orfL . 20..0- ® 1-4. K Gtaci&i-tion <9<recrro/i (A. Frer>cn-CiiKl3 grdrtod�O'ii*... 6 'ar«| Gold in lake sediment.>n«v Arm Croui �tÍ4i*tbor\4tt *<i<t c<4iti4 roc ki —n P R EC A MB R IA N 3 0�»V* &«n(Ie S 2i . G-eaJftjjr<:rr bounOfft.

lodgement ft has been routinely used poo m) he te il y 1980's. particularly reverse circulation (Fig. 12. and this technique is n o w the preferred sampling method in iiiost Finnish geochemical exploration programs. were adapted to collect small samples of till fro m i r m e d i a t e i y above the subou tcro ppin g bedrock to geochemicall y categorize anomaJous geophysical features at depths of up to 70 to 80 ft (23 to 25 m) (Gleeson et al.FIG 12.32) and son ic •�Tifing. 1 971). Because most types of I geophysical methods. and most of the e arly mjccess with till sampling was in areas of shallow till cover (less than 30 ft or 10 m) wh ere iTe sample medium is reasonably accessible. Overburden drilling technology. In these programs are 122 gold deposits are not detectable by conventional till sampling using overburden drills to depths of 330 in prospecting for gold in the Canadian Shield since t large samples of till (approximately 20 lb or 10 kg) .32 Simplified circulation 1979) sketch drilling of the reverse system (Thompson. ba so metal and gold deposits in glaciated areas. lightweight percussion drill s K j c h as the Pionjar and Cobra models. advanced rapidly with the utilization of larger drills in pro grams for uranium. In the 1960's. sampling tills in the 1950's. Approximately 70% of l od g em e n t till is locally derived.. Esker sampling and till sampling for distinctive heavy mineral suites have been used for kimberlite and diamond prospectin g ir the Canadian Shield.

1984) generally recovered and the heavy mineral fraction is separated and examined both visually and chemically for gold and other metals. Hole 04.34). Hole 05 will contain anomalous material related to Mineralization C in its "basal" till (4) but hole 06 with . 12. significant parts of the dispersion train will not necessarily b e detected if attention is restricted to till immediately adjacent to bedrock.33. will contain no anomalous material related to either Mineralizations A or B. Samples of till from hole 01 will not contain anomalous indications because the site is up-ice of mineralization. Even in this simple example.LONGITUDINAL SECTION A FIG 12. It Is essential that the whole of the lodgement till section is routinely sampled as indicator trains tend to rise down-Ice along smear or thrust planes within individual till formations as shown in Figure 12. Adequate sampling becomes even more critical when there are several lodgement tills related to distinct glacial episodes in an area with pronounced bedrock topography (Fig. Hole 03 will contain a strong anomaly in "basal" till (1) related to Mineralization B and a weaker. In the hypothetical example shown in the figure three mineral deposits suboutcrop beneath lodgement tills which have been sampled by six vertical drill holes. because of the effect of bedrock topography and the constriction of till deposition and possibly accelerated erosion of earlier till over the bedrock escarpment. (Miller. distal anomaly in an "upper" till (2) related to Mineralization A. Hole 02 will contain anomalous material related to Mineralization A in "basal" till (2).33 B C 0 Idealized geochemical dispersion modei for lodgement till.

34 124 OVERBURDEN ié rLUVIOClAC'JM. The technique is expensive. but : is cost effective in deep overburden covered environments where other exploratior methods have not been as successful. HORIZONS ETC. samp� treatment. no lodgement till will not provide material suitable for sampling. The correct interpretaticr of till data is obviously dependent on a thorough understanding of local glacial sedimen stratigraphy and provenance. with combined drilling. Diagrammatic overburden profiies in tlie Abitibi clay belt.02-. and analytical costs ranging from $20 to $30 per foot ($66-$99 per m). i t2. 01. DRILL HOLE SíTES Ontario. especially in gold exploration. .ICE MOVEMENT 02 03 04 05 REWORKED TILLS.

which directly overlies bedrock. Ontario. The gold content of heavy mineral concentrate samples from the overburden were determined both visually and by analysis. The samples were also analyzed for As and Sb. They defined four distinct glacial episodes each with different ice movement directions. A second pass till sampling and shallow bedrock 125 . It should be noted that in this particular area glacial dispersion of gold is only of the order of 200 to 400 m. Subsequent induced polarization-resistivity surveys defined the areal extent of a pyritic carbonate alteration zone.. in the Casa Berardi area of Quebec the technique was successfully used in follow-up of favorable stratigraphic zones delineated by geophysica methods (Sauerbrei. is clearly shown by the work of Bird and Coker (1987) in the vicinity of the Owl Creek gold mine. The overlying till has not been in contact with the mineralization and has derived it's gold from the lower till. 12. orientation studies of glacial overburder overlying a portion of this stratigraphic sequence known to contain pyrite-arsenopyritenative Au bearing quartz-carbonate vein mineralization (Golden Pond deposit) had enabled determination of optimum geochemical procedures for the district. and maximum gold values in heavy mineral concentrates are displaced 300 m down-ice from the mineralization (Fig.36). In the lowest (older) till. A successful gold exploration program using both geophysical and geochemical techniques is described by Harron.Up to now the majority of the glacial overburden drilling programs in North America have primarily relied on geochemical analysis of the heavy mineral concentrate fraction of overburden samples. et al. Targets were first tested with overburden drill holes located 25-100 m down-ice at 300-400 m intervals along strike (Fig. et al. On the first pass. sampling of overburden drill holes at 800 to 1200 ft intervals perpendicular to the ice transport direction yielded anomalous gold values in the heavy mineral concentrate fraction of till and carbonatized quartz pyrite-rich bedrock chips. 1987).Initially. which was previously alluded too. Timmins.35a). This disperal train is longer (approximately 600 m. 12. Several significant gold deposits have been discovered in Canada by this method. The degree of complexity sometimes observed in till stratigraphy and glacial dispersion. For example. gold dispersal (as determined by analysis of heavy mineral concentrates) is very limited. Closer spaced overburden drilling was used to further define anomalous dispersion trains prior to diamond drilling of bedrock (Fig. 12. Around 90 overburden sampling drill holes were completed to test specific geophysically defined targets in an area virtually devoid of outcrop.37). The highest gold concentrations are located adjacent to the subcropping gold occurrence. (1987). 12. as it is truncated against a bedrock ridge (Fig.35b) which resulted in the discovery of the Golden Pond East zone.

5 .35a IN Conductor Not Anomalous <0. Quebec. w GOLD HE AVY Km MINERAL C ONC E NT R ATE S • Anomalous > 2. Anomaly classification is based on the highest heavy mineral concentrate (HMC) gold assay from the bottom three samples.35b �Discovery I Phase I Phase II Plan showing the results of the initial and follow-up phases of reversecirculation drilling at Golden Pond East.5 ppm o FIG 12. (Sauerbrei..0 ppm lU o FIG 12.5 . 1987Í 4 100 10300 N 714S5 71432 Gold in Heavy Mineral Concentrates • Au > 2.0 ppm o We a k l y Anomalous 0.M.2. (Sauerbrei et al. Quebec.2. et al„ 1987) .0 ppm Au < 0.0 ppm o Au 0.E.5 ppm Plan showing results of reverse-circulation drilling from the Golden Pond orientation survey and exploration follow-up east and west of Golden Pond.

It should be noted that Scandinavian explorers place a greater routine reliance on the minus 63 micron (minus 240 mesh) fraction of till than do the Canadians.. Shelp and Nichol (1987) demonstrate.e. 1989. et al. Shilts.38 (i. extending for hundreds rather than thousands of feet down ice).40). Timmlns area. that the <63 micron fraction can be a more effective geochemical sample medium than heavy mineral concentrates.. (Harron. 1984). Ontario Canada. caution electromagnetic survey results. At Owl Creek they are broadly comparable in extent (Fig. There have in fact been a number of reports of the successful use of the ultra fine sieved fractions (e. .V. ONTARIO 1320' !6<W SCALE IN FEET exploration Murphy-Hoyle J. 12.. CS eSKEH DIABASe [T] SEDIHEKTS MAfIC I VOtCAHICS I MURPHY-HOYLE J. Gold in tni anomaly plotted in relation to heavy concentrates fromresulting is the FIG 12. This fraction has successfully indicated the presence of several types of mineralization. in view of the practical problems associated with the preparation of sufficient <2 micron material for analysis.e.39). 12. use of mineral Canada. V. The short dispersion train is thought to be related to the presence of a bedrock ridge down ice from the auriferous veins. Despite the LggEHO *■ MINCIULjUTK)H o DVERfiURDeH -EH COHOUCTOfi cHMSEiaiuTT log' C7r> HESISTIVITT «-Z. at least when target mineralizations contain ultrafine gold.38 induced polarization/resistivltyand horizontal loop successes from till. The mineral concentrate "ieavy faction of the till samples delineates an anomalous (i. At Hemlo the HMC gold anomaly decays far more rapidly than that associated with the sieved fines (Fig. It is thought probable that in weathering tills the fine grain size phyllosilicate and secondary minerals act as scavengers. recommended. Nikkarinen.g. However. using data from the Hemlo Au district and the area containing the Owl Creek Au deposit. 1984. <2 microns) of glacial overburden samples in Canada and Scandinavia (Coker and DiLabio.127 sampling program was then jsed to determine the gold potential of this zone. et al. In view of the variable nature of target m ineralizations and the weathering history of the glacial overburden. Ontario. the <63 micron (<250 mesh) is more commonly used. QLOWER TILL GOLD ANOMALY a GEOPHYSICS TIMMtMS AREA. and adsorb trace metals released during the breakdown of sulfide and other minerals. «"100' ¿¿S 500 PMJ [N LO«H TILL'iig. including gold. heavy mineral concentrates will not necessarily always constitute the optimum sample medium for geochemical analysis. 'eportedly �2000 ppb) gold dispersion train of fairly limited extent as shown in Figure 12. in Scandinavia.

These invisible metal concentrations are known as biooeochemica l indicators . Ontario. effective aeochemical exploration in glaciated terrain requires the particioation of Quaternary geologists or at least geologists with some training in Quaternary aeoloov fCoker. 1991).6. Probably the best recent reviews of geochemical exploration in glacial terrain are provided by Coker and DiLablo (1989). twigs. 1987) mineral concentrate and the -63 fraction of tills from Owl Creek. (Shelp and Nicho!. Vegetation Early scientific observers dating from the eighth and ninth centuries recorded that the morphology and distribution of certain plants were affected by the presence of metals in the soils. Coker (1991) and Shilts (1991).2. 12. Such visible variations in a plant species are referred to as oeobotanical indicators.heavy-mineral mineralization fraction of till assoc at ed with at Hemlo. while not showing any visible variations. Ontario. (Siieip and Nicliol. 1987) 129 In view of the general complexity of glacial sediments and the need for correc t identification of the materiaf being sampled. are capable of concentrating metals in their tissues and the presence of anomalous metals in the soils or ground waters is often reflected in the metal content of leaves. or other plant organs. Many other plants.

together with other ia�ace features. have been applied with varying degrees of success in glaciated regions of North America (Boyle et al. jn areas with barren transported overburdenV Deep penetrating root systems can sometimes provide surface evidence of bedrock and ground water geochemistry (i. et al. regional exploration of some 1000 km strike length of thinly covered potential host strata. initial air and ground reconnaissance and orientation surveys of large areas with hot and semiarid climate in South West Africa and Botswana revealed distinctive vegetation associations that distinguished areas of near surface Proterozic bedrock from those with thick cover of Kalahari Sand and calcrete. Cannon.43) which could also have assisted in the discovery. Europe and Asia. Hence potential target areas could be effectively delineated during follow-up of anomalies .41b and 12.e. biogeochemical and geochemical (soil) techniques. Geobotanical and biooeochemica l indicators are of greatest potential interest as mineral exoloration tools ]n areas where soil sampling Is ineffective (e. 1980). in particular biogeochemistry.e. 12. and Cole (1980).(Brooks.g. these techniques. where pediment. 12. resulted in the discovery of a number of similar mineral occurrences. at least to some degree. using a combination of geobotanical. The recognition of anomalous plant communities (Figs. Consequently.. colluvial. An interesting application of geobotany in gold exploration in Finnish Lapland is described by Puikkinnen. it should be noted that the mineralization is also reflected by distinctive soil anomalies (Fig. 1979) rather than case histories of successful exploration programs.42) at one of these locations with thin cover resulted in the discovery of sedex-type copper mineralization. (1989). 1972). Although a number of papers and books on geobotany have been published over :he years. In addition. Some of the few well documented examples of the use of geobotany in a mineral exploration program are provided by Cole and Le Roex (1978).e from a mineral tetploration point of view) regional structural and lithological features (Cole. The bulk of the published studies are of an academic nature (e. reflects the fact that effective application of geobotany requires highly developed botanical skills which are unlikely to be found in the majority of exploration groups. 1977). 12. and in arid and semi-arid areas. they allow the prospector to "see through" the overburden).Subsequently. effective programs for large areas are difficult r) design as the results of orientation studies are often likely to have only restricted acpticability due to the wide variety of environmental factors which can influence plant growth. They found that host rocks for gold mineralization (i. 1969). This presumably.41a. like the Southwestern United States. Probably the greatest potential value geobotanical features have in mineral ' exploration is indirect.g. there is little evidence of extensive direct surface application in mineral exploration field surveys. whose distribution patterns di�sclose significant (i. carbonatized and mica-altered zones within a volcanic sequence) support a distinctive vegetation despite the presence of glacial overburden (mainly lodgement till). and alluvial cover is extensive (Chaffee. Suitably enhanced satellite imagery may sometimes detect listinctive spectral responses related to vegetational associations. In 130 addition anomalous plant communities associated with mineralization may sometimes be recognized on conventional air photographs.

Plants are complex organisms and so is their metabolism..g. deserts and are. generally preferred species in biogeochemical work in this particular region. 131 1000 - 900 -700 -600 UOO 1300 1200 HOC 1000 900 800 m 700 600 SOO tOO Areas of Helichfysum leotoieois on j ossgeiottd Fimbristvlis tuili Sj Anstida congesta and Eragrostis denudata congesto .detected in the course of regional geochemical mapping based on till and drainage sampling. Evapotranspiration has been suggested as a mechanism for movement of metals into the nutrient depth of these plants. stream sediment. Nevertheless.S. For example. it is still generally far less popular than the techniques described in the preceding sections (i. therefore. Althouch bioaeochemistry has found wider acceptance than geobotany in mineral exploration. mainly due to the difficulties associated with program design and data interpretation. ens Scattered occurence of Hetichrysum leptolepis Assaciotion of Aristido Eragrostis denudata and Anthephoro pubesc . etc.e geochemical methods based on rock. soil. shallow rooted plants growing in transported cover may reveal meaningful patterns in some desert regions. Different species respond differently to the same conditions and consequently some species are more effective biogeochemical indicators than others. deep-rooted plants (e.. the mesquite) are much more effective prospectors of the deeper ground waters than the shallow-rooted flora of the southwestern U. sampling).

• �«> «tie-1 4 • • •. .• •%••« °o □ .• *.•■. � ° " S.w**« 0 *«« 0 4!r"fc V ♦ • •• cT* • 4 • » • • • O* * * "J" *./•.1 a V ® O °e □ � • □ ® • .\ • Ü • ÍI i "i*.* t * . .V*s*'i w®»" Is 0 .*w«s: • � 0 • D ® □ qO ■«' P ®0 0 1 OA�® � □ o . e S. -.D bO V«. •□ • " 0 %2 °. 8. » S* ■=> ' s ® |e®a ®6 D □ 100 200 m ■' a ■ 49 * Q .* * • «• •• <". Nidorellg resedtfolia.-! :'°vX »ao • • • *i ••" • o5*i o «o" «Se A ti°* •1®. • .® •0 0 . 1980) • e> □ «□ q * • ♦ o Q ® •D • Da U D • •»" «D..• »• • •• ■ * ••#•••• •V . 12. ® ® ® c B *Í e ♦ «•..*•:.• ■ *?•*. ••. "< e * □ ■í!?ñ6-'.*.• .*. • D *#&«•« * •D • D • . v. Nami ■.*« « •t. (Cole.'í • qViV*""? D □ i'iy.tfi 4 4 D 4 «. « / a * □ ••o D ♦ 4 • ••• *1�• # e* « ••• n •o • • !° • * .á>-.. o'� □ O Helicbrysum leptolepis (DC) occurrences over one area ne • D O 0 ®* ® • .'s'.VJf-* .•« *■>* "í* ♦• * f V.* ••tí*» ♦•• ♦ 4 t .• . Ennegpoqon brochystochus and Fifigerhuthto ofricono Dense shrub co*er ®• o P» □ '0 ® o ®.•Via p .42 ■n 5 N> O O (D to CD O to ro Vegetation assocations and ar Witvlei.* FIG. n.Areas of Stipogrostis uniplumis 300 ZOO Association of Ocimom an�eficonum. •« ** *■ 4 . ♦«•o°oWWS bia.

t9o I ' E1 5a iiüíjifnilfüi. iJUIIdiWfírsHíl� i f ni i m .

X Ü « Ml I I I I <M r i I X 0 tfl s c o N 15 b d) > <0 (0 CO CO o u u m u 0) vt c n w n O) c O ra > O) O o (» o en 0) ra c a> 0 o '■5 o 3 £ "u n 2 I> - '•B en o "ü I» a V3 IMád E (0 Z Cü a> k.CO CO " 5' I' I til 'I s o ¿ 5 £ Usi I 11 •'l ? i I i M I i5Sallii lit iíí ' IIM in t n f l|Í33|t I HIilll 11 11 i 3 v> 0) u c o u w 3 Ü u 0 Ü a .2 a <t) o a a> Ihii ■ ÍIIÍS3 E a en > L. re 4 o4 0 asD n T- CM 2 134 .

following the exhaustion of available near-surface water during the dry season. 17 14 9 11 66 13 <5 13 twigs.56) (0. 12. Some expertise in botany as well as exploration geochemistry is essential for both the orientation studies and the supervision of vegetation surveys. Alder Leaves Gold (ppb) in ash Early June Early August Mid Mid September April 1 32 7 23 250 2 53 6 17 47 3 58 9 20 4 34 6 5 29 6 1984 June August September 130 43 6 19 15 166 48 7 15 8 10 37 27 18 11 35 7 n 34 21 6 12 7 23 6 13 57 25 7 13 8 25 8 13 41 21 13 13 9 25 11 20 27 21 11 16 10 8 20 14 20 6 <5 11 11 29 20 23 75 11 8 22 12 35 10 22 58 8 7 8 13 23 8 14 51 6 6 9 FIG 12. 14 12 17 18 33 10 8 8 These variables make biogeochemical sampling a very specialized exercise.2) (1.38) (0. Because of these seasonal variations.3). This complexity is accentuated by the fact that metal uptake may vary with aspect and season (Table 12. biogeochemical surveys must be completed quickly in the optimum period(s) defined by the orientation studies. In hot desert regions. bark. In temperate forest regions. 1991): 135 . deep rooted plants will tap the deeper ground. 1980) Some species preferenti 15 10 24 11 53 14 7 18 a lly concentrate metals i n specific tissues such a 16 11 25 12 42 5 10 13 s leaves.waters.7) a vorable tissues for sampling once a useful species has been identified. or wood. I 18 21 10 48 38 8 7 14 t is therefore very importa Mean' 28 10 17 69 18 8 14 n t to establish the most f (0.42 (Cole.4) (0.43 Copper values in surface soi in area shown in Fig.Alder Twigs Gold (ppb) in ash 1985 1984 Site l .9) (0.34J (0. On the other hand the basic field equipment required for biogeochemical sampling is very simple (Dunn. accelerated uptake and higher concentration commonly occurs during the spring growth following a dormant winter season.

TABLE 12. 20 x 30 cm).g.3 Seasonal changes in the gold content of ashed aider twigs and leaves. anvil-type non-contaminating {e. very large pack. . pruning shears. roll of masking tape or stapler to close bags. fairly large sampling bags (e. 19 91 ) 136 (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) have been recalculated in parentheses to dry brass-free) a pair of Values weight basis. preferably Teflon coated.6 percent. Dunn (1991) also provides a useful summary of the procedures to be used and the precautions to be observed when conducting a biogeochemical survey (Table 12. Although samples are not heavy they are extremely bulky.g. (Dunn.Ash yield of dry twigs is about 2 percent. Use heavy duty coarse brown paper bags when conditions are dry and cloth bags when conditions are wet. Ash yeield of dry leaves is 5 .4). hunting knife or hatchet for bark sampling.

and hot springs-type mineral occurrences in Nevada. Again no information is provided on the geochemistry of soils along this traverse! Published data for the Canadian Shield are somewhat more comprehensive.44). disseminated gold and silver-. leaching. 12. In contrast. The potential value of humus as a geochemical sampling medium has already been discussed in the section on soil surveys. but apparently anomalous gold was detected in ashed stem and leaf sagebrush samples from one traverse adjacent to known gold mineralization (Figs. California (Fig.S. et al. 12.45 and 12. and bacterial decomposition will work to diminish the metal contents. One by Busche (1989) suggests the presence of possibly anomalous concentra-tions of gold in the leaves of creosote bushes over both exposed and colluvium covered epithermai quartz stockwork vein gold at Standard Hill in the Mojave District. Cohen et al. The results are again far from definitive. 12.47).S. For example. some examples of recent biogeochemical studies in gold areas are probably particularly appropriate. Limited studies were made of sage-brush geochemistry over skarn-. Another test survey has been described by Erdman. In view of current interest in gold exploration.G. (1987) describe an extensive investigation in the Hemlo Gold District designed to establish the potential usefulness of biogeochemistry in gold exploration over areas with shallow exotic till cover. gold distribution in Mountain Maple displayed generally higher concentrations in the base . (1988) of the U. As no soil data are provided it is uncertain whether the apparent anomalous geochemical response is confined to the plant cover. but signatures in mull are generally preserved.Dunn (1987) has pointed out that with some species. the few case histories published to date on the application of biogeochemistry in gold exploration over alluvial and colluvial covered semi-arid areas in the western United States are mostly somewhat inadequate. if not erratic.46). Unfortunately. distribution along the tree within all organs (Fig. Balsam fir was shown to have an uneven. sampling of bark (a dead tissue) can be an effective technique that is not subject to seasonal metabolic variations. This again avoids the effects of seasonal variations as the accumulated material constitutes an integrated sample. Weathering.

Collect same species.g. has a different Every species chemical composition. outer collected at Do not return to previously sampled tree and expect to obtain exactly the same analyses. Colkct same amount (i. from same area of tree (e. 5. There are chemical variations along a twig (see Table 4). Try to collect samples from plants of similar age and appearance.e. If living tissue is the selected medium. 138 TABLE 12. and trace element a nd requirements tolerances. biogeochemical survey. Collect same plant organ. Heterogeneity in bark scales can be minimized by scraping from around the tree.e. chest height). this did not prevent delineation of distinct Basic Rules Reasons 1. conduct survey in 2-3 week period). age) of growth. collect at same time of year (i. to be a This is unrealistic in view of the of element heterogeneity distributions and seasonal variations in composition (and to a leser extent annual Be variations). 1991) applied at each sampling station when conducting a . satisfied if an anomaly is the same order of magnitude. 2. 3.section than in the crown. (e. (Dunn.g. 4. This is the basic inter-site that is for consistency required any geochemical sample medium. Each plant organ has different capacity to store trace elements.4 Basic rules are seasonal significant in changes plant chemistry. There tissue [Dead can be bark) any time No appreciable seasonal change] 6. preferably from all sides. 137 However.

PLANT SAMPLE D *OIT Afl£A Of IS U SAMPLE SPACMQ IlllllltllllU OrSPPSAU }-CPPtAU FIG 12. Gold in plants determined by INAA. (Erdmann.4 • » ■ ■ i ' STANOARO HILL BtOCEOCHEMICAL SURVEY AU 0 UMEMIEEO mU HOU . /"■■■ <f/ Mapfí Mine . et al. (1988) a ' — C/i.«••• 28-26 24 22 10 10 J6 M 12 10 8 'Í ■ «• • rXf Adelaide * i -.■ O*-'!i. Ne\/ada. Adelaide C/own Mines . .■ I � . and shafts of the Gold Run mining district. adits. . prospects. (Busche. California.44 Sample sites and contoured Au values for the Standard Hill area.45 Base map showing site locations traverses A and and along B.-i ° 25-ra21 19 1» 4*IS •13••11• •9 *'* ••• -32 1 A •' •3629>7 •* •« ••. 1989) 139 Cre4�k Roc»' Rock CFeeii Ranch 19 V 15 13 n 3�1�� I � 20 IB 16 U 12 10 8 6 4 9�� 2 FIG 12 .

12.48 anc 12. (Erdmann. 1986) geochemical patterns in the vicinity of mineralization.50 and 12.XtLOMfTERS RG. For example.. is good in both poor and well drained areas. Qa = alluvium. etal.46 140 Gold levels in ashed stem-andleaf samples of sagebrush along traverse A. Sb and Ba). Qg = gravels and tp = Prebie Formation.twn A. In well drained areas both soils and plants display good geochemical response for gold (Figs. Samples with traces of Au (reported as less than the limit of determination) are given a value of 4 ppb and shown as <: those in which no Au was detected are indicated by N.51). sampled at varying heigiits. (Cohen. in areas of poo: drainage or exotic overburden the needles of balsam fir and the leaves of birch and alder display far more extensive anomalous response than the local soils (Figs. However.49). I 1/ growing over mineraii2ation. 1988) 30 S' 10 8 linit aT det«rnMna. Mo. 12.e. except As. Response for most of the pathfinder elements (I. the multielement data do not provide unique information and their main value is probably as . 12.

14 backup in the event of undetected problems with the gold analysis. (Cohen. P. ("M" represents location oí mineralization).. In well drained areas geo bail* 0 chemical soil sampling would /A probably be preferable as biog BALSAM FIR / V 1 � / A /\ eochemistry appears to offer n ppb / Ai / \ o clear technical advantages 4 ' and is certainly more expensi J > '' 2 ve. et al. The data suggest that in this district biogeoc POORLY DRAINED hemistry would be more e ffective than geochemical s SPRUCE 3 . mariana) and B horizon soils and humus. 1987) POORLY DRAINED BIRCH Au ppb . oil 2 [ sampling in poorly drained are ----. Comparison for poorly drained ground between the Au contents of needles and bark of Balsam Fir (Abiles balamea) and Spruce (Picea glauca.48 Hemlo District. i 1 1 needles /I / bark 1 0 1 B HORIZON SOILS 1 1 � 1 HUMUS // M I' H /\ 150 225 200 0 3QG melfes M FIG 12. Ontario.needJes 1 as.

Ontario.. 1987) FREELY DRAINE D ALDE R FIG 12.51 Hemio District. first year twigs and bark. Comparison for freely drained ground between tfie Au contents of needles and tjarl< of Balsam Fir (Abies balamea) and Spruce (Picea glauca. P. ("M" represents location of mineralization. Ontario. 1987) FREELY DRAINED SPRUCE FIG 12.). ("M" represents location of mineralization). et al. Comparison for poorly drained ground between the Au contents of Aider leaves.. White Birch (Betula papyrifera) leaves and bark and B horizon soils and humus.50 Hemlo District. (Cohen. (Cohen. mariana) and B horizon soils.300 rnslrea � FIG 12. et al.49 142 Hemlo District. Comparison for freely drained ground between Au contents . Ontario.

b. An interesting variant of biogeochemistry based on the analysis of aquatic mosses n drainage channels has been the subject of a number of studies. Analytical data for samples of the outer scales of spruce bark. A. (Cohen. For ixample. Ag. et al. The best ndications of these districts are provided by Au. first year twigs and bark and B horizon soils. Sb and Se (Figs. They concluded that in re absence of stream sediment. (Shacklette and Erdman. These suggest that rese mosses might provide effective alternative geochemical sample media in areas Aiere steep terrain prevented accumulation of stream sediment fine fractions. Erdman and Modreski (1984) found good correlation between the Cu and Co 2ta for aquatic moss and regular stream sediment samples in the vicinity of the Iron C'eek stratabound Cu/Co occurrence in Lehmi County. arsenic.52a.of Alder (AInus rugosa. aquatic mosses might be a suitable alternative ■rconnaissance sample medium. 12. ("M" represents location of mineralization). and á). Cd and Sb content of aquatic bryophytes from the Dolgellau gold jstrict in North Wales. 144 62-30 6¡'30' TT T" 6r . '382) and for base metals in Alaska (Smith. As. rather then gold. crispa) leaves. 1987) 143 Dunn (1989) provides an interesting demonstration of the potential value of Diogeochemistry in regional gold reconnaissance programs. collected on sample density of only 1 site per 50 km� over 5000 km� in Nova Scotia. Idaho. 1986).A. broadly define the known gold districts. Other studies 'i/e been carried out for uranium in the northwestern U. However. appears to be the most !�ive pathfinder element for gold mineralization in this particular area.S. c. Jones (1985) reached a similar conclusion following a ady of the Au.. As.

1989) 145 a5°)fl — .45*15 / iftmiwnjrti. E* /� 45'15 ! 10 45° GOLD > J < /neaian 2-3 * meeíiín rS « meflrin < fneíían (12ppbj 44''JS' W) 44" as' sam ph Site es"»' 62° 62" 30 62' 51°30 61" 61" 45" 15 45° 15 45' 45" 44°i5' 44° 45 < mgijian dOppf"! sample M« 52*mFIG 12. (c) (next page) antimony.52a&b 62° ei-aa- 61° Elements in ash of outer scales of spruce bark. (b) (above) arsenic. Nova Scotia: (a) (above) gold. (d) (next page) selenium (Dunn.

12.) these commonly tend to be used in preference to water.52c&d {Dunn. especially in the case of highly mobile elements such as uranium and zinc. .44° 45 12. However.5). stream sediments. Geochemical surveys.7.2. a useful bibliography on the use of plants in prospecting for gold was compiled by Erdman and Olson (1985). Water The detection and interpretation of aqueous dispersion haloes in surface and groundwaters related to mineralization form the basis of hydrogeochemical prospecting. Although it is now a little dated. where there are alternative effective geochemical sample media (e.44°ii5 — 62° 30 FIG 45-I5' - — 45* 15' 44°J! - . etc. 1989) 146 Excellent reviews of recent developments in exploration biogeochemistry are provided by Dunn (1989 and 1991).g. especially regional reconnaissance based on water sampling offer potential theoretical advantages in many environments (Table 12. This is due to certain potential difficulties associated with geochemical exploration programs based on water samples. soils.

' S 2 S 5 » "3 "w Hi 01 _»w « "E�o i2 _iii_ «0u t.s i .O*• c C w l|. chloroform should be added.-t® of which might� be = ?-sl 1 � C o u -g >.3 » 2 o* c-S °S « trl o .g d> » 9 J � environmental factors. at least two samples must be collected so that material without introduced cations and anions is available for the major element analysis. Prolonged is. � n e Í which will be necessarily e (0 U J= fl "O ? M 55 •"X (Jrecognized.E o -•>• o g u a o "u M *r *" « . some 3* « � S seasonal in nature and not all of T3 0). �u £ �o XJ j.ti £ y . nic ral times with the water to be sampled. 5Therefore u � thorough cleaning prior to use iiisc arequired.« 11 CT 1.£ & > �1 -S Water samples are generally in clean acid rinsed 500 ml or 1000 ml collected « i « ?íí M = 3 � 2 k. � 0 E � N. � oC -tE isS ¿ S 2� ? g'l l 3 -. pH.=: = Í i 6<0 -• £2r S-"2 £ >> o ii -g 1.ÍTÍ g y g 1 � ü «i "O 'Z .2 *J3 _l C« «> � � >.S C í � ui£8 S 5 8 » C U -Q 41 «.in particular: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) relatively large samples generally required. the extreme sensitivity of aqueous dispersion processes to a variety of interacting J . otherwise tí V •0 When both trace and leaching o 0* Tí f elements from the suspended sediment might occur. If this is not possible. o " � 5 § c3 «1 n B o Í « ° t.S .o" 0» s9 S ?e f » R Q � C «>s " C ■*• fB o i «l = ií i e =" 2 £ s "a . This applies (Q § £ particularly to zinc. •.e c-S-2 o tí o S S fe S § o 5 « c =§2111 o E c o 4 C i-S . Qk SS3 co n a 0 >«o».9 .£C&S =C5 " S ¿ "a i Ía -n w ? a £M � » �F � s » Q A M o> o> c 0» � 5 5 S t: = p'-• � to � c � s = . the frequent need for ultra sensitive analytical methods. W i Í9 a. Samples that are to be analyzed for ■0 F G acidified to trace eleme 3y ÍviT� 0)5 nts should I be a> Enitric u 41 or hydrochloric acid to pH <2 with metal free 0) cl Q � 0 J3 Q i to I uthe S O from precipitating or adhering walls. 1979) in samples prior to analysis they should be stored in a cool place away from sun light.5: XQ. bottle O. Oi T5 . conductivity and certain other measurements are commonly made at the sample site.45 micron membrane before addition of the acid. 1. However. In order to minimize growth of algae (Miller.o S 5? Í2 2� u f C U b " W s-?! 2 £ 5*■ «! �11 £ = ® L>i_ Ett_» 4j -J-i ~ 0 n> £ (0 «*- -o s s -Q — 0 « .c« pi ■Q - ° ° i?t ill <e V -g .« £ -S . Turbid water Q. M nitric acids followed in 50% or with distilled or soaking hydrochloric by repeated rinses deionized water is recommended. r. n <5 ''� ub 013 nij is — w £ — fl»2r -to� "c ". fti 1 5? 0 lU§ cj g as these are"5more than glass bottles under ■% a s ?practical E s B polyethylene or polypropylene bottles aCT" Ü0 u field conditions. several Important trace metals are incorporated in plastics during the manufacturing process and are often present in teachable form. u ® ™ = "S . O keep the di <0 IS V ssolved metals 3n g cu should be filtered using a 0. Prior to sampling in the field the bottles should be 3 O ffl £ Í E rinsed seve P". major elements are to be determined. chemical instability of untreated samples. ÍB .t¿ 5 �2 c> � ju ¿S � � j Ü 0» C» J <. These can present transportation difficulties.

.Í Jii OJ tD .2 . o � E. N° >? JÍ . ■> Q> w 01 c o it c O) c o » a (A o n *" > � -> -• C w =c "O§ E 3 « Íí« C J5C « J _ ■=51 IB Cl| I i i £ £ i " Sir = I 19 as«.T8 -Í.£ c : U u I.(0 gat {J O. i Isgis � C 4) 3 i 5 6 s -5 £ � £1 b � S x. U J3 "o £ -Hoj Ü ra o �— sj 5 . a (T S = — Q. w° cQ �>S S-' S ™ " -S " -S � 2 � 75 � CC S� G. � 5 S 5 E O 'iS tq O Q. � W S c E ® 'go 8 « !l&i U_ U O > � 5 1B (0 u y J i: i> -d u > - ft) ÍB ■f .E C U —� uu u 3. U£: HiiQ <B ■"ifí ■* ■5C3 :£»*-jT C"R 01 4) oID -Ow fl £ e fe E S s c ® ™ o Q. C5 S � « 3° 2 4. «c " j: #¿2 Ü 2 a. Í M u JS 5 «.�> j: « � 49 4i $ 3 -I X O > £J ' S e ? » fl) *.jj ti � 3 cs � ■= •fl) ? 5 � � ifSS <0> gE a>.Ü ten n � � t y .fl)C ÍÍT20 "Q.s ¿S u F 'tJ> (0 V "O « >» C D O -C j© t> Ü C iS¡ a � i~ (0 u ™ � 4J " £Í« "S ?Í: a É � � o c *9 « i 2 cu £ � <B Ü ® (0 E Ü c ? E 0) J= u o * tj � a> Oí o 3-2-1 TJ > «¿-n 5 . <A £ C .o o I .2 .c k. 2■ �C .-» O IJ . £ : H 5 Ü 2 a ue 2 � � S S i " � y ™ � C « > £ ■s s <0 ■ is = »=" Ü i E Í D C � � o 4U CO ug>£» 9 . a n O s: u O ••- <0 E E 3 in a � O � G in <v a 9 .

The resultant anomalous uranium distribution patterns clearly outlined known uraniferous zones as well as additional areas of potential interest (Figs. CONGLOMERATE CfíAlWíTE. 1979).53a and 12.S. Sampling of ground water seepage sites is an integral part of stream water surveys.54b) were found to be broadly similar to those displayed by the lake waters.3 samples/ square mile.G. It was concluded that organic sediments. Here the primary interest was in locating porphyry copper deposits under pediment and alluvial sediment cover. 12.S. dRAw ite � GNEISS .148 One the more effective applications of hydrogeochemistry has been in regiona: reconnaissance programs based on lal<e water (and lake sediment) sampling. As in the case of lake sediment sampling the ideal terrain for this technique is where lakes are common. (Huff. the lake water medium is dependent on the hydromorphic dispersion of metals into the lake environment through ground waters. and target and/or associated pathfinder elements are mobile in the prevailing groundwater environment. In areas with higher relief surface hydromorphic dispersion could also be an important factor. fBAEAt. bicarbonate and pH control the migration of U in the surface environment. In view of the paucity of recently published examples of stream water sampling. Groundwater can also play a useful role in mineral exploration. particularly within the Canadian Precambrian Shield. (1971) sampled stream water in addition to take water (see above) in their experimental uranium exploration program in the BeaverlodgeDistrict of Saskatchewan. especially when the targets and large potential target hosts are obscured by post mineral overburden or unmineralized bedrock. pH and alkalinity were determined in a field laboratory. Sample temperature was recorded at the sample site.A. it is again necessary to refer to fairly old studies.54a and 12. A prospecting approach similar to the sampling of stream sediments is necessary. whilst radon. The samples were then acidified and transported to a central laboratory for uranium and other trace element analyses. conditions are swampy. 5ASK.e. 1970). Stream water (and stream sediment) samples were collected at an average density of 1 sample/square mile.S. The presence of high organic concentrations severely restricted uranium dispersion. in the 1960's and 1970's. Interesting examples of the attempted application of groundwater geochemistry in mineral exploration are provided by work carried out by the U. Regional reconnaissance for selected metals can also be achieved by sampling the waters �f actively flowing streams where metal is dispersing in solution. The exploration technique BEAVERiODGE. it was concluded on economic grounds (i. and/or where stream drainages are inaccessible or poorly developed (Coker et al.53b). In low relief regions. For example Dyck et al. 12. Although the regional uranium distribution patterns (Figs. but also within the Fennoscandian Shield anc the Cordilleran and Appalachian regions of North America.. An early example of a hydrogeochemical survey based on lake water sampling was provided by Dyck et al. ease of sample collection) that the latter were the preferred sample medium. Surface lake water samples were collected at an average density of 1. and various companies in the southwestern U. (1971) and Dyck (1979) in the course of a experimental study of a variety of sample media over a 500 square mile area including the Beaverlodge Uranium District in Saskatchewan.

FIG 12.53b (Dycl< et al.. occ. t:>-|BASAU �C ONG LOME RAT E D GRAMlTE.. granitegneiss ¡AMfhiaOLITE METASEPmEMTS radioactive MIN. 1971) 150 beaverlooce. SAS+Í. (Dyck et al. S AS K. . .pCC.53a GRANJTE. □ FIG 12. Regional uranium concentration levels in lake waters (a) with and (b) without contaminated samples. I�basal ¡¿VjCONOLOMERATe GAANITEGMCiSS ■ AWPHIBOLíTe MCTASgCjMENTS . 1971) 0EAVERLODG£.AMPrt ieOLlT C HiiiTAseDmEJjrs RADIOACTIVE mn.

loUARTZtTC j WIGMATITC (li me stone RAOiOAC MíN.56).54b (Dyck at al.55) and elsewhere. anomalous contrast appeared to often correlate with total dissolved solids. The possibility of applying sophisticated hydrogeochemlcal models to mineral fxploration purposes was discussed by Runnells and Lindberg (1981). They determined Tat the saturation index is a reliable indicator of the presence of uranium mineralization.e. tens or even ~. SASK. . such as CaMoO�. OCC. 1971) beaverlodge. a feature presumably unrelated to mineralization. In addition. zje to an increase in ionic strength and corresponding decrease of the activity 3cefficients. Fig. in the neutral to alkaline conditions prevalent in local groundwater. showed anomalous molybdenum was indeed present in the groundwaters around known deposits e.g.. Later studies by ~'OSt and Trautwein (1975) indeed found molybdenum concentration in groundwater to correlate strongly with conductivity (an indirect measure of total dissolved solids). They suggested utilizing the ratio of log [Mo/K] in conjunction with a plot of og [Mo/K] vs.-uiiüftf<jbi3i"si:|uarfeTrtiíeáj*1[rTái source location in routine surveys was not apparently economically feasible. QRANire� iSNE�SS AM�HISOLITC MgTASEQJMCMTS OUAfiTZfTE M(CMATITE Ilim£stonc «AOÍOACTIVE UIN ÚCC FIG 12.54a (a) Radon and (b) uranium concentration levels in stream waters without contaminated samples (Dyck at al. but the anomalies were so large (i. Early results. On theoretical grounds they concluded that r�is reflected a relationship between the solubility of molybdate salts. log [Mo] to determine the proximity of a buried oxidizing porphyry copper zeposit. and ■�atural springs. 12. 12. BASAt CON�LOMCRATC □ GRAh�TE. a significant component of most zorphyt7 copper deposits. as for example in the Pima Mining District.T(VE FIG 12. weakly «vrth pH and not at a!! with Eh (Fig. Samples were generally collected from domestic and irrigation wells. 1971) 151 �vas based on the known mobility of molybdenum.

CO� and analyzers or one of the new generation of portable micro gas chromatographs). Barringer Technique. (ii) integrated.rut the requirement for reliable rrfficulties in routine surveys. '2. mineral deposits produce gaseous emanations which can ze detected by specialized measurements. /•/ííh the instantaneous method. Mobile mass spectrographic systems.2. should probably be classified more as research systems at this time in view of high capital and operating cost as well as interpretational uncertainties: (ii) or placed in a special container for transportation to an analytical laboratory (e. Eh measurements could present certain practical Gases Under certain conditions. These can then be either: (i) analyzed on site by a field instrument (e. .).g.. etc.g. such as that used by Howard McCarthy of the U. from some predetermined optimal depth which is normally somewhere in the range zr 20 to 40 inches (50 to 100 cm). There are two broad categories of soil gas sampling technique: (i) instantaneous.8.S.S.G. specific volumes of soil gas are extracted through a 3nDbe.

6 log [Mo].153 •20oH r set A U . log [Mo]. log [Mo]. (a) pH vs.• t Eh 0- (b) log K OB 12 1. 1975) 154 (iii) or adsorbed onto a special collector material laboratory for analysis.56 Correlation plots for groundwaters in southern Arizona. and transported to The main potential problem with the instantaneous methods is that they are subject to a" • . ppb RG 12. (b) Eh vs. i tI'M ' •Í ■" • t. suggesting a good correlation between increasing conductivity and increasing molybdenum content. log [Mo]. suggesting a slight correlation between the molybdenurr content and pH. showing poor correlation between molybdenum content and Eh. (Trost and Trautwein. (c) log K vs. t .

57). "Petrex" system)..g. including molecular sieves or porous polymer sorbents (e. 12. The main potential advantage of the integration methods of soil gas sampling is that results are unlikely to be influenced by short term fluctuations in the so gas flux. Follow-up of several high contrast anomalies resulted in the discovery of the Lone Gull Uranium Deposits (Fig. However. These are processed in an etching solution to provide visible track-like images of the alpha particles which can then be counted to provide an indication of the average amount of radon present during the exposure time (Fig. These were mainly concerned with measurement of radon produced during t�€ radioactive decay of uranium and radium.).e.g. In the BakeLake area in Northern Canada (Fuchs et al.g. Instantaneous methods are als: inappropriate when dealing with gases occurring in concentrations at or near \lr� detection limits of the available analytical equipment. However. "Track Etch") use detectors which respond to alpha particles emitted during rado� decay (e. etc. most of the programs were based or integrated measurements of radon in soil gases. us� can be made of natural soil gas collectors. Dyck et al. In "Track Etcf surveys the integrative detectors are buried at shallow depth (i. normally around 0.e. Alternatively. A problem with some of the collector systems (i. clays "Advol" system). 1982) cups were buried for the full winteseason at 100 ft intervals along traverses with 200 ft separation. With the integrated method of soil gas sampling. or activated carbon (e. At the end of th.g. Later versiorts include plastic filters to prevent exposure of the detectors to thoron. including specific soil fractions (e.g.= time the collectors are recovered and sent to the laboratory for analysis. 1984a ar: 1984b. 12. The main advantage of th'S instantaneous methods is that they only entail one visit to the sample site. molécula* sieves) is that gas desorption in the laboratory requires heating to very high temperatures which will likely modify the nature of some of the volatile species. two visits to each sample site are required.g. 1971).58) and left for a specific period of time.59). 1984). A LP H A TRACKS RETAINED PARTtCLE . Gingrich. except in the case of ti-re natural soil collectors. Much of the published information on the application of gas geochemistry ' mineral exploration relates to research and orientation studies.5 r in inverted plastic cups (Fig. This could prove particularly serious large surveys during periods of climatic instability. special adsorbent or reactive material. Although some radon in stream and lake watestudies were undertaken (e. The unusually lone exposure produced improved results over those obtained with detectors left in place fo' shorter periods during the summer. Clifton. 12. The "Track Etch" procedure utilizes small pieces of radiatio' sensitive film.' short term gas flux variability which might occur. Some of the better known procedures (e. numerous geochemical gas surveys were carried out some years ago during the last uraniu" "boom". is buried in the soil at eac� sampling site for specific periods of time (generally for several weeks)..

57 FIG 12.FIG 12. (Gingrich. (Gingrich. 1974) .58 156 The Track Etch P rocess . 1974) Track Etch S a m p t e Cup.

e. These are buried in overburden at a depth of 40 cm (Fig. Arizona the surface microlayer of the soil was sampled on 30x60 m grid. 6 0.. Oakes and Hale (1987) describe an experimental exploration technique basec on the selective thermal desorption of COS from the <150 micron fraction of overburden materials and quantitative determination by a rapid gas chromatographic method.61) for a period of 32 days. et al. "Aurex") following test studies at a number of Canadian mineral deposits.59 Radon contour map of the Lone Gull U discovery. STfilP . generally using adsorbed Hg can be The oxidation of moist sulfides leads to the generation of CS� and COS (Taylor. but the published results have often been poorly documented and frequently inconclusive.60).va oou r collection) FIG 1 2. 12. ofter during oxidation. Fedikow and Amor (1990) recently described their evaluation of commercially available mercury detectors (i. t984) minerals which can include sphalerite and other sulfides.FIG 12. (Gingrich.62). They concluded that the system does not measure mercury in soil gas in a consistent manner in proximity to mercury enriched base and precious metal deposits in the rest areas. 1982). This vapor can be measured in soil gas directly integrative collectors which are analyzed in the laboratory) or released from conventional soil samples by heating to 210-390°F (100-2CI0''C) (Landa. Mercury-bearing release mercury vapor (i. Over the past twenty or so years there have been many studies of the possible application of mercury vapor surveys to mineral exploration. Elsewhere comparable -ADHESIVE PLASTIC PLASTIC Q L A$S VIAL ( r em o ved during H g. 1978).e. 12. TAB CUP of the Aurex C o mpo ne n t s integrative detector. Analysis disclosed distinct COS anomalies over suboutcropping sediment hostec replacement sphalerite/chalcopyrite mineralization despite the presence of considerable thicknesses of pediment gravel and alluvium (Fig. (Feciikow 1990) CAP DETECTOR (silver wire) Hg-vapour and Amor. 12. At Johnson Camp. The detector consists of a thin silver wire in an open ended glass vial (Fig.

g. (1989) used this approach in northern Arizona to evaluate the subsurface potential for structurally controlled mineralization in 82 collapse breccias. They collected a little under 5000 soil gas samples with FIG 12.c the of buried accumulations was sulfide by gas chromatography. rainfall). Although presence found to be reflected by strong CO2 anomalies {Fig. 1986) have identified an upward fluxinc of GEOGAS in the near-surface sections of the earth. Recent studies in Sweden (Malmqvistet al. These surveys have reportedly resulted in the determination of lithology changes.. In recent years COg and Og in so? gas surveys have also been applied in a number of exploration programs for sedimert hosted gold deposits in the western U. (Oakes arc Hale. 1989). Anomalous patterns in GEOGAS have . sometimes exceeding 90 m thickness F~n 2QO-300{>g/o COS im 500pQ/g COI3 and ranging from arid highly porous sand and gravel to moist. 1987) .63).. location of faults and the presence of alteration beneath transported overburden (Jaacks. 12. 1990) anomalies were delineated over <3 >00 >0C< sulphide mineralizations covered by a variety transported overburden. the atmospheric proportions of COgiOg change in the vicinity of oxidizing sulfides and these imbalances can be Zone 1 in soil measured the gas (Lovell. This GEOGAS enters the grounc waters as dissolved air. 6 1 .S. The circulating meteoric waters and changing pressure conditions in the subsurface cause the GEOGAS to rise as small streaming bubbles. these anomalies were extremely sensitive to climatic change (e.A. Reid Lovell and 1983).sample probe and transported them in special containers to a laboratory for anal ysí. 158 Schematic of Hg-vapour representation me a su r e me n t utilizing the Aurex detector (Fedikow and Amor. The bubbles contain other gases and can also collect metallic ions and particles that can be trapped in collectors set out in the surface soil.62 Plan of simplified geology and COS dispersion pattern in surface microlayci" at Johnson Camp. Arizona. clay-rich glacial atill. Because of the consumption of oxygen in the oxidation process.FIG 1 2. et al.

It should be noted that biogenic activity in the soil can produce methane (OHJ. According to the Barringer organization AIRTRACE was successful in sensing gas and oil resources and produced positive results .2. pollen. Arizona. 1982). Therefore. 159 FIG 12. The AIRTRACE and SURTRACE techniques of Barringer Research Ltd. near-surface detection of these gases can be suspect. dimethyl sulfide ((CH3)2S). The same airborne platform could be equipped with a -mercury sensor for real-time measurements.9. 1989) A recent volume of the Journal of Geochemicai Exploration (Kesler.and rock-gas geochemistry studies. dimethyl disulfide ((CH3)2S2).. Methane is found at depth in several types of mines. (Lovell and Reid. hydrogen (Hg). Weiss (1971) developed an airborne geochemicai prospecting technique for arid terrain based on the collection of dust particles suspended in the atmosphere. Particulates Solid particles down to the size range of large molecules are present in the atmosphere. carbon monoxide (CO). 12. were designed to sample a variety of particulates in the lower atmosphere including spores. 1990) provides a useful review of a number of soil. The collected particulates *í6re analyzed using a laser pulse/inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP) p-ocedure in the laboratory. dust. hydrogen sulfide (HgS). et al. organometallics. and hydrocarbon complexes. microorganisms. but s genetic association with mineralization is not always clear. methyl mercaptan (CH3SH).63 Cpj content of soil air over mineralized breccia pipe. carbonyl sulfide (COS)anc carbon disulfide (CSg) (Taylor.been recorded over mineralization buried under thicknesses up to 100 ft (30 m) of transported cover.

earlier work by Curtin. et a. (Parduhn. Reproducibility of the technique in the search for mineral deposits hampered by variable weather conditions and temperature inversions. It has also been noted that the increased antibiotic resistance of these bactera correlates with increased metal concentrations in soils (Watterson et al.. On the basis of very limited sampling Parduhn and Watterson (1984) reported anomalous Bacillus cereus populations over quartz/gold/sulfide veins.2.10. 12. near Empire. 1984). 1987) particulate matter from the ground surface (i.64 o �old vein cranlttc host rock gold voin 20 Plot of log B. increases with natura increases in the base and precious metal content of soils in the vicinity of known minera deposits.e. overlain by 15-20 feet of glada overburden. . However. 1986). Colorado (Fig. 12. Colorado Parduhn and (from Watterson. The SURTRACE method was designed to overcome these climatic problems by sampling 160 E <s k.ever mineral deposits.\jand B horizon soils and to In veins the overlying Au-quartz adjacent Empire Mining District. AIRTRACE was used in some large scale hydrocarbon surveys in the 1980's. microlayer) using a helicopter-based or manually transported system. Despite the fact they have been available for a numtjer ofyears neither method has yet been used extensively in routine metallic minera exploration programs. cereus (colony forming units/gram of soil) in . 5- o 01 horizon « o a }\ A1 horizon 4- u « a o 3- glacial tllf _60 meters FIG 12. Microorganisms Parduhn and Watterson (1984) and Parduhn et al.64). Bacillus cereus. (1985) have demonstrated tha the population of the common microorganism.

IVIineral exploration methods based on microbiological features are still in their rfancy and should be approached with extreme caution. Imperial County. the Au. Warr en St al. 12.11. and organisms on stream water surfaces. Vista Pit area. Peliminary data indicate bacteria populations are more metal tolerant in mineralized areas. determined that although the B horizon soils were not particularly effective sam ple "ledia in this district.g. Mesquite Deposit. Ttius no particular advantage appears to be provided by the Bacillus cereus data in this example.161 f1971). The same appears to be true in certain other t est ireas (e. Cu and Bi content of the forest humus layer (mull) dear ly ííefine the mineralized veins. stream vi/ater. California) studied by =arduhn (1987). They sug gest determination of the metal tolerance of bacteria by the addition of suitable met al ancentrations to culture media prepared from stream sediment. (1971) analyzed 96 trout livers from locations in British Columbia and identified a general correlation between the zinc and copper contents of these livers and known .2. An interesting alternative approach to the possible application of microbiology to mineral exploration is discussed by Michaels and Riese (1986). Animal Tissues Animal tissues have not been used extensively as a geochemical medium.

. Recent work has investiga ted the use of the trace element content of bee pollen as an exploration tool.Tiineral regions. As part of an environmental monitoring program. Variations in concentrations were noted showing a general relationship with known mineralization. b ut follow-up is complicated by the territorial wandering of the insects. the government of Ontario has sampled fish tissues for their mercury content.