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The purpose of this article is to analyze the harmonic spectrum of the threephase
PWM inverter drives used in a power system. The analytical methods
are based on a 3-D modulation model and double Fourier series (DFS).

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On: 17 November 2012, At: 13:50

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**Electric Power Components and Systems
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**Analytical Solution to Harmonic Characteristics of
**

Three-Phase PWM Inverter Using 3-D Modulation Model

a

a

a

KUO-HSIUNG TSENG , WEN-SHIOW KAO , YUNG-FU CHENG & SHIN-FU LIN

a

a

**Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei,
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Taiwan, R.O.C.

Version of record first published: 24 Jun 2010.

To cite this article: KUO-HSIUNG TSENG, WEN-SHIOW KAO, YUNG-FU CHENG & SHIN-FU LIN (2004): Analytical Solution to

Harmonic Characteristics of Three-Phase PWM Inverter Using 3-D Modulation Model, Electric Power Components and Systems,

32:11, 1105-1120

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Results show that the harmonics generated by the simulator tools and that generated by DFS method are almost identical. owing to the fact that the output of the inverter is never a sinusoidal wave. 2004 c Taylor & Francis Inc. Pspice and Simulink. E-mail: khtseng@ee.ntut. with Matlab. I. double Fourier series. the voltage or current it generates never appears in the form of a sinusoidal wave. The harmonics are greatly detrimental to the circuit itself. and that the harmonic model constructed by means of the 3-D modulation model proposed is highly accurate. a PWM inverter may generate single-phase or three-phase AC voltage. Chung-Hsiao East Road. R. Taiwan. Department of Electrical Engineering. Introduction Given a ﬁxed or variable DC voltage. lowering the power factor. 2]. imposing a negative eﬀect on the modulation of work of the inverter circuit itself or other power electronic equipment. for example. In this article. three-phase PWM inverter 1.edu. we analyzed the harmonic model created by DFS.EMP 32(11) #17102 Electric Power Components and Systems.O. a great part of the harmonic current generated by an inverter-driven inductive motor ends up in the inductive motor. such as the pulsation or additional loss of motor torque [1. Address correspondence to Kuo-Hsiung Tseng. and used time-domain simulation tools. Taipei 106.C. aﬀecting the power of the circuit. Copyright ISSN: 1532-5008 print/1532-5016 online DOI: 10. The analytical methods are based on a 3-D modulation model and double Fourier series (DFS).1080/15325000490441381 Downloaded by [Central U Library of Bucharest] at 13:50 17 November 2012 Analytical Solution to Harmonic Characteristics of Three-Phase PWM Inverter Using 3-D Modulation Model KUO-HSIUNG TSENG WEN-SHIOW KAO YUNG-FU CHENG SHIN-FU LIN Department of Electrical Engineering National Taipei University of Technology Taipei. the output of an inverter is harmonic. Keywords 3-D modulation model. 32:1105–1120. Manuscript received in ﬁnal form on 24 September 2003. to construct the model and simulation of the three-phase DC to AC PWM inverter found in the system. National Taipei University of Technology. giving rise to unexpected eﬀects. In other words. The purpose of this article is to analyze the harmonic spectrum of the threephase PWM inverter drives used in a power system. Section 3. or interfering the other loads and communication circuits of the system. However. On the other hand.tw 1105 . Taiwan.

This study consists of three parts: (1) Analyzing the time-domain waveform of the voltage and current output by the three-phase PWM inverter used in the system by a 3-D modulation model and double Fourier series. 2. it is necessary to analyze the harmonic characteristics of the PWM inverter. so as to predict the magnitudes and constituents of the harmonics likely to be generated. (2) acquiring the harmonic spectrum of the inverter by processing the time-domain waveform with fast Fourier transform (FFT) with a view to analyzing the harmonic characteristics. and the phase diﬀerences between modulation signals vmA . The PWM of phase A. and take phase A as an example. As shown in the above publications. a 2-D modulation model is employed in the analysis of the waveform generated by a twolevel PWM inverter. and C are controlled in the same way. then the output voltage for phase A. Figure 1. this article proposes a 3-D modulation model. a cut-oﬀ signal is sent to upper bridge arm power switch S1 . Suppose the switch is an ideal component. a carrier and a harmonic through a harmonic model created in this manner. the harmonic model does not help reveal the harmonic characteristics of a PWM inverter precisely and completely whenever the carrier to modulated wave modulation frequency ratio varies. and analyzes the waveform and spectral characteristics of the three-phase PWM inverter used in the system by means of double Fourier series. Studies on the harmonic characteristics of two-level PWM inverters used in a drive system have been widely discussed [7–9]. and a cut-oﬀ signal is sent to lower bridge arm power switch S4 . If vmA > vtri . It is usually controlled in a bipolar manner. and C is usually jointly controlled by a triangular wave carrier vtri . Accordingly.Downloaded by [Central U Library of Bucharest] at 13:50 17 November 2012 1106 K. It is impossible to illustrate directly the relationship between a modulated wave. Three-Phase PWM Inverter Circuit and Principle Figure 1 shows the circuit of a three-phase PWM inverter. The characteristics of harmonics vary with the way a PWM is controlled [3–6]. The power switch components of phase A. and (3) analyzing the actual inverter circuit by means of the time-domain simulation tools. . B. Tseng et al. and then comparing the ﬁndings with that of the harmonic model created by double Fourier series with a view to verifying the precision of the method proposed in this article. vmB . is equal to Vd /2 with respect to the DC current hypothetical neutral point O. Three-phase PWM inverter circuit. To address the shortcomings of the aforesaid method. B.-H. Pspice and Simulink. To evade the aforesaid harmonics-induced problems. vAO . and vmC of the three phases are always 120◦ .

two-level PWM bipolar circuit is controlled. vAO −vBO . then vAB = Vd . If switch component arms 1 and 3. motion signals or states are always complementary. vAO . If switch component arms 1 and 6 are connected. then the output voltage for phase A. S1 and D1 . The control methods of phase B and C are the same as that of phase A. the linear voltage output by an inverter consists of three kinds of voltages.Downloaded by [Central U Library of Bucharest] at 13:50 17 November 2012 Characteristics of PWM Modulation 1107 Figure 2. then vAB = 0. The waveform of linear voltage vAB is the diﬀerence between vAO and vBO . is equal to −Vd /2. If switch component arms 3 and 4 are connected. (±1/3)Vd . as illustrated in Figure 2d. ±Vd and zero. and 0. then vAB = −Vd . and it is similar to the condition wherein the single-phase. then the computation of its spectrum will become very complicated. If vmA < vtri . that is. are connected. that is. namely (±2/3)Vd . If a connection signal is sent to S1 (S4 ). or switch component arms 4 and 6. and a connection signal is sent to S4 . It is . either S1 (S4 ) or the diode D1 (D4 ) continuous ﬂow will be connected. vAN is composed of ﬁve voltages. a cut-oﬀ signal is sent to S1 . this will be determined by the direction and magnitude of the current initially found in electric inductive load. Hence. 3. The loaded phase voltage vAN is expressed in Eq. Three-phase PWM inverter voltage switching waveforms. (1). as well as S4 and D4 . vAN = vAO − vAO + vBO + vCO 3 (1) As shown in Figure 2e. Figure 2b–c show the waveforms of vAO and vBO whose voltage waveform is a mere Vd . Analyzing the Harmonic Characteristics of Three-Phase PWM Inverter If a periodic waveform arises from the modulation of two or more periodic waveforms.

Since the PWM sampled waveform adopted by the three-phase PWM inverter conforms to the requirements of the 3-D modulation model. Tseng et al. PWM inverter modulation process illustrated by a 2-D model and a 3-D model. Similarly. Bennet in 1933. The slope of the carrier varies every half a carrier period. Figure 3a illustrates the way in which a double-rim modulation pulse train is generated by a 2-D model. The spectral analysis used in the model may be applied to any modulation wherein both the carrier and the modulated wave are periodic functions of time [9. Mf > 1.1. Figure 3e illustrates the linear voltage vAB generated by the three-phase PWM inverter. Harmonic Characteristics of Three-Phase PWM Inverter with 3-D Modulation Model A unipolar natural-sampling back-rim modulation pulse train generated by the three-phase PWM inverter is depicted in Figure 3. at a frequency modulation ratio of Mf = ωc /ωm . respectively. One will discover that the PWM waveform produced by the 2-D modulation model is actually identical to that generated by the 3-D modulation model.-H. the carrier vtri is compared with two modulated waves. the pulse signal that arises from the comparison between vmB and vtri controls the way the PWM inverter switches in phase B. vmA and vmB .1108 K. The 3-D modulation model for analyzing the pulse train spectrum adopts the waveform depicted in Figure 3b. normally achieved by means of a 3-D modulation model and double Fourier series. The pulse signal that arises from the comparison between vmA and vtri controls the way the switch component of the PWM inverter switches in phase A. Downloaded by [Central U Library of Bucharest] at 13:50 17 November 2012 3. 10].R. Figure 3c and d depict the waveform vAO and vBO of the backrim modulation pulse trains in phase A and B. the researcher in this article put forth the idea that the harmonic characteristics of a three-phase PWM inverter should be analyzed with the 3-D modulation model. The waveform depicted in Figure 3a is compared with that shown in Figure 3b. Regarding the 2-D modulation model. that is. . The 3-D modulation model was the ﬁrst put forth by W. The pulse train of a three-phase PWM inverter Figure 3.

However. 10]. The aforesaid modulated wave is a sinusoidal wave. in the θ-axis and the Φ-axis. given the development of electrical and electronic technology. the point of the intersection of the triangular carrier and the linear modulate wave segment lying between two adjacent sampling points will vary. by the intersection wall and the modulated wave depicted in Figure 3b contain modulation information [9. whatever the pulse trains that arises from a 3-D modulation process can be expressed in equation (2). if the modulated wave and the crossing point extend along θ-axis and Φ-axis. ε. Analysis of Harmonic Characteristics of PWM Inverter by DFS According to the reference [10] on DFS equations. leading to diﬀerent triggering times. The combined modulation of the carrier and the modulated wave accounts for the last term of Eq. (2). of the modulated wave. 11]. . will not alter accordingly.2. (2). φ) = Aoo + [Aon cos(nφ) + Bon sin(nφ)] 2 n=1 + ∞ [Amo cos(mθ) + Bmo sin(mθ)] m=1 + ±∞ ∞ (2) [Amn cos(mθ + nφ) + Bmn sin(mθ + nφ)] m=1 n=±1 where Amn 1 = 2π 2 Bmn = 1 2π 2 2π 0 0 2π 0 2π 0 2π F (θ. The image of the wall may be produced in a way parallel to the θ-axis by drawing the intersection wall across the modulated wave obliquely. ∞ 1 F (θ. the modulation method actually applied to a system has already been replaced with a more advanced sampling method [5–6. 3. The spectral analysis of the waveforms of the three-phase PWM inverter by means of DFS and asymmetrical sampling technique. that is. whenever ε varies. Mf = ωc /ωm (herein Mf = 7). As shown in the 3-D modulation model depicted in Figure 3b. φ) sin(mθ + nφ) dθ dφ The DC of the pulse train accounts for the ﬁrst term of Eq. The harmonics of the modulated wave accounts for the second term of Eq.Downloaded by [Central U Library of Bucharest] at 13:50 17 November 2012 Characteristics of PWM Modulation 1109 vAB may be acquired by extending the modulated wave and the carrier along the time axis. The image as such helps produce a pulse train that repeats in the θ-axis every Mf carrier period or in the Φ-axis every modulation period. φ) cos(mθ + nφ) dθ dφ F (θ. (2). as PWM adopts natural sampling. The method involves altering the sampling factor. All the pulse trains generated. as shown in Figure 4. The spectrum of the pulse train is acquired by replacing the θ and φ of the series equations with time functions ωc t and ωm t. the slope of the intersection wall that varies in accordance with the modulation ratio. an asymmetrical PWM sampling technique.

The 3-D modulation model of the asymmetrical sampling of a three-phase PWM inverter. (a) θ − φ plane and (b) θ − φ∗ plane. (2) the switching switch of a PWM inverter has ideal operation characteristics. and (3) the switching triggering signal does not contain any dead time.Downloaded by [Central U Library of Bucharest] at 13:50 17 November 2012 1110 K. Take the circuit depicted in Figure 1 as an example. Tseng et al. If the input . To simplify the analysis of the harmonics of the switching of the three-phase PWM inverter switch components. the following hypotheses are adopted in the theoretical inference process: (1) The DC chain voltage of a PWM inverter does not comprise any ripple. (a) (b) Figure 4.-H.

vAB(h) √ − v1(h) 3 (3) i1(h) = R1 + jXL1(h) where h is the harmonic number. that is. Thus. θ1 = θ2 = 3π πMI + sin φ∗ . The intersection point. π πMI π − a sin φ = − sin φAB 2 2 2 (4) π πMI sin[(1 − ε)θ1 /Mf ] = − 2 2 As shown in Figure 4b. then the hth harmonic current output by the PWM inverter in phase A is expressed in Eq. (3).e. Therefore. θ1 and θ2 ) of the point of intersection between the sampling proﬁle Φ = θ/Mf and the non-sinusoidal wall.. the point of intersection. Eq. As shown in Figure 4b. π πMI 0 < θ1 < π (6) − sin φ∗ . as illustrated in Figure 4b. the pulse train and the spectrum that arise from the two aforesaid modulation processes are the same. Suppose the frequency modulation ratio of the PWM sampling is Mf = 7. and the modulated wave has to perform an anti-phase shift of 180◦ every half period (π) of the carrier whenever the carrier undergoes a period. 2 2 where Φ∗ denotes the sampling proﬁle that results from linear conversion. Such rectangular coordinates are exactly the rectangular coordinates of the point of intersection between the sine wall and the sampling proﬁle Φ∗ = Φ − [θ − (X − 1)π]ε/Mf (the solid line) that has already been converted. Figure 4a shows the double rim employed to produce the ﬁrst pulse. Thus. 0) and point C (π. The point. (1 − ε)π/Mf ) are well-identiﬁed. θ2 can be expressed with Eq. Figure 4a depicts the asymmetrical PWM sampling structure. θ1 = φ∗ = φ − (εθ/Mf ) (5) With the above-mentioned linear conversion. Figure 4b also shows that the carrier has a maximum amplitude of π/2. θ1 can be expressed with Eq. as point O (0. (4) may be converted into a simpler sinusoidal waveform. θ1 . (4). of the intersection between the second modulated wave (X = 2) and the carrier slant cross-section is exactly the back rim of the second pulse train of vAO . (7). For the same reason. is exactly the front rim of the ﬁrst pulse train of vAO . the straight line OC is plotted. the rectangular coordinates (i. of the intersection between the ﬁrst modulated wave (X = 1) and the carrier slant cross-section is worked out in Figure 4b.Characteristics of PWM Modulation 1111 Downloaded by [Central U Library of Bucharest] at 13:50 17 November 2012 voltage of the three-phase PWM inverter is an ideal DC voltage source. fourteen modulated wave walls intersect a carrier wall. θ1 . the period for the carrier and the modulated wave of the 3-D modulation model is 2π. or in other words. 2 2 0 < θ2 < π (7) . and that the amplitude modulation ratio of the PWM sampling is M1 = 2a/π because the curve of the modulated wave is expressed as a sin φ. θ2 . The fact that it is easier to ﬁgure out the double Fourier series coeﬃcient on the θ − φ∗ plane than on the θ − φ plane is proved by the following explanation.

Tseng et al...1112 K. By substituting Eqs. (6) and (7) into Eq. p is the reciprocal of the “carrier to modulated wave” frequency ratio ωc /ωm ...3. ∞ ±∞ npε · sin (mωc + ωm n)t − m + π 2 In Eq... n=±2..3. ∞ ∞ ±∞ npε 2π · cos mωc t + n ωm t + − m+ π 3 2 + mπ 2Jn [(m + npε)MI π/2] cos π(m + npε) 2 m=2...±4. vBO is expressed with Eq... vAO . MI is a modulation index...-H. which is expressed with Eq..3. To ﬁgure out the PWM inverter voltage.. in Eq. vBO .3.. (8).. + mπ 2Jn [(m + npε)MI π/2] sin π(m + npε) 2 m=1.. n=±1. and Jn is the nth Bessel function.. three-phase. it is possible to ﬁgure out the voltage. + m+1 2J0 (mMI π/2) π (−1) 2 sin mωc t − mπ 2 m=1.4... + mπ 2Jn [(m + npε)MI π/2] sin π(m + npε) 2 m=1.3. in phase B.5.. n=±1... Thus.. (9). it is necessary to process the modulation signal of vAO with a phase shift of 120◦ .4... Downloaded by [Central U Library of Bucharest] at 13:50 17 November 2012 vAO = ∞ 2Jn (npεMI π/2) 1 npεπ + sin nωm t − npεπ 2 2 n=1. npεπ 3 2 + m+1 2J0 (mMI π/2) π (−1) 2 sin mωc t − mπ 2 m=1. VBO ∞ npεπ 2Jn (npεMI π/2) 1 2π sin n ωm t + − = + 2 n=1.±3.. nωm t is replaced by n(ωm t + 2π/3).. n=±2.. ε is the sampling factor between 0 and 1.5.5. In other words..±3..5... (2).±4.3. (8). ∞ ±∞ npε 2π · sin mωc t + n ωm t + m+ π 3 2 (9) . (7). two-level PWM inverter.. of the phase-A.. ∞ ∞ ±∞ · cos (mωc + ωm n)t − + (8) npε π m+ 2 mπ 2Jn [(m + npε)MI π/2] cos 2 π(m + npε) m=2.

.5.. two-level PWM inverters. In other words..... the linear voltage output by a set of three-phase. the phase-A loaded harmonic current.. can be expressed as follows: . ∞ mπ nπ 4Jn [(m + npε)MI π/2] sin sin π(m + npε) 2 3 m=1...±3.5. i1 . (10). vAB = nπ −4Jn (npεMI π/2) npεπ nπ cos nωm t − + sin 3 2 3 npεπ n=1.3. n=±2. npε n · cos (mωc + ωm n)t − m + − π 2 3 ∞ Downloaded by [Central U Library of Bucharest] at 13:50 17 November 2012 + ±∞ (10) Hence..3..... npε n · sin (mωc + ωm n)t − m + π − 2 3 ±∞ ∞ nπ mπ −4Jn [(m + npε)MI π/2] sin + cos 2 3 π(m + npε) m=2.6. vAB .±4.Characteristics of PWM Modulation 1113 Hence.4. n=±1. is ﬁgure out.. vAB = vAO − vBO can be expressed with Eq.

by means of the harmonic mathematic model.5. the ﬁndings of simulation are compared with the mathematical model created by DFS for the sake of analysis.±4.3. Eventually. The questions are solved with Matlab. The model and simulation of the system are constructed the timedomain simulator tools.4.. npε n · sin (mMf + n)ωm t − m + − π 2 3 ±∞ ∞ mπ nπ −4Jn [(m + npε)MI π/2] + cos sin π(m + npε) 2 3 m=2. Pspice and Simulink... .5..±3. n=±1. vAB R1 + jXL1 i1 = √ − v1 3 ∞ nπ −4Jn (npεMI π/2) npεπ nπ cos nωm t − = sin + npεπ 3 2 3 n=1.3. with a view to verifying its precision. Time-Domain Simulations and Spectral Analysis In this article. n=±2.. mπ nπ 4Jn [(m + npε)MI π/2] sin sin π(m + npε) 2 3 m=1.. expression Eq..... (11). the researcher adopts the hypothesis that the load functions with a constant power for the sake of solution and simulation.... created by DFS.. + ∞ ±∞ · cos (mMf + n)ωm t − × npε n − π m+ 2 3 √ (11) 3 − V1 1 R1 + jXL1 4..6.

Figure 6. Figure 5c shows a three-phase PWM controller. (a) (b) (c) Downloaded by [Central U Library of Bucharest] at 13:50 17 November 2012 Figure 5. the circuit model diagram of the three-phase PWM inverter used in the system can be constructed. The models of the power switch and the . the construction of the system-based inverter circuit by Simulink (Power System Blockset) is discussed. and (c) a three-phase of a power transistor PWM controller. as shown in Figures 5a and b. as shown in Figure 6. 4. 4. Tseng et al. (a) An AC switch. (b) the switching diode. namely the input voltage (DC). Given the aforesaid components. Constructing Three-Phase PWM Inverter Used in the System with Simulink In this section.1. Symbolic representation of various components of Pspice. The PWM inverter is composed of a power switch and a counter diode.2.1114 K. the three-phase PWM inverter and the load. The circuit of a three-phase PWM inverter simulated by Pspice.-H. Constructing Three-Phase PWM Inverter Used in the System with Pspice All the components of the system are roughly divided into three types.

respectively. counter diode of the PWM inverter are borrowed from the component library of Simulink. Regarding the controller for the three-phase PWM inverter. The equivalent circuit of the three-phase PWM inverter used in the system can be created by means of the components constructed with Simulink. The symbolic representation of the power switch. Figures 7 and 8 show the symbolic representation of the power switch and the counter diode. The symbolic representation of the counter diode. The three-phase PWM control block diagram. Figure 8. Figure 9. the triggering signal for the switch can be devised with the concepts mentioned above in Section 2.Characteristics of PWM Modulation 1115 Downloaded by [Central U Library of Bucharest] at 13:50 17 November 2012 Figure 7. Figure 10 shows the circuit of the three-phase PWM inverter constructed by means of Simulink. Its control block diagram is depicted in Figure 9. .

ε = 0 4. the current waveforms and harmonic spectrums at the load-end of the three-phase PWM inverter are simulated.-H. As for the 3rd. f = 60 Hz. Table 1 System simulation parameters Three-phase DC input voltage: Three-phase induction motor: Three-phase PWM inverter: Vd = 313. MI = 0. it is even harmonic. a relative low Ih /I1 ratio is adopted in Pspice simulation and a relative low Ih /I1 ratio is adopted in DFS problemsolving process.Downloaded by [Central U Library of Bucharest] at 13:50 17 November 2012 1116 K. b. the DC link of the Pspice simulation and Simulink simulation is not DC in nature as assumed by the mathematical model created in this article. its switch switching can be .75. the main spectrum worked out by DFS put forth in this article approximates closely the main spectrums worked out by Pspice simulation and Simulink simulation.73 ∠−12. respectively. R = 2 Ω. and I1 denotes the current of the basic harmonic. though the discrepancy is just as great as 10%. b.97 V V1 = 105. According to the aforesaid ﬁndings of comparison. The Simulink circuit structure diagram for the three-phase PWM inverter. In addition. Tseng et al. Discussion of Simulation Results The aforesaid simulation method and the system model of the PWM inverter created above are analyzed. while unipolar natural sampling backrim modulation is taking place. 7th. respectively. approximately. and c. Regarding these three methods. the diﬀerence is insigniﬁcant.3. Figure 11c shows the ﬁndings of the simulation by DFS. 5th. Table 1 shows the parameters adopted by the system. and c. L = 10 mH Mf = 7. Their spectral characteristics are depicted in Figure 12a. Instead. We treat the Simulink-based simulated values as the standard so as to conduct the analysis. Figure 11a and b show the ﬁndings acquired by Pspice simulation and Simulink simulation.36◦ V. wherein Ih denotes the current of the nth harmonic. and the computation is fast and precise. However. As indicated by the ﬁndings about the spectrums depicted in Figure 12a. Figure 10. although the measurements of the three types of simulation diﬀer slightly. wherein it is supposed that the load functions with a constant power. and 9th harmonics.

.Downloaded by [Central U Library of Bucharest] at 13:50 17 November 2012 Characteristics of PWM Modulation 1117 (a) (b) (c) Figure 11. (a) Using Pspice simulation. (b) using Simulink simulation. and (c) using DFS for solution. The time-domain waveforms of the current output by the three-phase PWM inverter.

-H.Downloaded by [Central U Library of Bucharest] at 13:50 17 November 2012 1118 K. and (c) using DFS for solution. (a) (b) (c) Figure 12. Tseng et al. The harmonic spectrum of the current. . (a) Using Pspice simulation. (b) using Simulink simulation.

with a view to providing the data about the harmonic characteristics of an operating system and thus making the harmonic model put forth in this article more useful. Based on study in this article using 3-D modulation model to analysis the harmonic spectrum of three-phase PWM inverter. . and the harmonics appear at the frequency modulation ratio. (2) Construct the circuit of the three-phase PWM inverter with a simulation tool. The conclusions of this research are as follows: (1) In view of the combined modulation relation between a modulated wave and a carrier. by means of a 3-D modulation model and the double Fourier series. Simulate the harmonic mathematical model and verify its precision. because Simulink switch model is not an ideal component at all. Mf . the harmonic voltage mathematical model of the three-phase PWM inverter is constructed by means of the 3-D modulation model and the double Fourier series. the distribution of the harmonic source is swiftly assessed in accordance with the variation of the frequency modulation ratio.Downloaded by [Central U Library of Bucharest] at 13:50 17 November 2012 Characteristics of PWM Modulation 1119 delayed. and it is possible to supply the harmonic source to the load so as to conduct harmonic analysis. such as the dead time of switch components. and the phenomenon wherein the load comprises even harmonics. there are atypical harmonics. 5th and 7th harmonics. the dynamic harmonics of the system is monitored. Regarding further study. (3) The harmonic characteristics of the three-phase PWM inverter constructed by DFS are distributed around Mf . may be expressed with the following h = j(Mf ) ± K where if j is an odd number. it is important to take into account the dynamic load of an operating system so as to ﬁgure out the dynamic output power of the inverter. and studied the structure of a three-phase PWM inverter and its principle of motion. h. Mf . should be incorporated into the establishment of a harmonic mathematical model in further study. As a result. 5. Pspice and Simulink. harmonic number. In this way. so that a harmonic model that is more accurate can be established. and the adjoining rim. the fact that the power source comprises ripples. the harmonic current input to the load by the three-phase PWM inverter is ﬁgured out accurately. if j is an even number. then K is an odd number. the authors suggest that considerations. for the sake of prevention and prohibition. Furthermore. the precision of the harmonic mathematical model put forth was proved by the ﬁndings about the three-phase PWM inverter harmonic characteristics simulated by the time-domain simulation tools.). Conclusions This article involved using a PWM inverter as the major source for supplying harmonics to the load. so as to help identify the harmonic characteristics of the system while it is operating in practice. As a result. etc. These two phenomena contribute to the low order harmonics (the 3rd. then K is an even number. with a view to creating a harmonic mathematical model for the three-phase PWM inverter used in the system and then analyzing its harmonic characteristics. Hence. Hence.

. Modulation Theory. pp. Arrillaga. 1–10. Mellor. 7. Smith. Mansell. Sciutto. Downloaded by [Central U Library of Bucharest] at 13:50 17 November 2012 References [1] W. IEE. July 1992. “Reduction of spectral distortion in class D ampliﬁers by an enhanced pulse width modulation sampling process. M. S.. no. Mazzucchelli.. R. vol. [11] P. Tseng et al. S. no. N. Gardella. “An adjustable sinusoidal PWM sampling process for AC drives. no. 996–974. March 1997.” IEE Proceedings G. Puglisi. pt. no. P. 3. 122. M.” Electronics Letters. 3. pulse width modulated power ampliﬁers. and A. pp. [3] G. IA-21. A.” Conference Record of the 1993 IEEE Textile. and A. 28. no. 138. pp. pp.” IEEE Trans. vol. Mosely. vol. H. Tauﬁg. 1991. B.1120 K. R. Salutari. Bird. 1993. “Suboptimal switching strategies for microprocessorcontrolled PWM inverter drives. 1993. P. “Novel approach to the analysis and synthesis of modulation processes in power converters. 1992.” EPE’93 Fifth European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications. D. Carrara. and B. 497–505. Marchesoni. 5. 4. 132. 144. R. B. Aug. Franzo. J. C. 2. [8] S. A. H. M. and G. Leigh. pp. [6] I. R. M. “Analysis of PWM techniques using uniform sampling in variable-speed electrical drives with large speed range. [5] P. 56–58. 507–513. [9] J. 158–168. vol. S. 231–236. Bowes and A. “Analytical solution to harmonic characteristics of traction PWM converters. [2] J. vol. Power Appl. 1953. 1. on Power Electronics. [7] S. pp. Midoun. pp. May 1985. Jan. G. Power System Harmonics Analysis. Bingham. Bowes and B. Black. on Industry Applications. R. vol. D. Maslowski. Mellor. pp. 4.-H. H. March 1975.” Proc. “A new multilevel PWM method: A theoretical analysis. no. and L. Watson. M. 1997. no. Cheetham. 4. [4] G.-Electr. “Digital sampling process for audio class D. Wood. Fiber and Film Industry Technical Annual Conference. vol. [10] H. Mellor. vol.” IEE Proc. “Harmonic in power systems.” IEEE Trans. Princeton. Shen. 441–448. New York: John Wiley & Sons. and C. New Jersey: Van Nostrand.” IEE Proc. July 1985.

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