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A HERBARIUM OF

NIGERIAN MEDICINAL
PLANTS

Chief (Dr.) Roland E. Ehigiamusoe

A Herbarium of Nigerian Medicinal Plants Chief (Dr.) Roland E. Ehigiamusoe 2013

Published in 2013 by:


University of Calabar Press
P.M.B. 1115 Calabar
Nigeria.

ISBN: 978 - 007 - 223 - 3


All Rights Reserved:
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any
form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the
prior permission of the copyright owner.

DEDICATION

This book is dedicated to


My Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ
The Greatest Healer of all time.

FOREWORD
A HERBARIUM OF NIGERIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS
Several publications on medicinal plants have been made within and outside Nigeria but this Herbarium of
Nigerian Medicinal Plants stands out uniquely valuable and applicable to all manners of people in the
society. It will be a good reference book for research scientists, herbalists, cultural and educational
institutions, selective plant conservators and class room teachers for post primary school levels and of
course for national economic planning.
The author has painstingly documented with photographs over 500 medicinal plants from the deserts,
savannah, raining and swampy vegetations of Nigeria. Most of the medicinal uses of these plants as
annotated on the photographs, were as described by the natives of the communities and from previous
publications.
The researching scientists would be interested in characterizing these plants to their potent medicinal
components. The pharmacists, pharmacologists, pharmacogonosists, would want to confirm their claimed
therapeutic values. According to the WHO statistics, more than 75% of our Health Care Delivery System
depend on Traditional medicine practitioners or herbalists. These researching scientists and herbalists
would want to experiment with some of these plants they are not yet familiar with.
Many of the medicinal plants are going into extinction, such as the very valuable Okoubaka aubrevillei,
Xylopia aethiopica, Enantia chlorantha, Buchholzia macrophylum, Memecylon spathandra etc. Their
medicinal values need to be emphasized to forest officers and plant conservators to promote their necessary
preservation.
Our children need be to taught about these plants with their native and universal/botanical names for both
their knowledge and cultural values. It is a shame that even many adults do not know the names of many
plants in their localities these days.
The present day economic resource values of medicinal plants as national and family major sources of
income are phenomenal. China and India have glaringly demonstrated these economic values, many
Nigerians now cultivate economically viable farms of medicinal plants such as of Moringa oleifera,
Aframomum melegueta, Artemisia annua
etc. This book would be useful in identifying many of such valuable plants for public and family
economic planning and development.
The author's treatise on methods of preparing herbal medicines and on problems and cautions in the practice
of herbalism in quite exciting and educating.

Certainly this book is unarguably of tremendous value. The amount of effort made to research and produce
this book is unquantifiable. The author was physically and mentally equipped for the work. He brought to
bear in experiences as a doctorate degree holder in Applied Chemistry, a student of Botany, President of the
Great Benin Cultural Heritage Centre and a son of a famous herbalist.
It is hoped that the author will extend this work to more plants in more ecological zones in his future editions
and that he will join other stakeholders- researching scientists, pharmacists, herbalists etc to verify and
confirm at least many of the claimed medicinal values.
This is a book I would like to recommend to relevant researching scientists, post primary institutional
libraries, all families, all herbalists and cultural institutions.

Professor (Mrs.) RuqayyatuAhmed Rufai'i, OON


Honourable Minister of Education
Federal Republic of Nigeria

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
In the process of creating this Herbarium of over 526 plants (annotated with their uses) from the main
ecological zones of Nigeria, over 15 (fifteen) thousand photographic shots were involved. Apart from the
extensive search and traveling for these photographs, the type of annotation given to the plants' uses
certainly involved several consultations and references to several books, herbalists, native doctors,
botanists, foresters and wild life specialists etc. It was not a job one man could do without a major
assistance. Acknowledging all who deserve acknowledgement would be writing another book.
Suffice it to acknowledge the big rolls and assistance by Frank Igbinohuo a botanist of the University of
Calabar and Donatus Esimekhuai of the University of Ibadan (U.I), Michael O. Kayode of U.I, Gabriel
Ibhanesebhor of Obafemi Awolowo University (O.A.U), Ile-Ife, Gabriel Adesoji Ademoriyo of O.A.U.,
Ile-Ife in identification of the plants and Engr. Kelvin E. Eronmwon for photographing and Secretarial
services.
The author heartily thanks the authors of all the books and diaries referred to in writing this book and special
emphasis must be given to the following (Dalziels, J.M. (1995), Iyawe, Ehigiamusoe (1986), Arbonnier,
Michael (2003), Bep, Oliver Bever (1984), Gill L.S. (1992), Eboigbodin, Edewi (1993), Eguavoen, Obo
Joel (1995), Etukudo, Inyang (2003)) whose books and diaries (see references) were so frequently referred
to as the page to page acknowledgement would have been monotonous. Their works were enormously
helpful and appreciated.
The author's gratitude is specially and emphatically extended to Prof. Tony U. Osagie, Dr. (Mrs.) Ruth S.
Bassey, (Mrs.) Ehimwenma S. Omoregie who painstakingly proof-read the book, Dr. Oboma Asemota who
donated a projector for the work and the following Botanical Gardens and National Parks and Forest
Reserves visited for materials and information viz ONP, OONP, FRIN, UIBG, UCBG, EBG, KNP, KANP,
CNP, BGHG, EBNP, CRNO, NFLI (see page 3). Their conservators / Curators are highly appreciated.
Also very helpful and appreciated as veritable sources of information and knowledge are Emmanuel
Ntuyang (of Cross River National Park), Osasuyi Odia, Bar. Emmanuel Ehigiamusoe, Alfred Ohenhen,
Godwin Omorhienrhen, Isreal Igbineweka Nosa Amadin and Sqd. Leader Ehi Ighile as well as Emmanuel
Ejeh who doubled as a photographer and the crew driver. Rufus Anwansedo in collaboration with Nathaniel
T. Bekomson who designed the book is also highly appreciated.
And of course this book would be incomplete without acknowledging Prof. James Epoke, (V.C. UNICAL)
and the following institutions, the University of Calabar, University of Ibadan and the Benin Cultural
Heritage Centre and its members for all the inspiration and support they gave for the book.
Tribute is also paid to the great scholars who pioneered and are working on the refinement and development
of traditional medicinal practices in Nigeria.Among these scholars, to mention a few of them, are Chief J.O.
Lambo, ProfessorA. Tella, J.I. Okogun, E.A. Sofowora, S.KAdesina andA.O. Odelola.
The in-house support I got from my family was invaluable. My wife Violet frequently sat by me while
working on the book, my son Engr. Osaretin R. Ehigiamusoe and his wife Ekinadose were generous with
their proof reading and printing support. My other children Osaro, Osasumwen and Nosakhares interests in
the book were encouraging while my grandchildrens Osarumwense and Aiyevbosas consistent greetings
and probing questions were inspiring and invigorating. I sincerely love them all.
And above all, the entire glory of writing this book goes to theAlmighty God the great I am that I am.

RELATED BIBLICAL QUOTATIONS


1.

Ezekiel 47:12 (NKJV)


..Along the bank of the river, on this side and that, will grow all kinds of trees used for food; their
leaves will not wither, and their fruit will not fail. They will bear fruit every month, because their
water flows from sanctuary. Their fruits will be for food and their leaves for medicine ....

2.

Isaiah 38: 21 (NKJV)


.. Now Isaiah had said let them take a lump of figs and apply it as a poultice on the boil, and he
shall recover....

3.

Exodus 15: 23 25 (K.I.V)


And when they came to Marah, they could not drink of the waters of Marah, for they were
bitter: ...... And (he) Moses cried unto the Lord and the Lord showed him a tree which when he had
cast into the waters, the waters were made sweet: there he .

4.

Leveticus 14 : 48 53 (N.I.V) & (G.N.B)


Spiritual uncleanness of humans and substances was a serious matter in the olden days which was
rectified by priests. To purify the house he (the priest) shall take two birds, some cedar wood,
scarlet yarn and a sprig of hyssop plant.

5.

Revelation 22 : 1 - 2 (NKJV)
On each side of the river was the tree of Life, which bears fruit twelve times a year, once each
month, its leaves are for the healing of the nations ..

6.

John 9 : 11 (K.J.V)
A man that is called Jesus made clay, and anointed my eyes, and said unto me, go to the pool
of Siloam and wash: and I went and washed, and I received my sight.

7.

Psalms 104 : 14 - 15
And vegetation for the service of man, that he may bring forth food from the earth. And wind that
makes glad the heart of man, oil to make his face shineAnd bread which strnghtens mans heart.

8.

St. Luke 10 :33 -34 (NKJV)


.. And when he saw him, he had compassion on him. And went to him and bound
up his wounds, pouring in oil and wine, and set him on his own beast, and brought him to an inn
and took care of him.

A DISCLAIMER
This book is designed to serve as a guide especially in research and applications
and not as a substitute for attention of Medical doctors and Medicinal professionals.
The author does not guarantee the efficiency of all or any of the herbal remedies
claimed in this book.

GENERAL CONTENTS
Dedication
Foreword
Acknowledgments
Related Biblical Quotations
A Disclaimer General Content
Introduction
Abbreviations -

ii
iii & iv
v
vi
vii
viii
1
3

Chapter One
The Herbarium

528

Chapter Three
Problems and Cautions in the practices of Botanical Medicine.

535

Chapter four
The Nature of plant and the Boundary between Christianity and
Idolatry in Herbalism. -

553

Glossary -

571

References

572

Chapter Two
The Herbalist Tools and Manufacturing Processes

INTRODUCTION
AHERBARIUM OF NIGERIAN MEDICINALPLANTS
Ordinarily an Herbarium is a collection of preserved plant specimens, these specimens may be whole
plants or plant parts; this usually will be in a dried form mounted on a sheet, but depending on the material,
may also be kept in alcohol or preservatives (Wikipedia online free encyclopedia). The purpose of a
Herbarium as a reference plant museum is to make the plant materials available for teaching and plant
identification in the wild or field.
In this particular Herbarium, however, plants and plant parts are represented and preserved in form of
coloured photographs for the same purpose with the added advantage of cheap individual acquisition and
easy carriage to the field for plant identification.
These days, a good knowledge of plants is of tremendous benefits to individuals, families and governments
for economic gains and Health Care Delivery.
It was recently I realized I made a great mistake, when I refused to document and comprehensively
understudy my father's practices as a great traditional physician in spite of his persistent persuasion. My
father, Newton Ehigiamusoe Iyawe was a renowned physician/healer. He was vast in the knowledge and
application of spoken words, herbs, animals and elementals for healing all manners of ailments. I thought,
with my doctorate degree in applied chemistry and flare for manufacturing industry and academics, I would
never have time for dirty and strenuous practice of collecting and compounding animal and plant parts as
an herbalist. Now I know better and thank God I did not lose all as a loyal and obedient son with the man. At
least I still have his diary as compiled by my younger brothers.
From this family background and as a village boy, which I was, I grew up to know the Benin vernacular
names for most of the plants though many exotic species have been added since my father's generation. It
was not dawn on me ever since that plant identification and application was a vital knowledge which
today's health care delivery trends recommend every citizen to have. As old and deep as the Benin culture is,
it is alarming and irritating to observe that even the Benin adults no longer know the vernacular names for
plants. It is as if the Benins never had names for the plants, let alone their medicinal uses. Evidently, it is the
same for most other tribes, in spite of the growing demand for herbal medicine. What a shame. It has been
observed that many families had specialized documentations of herbal formulae and practices bequeathed
them by their forebears. Interested as some members of the families might be in the documentations, they
could not identify the herbs listed.
Quite often, these days, some therapeutic uses of some herbs are published in newspapers, magazines and
books. Because these herbs are listed in botanical names mainly, many Nigerians are not able to benefit
from the invaluable publications. Some of the published herbs could be around in their vicinities, yet they
would not know them.
These were the motivating and demanding factors for this work. Even when some herbs and their uses are
identified, there is need to have knowledge of how simple drugs are prepared from them. Nowadays there is
the re-occuring question as to why the efficacy and efficiency of herbal drugs and herbalists respectively are
dwindling. What are the causes and remedies? For economic reasons and for the sake of curtailing the
adverse effects of Western drugs, nations of the world, especially the African nations, need to imitate India
and China to quickly expand their knowledge and usage of herbal medicine. In churches some christians,
pastors and evangelists are ignorantly indoctrinating their followers that the use of herbal drug is idolatry.
This has to be debunked.
All these reasons and the initial motivating factors culminated in the writing of this book. To provide
reasonable and relevant information on these issues, the book is set out with the following four chapters.

Chapter One: The Herbarium


This features photographic representation of 526 plants and their medicinal uses and in some cases their
magical applications. It must be emphasized here that the author does not lay claim to either the originality
or efficacy of the uses of any herbs contained in this book, and the author does not vouch for the accuracy of
the herbal formulations and prescriptions indicated herein.
It should be noted also that some plants for which their botanical names are yet unidentified are also listed
with their known medicinal uses.
Chapter Two: Methods of preparation of Herbal Medicines
This discusses the tools required for herbal preparations and how to prepare various forms of herbal
medications even at the domestic level.
Chapter Three: Problem and Caution in the practices of Herbalism.
This discusses the problems of an herbalist and cautions the herbalist must take to ensure efficacy of his
drugs and why several herbal medicines fail.
Chapter four: The Nature of plant and the Boundary between Christianity and Idolatry in
Herbalism.
Starting with a comprehensive definition of herbalism, this chapter discusses various practices of herbalists
as they relate to man and God. This topic is expected to stir up arguments among readers. It is an interesting
topic for public debate and the boundary certainly requires a definition. This volume is expected to be a
forerunner of a series of herbal publications on magical uses of plants and of verified therapeutical and
traditional herbal formulations.
The book, as it is, will be many families and institutions delight. It is expected to be useful to school
teachers, budding herbalists, research scientists, nutritionists, pharmacologists, doctors, pharmacists,
biochemists as well as plant conservators, environmentalists, geneticists, churches, mosques and individual
families. For the benefit of the majority, this volume is written in simple English Language avoiding as
much as possible medical and scientific terms and details. The plant chemical compositions which are
causative ingredients of their medicinal uses and behaviour are omitted so also are the authorities associated
with the botanical names. Even dosages are scarcely mentioned for obvious reason of not moving too far
from the original focus on Herbarium. However, the sources of the specimens as photographed in their
natural habitat are indicated along side their botanical names.
The author sincerely hopes that this book will be of great benefit in;
1. National Income Generation
2. Health Care Delivery
3. Cultural Renewal
4. Environmental/Nature Control and;
5. Educating some skeptics in traditional Health Care Delivery.
The present phenomenal clamor for herbal drugs and practices all over the world is expected to continue to
increase. Gone are the days that some orthodox medicine practitioners got away with aspersion and
castigations of herbal practitioners without challenges.
Happy reading.

ABBREVIATIONS
*

AEV

Akpabuyo Environ in Cross River State

BCEV

Benin City Environ

BNP

Boki National Park in Cross River State

CEV

Calabar Environ

CRNP

Cross River National Park

DFGK

Department of Forestry Garden Kaduna

EBG

Ebonyi Botanical Garden

EEV

Evboyare Environ in Benin Edo State

EFEV

Erua Forest and Environ in Benin Edo State

EFR

Ekoamufua Forest Reserve in Benin Edo State

FRII

Foresty Research Institute Ibadan

IBEV

Ibadan Environ in Ibadan Oyo State

IEV

Ile-Ife Environ

KNP

Kamuku National Park in Bernin Gwari Kaduna State

OAUBG

ObafemiAwolowo University Botanical Garden

OHCDS

Orthodox Health Care Delivery System

ONP

Okomu National Park in Edo State

OONP

Old Oyo National Park in Oyo State

THCDS

Traditional Health Care Delivery Systems

UBBG

University of Benin Botanical Garden

UCBG

University of Calabar Botanical Garden

UEV

Utekon Environ in Benin Edo State

UIBG

University of Ibadan Botanical Gardens

CHAPTER ONE
THE HERBARIUM

CHAPTER ONE
1.0

THE HERBARIUM

1.1

Sub- Content
Introduction

1.2

Plants with their Botanical and Family names in alphabetical order

1.3

Plants recorded only / with Vernacular names

1.4

The plants photographs

1.5

Annexures

1.5.1

The plants recorded in Benin names

1.6

The Glossary

1.7

References in Chapter one.

CHAPTER ONE
1.0

THE HERBARIUM

1.1

INTRODUCTION
For easy reference plants enumerated in this Herbarium are arranged in alphabetical order

with

their Family and English names indicated. However there are few medicinal plants also
included without such names, these are listed separately in their vernacular names.
Names of locations from which the plants were shot are indicated by abbreviations.
For (historical) record purposes and the benefit of the traditional Benin people incantations
associated with some popular plants are indicated in small prints below their photographs. The
Benins use such incantations in their practice of the science of spoken word.
The indicated uses of the plant are traditional. However, some of the uses have been therapeutically
confirmed, many are under scientific investigation all over the world but the majorities are yet to be
subjected or considered for scientific evaluation an issue for great scientific and traditional
challenges.
As much as possible, the vernacular names of the plants from various localities are also indicated.
Such names also help in identification of the plants in the field
The scientific words used in the annotations are explained in the Glossary at the end of the chapter.

1.2

PLANTS WITH THEIR BOTANICAL AND FAMILY NAMES IN ALPHABETICAL


ORDER
S/N

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
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19
20
21
22
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32
33
34
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41
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45
46
47
48
49
50

BOTANICAL NAMES

FAMILY NAMES

PAGE

Abrus precatorius
Abultilon asiaticum / mauritianum
Acacia ataxycantha / chevalier
Acacia nilotica
Acacia polyacantha / campylantha
Acacia sahel
Acalypha hispida
Acalypha Indica
Acalypha tricolor / wilkesiana
Acanthus montanus
Adansonia digitata
Adenia cissampeloides
Aframomum melegueta
Afrormosia / Pericopsis laxiflora
Afzelia Africana
Agave sisalana
Ageratum conyzoides
Albizia adianthifolia
Albizia ferruginea
Albizia gummifera
Albizia lebbeck
Albizia zygia
Alchornea cordifolia
Alchornea laxiflora
Allamanda cathartica
Allanblackia floribunda
Allium cepa
Allium sativum
Allophylus africanus
Aloe vera / barbadensis
Aloe vera / barteri
Alstonia boonei
Alternanthera repens
Amphimas pterocarpoides
Anacardium occidentalis
Ananas comosus
Anceistocladus korupensis
Anchomanes difformis
Andrographis paniculata
Andropogon / Cymbopogon citratus
Angraecum eichleranum
Annona muricata
Annona reticulate
Annona senegalensis
Annona squamosa
Anogeissus leiocarpus
Anopyxis calaensis
Anthocleista djalonesis
Anthocleista liebrechtsiana
Anthocleista vogelii

Papilionaceae
Malvaceae
Mimosaceae
Mimosoideae
Mimosoides
Mimosoideae
Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Acanthaceae
Bombacaceae
Passifloraceae
Zingiberaceae
Papilionaceae
Caesalpiniaceae
Amarylliadaceae
Compositae
Mimosoideae
Mimosoideae
Mimosoideae
Mimosoideae
Mimosoideae
Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Apocynaceae
Guttiferae
Liliaceae/Amaryllidaiea
Liliaceae/Amaryllidaiea
Sapindaceae
Liliaceae / Aloeaceae
Liliaceae / Aloeaceae
Apocynaceae
Amaranthaceae
Papilionaceae
Anacardiaceae
Bromeliaceae
Anceistocladaceae
Araceae
Acanthaceae
Poaceae
Orchidaceae
Anonaceae
Anonaceae
Anonaceae
Anonaceae
Combretaceae
Rhizophoraceae
Loganiaceae
Loganiaceae
Loganiaceae

18
19
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21
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23
24
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25
26
27
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29
30
31
32
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33
34
35
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37
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51
52
53
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58
59
60
61
62

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54
5
56
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90
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94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101

Antiaris africana / welwitshic


Apium graveolens
Aristolochia indica / rigens
Artocarpus altilis
Artocarpus communis
Aspilia Africana
Asystacia gangetica
Averrhoa bilimbi
Averrhoa carambola
Azadirachta indica
Bambusa vulgaris
Baphia nitida
Baphia pubescens
Barteria nigritiana
Bauhinia refescens
Bauhinia tomentosa
Berlinia acuminata
Berlinia grandiflora
Bidens pilosa / bipinnata
Bixa orellana
Blighia / Phialodiscus unijugatus
Blighia sapida
Boerhaavia diffusa / repens
Bombax / costatum
Bombax buonopozense / flammeum
Borassus flabellifer / aethiopium
Borreria verticillata
Bosqueia angolensis
Boswellia dalzielii
Brassica oleraceae
Bridelia / Micrantha stenocarpa
Bridelia ferruginea
Brunfelsia uniflora / callysina
Bryophyllum pinnatum
Buchholzia coriacea / macrophylla
Burkea africana
Butyrospermum / Vitellaria paradoxa
Byrsocarpus coccineus
Caesalpinia pulcherrima
Cajanus cajan
Calapogonium mucunoides
Calliandra portoricensis
Calophyllum inophyllum
Calotropis procera / gigantea
Canaga odorata
Canarium schweifurthii
Canavalia ensiformis
Canna indica
Cannabis sativa
Capsicum / frutescens / minimum / annuum
Carapa procera

Moraceae
Umbelliferae
Aristolochiaceae
Moraceae
Moraceae
Compositae
Acanthaceae
Oxalidaceae
Oxalidaceae
Meliaceae
Graminae / Poaceae
Papilionaceae
Papilionaceae
Passifloraceae
Caesalpiniaceae
Caesalpiniaceae
Caesalpinodeae
Caesalpinodeae
Compositae
Bixaceae
Sapindaceae
Sapindaceae
Nyctaginaceae
Bombacaceae
Bombacaceae
Palmae
Rubiaceae
Moraceae
Burseraceae
Brassicaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Solanaceae
Crassulaceae
Capparidaceae
Caesalpiniaceae
Sapotaceae
Connaraceae
Caesalpiniaceae
Papilionaceae
Leguminosae
Mimosaceae
Guttiferae
Asclupiadeceae
Anonaceae
Burseraceae
Papilionaceae
Cannaceae
Cannabinaceae
Solanaceae
Meliaceae

63
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Cardiospermum grandiflorum
Carica papaya
Carpolobia lutea
Cassia alata
Cassia fistula
Cassia mimosoides
Cassia podocarpa
Cassia siamea
Cassia sieberiana
Cassia tora
Ceiba pentandra / Bombax pentandra
Celtis durandii
Centrosema pubescencs
Chasmanthera dependens
Chenopodium ambrosioides
Chlorophora / Melicia excelsa
Chromoleana / Eupatorium odorata
Chrysophyllum (albidum) africanum
Chrysophyllum (edule) perpulchrum
Cissampelos macronata
Cissampelos owarensis
Cissus populnea
Cissus quadrangularis
Citrullus (vulgaris) colocynthis
Citrullus vulgaris
Citrus / reticulata paradisi
Citrus aurantifolia
Citrus grandis
Citrus limon
Citrus medica
Citrus sinensis
Cleistopholis patens
Cleome ciliata /rutidosperma
Clerodendron splendens / paniculatum
Cnestis ferruginea
Cnidoscolus acontifolius (Jatropha tanjorensis)
Cochlospermum / Planchoni tinctorium
Cocos nucifera
Coffea arabica / liberica
Cola acuminate ( or sterculia acuminata)
Cola caricifolia / heterophylla
Cola nitida
Cola prostrate
Colocasia esculentum
Combretodendon africanum
Combretum dolichopetalum
Combretum molle /sokodense
Combretum nigricans /elliotii
Combretum platypterum (C. bracteatum)
Combretum racemosum
Commelina benghalensis
Commelina diefusa
Commelina nodiflora

Sapindaceae
Caricaceae
Polygalaceae
Caesalpiniaceae
Caesalpiniaceae
Caesalpiniaceae
Caesalpiniaceae
Caesalpiniaceae
Caesalpiniaceae
Caesalpiniaceae
Bombaceceae
Ulmaceae
Papilionaceae
Menispermaceae
Chenopodiaceae
Moraceae
Compositae
Sapotaceae
Sapotaceae
Menispermaceae
Menispermaceae
Ampelidaceae
Vitaceae
Cucurbitaceae
Cucurbitaceae
Rutaceae
Rutaceae
Rutaceae
Rutaceae
Rutaceae
Rutaceae
Anonaceae
Capparidaceae
Verbenaceae
Connaraceae
Euphorbiaceae
Cochlospermaceae
Palmae
Rubiaceae
Sterculiaceae
Sterculiaceae
Sterculiaceae
Sterculiaceae
Araceae
Lecythidaceae
Combretaceae
Combretaceae
Combretaceae
Combretaceae
Combretaceae
Commenlinaceae

111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
130
131
132
133
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158

153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188

Conopharyngia / durissima crassa


Corchorus olitorius
Cordia aurantiaca
Cordia millenni
Corynanthe pachyceras /paniculata /johimbe
Costus afer
Coula edulis
Crassocephalum crepidiodes
Craterispermum cerinanthum / laurinum
Crescentia cujete
Crinum giganteum/jagus
Crotalaria retusa
Croton americana
Croton lobatus /eluteria
Cucumis sativus
Culcasia spp
Curcuma domestica
Curcuma longa
Cussonia barteri / nigerica
Cyathula prostata
Cylicodiscus gabunensis
Cynodon dactylon
Cyperus esculentus
Dacryodes edulis
Dalbergia saxatius
Daniella oliveri
Datura stramonium
Daucus carota
Delonix regia
Dennettia tripetala
Desmodium adscendens
Desplatizia subericarpa
Detarium microcarpum
Detarium senegalense / heudelotiana
Detarium spp
Dialium guineense

189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200

Diodia scandens /sarmentosa


Dioscorea alata
Dioscorea bulbifera
Dioscorea cayenensis
Dioscorea dumetorum
Dioscorea rotundata
Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii
Diospyros barteri
Diospyros mespiliformis
Dioxlea reflexa
Discoglypremna caloneura
Dissotis erecta

Apocynaceae
Tiliaceae
Boraginaceae
Boraginaceae
Rubiaceae
Zingiberaceae
Papilionaceae
Compositae / Asteracea
Rubiaceae
Bignoniaceae
Amaryllidaceae
Papilionaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Cucurbitaceae
Araceae
Papilionaceae
Papilionaceae
Araliaceae
Amaranthaceae
Mimosaceae
Graminae / Poaceae
Cyperaceae
Burreraceae
Papilionaceae
Caesalpiniaceae
Solanaceae
Apeaceae / Umbelliferae
Caesalpiniaceae
Anonaceae
Papilionaceae
Titliaceae
Caesalpinaceae
Caesalpinaceae
Caesalpinaceae
Leguminoseae/
Caesalpinioideae
Rubiaceae
Dioscoreaceae
Dioscoreaceae
Dioscoreaceae
Dioscoreaceae
Dioscoreaceae
Menispermaceae
Ebenaceae
Ebenaceae
Papilionaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Melastomataceae

159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
180
181
182
183
184
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
194
195
195
196
197
198
199
200
201

201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248

Dissotis rotunifolia
Distemonanthus benthamianus
Dracaena laxissima / mannii
Drynaria / volkensii cordata
Drypetes armoracia
Drypetes floribunda
Drypetes gossweiterii
Duranta repens
Elaeis guinensis
Elaeis guinensis
Elaeis guinensis (idolatrica)
Eleusine indica
Enantia chlorantha / polycarpa
Entada Africana
Entandrophragma cylindricum
Eremomastax speciosa / polysperma
Ermospatha macrocarpa (Oncocalamus
atantholnemis)
Erythrina senegalensis
Erythrophleum guineensis
Eucalyptus camaldulensis
(Syn: E. rostrata)
Eucalyptus tereticornis
(Syn: E. umbellata)
Eugenia uniflora
Euphorbia heterophylla
Euphorbia hirta / pilufera
Euphorbia hyssopifolia
Euphorbia kamerunica
Ficus exasperata
Ficus natalensis
Ficus Sur
Ficus thoningii
Fluerya aestuans
Fluggea virosa
Funtumia africana (latifolia)
Funtumia elastic
Garcina kola
Garcina mannii
Gardenia aqualla
Gardenia sokotensis
Gloriosa superb
Glycine max / soja
Glyphaea brevis / lateriflora
Gmelina arborea
Gnetum africanum
Gomphrena globosa
Gongronema latifolium
Gossypium hirsutum
Greenwayodendron syaveloens
Grewia mollis / vernusta

Melastomataceae
Caesalpiniaceae
Agavaceae
Polypodiaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Verbenaceae
Palmae
Palmae
Palmae
Graminae / Poaceae
Anonaceae
Mimosaceae
Meliaceae
Acanthaceae
Palmae

201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
210
211
211
212
213
214
215

Papilionaceae
Caesalpiniaceae
Myrtaceae

216
217
218

Myrtaceae

219

Myrtaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Moraceae
Moraceae
Moraceae
Moraceae
Uticaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Apocynaceae
Apocynaceae
Guttiferae
Guttiferae
Rubiaceae
Rubiaceae
Liliaceae
Papilionaceae
Tiliaceae
Verbenaceae
Gnetaceae
Amaranthaceae
Thymelaeceae
Malvaceae
Annonaceae
Tiliaceae

220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244

249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298

Guarea / Ttrichilia cedrata


Hannoa klaineana
Harungana madagascariensis
Heinsia crinata
helianthus annus
Heliotropium indicum
Hibiscus / Abelmoschus esculentus
Hibiscus / Rosa sinensis
Hibiscus surrattensis
Hildegradia bateri
Hilleria latifolia
Holarrhena floribunda / africana
Hoslundia opposita
Hura crepitans
Hylodendron gabunense
Hymenocardia acida
Hypodaphnis zenkeri
Hypoestes rosea (verticularis)
Hyptis suaveolens / pectinata
Icacina trichanta
Ipomoea asarifolia
Ipomoea batatas
Ipomoea involucrate / Mauritiana
Irvingia gabonensis
Isomacrolobium macrophylla
(Syn: Macrolobium macrophylla)
Ixora coccinear
Jasminum panciflorum / talbotii / calliantum
Jatropha curcass
Jatropha gossypifolia
Jatrorrhiza spp
Khaya anthotheca
Khaya grandifoliola
Khaya ivorensis
Khaya senegalensis
Kigelia africana
Lactuca / Launea taraxacifolia
Lagenaria breviflorum
Lagerstroemia speciosa
Landolphia owariensis
Lannea kerstingii
Lantana camara
Laportea aestuans
Lasianthera africana
Lawsonia inermis
Lecaniodiscus cupanioides
Leea guineensis
Leucaena leucocephala
Lippia multiflora
Lonchocarpus cyanescens
Lonchocarpus sericeus

Maliaceae
Simaroubaceae
Hypericaceae
Rubiaceae
Compositae
Borginaceae
Malvaceae
Malvaceae
Malvaceae
Sterculiaceae
Phytolaceaceae
Apocynaceae
Labiatae
Papilionaceae
Caesalpiniaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Lauraceae
Acanthaceae
Labiatae
Icacinaceae
Convolvulaceae
Convolvulaceae
Convolvulaceae
Irvingiaceae
Caesalpiniaceae / Fabaceae

245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269

Rubiaceae
Oleaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Menispermaceae
Meliaceae
Meliaceae
Meliaceae
Meliaceae
Bignoniaceae
Compositae / Asteraceae
Cucurbitaceae
Lythraceae
Apocynaceae
Anacardiaceae
Verbenaceae
Urticaceae
Icacinaceae
Lythraceae
Sapindaceae
Leeaceae / Vitaceae
Mimosoideae
Verbenaceae
Papilionaceae
Papilionaceae

270
271
272
273
274
275
276
275
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293

299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342

Lophira alata / lanceolata / procera


Loranthus spp
Lovoa trichiodes
Ludwigia abyssinica
Luffa cylindrica
Lycopersicon esculentum
Macranga barteri
Maesobotrya barteri
Maesopsis eminii
Magifera indica
Mallotus oppositifolis
Manihot utilissima
Manniophytum flurum
Maranthochloa cuspidate / flexuosa
(Syn: Megaphrynium macrostachyum)
Mareya micrantha /spicata
Mariscus umbellatus
Maytenus senegalensis
Melanthra scandens
Melia azadarachta
Memecylon spathandra
Microdesmis puberula
Mimosa pudica
Mimusops djava
Mirabilis jalapa
Mitracarpus scaber
Mitragyna stipulosa
Momordica charantia
Mondia whitei (Syn chlorocodon whitei)
Monodora myristica
Monodora tenuifolia
Morinda citrifolia
Morinda lucida
Moringa oleifera
Mucuna flagellipis
Mucuna pruriens
Murraya koenigii / paniculata
Musa paradisiaca
Musa sapientum
Musanga cecropioides
Mussaenda erythrophylla
Myrianthus arboreus
Napoleona imperialis / vogelii
Nauclea latifolia
Nephrolepis biserrata

343
344
345
346
347

Nesogordonia papaverifolia
Newbouldia laevis
Nicotiana tabacum
Ocimum bassilicum / canum
Ocimum gratissimum

Ochnaceae
Loranthaceae
Meliaceae
Onagraceae / Cucurbitaeae
Cucurbitaceae
Solanaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Rhamnaceae
Anacardiaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Marantaceae

294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307

Euphorbiaceae
Cyperaceae
Celastraceae
Compositae / Asteraceae
Meliaceae
Melastomataceae
Euphorbiaceae
Mimosaceae
Sapotaceae
Nyctaginaceae
Rubiaceae
Rubiaceae
Cucurbitaceae
Periplocaceae
Anonaceae
Anonaceae
Combretaceae / Rubiaceae
Rubiaceae
Moringaceae / Fabaceae
Papilionaceae / Fabaceae
Papilionaceae
Rutaceae
Musaceae
Musaceae
Moraceae
Rubiaceae
Moraceae
Lecythidaceae
Rubiaceae
Davalliaceae /
Dennestiadeceae
Sterculiaceae
Bignoniaceae
Solanaceae
Labiatae
Labiatae

307
308
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
338

348

Okoubaka aubrevillei

349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358

Olax subscorpioidea
Oldenlandia corymbosa
Olea guineensis
Omphalocarpum africana / procerum
Oncoba spinosa
Oryza sativa
Oxyanthus unilocularris
Palisota hirsuta
Pandiaka involucrata / heudelotti
Parinari kerstingii

359

Parinari polyandra

360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369

Parkia bicolor
Parkia biglobosa
Parquetina nigrescens
Passiflora foetida
Paullina pinnata
Pausinystalia johimbe / macroceras
Pennisetum purpureum
Pentaclethra macrophylla
Peperomia pellucida
Pergularia daemia / extensa
(Syn: Daemia extensa)
Persea americana
Petiveria alliacea
Phyllanthus / Margaritaria discoideus
Phyllanthus amarus
Phyllanthus muellerianus
Phyllanthus reticulates
Physalis angulata
Physostigma venosum
Picralima nitida
Pierrcodendron africanum
Piliostigma reticulatum / thoningii
Piper guineense
Piper umbellatum
Piptadeniastrum africana
Pistia stretiotes
Platostoma africanum
Playtecirum stemmaria
Syn: Orchid (Epiphytes)
Plumbago zeylanica
Plumeria rubra
Poga oleosa
Prosopis africana
Pseudocedrela kotschiyi
Psidium guajava
Pteridium aquilinum

370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393

Santalaceae /
Octoknemataceae
Olacaceae
Rubiaceae
Oleaceae
Sapotaceae
Flacourtiaceae
Gramineae / Poaceae
Rubiaceae
Commelinaceae
Amaranthaceae
Chrysombalanaceae /
Rosaceae
Chrysombalanaceae /
Rosaceae
Mimosaceae
Mimosaceae
Asclupiadaceae
Passifloraceae
Sapindaceae
Rubiaceae
Graminae / Poaceae
Mimosaceae
Piperaceae
Asculepiadaceae

339

351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360

Lauraceae
Phytolaccaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Solanaceae
Papilionaceae
Apocynaceae
Simarubaceae
Caesalpiniaceae
Piperaceae
Compositae / Asteraceae
Mimosaceae
Uraceae / Araceae
Labiatae / Lamiaceae
Orchidaceae

361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377

Plumbaginaceae
Apocynaceae
Rhizophoraceae
Mimosaceae
Meliaceae
Myrtaceae
Davalliaceae /
Dennestiadaceae

376
378
379
380
381
382
383

340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350

394
395
396
397

Pterocarpus erinaceus
Pterocarpus osun
Pterocarpus santalinoides
Pterocarpus soyauxii

Papilionaceae
Papilionaceae
Papilionaceae
Papilionaceae

384
385
386
387

398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412

Punica granatum / nana


Pycnanthus angolensis
Pycnanthus kombo
Quassia Africana
Randia cladantha
Randia longiflora
Randia maculate (Rothmannia longiflora)
Rauwolfia vomitoria
Ricinodendron heudelotii / africanum
Ricinus communis
Rinorea brachypetala
Rinorea dentata
Ritchiea fragariodora
Ritchiea fragrans
Rothmannia hispida or
(Randia hispida)
Saccharum officinarum
Saccoglottis gabonensis
Sansevieria trifasciata
Schwenkia americana
Scleria barteri / racemosa
Scoparia dulcis
Secamone afzelii

Myristicaceae
Myristicaceae
Myristicaceae
Simarubaceae
Rubiaceae
Rubiaceae
Rubiaceae
Apocynaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Euphrobiaceae
Violaceae
Violaceae
Capparidaceae
Capparidaceae
Rosaceae / Rubiaceae

388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
400
401

413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442

Graminae / Poaceae
Humiriaceae
Agavaceae
Solanaceae
Cyperaceae
Scrophulariaceae
Menispermaceae /
Asclupiadaceae
Securidaca longepedunculata
Polygalaceae
Securinega virosa
Euphorbiaceae
Selaginella myosurus
Selaginellaceae
Senecio biafrae (Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii) Menispermaceae
Sesamum indicum
Pedaliaceae
Setaria barbata
Graminae / Poaceae
Setaria verticillata
Graminae / Poaceae
Sida acuta
Malvaceae
Sida vernonifolia
Malvaceae
Smilax anceps
Smilacaceae
Smilax kraussiana
Smilacaceae
Solanum melogena
Solanaceae
Solanum nigrum
Solanaceae
Solanum torvum
Solanaceae
Solenostemon monostachyus
Labiatae
Spathodea campanulata
Bignoniaceae
Spermacoceae virulosa
Rubiaceae
Sphenocentrum jollyanum
Menispermaceae
Spigelia anthelmia
Laganiaceae
Spilanthes filicaulis / africana
Compositae
Spondias mombin
Anacardiaceae
Sporobolus pyramidalis
Graminae / Poaceae
Starchytarpheta angustifolia / jamaicensis
Verbenaceae

402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
414
415
415
416
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
427

443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463

Starchytarpheta cayenensis
Starchytarpheta mutabilis
Staudtia stipitata
Sterculia oblonga
Sterculia rhinopetata
Sterculia setigera
Sterculia tragacantha
Sterospermum kunthianum
Strombosia pustulata /grandifolia
Strychnos spinosa
Stylosanthes erecta
Synclisia scabrida
Synedrella nodiflora
Synsepalum dulcificum
Tabernaemontana crassa
Talinum triangulare
Tamarindus indica
Tecoma stans
Tectona grandis
Telfairia occidentalis
Tephrosia vogelii (densiflora)

464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481

Terminalia avicennioides
Terminalia catapa
Terminalia glaucescens
Terminalia ivorensis
Terminalia laxiflora
Terminalia macroptera
Terminalia mollis
Terminalia montaly
Terminalia superba
Tetracarpidum conophorum
Tetracera alnifolia
Tetrapleura tetraptera
Thanmatococcus daniellii
Theobroma cacao
Thevetia neriifolia
Thonningea sanguine
Tithonia diversifolia
Treculia a
fricana
Trema guineensis
(Syn: Trema orientalis)
Trianthema portulacastrum or Trianthema
pentandra
Trichilia emetica / roka
Trichilia heudelotti / zenkeri
Triumfetta cordifolia
Uapaca togoensis
Urena lobata
Urera obovata
Urera picta / rigida

482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490

Verbenaceae
Verbenaceae
Myristicaceae
Sterculiaceae
Sterculiaceae
Sterculiaceae
Sterculiaceae
Bignoniaceae
Olacaceae
Loganiaceae
Loganiaceae
Menispermaceae
Compositeae
Sapotaceae
Apocynaceae
Portulaceae
Caesalpiniaceae
Bignoniaceae
Verbenaceae
Cucurbitaceae
Papilionaceae /
Leguminosae
Combretaceae
Combretaceae
Combretaceae
Combretaceae
Combretaceae
Combretaceae
Combretaceae
Combretaceae
Combretaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Dilleniaceae
Mimosaceae
Marantaceae
Sterculiaceae
Apocynaceae
Bolanophoraceae
Asteraceae / Compositae
Moraceae

428
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
462
463

Ulmaceae

464

Ficoidaceae

465

Meliaceae
Meliaceae
Meliaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Urticaceae
Urticaceae
Malvaceae

465
466
467
468
470
469
469

491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
1.3

Uvaria chamae
Vernonia amygdalina
Vernonia cinerea / conferta
Vitex diversifolia / simplicifolia
Vitex doniana / cienkowskii
Voacanga africana / obtusa
Waltheria indica
Xanthosoma sagattifolium
Ximenia americana
Xylopia aethiopica
Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides /macrophylla
(Syn: Fagara zanthoxyloides)
Zea mays
Zingiber officinale

Anonaceae
Compositae / Asteraceae
Compositae / Asteraceae
Verbenaceae
Verbenaceae
Apocynaceae
Sterculiaceae
Araceae
Olacaceae
Annonaceae
Fagara zanthoxyloides

470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480

Graminae / Mayae
Zingiberaceae

481
482

PLANTS RECORDED WITH ONLY VERNACULAR NAMES

BENIN NAMES
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516

Aisivbogo
Alaho
Ebe-ewen
Ekhuabo-eghele
Igbaghon
Ikpianbo-izigha
Iri-egbo
Iri-ero
Iriogun
Itoto
Oboiyeho
Ukhuerimwin
Usuanden

483
484
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494

HAUSA NAMES
517
518
519
520
521
522
523

Chichiwa
Kunikura
Macalegada
Taro
Tsave
Tuna
Zellesuri

495
496
497
498
499
499
400

IGBO NAMES
524
525
526

Eka
Onyichie- oschi (Ochoe)
Ovara

501
502
503

1.4

THE PLANTS PHOTOGRAPHS

Abrus precatorius

(BCEv)

(Papilionaceae)
BENIN: Ikpemederogho
HAUSA: Idonzakara

ENLISH: Birds/Crab eyes


IGBO: Otobesebere

YORUBA: Oju-Olugbo

Medicinal Uses
The sweet leaves are chewed as often as necessary for cough,
sore throat, colic and the powder mixed with pure palm wine is
applied dittute to the eyes to cure conjunctivitis.
The seed paste with salt is applied to boils for suppuration. It is
taken in small dosage as a purgative and to promote vomiting. It is
toxic in high doses. The seed infusion hasten labour and prevents
pregnancy. Powdered seed boiled with milk is aphrodisiac and it acts
as a tonic.
The root extract is also taken for chronic cough, rheumatism,
sore throat, urinary problems and other venereal diseases.
Spiritual Uses
Women add the pulverized seeds to galena (antimony) to their
eye lids cosmetics to attract love. The seeds are also part of the
ingredients for the so called invisibility charms.
Herbalists and some Christians use its incantation when seeking
favour from the Almighty God.
N/B
Note that Abrus precatorius is highly identified with Abrus
pulchellus and Abrus canescens morphologically. Distinguish the
desired valuable A. precatorius by its sweet leaves and deep red
bird eye seeds.
INCANTATIONS
Emwinhia ne ikpemederogho we ne Osa rune. ore
. orune.
God favours Ikpemederogho with all its requests

18

Alchornea cordifolia

(EFEV, EEV, EFR, ONP)

(Euphorbiaceae)
BENIN: Uwonwen
.
.
IGBO: Ububo

ENGLISH: Christmas Bush


HAUSA: Bambami

YORUBA: Ipa, Esinyin

Alchornea cordifolia is a great favorite to traditional healers as it is


to birds. Its prolific fruiting feeds birds as its leaves, bark, root and fruit
heal man.
Medicinal uses
Leaves decoction is used as an eye lotion and is taken for cold,
rheumatic pains, urethral disease and as purgative (if castor oil or lime
juice is added). The plant is antibiotic, thus, macerated or chewed
leaves of Alchornea cordifolia along with other herbs e.g. Myrianthus
arboreus cures dysentery, urethral diseases, gonorrhoea and other
venereal diseases.
The infusion of mixes of the leaves, bark and root along those of
Mitragyna africana, natron and lime juice are also used for the same
purposes.
The dried leaf infusion acts as above and as diuretic; when
pulverized with its back is used to treat ulcer, and piles. The leaf and
fruit juice act on ringworm while the bark decoction is stomachic. The
root is chewed for thrush, sore throat and toothache.
The root plus its young twigs, plus clay plus pepper are used as enema to
check abortion. The sharp tasting berry has laxative property.
INCANTATIONS
.
Uwonwen
mumwen nogo yadegbo
.
. nai do gbee
.
. sokpan egbo
Uwonwen
help a tertiary forest to regenerate to high forest yet the forest killed Uwonwen
.

38

Cassia alata (BCEV)


(Caesalpiniaceae)
BENIN: Ebe-akoria,
Aroghamiason
.
.
YORUBA: Asunwon
AKOKO-EDO: Asunwon

ENGLISH: Craw craw / ringworm plant


IGBO: Nelkhi, Okpo
URHOBO: Amoke
Medicinal Uses
The Leaves juice is a tested
remedy for parasitic and eruptive
diseases. A lotion made from the
crushed leaf, flowers and bark
serve the same purpose. The juice
taken with lime is anthelminthic.
The Leaves (dried or fresh)
decoction is a blood purifier, a
purgative and if strong it is
abortifacient. Their poultice
hastens suppuration in boils.
Stem bark and fresh leaves
decoction is taken for bronchitis
and asthma
Seeds boiled with the flower and
milk is a vermifuge
Flower powdered with natron
(potash) and taken with pap cures
women's black menstruation
Root, Flower and Lime with
those of Cassia sieberiana cure
venereal diseases.

INCANTATIONS
Ebe-akoria
. . we. aro gha mie ason
. vbie.
. oghi
Ebe-akoria
. . says the eye sleeps when the night comes

Cnestis ferruginea

(BCEV, EEV, ONP, AEV)

(Connaraceae)
BENIN: Ukpe-ibieka
.
IGBO: Mbeijiji, Okpe-nketa

ENGLISH: Velvet sun fruit

YORUBA: Akara-aje, Omu-aje

Medicinal Uses
The leaf juice is used as an eye
drop and decoction of the leaves with
the roots is given as a laxative and
mouth wash for sore throats and gum
problems. Eating the fruit serves the
same purpose.
The alcoholic extract of the
seeds and fruits (in gin) is taken for
snake and scorpion bites. The
pulverized roots with those of Sida
acuta is recommended for mental
problems.
The whole plant parts is used as
an enema against dysentery and
diarrhoea.
The root decoction is given for
madness, gonorrhoea and stabilization
of women ovaries and pregnancy.
Spiritual Uses
The fruits with Aframomum
melegueta fruit, honey etc is used to
test the veracity of spiritual medicine.

Datura Stramonium

(BCEV, ONP)

(Solanaceae)
BENIN: Ekhue-erinmwin
.
YORUBA: Apaka, apikan

ENGLISH: James town weed, stink weed, green thorn apple.


IGBO: Myaramuo
HAUSA: Zakami sutura mai rawiya

Medicinal Uses
Datura Stramonium must
be treated and taken with care.
The plant is toxic, narcotic,
aphrodisiac and antispasmodic.
The leaves smoke (as in
cigarette) is effectively inhaled
for cure of cough and asthma.
The leaves poultice is
externally applied as treatment
for rheumatic swellings, burns
neuralgic pains, lumbago and
ingrowing toe nail pain. It is also
used to treat inflamed breasts
and excessive milk flow.
The leaf juice cures early
gonorrhoea and its decoction
along with its fruit is used to
treat mental problems including
insomnia and insanity.

Euphorbia kamerunica

(CRSNP)

(Euphorbiaceae)
BENIN: Urhuaro

YORUBA: Oro, Oro onigun- meta

EFIK: Akpa mbie


Medicinal Uses
The white poisonous latex is a
very strong purgative and a patient
must not be given more than three
to four drops.
Experienced herbalist could use
the latex to cure complicated
menstrual problems and is taken as
a starter for women fertility cure /
treatment. The drop(s) of latex is
ground fresh with little crayfish,
pepper and salt to make it palatable
for the patient. This little dosage
has a weakening effect and an over
dosage could kill a man within a few
minutes.

Morinda lucida

(EBG, CEV)

(Rubiaceae)
BENIN: Erhan Ikpanro

ENGLISH: Brimstone tree

YORUBA: Aruwo, Eruwo

IGBO: Huka, eze-ogu

Medicinal Uses
Morinda lucida is one of the most important plants commonly used for the
cure of diabetes and all kinds of fevers and ailment including malaria, piles, colic
etc.
The leaves, bark and roots are very bitter, hence, their
decoctions/infusions are used for weaning young children off breast and as
bitter tonic.
For pile, colic and dysentery, the stem and root bark are usually boiled
with spices and drunk.
For cronic diabetes, the Stem bark, leaves along with those of Picralima
umbrellatum, Neem and Mormodica charantia are used.

323

Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides
(Fagara
BENIN: Okor
.
HAUSA: Fasa Kuwari

(ONP, BNP)

zanthoxyloides)

YORUBA: Ata
FULANI: Fusakorini

IGBO: Akuku-Nkita
ETSAKO: Atufio

Medicinal Uses
This Fagara specie is one of the most
important medicinal plants in Nigeria curing
several dangerous diseases. The most
important part of the plant, the minty root
back is usually crushed to powder with
pepper and kept at home for ready use.
The powder, made to paste/ poultice, is
applied to hernia, rheumatism, carious tooth
and swellings. It is also taken for gonorrhea,
palpitation of the heart, body weakness,
sickle cell anemia, obesity, tooth ache and
anathematic and emanagogue. It is also
taken as pot-herb for tuberculosis. The
powder plus grain of paradice and lime juice
is applied to painful continuous rheumatism
and other hydrocelic problems. Decoction of
the leaves is also a vermifuge. Gin/alcoholic
extract is also used.

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