Introduction to Telephony, Cable and Internet Technologies

http://www.pde.rpi.edu/ Or http://www.ecse.rpi.edu/Homepages/shivkuma/

Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute shivkuma@ecse.rpi.edu
Based in part upon slides of S. Keshav (Ensim), J. Bellamy’s book, Prof. Raj Jain (OSU), L. Peterson (Princeton), J. Kurose (U Mass) Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

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Overview
Connectivity: direct (pt-pt, N-users), indirect (switched, inter-networked) Telephony, Internet, Cable Networks: Basic Concepts Concepts: Topologies, Framing, Multiplexing, Flow/Error Control, Reliability, Multiple-access, Circuit/Packetswitching, Addressing/routing, Congestion control Data link/MAC layer: SLIP, PPP, LAN technologies … Interconnection Devices
S. Keshav book (Chapter 2), Opt Nets (Sec 11.1, 13.1, 13.2)
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Connectivity...
Building Blocks links: coax cable, optical fiber... nodes: general-purpose workstations... Direct connectivity: point-to-point multiple access
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Connectivity… (Continued)
Indirect Connectivity switched networks => switches inter-networks => routers
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What is “Connectivity” ?
Direct or indirect access to every other node in the network Connectivity is what you get instead of a direct physical link
Key Tradeoff: Performance characteristics worse!

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Connectivity …
Internet: Best-effort (no performance guarantees) Packet-by-packet A pt-pt link: Always-connected Fixed bandwidth Fixed delay Zero-jitter
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Telephony

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Telephone Network: What is It?
Specialized to carry voice traffic Aggregates like T1, SONET OC-N can also carry data Also carries Telemetry, video, fax, modem calls Internally, uses digital samples Switches and switch controllers are special purpose computers Pieces: 1. End systems 2. Transmission 3. Switching 4. Signaling
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Telephone Network: What is It?
Single basic service: two-way voice low end-to-end delay guarantee that an accepted call will run to completion Endpoints connected by a circuit, like an electrical circuit Signals flow both ways (full duplex) Associated with reserved bandwidth and buffer resources
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Telephone Network Design

Fully connected core simple routing telephone number is a hint about how to route a call But not for 800/888/700/900 numbers: these are pointers to a directory that translates them into regular numbers hierarchically allocated telephone number space
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Telephone Network Design

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Telephone Pieces: End Systems

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Telephone Pieces: End Systems

Transducers: key to carrying voice on wires Dialer Ringer Switch-hook
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Last-Mile Transmission Environment
Wire gauges:19, 22, 24, 26 gauge(smaller better) Diameters: 0.8, 0.6, 0.5, 0.4 mm (larger better) Various forms of noise: (twisting reduces noise) Bridged-tap noise: bit-energy diverted to extension phone sockets Crosstalk Ham radio AM broadcast Insertion loss: -140 dBm noise floor 100 million times more sensitive than normal modems Bandwidth range = 600 kHz Notch effects in insertion loss due to bridged-taps Transmission PSD = -40dBm => 90 dBm budget
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2-wire vs 4-wire: Sidetones and Echoes
Both trans & reception circuits need two wires 4 wires from every central office to home Alternative: Use same pair of wires for both transmission and reception Signal from transmission flows to receiver: sidetone Reverse Effect: received signal at end-system bounces back to CO (esp if delay > 20 ms): echo Solutions: balance circuit (attenuate side-tone) + echocancellation circuit (cancel echoes). Shivkumar Kalyanaraman
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Dialing
Pulse sends a pulse per digit collected by central office (CO) Interpreted by CO switching system to place call or activate special features (eg: call forwarding, prepaidcalls etc) Tone key press (feep) sends a pair of tones = digit also called Dual Tone Multifrequency (DTMF) CO supplies the power for ringing the bell. Standardized interface between CO and end-system => digital handsets, cordless/cellular phones
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Telephone Pieces: Transmission Muxing
Trunks between central offices carry hundreds of conversations Can’t run thick bundles! Instead, send many calls on the same wire Multiplexing (a.ka. Sharing) Analog multiplexing Band-limit call to 3.4 KHz and frequency shift onto higher bandwidth trunk obsolete Digital multiplexing first convert voice to samples 1 sample = 8 bits of voice 8000 samples/sec => call = 64 Kbps
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Transmission Multiplexing (contd)
How to choose a sample? 256 quantization levels, logarithmically spaced (why?) sample value = amplitude of nearest quantization level Two choices of levels (µ law and A law) Time division multiplexing Trunk carries bits at a faster bit rate than inputs n input streams, each with a 1-byte buffer Output interleaves samples Need to serve all inputs in the time it takes one sample to arrive => output runs n times faster than input Overhead bits mark end of frame (why?) Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
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Transmission Multiplexing
Multiplexed trunks can be multiplexed further Need a standard! (why?) US/Japan standard is called Digital Signaling hierarchy (DS)
Digital Signal Number of Number previous level circuits DS0 DS1 24 DS2 4 DS3 7
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Number of voice Bandwidth circuits 1 24 96 672
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64 Kbps 1.544Mbps 6.312 Mbps 44.736 Mbps
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Telephone Pieces: Switching

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Telephone Pieces: Switching
Problem: each user can potentially call any other user can’t have (a billion) direct lines! Switches establish temporary circuits Switching systems come in two parts: switch and switch controller

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Switching System Components

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Switch: What does it do?
Transfers data from an input to an output many ports (up to 200,000 simultaneous calls) need high speeds Some ways to switch: 1. space division switching: eg: crossbar if inputs (or crosspoints) are multiplexed, need a schedule (why?)

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Crossbar Switching Elements

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Switching (Contd)
Another way to switch time division (time slot interchange or TSI) also needs a service schedule (why?)

To build larger switches we combine space and time division switching elements
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Telephone pieces: Signaling
A switching system has a switch and a switch controller Switch controller is in the control plane does not touch voice samples Manages the network call routing (collect dialstring and forward call) alarms (ring bell at receiver) billing directory lookup (for 800/888 calls)
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Signaling
Switch controllers are special purpose computers Linked by their own internal computer network Common Channel Interoffice Signaling (CCIS) network Earlier design used in-band tones, but was hacked Also was very rigid (why?) Messages on CCIS conform to Signaling System 7 (SS7)

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Signaling (contd)
One of the main jobs of switch controller: keep track of state of every endpoint Key is state transition diagram

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Telephony Routing of Signaled Calls

Circuit-setup (I.e. the signaling call) is what is routed. Voice then follows route, and claims reserved resources. 3-level hierarchy, with a fully-connected core AT&T: 135 core switches with nearly 5 million circuits LECs may connect to multiple cores Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
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Telephony Routing algorithm
If endpoints are within same CO, directly connect If call is between COs in same LEC, use one-hop path between COs Otherwise send call to one of the cores Only major decision is at toll switch one-hop or two-hop path to the destination toll switch. Essence of telephony routing problem: which two-hop path to use if one-hop path is full (almost a static routing problem… )
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Features of telephone routing
Resource reservation aspects: Resource reservation is coupled with path reservation Connections need resources (same 64kbps) Signaling to reserve resources and the path Stable load Network built for voice only. Can predict pairwise load throughout the day Can choose optimal routes in advance Technology and economic aspects: Extremely reliable switches Why? End-systems (phones) dumb because computation was non-existent in early 1900s. Downtime is less than a few minutes per year => topology does not change dynamically
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Features of telephone routing
Source can learn topology and compute route Can assume that a chosen route is available as the signaling proceeds through the network Component reliability drove system reliability and hence acceptance of service by customers Simplified topology: Very highly connected network Hierarchy + full mesh at each level: simple routing High cost to achieve this degree of connectivity Organizational aspects: Single organization controls entire core Afford the scale economics to build expensive network Collect global statistics and implement global changes => Source-based, signaled, simple alternate-path routing
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Telecommunications Regulation History FCC regulations cover telephony, cable, broadcast TV,

wireless etc “Common Carrier”: provider offers conduit for a fee and does not control the content
Customer controls content/destination of transmission & assumes criminal/civil responsibility for content

Local monopolies formed by AT&T’s acquisition of independent telephone companies in early 20th century
Regulation forced because they were deemed natural monopolies (only one player possible in market due to enormous sunk cost) FCC regulates interstate calls and state commissions regulate intra-state and local calls Bells + 1000 independents interconnected & expanded

FCC rulemaking process:
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Intent to act, solicitation of public comment etc… Shivkumar Kalyanaraman
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Deregulation of telephony
1960s-70s: gradual de-regulation of AT&T due to technological advances Terminal equipment could be owned by customers (CPE) => explosion in PBXs, fax machines, handsets Modified final judgement (MFJ): breakup of AT&T into ILECs (incumbent local exchange carrier) and IXC (inter-exchange carrier) part
Long-distance opened to competition, only the local part regulated… Equal access for IXCs to the ILEC network 1+ long-distance number introduced then…

800-number portability: switching IXCs => retain 800 number 1995: removed price controls on AT&T
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Telecom Act of 1996
Required ILECs to open their markets through unbundling of network elements (UNE-P), facilities ownership of CLECs….
Today UNE-P is one of the most profitable for AT&T and other long-distance players in the local market: due to apparently below-cost regulated prices…

ILECs could compete in long-distance after demonstrating opening of markets
Only now some ILECs are aggressively entering long distance markets CLECs failed due to a variety of reasons… But long-distance prices have dropped precipitously (AT&T’s customer unit revenue in 2002 was $11.3 B compared to 1999 rev of $23B)

ILECs still retain over 90% of local market Wireless substitution has caused ILECs Shivkumar Kalyanaraman to develop Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute wireless business units
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US Telephone Network Structure (after 1984)

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Exchange Area Network

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Cable TV Networks

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Cable Technology
Coaxial cable RF distribution networks. Attributes: Broadcast, low-band reverse channels Mainly one-way video channels Reasonably secure network (private conduit to home) Free from free-space interferences Good signal capacity (over 1 GHz) and flexibility Multiple signaling channels Significant attenuation that increases proportional to frequency => (active) RF amplification (every 1000 ft) Freq responses of deployed amps and filters limit practical usage of frequencies > 1 GHz
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Cable Building Blocks

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Cable Spectrum: Upto 750 Mhz

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Cable Technology & Architecture
Head-end: signal processing center Each carrier: Baseband analog or digital modulation Carriers multiplexed w/ freq-selective diplex filters: allows simultaneous info transfer in both directions Tree-and-branch architecture: Well-suited for one-way broadcast video transmission (same signals to every customer) Accumulates noise & distortions (amplifiers) Affects plant reliability and received signal quality Limits on the number of amplifiers cascaded Limits on bandwidth in operation (few 100s of MHz): below cable potential… Makes delivery of “switched” services (separate stream Shivkumar Kalyanaraman for each customer) difficult Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
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Tree-and-Branch Architecture

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Fiber Optics For Cable Networks
Key: Leave the laser ON and intensity-modulate with the analog signal Such analog modulated lasers are very different from their digital counterparts Low internal noise and high linearity in the range Receiver: simple photo-detector -> back to RF spectrum Result: Hybrid fiber-coax infrastructure, with fiber closer to headend
Coax plant serves smaller range (segmentation), but overall HFC reach dramatically increased Also, it allows the economical support of remote, smaller clusters of homes Each part could also provide different services to area (micromarket segmentation) Assign different portions of HFC spectrum to diff uses: many virtual networks: sustained investments possible Shivkumar Kalyanaraman
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Hybrid Fiber Coax (HFC) Networks

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Multiple Services over HFC

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Future Potential of HFC Broadband
Due to smaller loops, the region from 900MHz – 1 GHz can be used for data. Reduced noise in this region => increased bit rate (200 Mbps) per segment… Future: fiber moves closer, smaller coaxsegments, reduced homes per coax run (60 homes), use of frequencies above 1 Ghz using new electronics Latest DOCSIS 2.0 spec: 256 QAM (=> 8 bits/Hz) or S-CDMA on cable for more robust transmissions
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Very different from telephony: not common-carrier Able to control content AND the conduit! Grew by providing an alternative (and extension) to broadcast TV and had initial growth troubles Did not have to offer service on a non-discriminatory basis (unlike common carriers) Asserted first-amendment rights to maintain control over content Not required to provide access to their distribution system to other providers (some portion of capacity required to be offered to unaffiliated players: eg: CNN) But they reserve rights to appropriately bundle these channels Limited regulation: basic tier is rate-regulated by local authorities till 1999 based upon FCC rules Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
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Cable Regulation

Cable regulation (contd)
Cable networks limited in horizontal expansion, and from vertically integrating w/ CNN etc Note: ILECs like Bell Atlantic in contrast merged with IXCs like GTE AT&T’s cable acquisitions were interesting (and will be explored later…) Cable service is multi-faceted and varied from area to area => regulation formulation more complicated Over-builders (satellite providers) got access to independent content providers: otherwise regulation achieved little for cable Local authorities get revenue from cable regulation HFC dominates franchise regulation talks, but cable providers are not obligated to provide broadband access.. Shivkumar Kalyanaraman
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Data Networking and the Internet

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Recall: Indirect Connectivity…
Indirect Connectivity switched networks => switches inter-networks => routers
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Inter-Networks: Networks of Networks
… …

=

Internet
… …

The internet is just a big switch providing indirect connectivity Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
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Recall: Connecting N users: Directly…
A B

Pt-pt: connects only two users directly… How to connect N users directly ?

... Bus What are the costs of each option? Does this method of connectivity scale ?
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Full mesh

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Point-to-Point Connectivity Issues
A B

Physical layer: coding, modulation etc Link layer needed if the link is shared bet’n apps; is unreliable; and is used sporadically No need for protocol concepts like addressing, names, routers, hubs, forwarding, filtering …

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Link Layer: Serial IP (SLIP)
Simple: only framing = Flags + byte-stuffing Compressed headers (CSLIP) for efficiency on low speed links for interactive traffic. Problems: Need other end’s IP address a priori (can’t dynamically assign IP addresses) No “type” field => no multi-protocol encapsulation No checksum => all errors detected/corrected by higher layer. RFCs: 1055, 1144
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Link Layer: PPP
Point-to-point protocol Frame format similar to HDLC Multi-protocol encapsulation, CRC, dynamic address allocation possible key fields: flags, protocol, CRC Asynchronous and synchronous communications possible Link and Network Control Protocols (LCP, NCP) for flexible control & peer-peer negotiation Can be mapped onto low speed (9.6Kbps) and high speed channels (SONET)
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Connecting N users: Directly ...
Bus: Low cost vs broadcast/collisions, MAC complexity Full mesh: High cost vs simplicity New concept: Address to identify nodes. Needed if we want the receiver alone to consume the packet! ... Bus

Full mesh
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Problem: Direct connectivity does not “scale”….
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How to build Scalable Networks?
Scaling: system allows the increase of a key parameter. Eg: let N increase… Inefficiency limits scaling … Direct connectivity is inefficient & hence does not scale Mesh: inefficient in terms of # of links Bus architecture: 1 expensive link, N cheap links. Inefficient in bandwidth use
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Filtering, forwarding …
Filtering: choose a subset of elements from a set Don’t let information go where its not supposed to… Filtering => More efficient => more scalable Filtering is the key to efficiency & scaling Forwarding: actually sending packets to a filtered subset of link/node(s) Packet sent to one link/node => efficient Solution: Build nodes which focus on filtering/forwarding and achieve indirect connectivity “switches” & “routers”
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Connecting N users: Indirectly
Star: One-hop path to any node, reliability, forwarding function “Switch” S can filter and forward! Switch may forward multiple pkts in parallel for additional efficiency!

Star

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S
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Connecting N users: Indirectly …
Ring: Reliability to link failure, near-minimal links All nodes need “forwarding” and “filtering” Sophistication of forward/filter lesser than switch

Ring
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Topologies: Indirect Connectivity

Star

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S

Ring

Tree
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Protocol Issues in Data Networks
Pt-Pt connectivity: Framing Error control/Reliability Flow control & Windowing protocols Multiplexing, Virtualization Circuit vs Packet Switching: a muxing view MAC arbitration schemes: Random access/CSMA, TDMA, CDMA Interconnection components: repeater, hub, bridge, switch, router
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Reliability: Types of errors & effects
Forward channel bit-errors (garbled packets) Forward channel packet-errors (lost packets) Reverse channel bit-errors (garbled status reports) Reverse channel bit-errors (lost status reports) Protocol-induced effects: Duplicate packets Duplicate status reports Out-of-order packets Out-of-order status reports Out-of-range packets/status reports (in window-based transmissions)
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Temporal Redundancy Model
Packets Timeout Status Reports • Sequence Numbers • CRC or Checksum • ACKs • NAKs, • SACKs • Bitmaps • Packets • FEC information

Retransmissions

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Reliability Mechanisms
Mechanisms: Checksum: detects corruption in pkts & acks ACK: “packet correctly received” Duplicate ACK: “packet incorrectly received” Sequence number: identifies packet or ack 1-bit sequence number used both in forward & reverse channel Timeout only at sender Reliability capabilities achieved: An error-free channel A forward & reverse channel with bit-errors Detects duplicates of packets/acks NAKs eliminated A forward & reverse channel with packet-errors (loss) Shivkumar Kalyanaraman
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Stop and Wait Flow Control
U= tframe tprop Data Ack U α Ack α= tprop tframe Distance/Speed of Signal = Frame size /Bit rate =
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tframe 2tprop+tframe 1 2α + 1

Data =

Distance × Bit rate
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Light in vacuum = 300 m/µs Light in fiber = 200 m/µs Electricity = 250 m/µs

Frame size × Speed of Signal Shivkumar Kalyanaraman

Sliding Window Protocols
U= tframe tprop = Ack Data Ntframe 2tprop+tframe N 2α+1 1 if N>2α+1

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Multiplexing = sharing

Multiplexing: The Method of Sharing Costly Resources
Allows system to achieve “economies of scale” Cost: waiting time (delay), buffer space & loss Gain: Money ($$) => Overall system costs less

Full Mesh
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Bus
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Virtualization
The multiplexed shared resource with a level of indirection will seem like a unshared virtual resource! I.e. Multiplexing + indirection = virtualization

A

... Physical Bus

B

=

A

B

Virtual Pt-Pt Link

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We can “refer” to the virtual resource as if it were the physical resource. Eg: virtual memory, virtual circuits… Connectivity: a virtualization created by the Internet! Indirection requires binding and unbinding… Eg: use of packets, slots, tokens etc Shivkumar Kalyanaraman
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Statistical Multiplexing
Reduce resource requirements (eg: bus capacity) by exploiting statistical knowledge of the system. Eg: average rate <= service rate <= peak rate If service rate < average rate, then system becomes unstable!! First design to ensure system stability!! Then, for a stable multiplexed system: Gain = peak rate/service rate. Cost: buffering, queuing delays, losses. Useful only if peak rate differs significantly from average rate. Eg: if traffic is smooth, fixed rate, no need to play games with capacity sizing…
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Stability of a Multiplexed System
Average Input Rate > Average Output Rate => system is unstable!

How to ensure stability ? 1. Reserve enough capacity so that demand is less than reserved capacity 2. Dynamically detect overload and adapt either the demand or capacity to resolve overload Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
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What’s a performance tradeoff ?
• A situation where you cannot get something for nothing! • Also known as a zero-sum game.
R=link bandwidth (bps) L=packet length (bits) a=average packet arrival rate

Traffic intensity = La/R
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What’s a performance tradeoff ?
La/R ~ 0: average queuing delay small La/R -> 1: delays become large La/R > 1: average delay infinite (service degrades unboundedly => instability)!
Summary: Multiplexing using bus topologies has both direct resource costs and intangible costs like potential instability, buffer/queuing delay.
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How to design large inter-networks? Circuit-Switching
Divide link bandwidth into “pieces” Reserve pieces on successive links and tie them together to form a “circuit” Map traffic into the reserved circuits Resources wasted if unused: expensive.

– Mapping can be done without “headers”. – Everything inferred from timing.
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How to design large inter-networks?

Packet-Switching
Chop up data (not links!) into “packets” Packets: data + metadata (header) “Switch” packets at intermediate nodes Store-and-forward if bandwidth is not immediately available.
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Bandwidth division into “pieces” Dedicated allocation Resource reservation

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Packet Switching
A B
10 Mbs Ethernet statistical multiplexing

C

1.5 Mbs
queue of packets waiting for output link

45 Mbs

D

E

Cost: self-descriptive header per-packet, buffering and delays due to statistical multiplexing at switches. Need to either reserve resources or dynamically detect and adapt to overload for stability
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Spatial vs Temporal Multiplexing
Spatial multiplexing: Chop up resource into chunks. Eg: bandwidth, cake, circuits… Temporal multiplexing: resource is shared over time, I.e. queue up jobs and provide access to resource over time. Eg: FIFO queueing, packet switching Packet switching is designed to exploit both spatial & temporal multiplexing gains, provided performance tradeoffs are acceptable to applications. Packet switching is potentially more efficient => potentially more scalable than circuit switching !
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Protocol Issues in Data Networks (Contd)
Pt-Pt connectivity: Framing Error control/Reliability Flow control & Windowing protocols Multiplexing, Virtualization Circuit vs Packet Switching: a muxing view MAC arbitration schemes: Random access/CSMA, TDMA, CDMA Interconnection components: repeater, hub, bridge, switch, router
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Multi-Access LANs
Hybrid topologies: Uses directly connected topologies (eg: bus), or Indirectly connected with simple filtering components (switches, hubs). Limited scalability due to limited filtering Medium Access Protocols: ALOHA, CSMA/CD (Ethernet), Token Ring … Key: Use a single protocol in network Concepts: address, forwarding (and forwarding table), bridge, switch, hub, token, medium access control (MAC) protocols
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MAC Protocols: a taxonomy
Three broad classes: Channel Partitioning divide channel into smaller “pieces” (time slots, frequency) allocate piece to node for exclusive use “Taking turns”: Token-based tightly coordinate shared access to avoid collisions Random Access allow collisions “recover” from collisions Goal: efficient, fair, simple, decentralized Shivkumar Kalyanaraman
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Channel Partitioning MAC protocols. Eg: TDMA TDMA: time division multiple access
Access to channel in "rounds" Each station gets fixed length slot (length = pkt trans time) in each round Unused slots go idle Example: 6-station LAN, 1,3,4 have pkt, slots 2,5,6 idle

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“Taking Turns” MAC protocols - 1
Channel partitioning MAC protocols:

share channel efficiently at high load inefficient at low load: delay in channel access, 1/N bandwidth allocated even if only 1 active node!
Random access MAC protocols

efficient at low load: single node can fully utilize channel high load: collision overhead
“Taking turns” protocols

look for best of both worlds!
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“Taking Turns” MAC protocols - 2
Polling: Token passing: Master node “invites” Control token passed from one slave nodes to transmit node to next sequentially. in turn Token message Request to Send, Clear Concerns: to Send messages Concerns: token overhead

polling overhead latency single point of failure (master)

latency single point of failure (token)

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“Taking Turns” Protocols –3
Reservation-based a.k.a Distributed Polling: Time divided into slots Begins with N short reservation slots reservation slot time equal to channel end-end propagation delay station with message to send posts reservation reservation seen by all stations After reservation slots, message transmissions ordered by known priority

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Random Access Protocols
Aloha at University of Hawaii: Transmit whenever you like Worst case utilization = 1/(2e) =18% CSMA: Carrier Sense Multiple Access Listen before you transmit CSMA/CD: CSMA with Collision Detection Listen while transmitting. Stop if you hear someone else. Ethernet uses CSMA/CD. Standardized by IEEE 802.3 committee.
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10Base5 Ethernet Cabling Rules
Thick coax Length of the cable is limited to 2.5 km, no more than 4 repeaters between stations No more than 500 m per segment ⇒ “10Base5” Terminator 2.5m Transceiver 500 m Repeater

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10Base5 Cabling Rules (Continued)
No more than 2.5 m between stations Transceiver cable limited to 50 m Terminator 2.5m Transceiver 500 m Repeater

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Inter-connection Devices
Repeater: Layer 1 (PHY) device that restores data and collision signals: a digital amplifier Hub: Multi-port repeater + fault detection Note: broadcast at layer 1 Bridge: Layer 2 (Data link) device connecting two or more collision domains. Key: a bridge attempts to filter packets and forward them from one collision domain to the other. It snoops on passing packets and learns the interface where different hosts are situated, and builds a L2 forwarding table MAC multicasts propagated throughout “extended LAN.” Note: Limited filtering intelligence and forwarding capabilities at layer 2 Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
89

Interconnection Devices (Continued)
Router: Network layer device. IP, IPX, AppleTalk. Interconnects broadcast domains. Does not propagate MAC multicasts. Switch: Key: has a switch fabric that allows parallel forwarding paths Layer 2 switch: Multi-port bridge w/ fabric Layer 3 switch: Router w/ fabric and per-port ASICs These are functions. Packaging varies.
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Interconnection Devices
LAN= Collision Domain Application Transport Network Datalink Physical
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H H

B

H H

Extended LAN =Broadcast domain Router Application Transport Network Datalink Physical
Shivkumar Kalyanaraman

Gateway Router Bridge/Switch Repeater/Hub
91

Ethernet (IEEE 802) Address Format
(Organizationally Unique ID) OUI
10111101

G/I bit G/L bit (Global/Local) (Group/Individual)

48-bit flat address => no hierarchy to help forwarding Hierarchy only for administrative/allocation purposes Assumes that all destinations are (logically) directly connected. Address structure does not explicitly acknowledge indirect connectivity => Sophisticated filtering cannot be done!
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Ethernet (IEEE 802) Address Format
(Organizationally Unique ID) OUI
10111101

G/I bit G/L bit (Global/Local) (Group/Individual)

G/L bit: administrative Global: unique worldwide; assigned by IEEE Local: Software assigned G/I: bit: multicast I: unicast address G: multicast address. Eg: “To all bridges on this LAN”
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Ethernet & 802.3 Frame Format
Ethernet IP IPX AppleTalk Type 2 Info CRC Size in bytes Dest. Source Address Address 6 6 IEEE 802.3

4 IP IPX AppleTalk LLC Info Pad CRC 4

Dest. Source Length Address Address 6 6 2

Length

• Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) = 1518 bytes • Minimum = 64 bytes (due to CSMA/CD issues)
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Network/Transport Layer Issues
Inter-networking: heterogeneity, scale Routing Congestion control Quality of Service (QoS)

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Inter-Networks: Networks of Networks
What is it ? “Connect many disparate physical networks and make them function as a coordinated unit … ” - Douglas Comer Many => scale Disparate => heterogeneity Result: Universal connectivity! The inter-network looks like one large switch, User interface is sub-network independent
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Inter-Networks: Networks of Networks
Internetworking involves two fundamental problems: heterogeneity and scale
Concepts: Translation, overlays, address & name resolution, fragmentation: to handle heterogeneity Hierarchical addressing, routing, naming, address allocation, congestion control: to handle scaling Two broad approaches: circuit-switched and packetswitched
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Scalable Forwarding, Structured Addresses
Address has structure which aids the forwarding process. Address assignment is done such that nodes which can be reached without resorting to L3 forwarding have the same prefix (network ID) A simple comparison of network ID of destination and current network (broadcast domain) identifies whether the destination is “directly” connected I.e. Reachable through L2 forwarding only Within L3 forwarding, further structure can aid hierarchical organization of routing domains (because routing algorithms have other scalability issues)
Network ID
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Host ID
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Demarcator

Flat vs Structured Addresses
Flat addresses: no structure in them to facilitate scalable routing Eg: IEEE 802 LAN addresses Hierarchical addresses: Network part (prefix) and host part Helps identify direct or indirectly connected nodes

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Internet Routing Drivers
Technology and economic aspects: Internet built out of cheap, unreliable components as an overlay on top of leased telephone infrastructure for WAN transport. Cheaper components => fail more often => topology changes often => needs dynamic routing Components (including end-systems) had computation capabilities. Distributed algorithms can be implemented Cheap overlaid inter-networks => several entities could afford to leverage their existing (heterogeneous) LANs and leased lines to build inter-networks. Led to multiple administrative “clouds” which needed to inter-connect for global communication.
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Internet Routing Model
2 key features: Dynamic routing Intra- and Inter-AS routing, AS = locus of admin control Internet organized as “autonomous systems” (AS). AS is internally connected Interior Gateway Protocols (IGPs) within AS. Eg: RIP, OSPF, HELLO Exterior Gateway Protocols (EGPs) for AS to AS routing. Eg: EGP, BGP-4
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Intra-AS and Inter-AS routing
C.b A.a a C b d A a b c A.c B.a a c B

Gateways:

b

•perform inter-AS routing amongst themselves •perform intra-AS routers with other routers in their AS

network layer inter-AS, intra-AS routing in gateway A.c link layer physical layer

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Intra-AS and Inter-AS routing: Example
C.b b A.a a Inter-AS routing between A and B A.c d c b A Intra-AS routing within AS A

B.a a c B Host h2 b

a Host h1

C

Intra-AS routing within AS B

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Requirements for Intra-AS Routing
Should scale for the size of an AS. Low end: 10s of routers (small enterprise) High end: 1000s of routers (large ISP) Different requirements on routing convergence after topology changes Low end: can tolerate some connectivity disruptions High end: fast convergence essential to business (making money on transport) Operational/Admin/Management (OAM) Complexity Low end: simple, self-configuring High end: Self-configuring, but operator hooks for control Traffic engineering capabilities: high end only
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Requirements for Inter-AS Routing
Should scale for the size of the global Internet. Focus on reachability, not optimality Use address aggregation techniques to minimize core routing table sizes and associated control traffic At the same time, it should allow flexibility in topological structure (eg: don’t restrict to trees etc) Allow policy-based routing between autonomous systems Policy refers to arbitrary preference among a menu of available options (based upon options’ attributes) In the case of routing, options include advertised ASlevel routes to address prefixes Fully distributed routing (as opposed to a signaled approach) is the only possibility. Extensible to meet the demands for newer policies.
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λ µ •Problem: demand outstrips available capacity λ1 Demand Capacity

The Congestion Problem λi
µi

λn If information about λi , λ and µ is known in a central location where control of λi or µ can be effected with zero time delays, the congestion problem is solved! Unfortunately, we have incomplete info, require a distributed solution with time-varying time-delays Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
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Congestion: A Close-up View
knee – point after which throughput increases very slowly delay increases fast cliff – point after which throughput starts to decrease very fast to zero (congestion collapse) delay approaches infinity Note (in an M/M/1 queue) delay = 1/(1 – utilization)
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Throughput

knee

cliff

packet loss congestion collapse

Delay

Load

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Congestion Control vs. Congestion Avoidance
Congestion control goal stay left of cliff Congestion avoidance goal stay left of knee Right of cliff: Congestion collapse
Throughput

knee

cliff congestion collapse

Load
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Goals of Congestion Control
To guarantee stable operation of packet networks Sub-goal: avoid congestion collapse To keep networks working in an efficient status Eg: high throughput, low loss, low delay, and high utilization To provide fair allocations of network bandwidth among competing flows in steady state For some value of “fair” ☺ 109
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CC Techniques: Self-clocking
Pb Pr

Sender

Receiver

As

Ab

Ar

Implications of ack-clocking: More batching of acks => bursty traffic Less batching leads to a large fraction of Internet traffic being just acks (overhead) Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
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CC Techniques: Additive Increase/Multiplicative Decrease (AIMD) Policy
x1 x0 x2
Fairness Line

User 2’s Allocation x2

Efficiency Line

User 1’s Allocation x1

Assumption: decrease policy must (at minimum) reverse the load increase over-and-above efficiency line Implication: decrease factor should be conservatively set to account for any congestion detection lags etc
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Quality of Service: What is it?
Multimedia applications: network audio and video

QoS
network provides application with level of

performance needed for application to function.
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Fundamental QoS Problems
FIFO

Scheduling Discipline B B

In a FIFO service discipline, the performance assigned to one flow is convoluted with the arrivals of packets from all other flows! Cant get QoS with a “free-for-all” Need to use new scheduling disciplines which provide “isolation” of performance from arrival rates of background traffic
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Fundamental QoS Problems
Conservation Law (Kleinrock): Σρ(i)Wq(i) = K Irrespective of scheduling discipline chosen: Average backlog (delay) is constant Average bandwidth is constant Zero-sum game => need to “set-aside” resources for premium services
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QoS Big Picture: Control/Data Planes
Control Plane: Signaling + Admission Control or SLA (Contracting) + Provisioning/Traffic Engineering

Router
Workstation

Router

Internetwork or WAN

Router

Workstation

Data Plane: Traffic conditioning (shaping, policing, marking etc) + Traffic Classification + Scheduling, Buffer management
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Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

FCC has largely had a hands-off policy Early development of internet in part was influenced by high cost of telecom links
Packet switching developed as better multiplexing technology

Internet Regulation

Common-carriage regulation has affected Inet:
Eg: modems were like fax machine for the common carrier

Use of basic service (eg: telephony) to provide enhanced service (eg: internet access) => not subject to FCC or state jurisdiction
Led to community bulletin-boards, ISPs, value-added networks (frame-relay?)… Home-to-ISP treated as local call (even if crossed stateboundaries)

ILECs prohibited from offering inter-LATA services
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DSL viewed as basic service => must unbundle DSL to allow 3rd parties to offer internet access over ILEC DSL Shivkumar Kalyanaraman
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Summary: List of Internet Problems

Basics: Direct/indirect connectivity, topologies Link layer issues: Framing, Error control, Flow control Multiple access & Ethernet: Cabling, Pkt format, Switching, bridging vs routing Internetworking problems: Naming, addressing, Resolution, fragmentation, congestion control, traffic management, Reliability, Network Management
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Additional Reading

Internet Design Philosophy: Saltzer, Reed, Clark: "End-to-End arguments in System Design" Clark: "The Design Philosophy of the DARPA Internet Protocols": RFC 2775: Internet Transparency: In HTML

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