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JAR 66 CATEGORY B1

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engineering

MODULE 11.12
ICE AND RAIN
PROTECTION

Contents
1

ICE FORMATION, CLASSIFICATION AND DETECTION ........... 1-3


1.1
1.2
1.3

1.4

1.5
1.6

1.7
1.8
1.9
1.10
1.11

INTRODUCTION ........................................................................ 1-3


FACTORS AFFECTING ICE FORMATION ................................. 1-3
TYPES OF ICE FORMATION ..................................................... 1-3
1.3.1
Hoar Frost ..................................................................... 1-3
1.3.2
Rime Ice........................................................................ 1-4
1.3.3
Glaze Ice ....................................................................... 1-4
1.3.4
Pack Snow .................................................................... 1-5
1.3.5
Hail ............................................................................... 1-5
AREAS TO BE PROTECTED...................................................... 1-5
1.4.1
Effects On Aircraft ......................................................... 1-6
1.4.2
Effects of Icing on The Ground ...................................... 1-7
ICE DETECTION ........................................................................ 1-7
METHODS OF ICE DETECTION ................................................ 1-7
1.6.1
Ice Accretion Method .................................................... 1-7
1.6.2
Inferential Method ......................................................... 1-8
VISUAL (HOT ROD) ICE DETECTOR) ............................................... 1-8
PRESSURE OPERATED ICE DETECTOR HEADS ................................ 1-9
SERRATED ROTOR ICE DETECTOR HEAD ....................................... 1-10
VIBRATING ROD ICE DETECTOR ..................................................... 1-11
ICE FORMATION SPOT LIGHT ......................................................... 1-12

ANTI-ICING AND DE-ICING SYSTEMS ....................................... 2-13


2.1

2.2
2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

INTRODUCTION ............................................................................. 2-13


2.1.1
De-icing ......................................................................... 2-13
2.1.2
Anti-icing System .......................................................... 2-13
DE-ICING/ANTI-ICING SYSTEMS - GENERAL ................................. 2-13
FLUID SYSTEMS ........................................................................... 2-13
2.3.1
Windscreen Protection .................................................. 2-13
2.3.2
Aerofoil Systems ........................................................... 2-16
2.3.3
Propeller Systems ......................................................... 2-18
PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS ............................................................. 2-19
2.4.1
Air Supplies ................................................................... 2-20
2.4.2
Distribution .................................................................... 2-20
2.4.3
Controls and Indication ................................................. 2-20
2.4.4
Operation ...................................................................... 2-21
THERMAL (HOT AIR) SYSTEM .................................................. 2-22
2.5.1
Exhaust Gas Heating System ....................................... 2-23
2.5.2
Hot Air Bleed System .................................................... 2-25
ELECTRICAL ICE PROTECTION SYSTEN ................................ 2-27
2.6.1
Heater Mat .................................................................... 2-27
Spray Mat ................................................................................... 2-28
2.6.3
Windscreen Anti-icing ................................................... 2-31

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2.7

ICE AND RAIN


PROTECTION

WINDSCREEN CABIN W INDOW DE-MISTING SYSTEMS ..................... 2-33

RAIN REPELLANT AND RAIN REMOVAL .................................. 3-35


3.1
3.2

3.3
3.4
3.5

MODULE 11.12

WINDSCREEN CLEARING SYSTEMS ....................................... 3-35


WINDSCREEN WIPER SYSTEMS ..................................................... 3-36
3.2.1
Electrical System........................................................... 3-36
3.2.2
Electro-Hydraulic System .............................................. 3-38
3.2.3
Hydraulic System .......................................................... 3-43
3.2.4
Windscreen Wiper Servicing ......................................... 3-45
PNEUMATIC RAIN REMOVAL SYSTEMS.................................. 3-47
WINDSCREEN WASHING SYSTEM .......................................... 3-47
RAIN REPELLANT ..................................................................... 3-49

DRAIN MAST HEATING............................................................... 4-52


4.1
4.2

WATER SUPPLY AND DRAIN LINES ................................................. 4-52


DRAIN MASTS .............................................................................. 4-52

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MODULE 11.12
ICE AND RAIN
PROTECTION

ICE FORMATION, CLASSIFICATION AND DETECTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION
The operation of aircraft in the present day necessitates flying in all weather
conditions and it is essential that the aircraft is protected against the build up of
ice which may affect the safety and performance of the aircraft.
Aircraft designed for public transport and some military aircraft must be provided
with certain detection and protection equipment for flights in which there is a
probability of encountering icing (or rain) conditions.
In addition to the requirements outlined above, certain basic standards have to be
met by all aircraft whether or not they are required to be protected by the
requirements. These basic requirements are intended to provide a reasonable
protection if the aircraft is flown intentionally for short periods in icing conditions.
The requirements cover such considerations as the stability and control balance
characteristics, jamming of controls and the ability of the engine to continue to
function.
1.2 FACTORS AFFECTING ICE FORMATION
Ice formation on aircraft in flight is the same as that on the ground; it can be
classified under four main headings, i.e. Hoar Frost, Rime, Glaze Ice and Pack
Snow. Dependent on the circumstances, variations of these forms of icing can
occur and two different types of icing may appear simultaneously on parts of the
aircraft.
Ice in the atmosphere is caused by coldness acting on moisture in the air. Water
occurs in the atmosphere in three forms, i.e. invisible vapour, liquid water and ice.
The smallest drops of liquid water constitute clouds and fog, the largest drops
occur only in rain and in between these are the drops making drizzle. Icing
consists of crystals, their size and density being dependent on the temperature
and the type of water in the atmosphere from which they form. Snowflakes are
produced when a number of these crystals stick together or, in very cold regions,
by small individual crystals.
1.3 TYPES OF ICE FORMATION
1.3.1 HOAR FROST

Hoar frost occurs on a surface which is at a temperature below the frost point of
the adjacent air and of course, below freezing point. It is formed in clear air when
water vapour condenses on the cold airframe surface and is converted directly to
ice and builds up into a white semi-crystalline coating; normally hoar frost is
feathery.

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ICE AND RAIN
PROTECTION

When hoar frost occurs on aircraft on the ground, the weight of the deposit is
unlikely to be serious, but the deposit, if not removed from the airframe, may
interfere with the airflow and attainment of flying speed during take-off, the
windscreen may be obscured and the free working control surfaces may be
affected. Hoar frost on aircraft in flight usually commences with a thin layer of
glaze ice on the leading edge, followed by the formation of frost which gradually
spreads over the whole surface.
Again the effects are not usually serious, though some change in the landing
characteristics of the aircraft can be expected.
1.3.2 RIME ICE

This ice formation, which is less dense than glaze ice, is an opaque, rough
deposit. At ground level it forms in freezing fog and consists of a deposit of ice
on the windward side of exposed objects. Rime is light and porous and results
from the small water drops freezing as individual particles, with little or no
spreading, a large amount of air is trapped between the particles.
Aircraft in flight may experience rime icing when flying through a cloud of small
water drops with the air temperature and the temperature of the airframe below
freezing point. The icing builds up on the leading edge, but does not extend far
back along the chord. Ice of this type usually has no great weight, but the danger
of rime is that it will interfere with the airflow over the wings.
If the super-cooled droplets are small enough and the temperature is low, each
droplet freezes instantly on impact as an individual particle and being a nonadhesive dry powder in the slipstream the accumulation on the aircraft is not
serious. This is called "opaque rime".
1.3.3 GLAZE ICE

Glaze ice is the glassy deposit that forms over the village pond in the depth of
winter. On aircraft in flight, glaze ice forms when the aircraft encounters large
water drops in clouds or in freezing rain (or super-cooled rain) with the air
temperature and the temperature of the airframe below freezing point. It consists
of a transparent or opaque coating of ice with a glassy surface and results from
the liquid water flowing over the airframe before freezing. Glaze ice may be
mixed with sleet or snow. IT WILL FORM IN GREATEST THICKNESS ON THE
LEADING EDGES OF AEROFOILS AND IN REDUCED THICKNESS AS FAR
AFT AS ONE HALF OF THE CHORD. Ice formed in this way is dense, tough
and sticks closely to the surface of the aircraft, it cannot easily be shaken off and
if it breaks off at all, it comes away in lumps of an appreciable and sometimes
dangerous size.
The main danger of glaze ice is still aerodynamic but also the weight of the ice
produces unequal loading and propeller blade vibrations. Glaze ice is the MOST
SEVERE and most dangerous form of ice formation on aircraft because of its
high RATE OF CATCH. Super-cooled rain is rare in the British Isles but is more
common on the Continent and East coast of North America.
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MODULE 11.12
ICE AND RAIN
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1.3.4 PACK SNOW

Normally, snow falling on an aircraft in flight does not settle, but if the temperature
of the airframe is below freezing point, glaze ice may form from the moisture in
the snow. The icing of the aircraft in such conditions, however, is primarily due to
water drops, though snow may subsequently be embedded in the ice so formed.
1.3.5 HAIL

Hail is formed when water droplets, falling as rain, pass through icing levels and
freeze.
Air currents in some storm clouds (Cumulo-nimbus) may carry the hail vertically
through the cloud a number of times, increasing the size of the hailstone at each
pass until it is heavy enough to break out of the base of the cloud and fall towards
earth.
Aircraft encountering this type of ice formation may suffer severe damage in the
form of dented skin, cracked windscreens, blocked intakes and serious damage
to gas turbine engines.
1.4 AREAS TO BE PROTECTED
The following areas are critical areas on the aircraft where ice forms and
where protection is essential.
a. all aerofoil leading edges
b. engine air intakes (including carburettor intakes)
c. windscreens
d. propellers
e. pitot static pressure heads

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engineering

PROTECTION

Icing Areas to be Protected


Figure 1
1.4.1 EFFECTS ON AIRCRAFT

The build up of ice on the aircraft is known as lice accretion' and, from the
foregoing, it is evident that if ice continues to be deposited on the aircraft one, or
more, of the following effects may occur.
a. Decrease in Lift
This may occur due to changes in wing section resulting in loss of streamlined
flow around the leading edge and top surfaces.
b. Increase in Drag
Drag will increase due to the rough surface, especially if the formation is rime.
This condition results in greatly increased surface friction.
c. Increased Weight and Wing Loading
The weight of the ice may prevent the aircraft from maintaining height.
d. Decrease in Thrust
With turbo-prop and piston engines, the efficiency of the propeller will decrease
due to alteration of the blade profile and increased blade thickness. Vibration
may also occur due to uneven distribution of ice along the blades.
Gas Turbine engines may also be affected by ice on the engine intake, causing
disturbance of the airflow to the compressor. Furthermore, ice breaking away
from the intake, may be ingested by the engine causing severe damage to the
compressor blades and other regions within the engine.

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ICE AND RAIN
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e. Inaccuracy of Pitot Static Instruments


Ice on the pitot static pressure head causes blockage in the sensing lines and
produces false readings on the instruments.
f.

Loss of Inherent Stability

This may occur due to displacement of the centre of gravity caused by the weight
of the ice.
g. Radio antennae reduced efficiency
h. Loss of Control
Loss of control may occur due to ice preventing movement of control surfaces.
(This is not usually a problem in flight but may occur on the ground).
1.4.2 EFFECTS OF ICING ON THE GROUND

The effects of ice accretion on the ground are similar to those occurring in flight
but the following additional effects may be caused.
a. Restriction of the controls may occur if ice is not removed from hinges and
gaps in the controls.
b. The take off run may be increased because of the increase in weight and
drag.
c. The rate of climb may be reduced because the weight and drag are
increased.
1.5 ICE DETECTION
The ANO Schedule 4 states that:
In the case of an aircraft of MTWA exceeding 5700 kg (12500 lb), means of
observing the existence and build up of ice on the aircraft must be provided.
The equipment will be carried on flights when the weather reports or forecasts
available at the aerodrome at the time of departure indicate that conditions
favouring ice formation are likely to be met.
1.6 METHODS OF ICE DETECTION
Ice detection systems use one of the following methods of detecting and
assessing the formation of ice.
1.6.1 ICE ACCRETION METHOD

Ice is allowed to accumulate on a probe which projects into the airstream and in
doing so operates a warning system.

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MODULE 11.12
ICE AND RAIN
PROTECTION

1.6.2 INFERENTIAL METHOD

Atmospheric conditions conducive to the formation of ice are detected and


continuously evaluated to operate a warning system.
Note Inferential systems of ice detection are not usually employed in production
aircraft but are extensively used in wind tunnels and on flight trials for aircraft
certification. Some of the common ice accretion detectors are as follows:
1.7 VISUAL (HOT ROD) ICE DETECTOR)
This consists of an aluminium alloy oblong base (called the plinth) on which ismounted a steel tube detector mast of aerofoil section, angled back to
approximately 300 from the vertical, mounted on the side of the fuselage, so that
it can be seen from the flight compartment windows. The mast houses a heating
element, and in the plinth there is a built-in floodlight.

Hot Rod Ice Detector


Figure 2
The heating element is normally off and when icing conditions are met ice
accretes on the leading edge of the detector mat. This can then be observed by
the flight crew. During night operations the built-in floodlight may be switched on
to illuminate the mast. By manual selection of a switch to the heating element the
formed ice is dispersed for further observance.

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ICE AND RAIN
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1.8 PRESSURE OPERATED ICE DETECTOR HEADS

Pressure Operated Ice Detector


Figure 3
These consist of a short stainless steel or chromium plated brass tube, which is
closed at its outer end and mounted so that it projects vertically from a portion of
the aircraft known to be susceptible to icing. Four small holes are drilled in the
leading edge of this tube and in the trailing edge are two holes of less total area
than those of the leading edge. A heater element is fitted to allow the detector
head to be cleared of ice. In some units of this type a further restriction to the air
flow is provided by means of a baffle mounted through the centre of the tube.
Each system comprises an ice detector head, a detector relay and a warning
lamp. When in normal flight, pressure is built up inside the tube by the airstream, this pressure is then communicated by tubing, to the capsule of an
electro-pneumatic relay tending to expand it and separate a pair of electrical
contacts. When icing conditions are met, ice will form on the leading edge and
close off the holes. As the holes in the trailing edge will not be covered by ice the
air-stream will now tend to exhaust the system, collapsing the relay capsule and
so closing the relay contacts. Generally these contacts operate in conjunction
with a thermal device, to illuminate a warning indicator in the flight compartment
and to switch on the heater in the detector head; the latter clears the head of ice
and is then switched off allowing continued detection of icing conditions. A heater
energised by the detector relays, automatically clears the ice from the head, but a
cam holds the lamp on for a further 4 minutes and the heater for a further 30
seconds.

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Should icing conditions persist and the detector heads again ice up, the cam is
automatically re-set and the time cycle repeated.
The pilot will switch on the de-icing system when the warning lights indicate icing
conditions. In some systems the warning phase is connected to automatically
switch on the de-icing system. This cycling will continue until such time that the
icing conditions no longer exist.
1.9 SERRATED ROTOR ICE DETECTOR HEAD

Serrated Rotor Ice Detector


Figure 4
This consists of a serrated rotor, incorporating an integral drive shaft coupled to a
small ac motor via a reduction gearbox, being rotated adjacent to a fixed knifeedge cutter. The motor casing is connected via a spring-tensioned toggle bar to a
micro-switch assembly. The motor and gearbox assembly is mounted on a static
spigot attached to the motor housing and, together with the micro-switch
assembly, is enclosed by a cylindrical housing. The detector is mounted through
the fuselage side so that the inner housing is subjected to the ambient conditions
with the outer being sealed from the aircraft cabin pressure.The serrated rotor on
the detector head is continuously driven by the electrical motor so that its
periphery rotates within 0.050 mm (0.002 in) of the leading edge of the knife-edge
cutter. The torque therefore required to drive the rotor under non-icing conditions
will be slight, since bearing friction only has to be overcome. Under icing
conditions, however, ice will accrete on the rotor until the gap between the rotor
and knife-edge is filled, whereupon a cutting action by the knife edge will produce
a substantial increase in the required torque causing the toggle bar to move
against its spring mounting and so operate the microswitch, to initiate a warning
signal. Once icing conditions cease, the knife edge cutter will no longer shave
ice, torque loading will reduce and allow the motor to return to its normal position
and the micro-switch will open-circuit the ice warning indicator.
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1.10 VIBRATING ROD ICE DETECTOR


This ice detector senses the presence of icing conditions and provides an
indication in the flight compartment that such conditions exist. The system
consists of' a solid state ice detector and advisory warning light. The ice detector
is attached to the fuselage with its probe protruding through the skin. The ice
detector probe (exposed to the airstream) is an ice-sensing element that
ultrasonically vibrates in an axial mode of its own resonant frequency of
approximately 40 kHz.

Vibrating Rod Ice detector


Figure 5
When ice forms on the sensing element, the probe frequency decreases. The ice
detector circuit detects the change in probe frequency by comparing it with a
reference oscillator. At a predetermined frequency change (proportional to ice
build-up), the ice detector circuit is activated. Once activated, the ice warning
light in the flight compartment is illuminated and a timer circuit is triggered. The
operation of the time circuit switches a probe heater on for a set period of time to
remove the ice warning indicator and returns the system to a detector mode,
providing that icing conditions no longer exist. If, however, a further ice warning
signal is received during the timer period, the timer will be re-triggered, the
warning light will remain on and the heater will again be selected on. This cycle
will be repeated for as long as the icing conditions prevail.

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1.11 ICE FORMATION SPOT LIGHT


Many aircraft have two ice formation spot lights mounted one each side of the
fuselage, in such a position as to light up the leading edges of the mainplanes,
when required, to allow visual examination for ice formation.
Note:

In some aircraft this may be the only method of ice detection.

Spotlight Ice detectors


Figure 6

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MODULE 11.12
ICE AND RAIN
PROTECTION

ANTI-ICING AND DE-ICING SYSTEMS

2.1 INTRODUCTION
There are various methods of ice protection which can be fitted to an aircraft but
they can be considered under one of two main categories, de-icing and anti-icing.
2.1.1 DE-ICING

In this method of ice protection, ice is allowed to form on the surfaces and is then
removed by operating the particular system in the specified sequence.
2.1.2 ANTI-ICING SYSTEM

Ice is prevented from forming by ensuring that the ice protection system is
operating whenever icing conditions are encountered or forecast.
2.2 DE-ICING/ANTI-ICING SYSTEMS - GENERAL
There are four primary systems used for ice protection. These are:
1. Fluid
2. Pneumatic
3. Thermal
4. Electrical
2.3 FLUID SYSTEMS
These may be used either as an anti-icing or de-icing system. When used as an
anti-icing system it works on the principle that the freezing point of water can be
lowered if a fluid of low freezing point is applied to the areas to be protected
before icing occurs. When used as a de-icing system the fluid is applied to the
interface of the aircraft surface and the ice. The adhesion of the ice is broken
and the ice is carried away by the airflow. The system is normally used on
windscreens and aerofoils and has also been used successfully on propellers. It
is not used on engine air intakes - which are usually anti-iced.
2.3.1 WINDSCREEN PROTECTION

The method employed in this system is to spray the windscreen panel with an
ALCOHOL based fluid. The principal components of the system are:

Fluid storage tank

Hand operated or electrically driven pump

Supply pipelines

Spray tubes

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The diagram illustrates a typical aircraft system in which the fluid is supplied to
the spray tubes by two electrically driven pumps.

Typical Fluid De-icing System


Figure 7
This design enables the system to be operated using either of the two pumps, or
both pumps, according to the severity of the icing.

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The next diagram shows a hand pump installation on the HS 125 aircraft where it
is used as an auxiliary system.

Windscreen Auxiliary De-icing System


Figure 8

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2.3.2 AEROFOIL SYSTEMS

The fluids used for aerofoil ice protection are all GLYCOL based and have
properties of low freezing point, non-corrosive, low toxicity and low volatility.
They have a detrimental effect on some windscreen sealing compounds and
cause crazing of perspex panels.
The components in the system are the tank, pump, filter, pipelines, distributors,
controls and indicators normally consisting of a switch, pump power failure
warning light and tank contents indicator.
When icing conditions are encountered, the system may be switched on
automatically by the ice detector or manually by the pilot.
Fluid is supplied to the pump by gravity feed from the tank and is then directed
under pressure to the distributors on the aerofoil leading edges. After an initial
'flood' period, during which the pump runs continuously to prime the pipelines and
wet the leading edge, the system is then controlled by a cyclic timer which turns
the pump ON and OFF for predetermined periods.
The leading edge distributors appears in one of two forms, i.e. strip and panel.
Strip Distributor
The distributor consists of a 'U' channel divided into two channels, called the
primary and secondary channels, by a central web. The outer part of the channel
is closed by a porous metal spreader through which the de-icing fluid seeps to
wet the outer surface. The primary and secondary feed channels are
interconnected by flow control tubes to ensure an even spread of fluid over the
outer surface.
The strips are let into the leading edge so that the porous element is flush with
the surface of the leading edge curvature. This type of distributor is rarely used
and would only be found on very old aircraft.
Panel Distributors
This type of distributor consists of a micro porous stainless steel outer panel, a
micro-porous plastic sheet and metering tube. The fluid passes through the
metering tube that calibrates the flow rate into a cavity between the plastic sheet
and a back-plate. This cavity remains filled when the system is operating and the
fluid seeps through the porous stainless steel outer panel. The airflow then
directs the fluid over the aerofoil.

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The outer panel is usually made of stainless steel mesh although a new
technique of laser drilling of stainless steel sheet is appearing on some new
aircraft.

Fluid De-icing System with Distribution Panels


Figure 9

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When a system is to be out of service, or unused for an extended period of time,


it should be functioned periodically to prevent the fluid from crystallising and
causing blockage of the metering tubes, porous surfaces and pipelines.
Distributors should be cleaned periodically by washing with a jet of water sprayed
on to the distributor at an angle.

Section of a TKS Distribution Panel


Figure 10
2.3.3 PROPELLER SYSTEMS

It is necessary to de-ice the propeller blade root and a section of the propeller
blade to prevent the build up which could change the blade profile and upset the
aerodynamic characteristics of the propeller. Uneven ice build up will also
introduce imbalance of the propeller and cause vibration. The leading edge of
the propeller blade is therefore de-iced and the ice is shed by centrifugal force.
The blade root has a rubber cuff into which the de-icing fluid is fed by a pipeline
from a slinger ring on the spinner back plate. From the cuff the fluid is spread
along the leading edge of the blade by centrifugal force.

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Fluid is fed into the slinger ring from a fixed pipe on the front of the engine.

Propeller Slinger Ring De-Icing


Figure 11
2.4 PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS
Pneumatic (or mechanical) systems are used for de-icing only, It is not possible
to prevent ice formation and works on the principle of cyclic inflation and deflation
of rubber tubes on aerofoil leading edges. The system is employed in certain
types of piston engine and twin turbo-propeller aircraft. The number of
components comprising a system and the method of applying the operating
principle will vary but a typical arrangement is shown.
The de-icer boots (or overshoes) consist of layers of natural rubber and
rubberised fabric between which are disposed flat inflatable tubes closed at the
ends. They are fitted in sections along the leading edges of wing, vertical
stabilisers and horizontal stabilisers. The tubes may be laid spanwise, chordwise
or a combination of each method. The tubes are made of rubberised fabric
vulcanised inside the rubber layers and are connected to the air supply by short
lengths of flexible hose secured by hose clips.

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Depending on the type specified, a boot may be attached to the leading edge
either by screw fasteners or by cementing them directly to the leading edge skin.
The external surfaces of the boots are coated with a film of conductive material to
bleed off accumulations of static electricity.

Pneumatic De-Icing Boots


Figure 12
2.4.1 AIR SUPPLIES

The tubes in the overshoes are inflated by air from the pressure side of an engine
driver vacuum pump or, in some types of turbo-propeller aircraft, from a tapping
on the engine compressor. At the end of the inflated stage of the operating
sequence, and whenever the system is switched off, the boots are deflated by
vacuum derived from the vacuum pump or from the venturi section of an ejector
nozzle in systems using the engine compressor tapping.
2.4.2 DISTRIBUTION

The method of distributing air supplies to the boots depends on the system
required for a particular type of aircraft. In general three methods are in use:

shuttle valves controlled by a separate solenoid valve

individual solenoid valves direct air to each boot

motor driven valves

2.4.3 CONTROLS AND INDICATION

The controls and indication required for the operation of a system will depend on
the type of aircraft and on the particular arrangement of the system. In a typical
system a main ON-OFF switch, pressure and vacuum gauges or indicating lights
form part of the controlling section.
Pressure and vacuum is applied to the boots in an alternating, timed sequence
and the methods adopted usually vary with the methods of air distribution. In
most installations, however, timing control is affected by an electronic device.

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Pneumatic De-icing System Layout


Figure 13
2.4.4 OPERATION

When the system is switched on, pressure is admitted to the boot sections to
inflate groups of tubes in sequence. The inflator weakens the bond between ice
and the boot surfaces and cracks the ice that is carried away by the airflow. At
the end of the inflation stage of the operating sequence, the air in the tubes is
vented to atmosphere through the distributor and the tubes are fully deflated by
the vacuum source. The inflation and deflation cycle is repeated whilst the
system is switched on. When the system is switched off, vacuum is supplied
continually to all tubes of the overshoes to hold the tubes flat against the leading
edges thus minimising aerodynamic drag.

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Pneumatic De-Icing Boots - Operation


Figure 14
2.5 THERMAL (HOT AIR) SYSTEM
The thermal (hot air) system fitted to aerofoils for the purpose of preventing the
formation of ice employs heated air ducted span-wise along the inside of the
leading edge of the aerofoil and distributed between double thickness skins.
Entry to the leading edge is made at the stagnation point where maximum
temperature is required. The hot air then flows back chord-wise through a series
of corrugations into the main aerofoil section to suitable exhaust points.

Thermal (Hot Air) de-Icing System


Figure 15
In anti-icing systems a continuous supply of heated air is fed to the leading
edges, but in de-icing systems it is usual to supply more intensely heated air for
shorter periods on a cyclic basis.
Hot gas may be derived from heat exchangers around exhausts, independent
combustion heaters or direct tappings from turbine engine compressors.
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2.5.1 EXHAUST GAS HEATING SYSTEM

The following diagram illustrates the principle of a thermal system using exhaust
gases to heat ambient air.
Ambient air enters an intake formed on one side of the engine nacelle and is
ducted to pass through tubes of a heat exchanger. The exhaust gases from the
jet pipe are partially diverted by electrically actuated flaps to flow between the
tubes of the heat exchanger before discharging to atmosphere.
The heated air from the heat exchanger passes to a duct containing an
electrically operated hot air valve before passing to the leading edges.
In the event of failure of the gas flap in the open position, an emergency manual
override facility is provided to close the hot air valve and open an actuator
operated spill valve to direct the hot air overboard.
The gas flap actuator and the hot air valve actuator are electrically interlocked in
such a way that the hot air valve must be fully open before the gas flap opens.
Conversely, the gas flap must be fully closed before the hot air valve closes. This
arrangement, controlled by the limit switches in the actuators, prevents
overheating of the heat exchanger.
Temperature control is automatic with a standby 'manual' facility. A control unit,
in conjunction with 'normal' control and 'overheat' thermistors, provides automatic
control and overheat protection. An overheat control unit, in conjunction with an
'override' thermistor and flame-stat provides a final overheat protection system.

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Exhaust Gas Heating system


Figure 16

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2.5.2 HOT AIR BLEED SYSTEM

In this system, air is bled from a late stage of the gas turbine engine compressor
before being distributed to aerofoil leading edges in the same manner as the
exhaust system. The system may be used for anti-icing or de-icing purposes on
wing and tail leading edges. It may also be used for ice protection of engine
intakes
In principle, the system works by either maintaining the temperature of the skin
above that at which ice occurs or by raising the skin temperature to melt the ice
after it has formed. On aircraft with engines mounted on the rear fuselage,
distribution of air along the wing leading edges may be graded to give a higher
intensity of heating for the inboard section. This is to prevent the shedding of ice
accretions into the engine intakes of a size that could result in hazards to the
engine.
The following diagram illustrates, in schematic form, a thermal system for a four
engine aircraft.
In operation, anti-icing shut off valves on each engine open to supply air to the
leading edge ducting at temperatures of about 200C. Wing and fuselage cross
over ducts ensure a supply to all surfaces in the event of an engine shut down in
flight.

Hot Bleed Air Anti-icing System


Figure17
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On some installations, air temperature in the ducting may be controlled by mixing


compressor bleed air with ram air admitted to the system by a cold air control
valve.

Hot and Ram Air Mixing


Figure 18
When initially switched on, hot air is fed undiluted into the cold leading edge
ducting. Temperature sensors in the leading edge monitor the temperature rise
and progressively open and close the cold air valve via an inching unit to control
the skin temperature. In the event of failure of the:

temperature sensor to control the temperature of the leading edge

cold air valve

or blockage of the ram air inlet, the overhead sensor will control the temperature
by regulation of the hot air valve.
Note: Temperature regulation may also be achieved by controlling the position of
the hot air valve.

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2.6 ELECTRICAL ICE PROTECTION SYSTEN


Electrical heater elements are attached to the outer surface of the area to be
protected. There are two methods; these being the heater mat and spray mat.
2.6.1 HEATER MAT

This type of element consists of two thin layers of rubber or PTFE sandwiching a
heater element. Each mat is moulded to fit snugly over the section to be
protected. Heater elements differ in design, construction and materials according
to their purpose and environment. The latest mats have elements made from a
range of alloys woven in continuous filament glass yarn.
The diagram below shows the application of a heater element to the air intake of
a turbo-prop engine.

Electrical Anti-Icing Heater Mat


Figure 19

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2.6.2 SPRAY MAT

This type of element is so called because it is sprayed directly on to the surface


to be protected. The technique was developed by the Napier Company to
provide a lightweight system for use on aerofoils and is ideally suited for
application to compound curves.
A base insulator is brushed directly on to the airframe and is composed basically
of synthetic resin. The insulator is normally about 0.03 inches thick although in
some cases this may vary. The heater element, made of either aluminium or
Kumanol (copper manganese alloy) is sprayed on to the base insulation using a
flame spraying technique.
The insulation is of the same material as the base insulation and about 0.01
inches thick. Finally, a protective coating is used where the heater requires extra
protection from mechanical damage, eg on leading edges. This protective
coating known as 'stoneguard' consists of stainless alloy particles bonded with
synthetic resin.

Napier Type Anti-Icing Spraymat


Figure 20

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The system layout shows the distribution and heating elements on the leading
edges of an aircraft tailplane and fin.

Distribution of Heating Elements


Figure 21
Some of the elements are supplied continuously with electrical power (anti-icing)
whilst others are supplied intermittently on a cyclic basis (de-icing). Areas
provided with continuous anti-icing heating are situated immediately in front of
areas on which limited ice formation is tolerable but which require de-icing by the
cyclic application of heat. Heating of these areas is rapid in order to break
adhesion as quickly as possible, allowing the detached ice to be blown away by
the airflow. To ensure a clean breakaway of the ice, the cyclically heated areas
are separated by continuously heated 'breaker' strips.
A system requiring different intensifies of anti-icing and cyclic de-icing would
require one or more cyclic switches, temperature sensing elements and
temperature control units. In general, control methods may be classified as antiicing and de-icing.

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Anti-icing
Anti-iced areas have their heat supplied continuously, the heating intensity being
graded such that under operating conditions no ice formation occurs. The heat is
regulated by means of either a sensing element embedded in the mat and an
associated thermal controller or a surface mounted thermostatic switch which is
pre-set to give cut-in and cut-out temperature levels.
Cyclic De-icing
Cyclic de-icing areas are usually arranged in groups being connected to a cyclic
switch. The detailed design of the cycling switch depends upon the loading and
type of power supply, e.g. dc or 3-phase ac. Its operation is controlled either by
timed impulses from a pulse generator or by an electronic device built into the
switch.
The timed impulses are set to the appropriate rate for the range of ambient
temperatures likely to be encountered.
At a relatively high ambient temperature the atmospheric water content, and
consequently the rate of icing, is likely to be high but only a comparatively short
heating period will be required to shed the ice. At very low temperatures the
atmospheric water content and rate of icing are lower and longer heating periods
are required. The ratio of time ON to time OFF, however, remains unchanged.
The typical ratio is 1:10. Setting of the pulse generator may be manual, as
estimated from indications of ambient air temperature, or by an automatic control
system in which the ON:OFF periods are varied by signals derived from an
ambient air temperature probe, working in conjunction with either an ice detector
or a rate of icing indicator.
The source of power may be dc, single phase ac or 3-phase ac. In a 3-phase
system the heated areas are arranged so as to obtain balanced loading of
phases for both anti-icing or de-icing circuits, if possible. De-icing heaters are
connected in such a manner that, as far as practicable, current requirements are
constant. To achieve this the OFF period for certain areas is made to coincide
with the ON period for others.

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2.6.3 WINDSCREEN ANTI-ICING

The windscreens and other critical


windows in the cockpit (e.g. direct
vision windows, sliding side windows)
of high performance pressurised
aircraft are complicated and expensive
items of the airframe structure as they
are designed to withstand varying air
pressure loads, possible shock loads
due to impact of birds and hailstorms,
and thermal stresses due to ambient
temperature changes. In all cases, a
laminated form of construction is used,
similar to that shown

Typical Laminated Glass Windscreen


Figure 22
Laminated glass panels were conceived in order to impart shatter proof
characteristics to the glass. Such panels are produced by interposing sheets of
clear vinyl plastic (polyvinyl Butyral) between layers of preformed and pretempered glass plies. The vinyl and glass plies are then bonded by the
application of pressure and heat.
Since the desired bird-proof characteristics of a windscreen depend to a large
degree, on the plasticity of the vinyl, it therefore follows that it also depends upon
its temperature. The optimum temperature range for maximum energy
absorption by the vinyl is between 27C and 49C and the electrically heated
windscreen panel assemblies are normally maintained within these limits. Below
this range the bird-proof characteristics decline rapidly and depending upon the
actual configuration, a panel's impact resistance can be reduced by 30% to 50%
when still at quite a moderate temperature of 16C.
Electric heating of a windscreen therefore is an important factor in maintaining the
optimum bird-proof characteristics.
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The heating element is an extremely thin transparent conductive coating which is


'floated' on to the inside surface of the outer glass ply; this being normally thinner
in section allows a more rapid heat conduction. The coating may be a tin oxide or
a gold film depending on a particular manufacturer's design.
The conductive coating is heated by alternating current supplied to busbars at the
edges of the windscreen panel. The power required for heating varies according
to the size of the panel and the heat required to suit the operating conditions.

Windscreen Temperature Control


Figure 23
The circuit of a typical windscreen de-icing system embodies a controlling device,
the function of which is to maintain a constant temperature at the windscreen and
also to prevent over-heating of the vinyl inter-layer(s). The controlling device is
connected to temperature-sensing elements embedded in the windscreen. There
are two methods of temperature sensing commonly in use. One of these utilises
a grid in which the resistance of the grid varies directly and linearly with
temperature. The other uses a thermistor, in which the resistance of the
thermistor varies inversely and exponentially with temperature.
The number of sensing elements employed depends on the system and circuit
design requirements. A system of warning lights and/or indicators also forms part
of the control circuit and provides visual indications of circuit operating conditions,
e.g. 'normal', 'off' or 'overheat'.

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When the electrical power is applied, the conductive coating heats the glass.
When it attains a temperature predetermined for normal operation the change in
resistance of the appropriate sensing element causes the controlling device to
isolate the heating power supply. When the glass has cooled through a certain
range of temperature, power is again applied and the cycle is repeated. In the
event of a failure of the controller, the glass temperature will rise until the setting
of the overheat system sensing element is attained. At this setting an overheat
control circuit cuts off the heating power supply and illuminates a warning light.
The power is restored again and the warning light extinguished when the glass
has cooled through a specific temperature range.
2.7

WINDSCREEN CABIN WINDOW DE-MISTING SYSTEMS

Glass is a very poor conductor of heat and at altitude the low atmospheric
temperature will maintain the inside of the windscreens and cabin windows at low
temperature resulting in condensation on the inner surface and obscured vision.
Windscreens are normally kept mist free by blowing hot air, from the air
conditioning system, across the inner surface of the glass. In addition, demisting
of some windscreens and, usually, all cabin windows is achieved by using
windows of "dry air sandwich" construction.
This is rather like double-glazing with outer and inner layers of glass sandwiching
a layer of dry air between them.
The outer layer of glass is of thick laminate construction (glass and vinyl) to give
the necessary impact and shatterproof qualities. The inner layer of glass is much
thinner allowing it to be warmed by the cabin air temperature, thus preventing
condensation.
The air sandwich is kept dry to prevent internal condensation of the outer glass,
by one of two methods:
During manufacture the two layers of glass are hermetically sealed with dry air
between them.
The space between glass layers is vented to the cabin to allow the pressure in
the air space to equalise with cabin pressure. Venting takes place through a
desiccant unit that absorbs moisture from the air during the venting process to
maintain the dry air sandwich.

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On some larger aircraft the fixed cabin windows are interconnected to a common
desiccant unit whilst escape windows have their own integral unit. The diagram
shows typical fixed window and escape hatch desiccant systems.
The desiccant used is Silica Gel crystals which are blue in colour but gradually
change to pink or white as they absorb moisture. Frequent checks must be made
on the state of the desiccant which must be replaced when it begins to turn pink.
Failure to take this action may result in condensation within the dry air sandwich
which may involve lengthy rectification to dry out the sandwich or may require the
windscreen/window to be replaced.

Cabin Window Desiccant System


Figure 24

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RAIN REPELLANT AND RAIN REMOVAL

3.1 WINDSCREEN CLEARING SYSTEMS


Vision through windscreens may become obscured by factors other than ice and
misting. For example, rain, dust, dirt and flies can impair vision to an extent
where methods of clearing the screens must be provided to enable safe ground
manoeuvring, take off and landing. Windscreen clearing systems may be
considered under the following headings:
a. Rain clearing systems which can be further broken down into
i.

windscreen wipers

ii.

rain repellent

iii.

air blowing

Windscreen washing systems.

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3.2

PROTECTION

WINDSCREEN WIPER SYSTEMS

3.2.1 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

In this type of system the wiper blades are driven by an electric motor(s) taking
their power from the aircraft electrical system. Sometimes the pilot's and copilot's wipers are operated by separate motors to ensure that clear vision is
maintained through one of the screens in case one system should fail.
The following diagram shows a typical electrical wiper and installation. An
electrically operated wiper is installed on each windscreen panel. Each wiper is
driven by a motor-converter assembly that converts the rotary motion of the motor
to reciprocating motion to operate the wiper arm. A shaft protruding from the
assembly provides an attachment for the wiper arms.

Electric Windshield Wiper System


Figure 25
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The wiper is controlled by setting the wiper control switch to the desired wiper
speed. When the "high" position is selected, relays 1 and 2 are energised. With
both relays energised, fields 1 and 2 are energised in parallel. The circuit is
completed and the motors operate at an approximate speed of 250
strokes/minute. When the "low" position is selected, relay 1 is energised. This
causes fields 1 and 2 to be energised in series. The motor then operates at
approximately 160 strokes/minute. Setting the switch to the OFF position allows
the relay contacts to return to their normal positions. However, the wiper motor
will continue to run until the wiper arm reaches the "park" position. When both
relays are open and the park switch is closed, the excitation of the motor is
reversed. This causes the motor to move off the lower edge of the windscreen,
opening the cam operated park switch. This de-energises the motor and
releases the brake solenoid applying the brake. This ensures that the motor will
not coast and re-close the park switch.

Windshield Wiper Circuit Diagram


Figure 26

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The path swept by the wiper blade may clear an arc as shown in the diagram on
the left, or in a parallel motion as shown on the right. The parallel motion is
preferred as it provides a greater swept surface, but the operating mechanism is
more complex.

Windshield Wiper Swept Areas


Figure 27
3.2.2 ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

An example of an electro hydraulic system is the Dunlop Maxivue which


comprises 2 wiper head arms and blades and two electrically driven twin cylinder
hydraulic pump units. The wipers are independently controlled by two switches
labelled
PORT (or STBD)
WIPER:

FAST OFF - SLOW

Hydraulic Pump Assembly


The complete assembly comprises a fully suppressed electric motor complete
with gears driving a twin cylinder pump unit.

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Electro-Hydraulic Wiper Pump


Figure 28
The light alloy pump body carries two horizontally opposed cylinders and pistons
and is bored internally to accommodate an eccentric driving shaft mounted within
a ball bearing housed in the body. A roller bearing fitted to the eccentrically
machined portion of the shaft and retained in position by a washer and circlip,
makes contact with the reciprocating pistons which are correctly spaced by a
cradle. A locknut and tab washer retain the ball bearing in position on the driving
shaft. A base plate, sealed against leakage by an 0 ring is clamped to the base
of the pump body by countersunk headed screws.
Each cylinder has an integral pipe connection and is secured to the body by
washers and locknuts fitted to the body studs that also serve to locate a cover
plate. A sealing ring is housed between the cover plate and the cylinder head
and a gasket is sandwiched between the cylinder shoulder and pump body.
The top face of the pump body houses a sealing ring and the four screwed studs
and locknuts provide means of attachment to the motor unit. The reservoir filler
cap is prevented from loss by a chain anchored to a lug that is fastened to the
filler cap by a rivet. The free end of the chain is attached to a motor mounting
stud.
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A peg screwed into the pump body is fitted with a leaf spring that ensures that the
filler cap remains correctly seated within the reservoir mouth.
The light alloy pump body carries two horizontally opposed cylinders and pistons
and is bored internally to accommodate an eccentric driving shaft mounted within
a ball bearing housed in the body. A roller bearing fitted to the eccentrically
machined portion of the shaft and retained in position by a washer and circlip,
makes contact with the reciprocating pistons which are correctly spaced by a
cradle. A locknut and tab washer retain the ball bearing in position on the driving
shaft. A base plate, sealed against leakage by an 0 ring is clamped to the base
of the pump body by countersunk headed screws.
Each cylinder has an integral pipe connection and is secured to the body by
washers and locknuts fitted to the body studs that also serve to locate a cover
plate. A sealing ring is housed between the cover plate and the cylinder head
and a gasket is sandwiched between the cylinder shoulder and pump body.
The top face of the pump body houses a sealing ring and the four screwed studs
and locknuts provide means of attachment to the motor unit. The reservoir filler
cap is prevented from loss by a chain anchored to a lug that is fastened to the
filler cap by a rivet. The free end of the chain is attached to a motor mounting
stud.
A peg screwed into the pump body is fitted with a leaf spring that ensures that the
filler cap remains correctly seated within the reservoir mouth.
Wiper Head
Each wiper head comprises a light alloy body which accommodates a pair of
piston and cylinder assemblies, racks and a bearing mounted pinion shaft. A
cover plate is secured to the front face of the body by tubular bolts and counterbolts in the rear face of the body are fitted with pressed in tubular distance
pieces. These bolts and distance pieces provide accommodation for the wiper
head mounting bolts.The body houses a pair of racks which are alternately
actuated by individual pistons, a pinion shaft engaging the racks, ball bearings
and oil seals. Each rack slides in a cylinder that is held in position by a piston
cylinder screwed into the body. The piston cylinders have radially disposed ports
and the outer ends of the cylinders are internally threaded to carry the connection
unions. Rubber sealing rings within annular grooves prevent fluid leakage past
the cylinders and unions. A double locking plate engaging the hexagons of the
piston cylinders prevents their disturbance during the fitting and removal of the
feed pipe union nuts.
Each piston assembly comprises a body, a ball and a plug and acts as a nonreturn valve permitting the flow of fluid in one direction only. The two ball
bearings housed within the body locate the pinion shaft, the bearing adjacent to
the cover plate being retained by an internal circlip. Two oil seals of special
construction locate around the pinion shaft and prevent external leakage from the
wiper head body.

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Windscreen Wiper Head


Figure 29
Operation
The windscreen wiper head is operated by a twin cylinder hydraulic pump, the
outlet ports of which are connected to the unions on the wiper head. Thus
basically, on the power stroke of one of the pump cylinders, a column of fluid is
thrust along the pipeline, forcing the corresponding wiper head piston to
reproduce the movement of the pump piston. This movement thrusts the
operating rack along a cylinder to rotate the wiper head pinion shaft. The rotation
of the pinion shaft carries the opposing rack and piston backwards, following the
receding column of fluid in the other pipeline. Reversal of the movement of the
pump pistons produces the reverse movement of the wiper head pinion.

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To render the system self-priming and self-bleeding, one of the supply pump
cylinders is made with a slightly larger capacity than the wiper head cylinders.
Each receiving piston is fitted with a ball valve, and the ports that are provided in
the walls of the wiper head cylinders are uncovered at the end of the operating
stroke.
During the operating stroke the ball valve in the operating piston seals under fluid
pressure ensuring positive action. When the operating piston reached the end of
its stroke, the surplus fluid available from the pump is injected into the pinion
housing causing circulation through the opposing cylinder, and back to the body
of the pump via the ball valve in the opposing piston.
NOTE:
The pipeline from the large capacity cylinder of the pump unit is marked with a
plus sign (+) on the connection at the pump unit. This pipeline must be
connected to the wiper head to drive the blade downwards.

Wiper Blade Actuating Arm


Figure 30
The actuating arm assembly comprises an attachment piece, a leaf spring an
actuating arm and a blade shoe. The attachment piece is bored and slotted for
attachment to the operating spindle. The actuating arm, located to the
attachment piece by a pivot pin, may be adjusted to produce the necessary blade
pressure on the screen by means of the leaf spring.
The spring tension should be adjusted to produce a blade pressure as quoted in
the maintenance manual.
NOTE:
It is important to maintain a clearance between the eyebolt and the face of the
windscreen.
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3.2.3 HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

A typical example consists of two independently operated systems employing


hydraulically driven wipers. The systems derive their power from the main
hydraulic power system. Each system comprises a wiper motor and control valve
that is operated by a rotary selector on the flight deck.

Hydraulic Wiper System


Figure 31
Operation
The two wiper systems are identical in respect of control and operation. With the
rotary selector set at OFF, fluid pressure is directed via the control valve to the
parking cylinder on the wiper motor, and is simultaneously cut off from the wiper
motor inlet.

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Wiper Motor Operation


Figure 32

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With the rotary selector set at F (Fast Wiping), hydraulic fluid at full system
pressure passes from the control valve to the inlet connection of the wiper motor.
(Diagram A)
When fluid under pressure is admitted to the valve chamber, it is directed by the
valve to one side of the piston. (Diagram B)
The other side of the piston is open to exhaust. The piston moves along the
cylinder and operates the rack and pinion. Towards the end of its travel the cross
head is engaged. (Diagram C).
The cross head moves with the piston rod and operates the crank assembly,
causing one of the springs to be compressed by the crank pin. The locking tube
moves with the crank pin, but corresponding movement of the outer tube is
initially prevented by the engagement of the balls behind the shoulder on the
catch. At the end of the locking tube movement, the shoulder on the inner
diameter slides clear of the balls allowing them to move downwards away from
the shoulder on the catch. (Diagram D)
This permits the outer tube, pre-loaded by the spring, to move rapidly to the
opposite end of its stroke and produce a snap movement of the attached spindle
valve. Fluid pressure then flows to the other side of the piston, to reverse the
cycle. When parking is required, normal inlet pressure is cut off and pressure is
admitted to the parking cylinder to operate the plunger. (Diagram E)
As the plunger moves the piston rod, return fluid from behind the plunger and
piston is forced out of the motor via the exhaust and normal inlet connections.
With the rotary selector at S (Slow Wiping), pressure is reduced by the control
valve before passing to the wiper motor.
Pressure variation between F (Fast) and S (Slow) is progressive, thus providing
variable speed control of the wipers.
3.2.4 WINDSCREEN WIPER SERVICING

Servicing of the windscreen wiper systems consists of inspection, operational


checks, adjustments and fault finding.
Inspection
a. Examine the system for cleanliness, security, damage, connections and
locking
b. Examine blades for security, damage and contamination. Blades should be
replaced at regular intervals.
c. Check level of fluid in pump reservoir (electro-pneumatic system)
d. Examine hydraulic pipes for leakage and electrical cables for deterioration
and chafing

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Operational Check
Before carrying out an operational check, the following precautions must be
taken:
a. Ensure that the windscreen is free of foreign matter
b. Ensure that the blade is secure and undamaged
During the check ensure that the windscreen is kept wet with water.
NEVER operate the windscreen wipers on a dry screen. It may cause scratches.
Adjustments
The following adjustments may be made:
a. Blade tension should be adjusted to the value stated in the Maintenance
Manual. This is carried out by attaching a spring balance to the wiper arm at
its point of attachment to the wiper blade and lifting at an angle of 90. If the
tension is not within the required limits, the spring may be adjusted by the
appropriate pressure adjusting screw.
b. Blade angle should be adjusted to ensure that the blade does not strike the
windscreen frame. This would cause rapid blade damage. This may involve
re-positioning the operating arm on the drive spindle. Where a parallel motion
bar is used, the length of the tie rod may be altered to vary the angle of
sweep.
c. Proper parking of the wipers are essential to ensure that they do not obscure
vision. If the wipers do not park as they should, they should be adjusted by
the method laid down in the Maintenance Manual.
Trouble shooting may be carried out using charts in the Maintenance Manual
(Chapter 30-42-0 in the ATA100 Scheme).

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3.3 PNEUMATIC RAIN REMOVAL SYSTEMS


Windscreen wipers suffer from two basic problems. One is that at speed the
aerodynamic forces tend to reduce the blade pressure on the screen and cause
ineffective wiping. The other problem is to achieve blade oscillation rates that are
high enough to clear the screen during heavy rain.

Pneumatic Rain Removal System


Figure 33
Pneumatic rain clearance systems overcome these problems by using high
pressure bleed air from the gas turbine engine and blowing it over the face of the
windscreen from ducts mounted at the base of the screen. The air blast forms a
barrier that prevents the rain spots from striking the screen.
3.4 WINDSCREEN WASHING SYSTEM
A windscreen washing system allows a spray of fluid (usually de-icing fluid, e.g.
Kilfrost), to be directed on to the windscreens to enable the windscreen wider to
clear dust and dirt from dry windscreens in flight or on the ground.
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The fluid is contained in a reservoir and sprayed on to the screen through


nozzles. The fluid may be directed to the nozzles by an electrically driven pump
or by pressurising the top of the reservoir with compressor bleed air via a
pressure reducing valve.
An example of an electrically driven system is shown.

Electrically Driven Windscreen Wash System


Figure 34
Servicing of the system involves functionally testing the system, replenishment of
the reservoir and checks for security, leaks and damage.
The system may be used in flight and on the ground.

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3.5 RAIN REPELLANT


When water is poured onto clear glass it spreads evenly to form a thin film. Even
when the glass is tilted at an angle and subjected to an air stream, the glass will
remain wetted and reduce vision. However, when the glass is treated with certain
chemicals (typically silicone based), the water film will break up and form beads
of water, leaving the glass dry between the beads. The water can now be readily
removed.
This principle is used on some aircraft for removing rain from windscreens.
The chemical is stored in pressurised, disposable cans and is discharged on to
the windscreen through propelling nozzles.
Examples of rain repellent systems are shown.
The following system shows a combined rain repellent and windscreen washing
system.

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Combined Windscreen Wash And Rain Repellent System


Figure 35

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The system shown below is a rain repellent only system and uses a disposable
pressurised canister.

Rain repellent System


Figure 36
The system is operated by a push button which causes the relevant solenoid
valve to open. Fluid from the container is discharged onto the windscreen for a
period of about 5 seconds under the control of a time delay unit. About 5cc of
fluid is used with each discharge from the container which holds approximately 50
cc. The solenoid will be de-energised and the button must be re-selected for a
further application. The fluid is spread over the screen by the rain which acts as
a carrier.
The system may be used with, or without wipers, depending on the aircraft
speed, but it is normally used to supplement the wipers in heavy rain at low
altitude where airspeeds are low.
It is essential that the system is not operated on dry windscreens because:

heavy undiluted repellent will cause smearing

the repellent may form globules and distort vision

If the system is inadvertently operated, the windscreen wipers must not be used
as this will increase the smearing. The screen should be washed with clean
water immediately. The windscreen wash system, if fitted, may be used.
Rain repellent residues can cause staining or minor corrosion of the aircraft skin.
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DRAIN MAST HEATING

On many large aircraft, the water supply and water drain lines are electrically
heated to prevent ice formation. Power is normally supplied via the AC bus line
and is available both on the ground and in flight.
4.1 WATER SUPPLY AND DRAIN LINES
Heater tapes and blankets are wrapped around some water supply and drain
lines, the temperature being controlled by thermostats. In a typical aircraft
(Boeing 757), the thermostats control the heating, to open when the temperature
exceeds 15.5C and closes when the temperature drops to 7.2C. Heating
gaskets may be installed on the ends of toilet drain pipes.
4.2 DRAIN MASTS
Drain masts are heated to allow in-flight drainage without freezing. Drain mast
heating is controlled by an air/ground relay. Low heat is supplied on the ground
and high heat in flight.
Figure 37 overleaf illustrates some of the heating methods used.

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Waste Water Heater Components


Figure 37
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INTENTIONALLY BLANK

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