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FaultKin 5 Manual

FaultKin 5.2
For Mac OS X and Windows 7/XP

Richard W. Allmendinger © 2011

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............................................3 Differences with Previous Versions of FaultKin (and FaultKinWin)!......................................................3 Credits!...............................11 Customizing your Plot with the Inspector!.......5 Using FaultKin 5!.............14 Version History!.......6 Editing Already Entered data!..................................................................................................14 Version 5................................................................................................13 Copying..................10 Plotting your results!...................................................................8 Choosing which data to plot or analyze!................................3 — 2011....................15 References!................................................2..07....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................13 Interactive Features!.............................................3 Introduction!................................................15 Version 5.................................FaultKin 5 Manual Table of Contents Disclaimer!.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1.......................7 Saving Data to a disk file!................................................................15 2 ..........................................................................................................1!........................................................14 Version 5............................................................................................................................................................................................................................1!.........03!...................................................................................................................................................................................................6 Entering data!.................3 Referencing this Program!...........9 Calculations and Data Analysis!..7 Opening files on disk!.....0!......................................................... saving and printing your plot!.........15 Version 5......................

Structural geology algorithms: Vectors and tensors in structural geology: Cambridge University Press (book to be published in early 2012). D. and vastly improved. The only difference is that the Mac OS X version uses an interface with a main window and two drawer windows that can be opened and closed at will. The PDF classes included in this program are from pdfFile by Toby W. 3 .. Kinematic analysis of fault-slip data: Journal of Structural Geology.. The author will not be liable for direct. ET A Allmendinger. Referencing this Program The science behind the algorithms in FaultKin can be found in the following references: Marrett. Rush Copyright © 2004. N. p. R. The program has a revamped. even if he has been previously been made aware of the defect. whereas the Windows 7 version uses a single window with several different panes for different interface elements (Fig. Credits B FaultKin 5 was written by Richard W. Introduction FaultKin 5 is a complete rewrite of my venerable. in press. 1990. 12. v. and Fisher. Please refer to these publications in any study or presentation that result from the use of this program. 973-986. W. This program may not be sold or offered as an inducement to buy any other product. The functionality of the program on the two platforms is identical. explicit or implicit. and Allmendinger. 1). R. or consequential damages resulting from any defect in this software or this user's manual. but aging. fault slip analysis programs for Mac and Windows.. includes most of the scientific functionality of the older versions.. W.. I am particularly grateful to comments and advice from Néstor Cardozo during the development of this program and for sharing many other programming adventures. Furthermore. Cardozo. Allmendinger. incidental. A. and will work just fine on modern operating systems such as Mac OS X (“Lion”) and Windows 7. I make no systematic effort to inform all users of either bug fixes or upgrades. indirect. R. The algorithm for calculating P and T axes has been completely rewritten from one originally written by Randy Marrett.FaultKin 5 Manual Disclaimer FaultKin is distributed on an "as is" basis without any warranty. user interface.

The FaultKin 5 interface in the Mac OS X (top) and Windows XP (bottom). -4- .Main Window Data drawer (shows the plot or data details depending on the tabs at the top) ET A Inspector Analysis drawer Data pane B Plot/Data details pane Inspector Analysis pane Figure 1.

you won’t see the dreaded new plot or old plot dialog box any more. personal computers were so slow that you could literally watch them drawing individual great circles! So older versions of FaultKin drew the layers of graphical elements in the order that the user specified and went to great pains to avoid redrawing previous elements. Some programs that claim to be able to read pdfs might claim that the file is damaged or otherwise be unable to read the file. So. you can either have it show the plot or show more detail about an individual fault slip datum which you can edit directly. ET A • When FaultKin was first written more than 20 years ago. -5- Figure 2. FaultKin 5 always layers different elements in the same order. Want to turn off the faults and striae that you plotted six steps ago? Just uncheck them in the Plot menu and they will disappear while everything else that you drew afterwards remain intact. It is now possible to turn on or off different graphical elements without redrawing everything else.Differences with Previous Versions of FaultKin (and FaultKinWin) There are several significant changes in how FaultKin 5 works relative to how older versions worked. • All plots that you save from FaultKin are in now as PDF files. You can click on a fault and have the corresponding row in the data table highlighted or vice versa. • Sorting of your data into subsets is now accomplished by clicking on the heading of the column in the data table that corresponds to the parameter you want to sort by. and you can then toggle on or off the faults (i. By using the tab at the top of the main window. With modern systems. regardless of what order the user specified.e. . just open the file in Preview (Mac OS X) or in Acrobat Reader (either platform) and then save it. If that happens. check or uncheck them) based on whether or not they are selected in the data table. the graphics can be delivered all at once. So.. B • Interaction with your data has been much improved in this version of FaultKin. Example of plotting capabilities of FaultKin 5. The data table supports multiple selections.

If you do record trend and plunge instead of rake. 2) • FaultKin 5 can read in FaultKin 4 “database” files. the program will assume that the trend is in error and correct it. FaultKin 5 can also read in files in the FaultKin 5 “spreadsheet” format. Everything else is there for your record keeping or for assessing magnitude of strain from faulting. or (4) if the plane dips more than 45*. This is an editable text field. Just click where you want to start writing. (3) if the dip of the plane is 45° or less. its behavior is like that of previous versions. • This beta version of FaultKin 5 is (still) not “document” based. but you can write your own notes and annotations there. ET A • In FaultKin 5. FaultKin 5 will check to see whether the line is on the plane with four possible outcomes: (1) the measurement is correct(!) and no change is necessary. Thus. it is actually remarkably difficult to record a trend and plunge that is guaranteed to fall on the fault plane as it should. Only the entires in the “Orientations” group box are necessary to calculate P & T axes. Of course. There is a single window into which you read your data sets. When you read in a new data set whatever was there previously is wiped out. be sure to copy them to the system clipboard and then paste them wherever you want.” only then will the datum appear in the Data Table drawer/pane to the right. The fault slip datum is not calculated until you click the button “Calculate & Save. you have much greater control over the appearance of your plot than previously (see Fig. You -6- . numerical analyses are written to the Analyses drawer/ pane. Not only can you copy and paste to that field. but it writes to disk new or modified data sets as tab-delimited “spreadsheet style” text files that can be opened in Excel or other spreadsheets. In general. You probably don’t want to leave these decisions in the hands of a computer program which is why I recommend that you use the rake instead. Be sure to save any changes!! Using FaultKin 5 Entering data B You begin to enter a new data set into the program by selecting “New” from the file menu This will open the Data tab of the main window (Fig. However. it cannot read in files in FaultKin 4 “spreadsheet” format. to capture its contents when you close the program. FaultIn will assume that the striae plunge is in error and will correct it. 3) and set N=1 at the bottom of the menu. This field is not saved with the plot so.• You now set all plot elements in the Inspector Window. (2) the measurement is impossible in which case FaultKin will not allow you to record the datum. I highly recommend that you record your striae as rakes on the fault plane.

Saving Data to a disk file FaultKin 5 reads and writes plain text files that can be opened and modified outside of the program. Make whatever changes you want and then click “Calculate & Save”. The current native output is as a tab-delimited text file that can be most easily viewed in any modern spreadsheet program. To enter the next fault. The complete information will be displayed for you to examine and. you can go to the plot view and plot features of interest. select the row of data in the Data drawer/pane and then click on the Data Tab in the main window. At any time during the process. Fault slip data entry in the Data Tab of the main window. if you want edit. You can run analyses on the faults already entered and plot and save the results. you can return to the Data tab and click “Add New” to continue adding info to the data set.ET A Figure 3. That new fault is not recorded until Calculate and Save is pressed. Your changes will be reflected immediately in any plots that you have constructed. you must click “Calculate & Save” again. either from a disk file or that you have entered within the program. At any time. There will be no change in the Data tab after clicking the button — you can continue to edit the datum. just select them in the Plot menu. Editing Already Entered data To edit data that has already been entered. To record more info permanently. The first line of the text file is a -7- . B can only see the P&T axes after clicking Calculate & Save because they are calculated values. you must click the “Add New” button or press ⌘⇧N. correcting errors or adding additional information.

chose “Tab-delimited text. If you choose to do this. but it can also read in FaultKin 4 data files that were saved in the so-called “database” format.000000 0. you will be asked whether or not you want to append the second data set to the first or replace the first. However.000000 0. The first line (“FaultKin_4. The first few lines of the FaultKin 4 format look something like: ET A FaultKin_4. data files of either format are opened with “Open” under the File Menu. It can. If that happens. then “Open” will only open the binary files whereas “Import Text” will still open the text files as described here. -8- . if you choose “Cancel” the second data set will not be read in and the first will remain unscathed.0” followed by the Geologist’s name. Note that this does not happen until after you have selected the second data set. The easiest way of getting your older data ready for use in FaultKin 5 is to open a database format file in FaultKin 4 and then save the file as a database format Currently. read the tab-delimited text files that have been saved from within FaultKin 5. the first line headers much match exactly those that FaultKin 5 writes. of course.” Opening files on disk FaultKin 5 can read plain text files in two different formats. A complete fault slip datum in this format consists of 10 lines with individual numbers or words separated by spaces.0”) occurs only in the first line of the file.series of headers which FaultKin uses on input to make sure the file is in the correct format.000000 0 0. When you save the file. or “Import Text File” also under File. To save your data. If you already have a data set entered and try to open a second data set. FaultKin 5 may eventually evolve to writing its own binary files rather than text files. You can even construct your data file in a spreadsheet program and then read it in to FaultKin 5. etc.0 Cladouhos 6 7 90 447 Cerrillos (th) 0 0.000000 Oa 335 46 W Tm 167 64 E TL X 7 57 137 50 227 68 114 9 999 99 B You can see the first line of the file contains the characters: “FaultKin_4. choose “Save Data” (⌘S) from the File Menu.

By making the choice shown in Figure 4 top. you can toggle on or off faults.ET A Figure 4 (top). From the Data Menu. you will get the plot showing in Figure 4 bottom. Note that contextual popup menu that allows you to make selections from the Data menu. the row will be selected in the table. (bottom) Single fault isolated by toggling off all faults that were not selected in the table. and clicking on a row provides a selection halo in the Plot Window. Selection halo and selected row in the Table of the Data drawer/pane. or equivalent popup menu in the Data Drawer. non-contiguous selections in the table of the Data Drawer by command clicking the rows of interest. You can multiple. If you click on a point in the plot. The program makes it easy to link faults in the plot to the table in the data drawer by highlighting selected points and planes in yellow. The first time you click a column heading all the rows will sort ascending. The Toggle On and Off commands in the Data Menu can be very powerful when combined the ability to sort rows by clicking on a column in the table of the data drawer. the -9- . B Choosing which data to plot or analyze FaultKin 5 will only plot or analyze faults that are checked in the Data drawer/ pane to the right of the plot. an effect I call the “selection halo” (Fig. 4 top).

5). click the “No. in a dialog box (Fig. specified in the Rotate Data dialog box (Fig. you will want to calculate the linked Bingham axes. and shear stresses on that -10- Figure 6. normal. Fault observations lacking bedding data are unaffected by Unfold Data. as well as the orientation of the plane you are interested in. 6) and FaultKin 5 will calculate the traction. “Stress on Plane” is a forward model calculation where you enter the principal stress orientations. . if yo have not entered any weighting information for your faults. you can then select the range of rows that fits your criteria and Toggle Off the rest of the data set.next click will sort descending. The Rotate Data dialog box. This option does not plot the axes to the Plot Window. After choosing Unfold data. Calculations and Data Analysis ET A You can carry out a suite of operations on your data from the Calculations Menu. Figure 5. If you have entered bedding at the site of the observation in the Data Entry tab. To return to the original sorting. The parameters for the Moment Tensor calculation are entered in the Inspector Window (see below). This last operation is a counterclockwise rotation about a right-hand rule strike by a magnitude equivalent to the dip. the menu item name automatically changes to “Refold Data” allowing you to return your data to their entered values. The Stress on Plane dialog box. In general.” heading of the column farthest to the left. Once sorted by whatever criteria you want. B The “Kinematic Tensors” submenu will allow you to perform either a linked Bingham or a Moment tensor analysis and have the results automatically recorded in the Analysis Drawer/Pane. With “Rotate Data” you can rotate all of the data (including unchecked data) about a single rotation axis. Unfold/Refold data allows you to carry out a fold test on your fault slip data. then you can also “Unfold data” by rotating your observations back to horizontal.

Lots of different things to plot! -11- 10 3 . ET A Note that the Analysis drawer is editable: you can record notes and annotations there as well as erasing the information that you are not interested in. 9 15 15 23 which is probably more than you 7 10 15 19 25 want! Which of these options you 7 13 18 22 29 10 15 18 24 30 choose to display at any one time 12 15 19 24 31 will depend on the purpose of 10 14 16 21 24 31 your analysis. 14 17 22 24 28 The items under “Faults” 10 15 allow you to plot the fault planes. The user is given the option of pasting the results into the Analysis drawer (Fig. Finally. you must copy it to the clipboard for pasting into another application. 13 17 23 12 22 22 26 27 27 25 25 24 17 24 27 31 35 35 34 32 21 23 19 22 24 32 37 39 42 41 38 26 21 17 13 27 31 38 43 44 42 42 41 31 26 19 13 12 33 39 44 45 46 44 45 42 34 29 23 16 12 38 43 47 48 46 49 46 42 37 32 23 20 11 8 41 46 50 49 49 49 46 43 40 37 28 19 12 11 42 46 51 49 52 52 48 44 40 37 29 19 14 12 43 47 53 53 55 51 47 43 40 37 31 18 14 10 41 47 54 53 1 55 51 47 43 40 34 30 15 12 8 38 45 53 54 54 51 48 43 39 35 29 12 8 9 36 46 50 55 54 50 47 44 38 31 23 12 6 8 23 25 25 34 43 48 53 53 50 46 41 36 30 21 12 7 6 22 25 25 33 39 46 49 50 48 43 38 33 28 19 10 8 6 21 23 25 28 35 43 48 44 44 38 34 27 22 14 9 7 20 21 26 28 32 39 44 42 39 32 28 25 20 12 9 7 14 21 24 26 28 35 35 34 31 26 27 22 14 10 8 19 21 22 21 26 26 27 23 26 24 16 13 8 21 21 25 26 2 24 21 23 19 13 23 Figure 8. “Angle between Lines” allows you to click with the mouse on any two lines in the plot window and determine the angle between them. The contents of the Analysis Drawer/Window are not saved when you exit the program! If you want to capture this information for further use. 14 17 21 25 30 etc. Figure 8 is a plot of everything 7 12 15 16 for our sample data set of 58 faults. they are essentially the plane of plane strain for an individual fault. You edit it just like a normal text edit window. Plotting your results B The features that appear in the Plot Tab of the main window are determined by what 8 13 menu items are checked in the Plot 10 11 13 Menu. The Angle between Lines dialog box.plane. Plot Menu). If you have selected to plot the stress on plane analyses (in the Figure 7. When you click done. 13 striae. quality of data. The calculate button just runs the analysis. and arrows that show the 12 movement of the hanging wall. the dialog box disappears and the results of the last analysis are recorded in the Analysis Drawer/pane. which you can repeat as often as you like. the analysis showing when you click Done will be plotted. “Movement Planes” are the planes that contain the slip vector and the pole to the plane and are thus perpendicular to the fault plane. 7).

FaultKin keeps track of all stress on plane analyses and when you ask it to plot Stress on Plane. simply Figure 9. The “Scatter” submenu is where you will find commands to plot P and T axes as points. For example. To remove the ad hoc fault plane solution from your plot. B There may be times when you want to plot a quick fault plane/focal mechanism solution. Finally. click Cancel. The easiest way to use this is to leave the plunge of either the P or the T axis blank. you may want to plot up a quick focal mechanism for a recent earthquake. For those times. it will plot all of the analyses. In the resulting diagram. -12- . 1990. choose “Reset Stress on Plane” from the Calculations Menu. ensuring that the two axes are perpendicular to each other. You can also get the number of P and T dihedra at any point simply by holding down the Shift Key while moving the mouse over the stereonet. FaultKin will calculate the correct plunge. Twiss and others. which allows you to specify an arbitrary P and T axis from which the nodal planes will be calculated. This choice will give you the dialog box to the right (Fig. Dialog used to specify ad hoc P and T axes. To clear out the old analyses. 9). ET A PT-dihedra allow you to carry out and plot the P or T dihedra following the method of Angelier and Mechler (1977). showing the movement of the hanging wall block (Twiss and Gefell. you can plot the results of any Stress on Plane analyses you have carried out. “Kinematic axes” submenu allows you to plot either linked Bingham or Moment tensor axes for the entire population that is currently showing on the stereonet. you can use Plot:Fault Plane Solution:From ad hoc P & T axes. These are “average” axes. plotted at the pole to the fault.Tangent Lineations are arrows plotted in the movement plane. etc. 1991). When you click Okay. dialog box in Figure 9 appears. The “Fault plane solution” allows you to visualize easily your data set as a classic “beach ball” diagram commonly used to visualize earthquake focal mechanisms. the number at each point on a grid shows the number of P or T quadrants with which that point coincides. The P and T dihedra show up just above where the trend and plunge at the mouse is displayed. from which a fault plane solution will be select the same menu option and when the plotted. either weighted or unweighted for the entire population. the fault plane solution will be plotted.

see Marrett and Allmendinger (1990) for details. Changes in the Inspector are immediately reflected in the plot.Figure 10. you can do so by choosing “Set stereonet radius” from the view menu. The PDFs produced should be of publication quality and should appear identical to. The second and third tabs control the size and color of the different features that you can plot from the plot menu. The most common reason why you might want to do this is to display your results oriented correctly for the plane of a cross section. The first (leftmost) tab of the Inspector controls the stereographic projection. Alternatively. You can change the view direction from the View Menu. if you need to ensure that several plots are all the same size. The size of the pdf is controlled by the size of the Plot tab in the Main window. you can save your plot in an older vector format by choosing “Save Plot as -13- . where you determine the appearance of your plot. saving and printing your plot Once you have the plot just as you like it. The final (rightmost) tab is where you enter the parameters for the Moment tensor summation. Copying. but higher resolution than. which is accessed from the View menu or with ⌘⇧I (capital “i”). Describing these is beyond the scope of these notes. Customizing your Plot with the Inspector ET A You customize your plot via the Inspector Window. Three different view of the Inspector. you can save it as a PDF file for import into other programs. This allows you to rotate the stereonet so that the primitive circle does not represent the horizon but instead represents any other plane you might want as a reference point. the plot window itself. grid spacing and selection aspects. The window will be resized to accommodate the new stereonet size. B Finally.

PICT/EMF” which will save the plot as a .07. -14- . The application into which you paste the graphic will determine the format in which it appears. Otherwise the Graphic in the Main Window will be copied as vector objects to the clipboard for pasting into another application. • Holding down the shift key while moving the mouse will display the number of P and T dihedra at the cursor tip B • Clicking on a data point in the stereonet selects the corresponding row in the data table and vice versa. You can still change the size by resizing the window as well. the graphic is printed at the size it appears on the screen unless it is larger than 7 inches. noncontiguous selections are possible • Changes made in the Inspector are instantly reflected in the plot Version History Version 5. however. in which case it is shrunk to fit the screen. the trend and plunge at the tip of the cursor is displayed in the lower left corner • Clicking and dragging the mouse inside the stereonet temporarily displays a great circle whose pole coincides with the tip of the cursor. The text in the Analysis Window/Pane is automatically added beneath the stereonet. whereas Carbon apps will recognize the vectors. Multiple. that editable text will be copied to the clipboard. • Added ability to specify the exact radius of the stereonet. At present. The window is resized automatically to accommodate the new size.3 — 2011. Interactive Features • Whenever the mouse moves over the stereonet.pict file on the Mac and an enhanced metafile format in Windows. ET A FaultKin has a very basic printing routine which will print the graphics in the Main Windows/plot pane. On the Mac OS X. Now you can rotate your results in the plane of a cross section or whatever. you can print to PDF as you can in other programs. Cocoa applications. the pdf that is produced by the save plot as pdf command is higher quality than that saved from the print window. In Mac OS X.2. it will usually appear as a Tiff image. FaultKin also supports the clipboard.03 • Added ability to set the view direction as in earlier versions of the program. If any text is selected in either the Data or theAnalysis Window/Pane. The default size of the graphics window produces a stereonet that just fits on one page.

1 • Added ability to save the plot in older vector format as a . -15- . v. References Angelier. you can save pdfs from the print window though pdfs saved directly from the file menu are higher resolution. the old data set • Minor bug fixes. say.pict file (Mac) or a . 1977.1. or replace.0 • Initial public release of completely rewritten program. Sur une methode graphique de recherche des contraintes principales egalment utilisable en tectonique et en seismologie: La methode des diedres droits: Bulletin de Societie Geologique de France Bulletin de Societie Geologique de France. • Copying to the clipboard now works in all windows/panes.. you are asked where you want the new data set to append to.. B Version 5. • Added a basic printing ability. • Stress on plane analyses are now saved when saving PICT/EMF files ET A • If you have a data set open and try to open another data set. Windows).• Added the ability to plot nodal planes for “ad hoc” P & T axes. You can now copy the graphics as vectors to the clipboard. Printing automatically includes the text from the Analysis Window/Pane. You enter whatever P. 19. It does not get added to the permanent plot.emf (enhanced metafile. a focal mechanism for a recent earthquake. J. In Mac OS X. P.1 • Corrected errors in the stress on plane calculation • Added ability to plot the stress on plane calculation • Added ability to click and drag mouse inside the stereonet to plot interactively a great circle. and Mechler. 1309-1318. • Various bug fixes Version 5.and T-axis you want in a dialog box and the program will plot a beach ball fault plane solution for you. p. Note that the great circle only shows while you are clicking and dragging the mouse. including one where fault plane solutions were drawn incorrectly Version 5. This is useful if you are using FaultKin to plot.

p.. S. R. v. 1991.Marrett. R. D. Kinematic analysis of fault-slip data: Journal of Structural Geology. v. R. B ET A Twiss. M. 186. 215-239. -16- . J. p. v. Twiss. p. R. A... 1990. and Allmendinger. Theory of slickenline patterns based on the velocity gradient tensor and microrotation: Tectonophysics.. 1990. 12. M. and Gefell. Curved slickenfibers: a new brittle shear sense indicator with application to a sheared serpentine: Journal of Structural Geology.. J. J.. 471-482. G. Protzman. 12. W.. 973-986. and Hurst.