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Symbols of mathematics

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Home > Math > Math symbols > Math symbols

Mathematical Symbols

List of all mathematical symbols and signs - meaning and examples.

Geometry symbols

Algebra symbols

Probability & statistics symbols

Set theory symbols

Logic symbols

Calculus & analysis symbols

Number symbols

Greek symbols

Roman numerals

Symbol

Symbol

Name

Meaning / definition

Example

equals sign

equality

5 = 2+3

not equal

sign

inequality

54

>

strict

inequality

greater than

5>4

<

strict

inequality

less than

4<5

inequality

54

inequality

45

()

parentheses

2 (3+5) = 16

[]

brackets

[(1+2)*(1+5)] = 18

plus sign

addition

1+1=2

minus sign

subtraction

21=1

plus - minus

3 5 = 8 and -2

minus - plus

3 5 = -2 and 8

Page 2 of 17

asterisk

multiplication

2*3=6

times sign

multiplication

23=6

multiplication

multiplication

dot

23=6

division

division

sign / obelus

62=3

division

slash

division

6/2=3

horizontal

line

division / fraction

mod

modulo

remainder calculation

7 mod 2 = 1

period

2.56 = 2+56/100

ab

power

exponent

23 = 8

a^b

caret

exponent

2 ^ 3= 8

square root

a a = a

9 = 3

cube root

fourth root

n-th root

(radical)

percent

1% = 1/100

10% 30 = 3

per-mille

1 = 1/1000 = 0.1%

10 30 = 0.3

ppm

per-million

1ppm = 1/1000000

10ppm 30 = 0.0003

ppb

per-billion

1ppb = 1/1000000000

10ppb 30 = 310-7

ppt

per-trillion

1ppt = 10-12

10ppt 30 = 310-10

a 3a 3a = a

8 = 2

a 4a 4a 4a = a

16 = 2

for n=3, n8 = 2

Geometry symbols

Symbol

Symbol Name

angle

measured angle

Meaning / definition

formed by two rays

Example

ABC = 30

ABC = 30

Page 3 of 17

AOB = 30

spherical angle

right angle

= 90

= 90

degree

1 turn = 360

= 60

arcminute

1 = 60

= 6059'

arcsecond

1 = 60

= 6059'59''

line

infinite line

line segment

ray

arc

perpendicular

AC |BC

||

parallel

parallel lines

AB || CD

congruent to

size

ABC XYZ

similarity

ABC ~ XYZ

triangle

triangle shape

ABC BCD

|x-y|

distance

| x-y | = 5

AB

= 60

= 3.141592654...

pi constant

c = d = 2r

diameter of a circle

rad

radians

360 = 2 rad

grad

grads

Algebra symbols

Symbol

Symbol Name

Meaning / definition

x variable

equivalence

identical to

Example

when 2x = 4, then x = 2

Page 4 of 17

:=

approximately

equal

weak approximation

11 ~ 10

approximately

equal

approximation

sin(0.01) 0.01

proportional to

proportional to

f(x) g(x)

lemniscate

infinity symbol

()

parentheses

first

2 * (3+5) = 16

[]

brackets

first

[(1+2)*(1+5)] = 18

{}

braces

set

floor brackets

integer

4.34

ceiling brackets

integer

4.35

x!

exclamation mark

factorial

4! = 1*2*3*4 = 24

|x|

absolute value

| -5 | = 5

f (x)

function of x

f (x) = 3x+5

(f g)

function

composition

(f g) (x) = f (g(x))

(x-1)

(a,b)

open interval

x (2,6)

[a,b]

closed interval

[a,b] = {x | a x b}

x [2,6]

delta

change / difference

t = t1 - t0

discriminant

= b2 - 4ac

sigma

values in range of series

sigma

double summation

1 1000000

1000000 1

xi= x1+x2+...+xn

Page 5 of 17

capital pi

values in range of series

xi=x1x2...xn

e constant /

Euler's number

e = 2.718281828...

e = lim (1+1/x)x , x

Euler-Mascheroni

constant

= 0.527721566...

golden ratio

= 3.141592654...

pi constant

c = d = 2r

circle

Symbol

Symbol Name

Meaning / definition

Example

dot

scalar product

ab

cross

vector product

ab

tensor product

tensor product of A

and B

AB

AB

inner product

[]

brackets

matrix of numbers

()

parentheses

matrix of numbers

|A|

determinant

determinant of matrix

A

det(A)

determinant

determinant of matrix

A

norm

AT

transpose

matrix transpose

(AT)ij = (A)ji

Hermitian matrix

matrix conjugate

transpose

(A)ij = (A)ji

A*

Hermitian matrix

matrix conjugate

transpose

(A*)ij = (A)ji

A -1

inverse matrix

A A-1 = I

matrix rank

rank of matrix A

|| x ||

rank(A)

rank(A) = 3

Page 6 of 17

dim(U)

dimension

Symbol

Symbol Name

Meaning / definition

Example

probability

function

probability of event A

P(A) = 0.5

P(A B)

probability of

events

intersection

probability that of

events A and B

P(AB) = 0.5

P(A B)

probability of

events union

probability that of

events A or B

P(AB) = 0.5

conditional

probability

function

probability of event A

given event B occured

P(A | B) = 0.3

f (x)

probability

density function

(pdf)

P(a x b) = f (x)

dx

F(x)

cumulative

distribution

function (cdf)

F(x) = P(X x)

population mean

mean of population

values

= 10

E(X)

expectation value

expected value of

random variable X

E(X) = 10

conditional

expectation

expected value of

random variable X

given Y

E(X | Y=2) = 5

var(X)

variance

variance of random

variable X

var(X) = 4

variance

variance of population

values

2 = 4

std(X)

standard

deviation

standard deviation of

random variable X

std(X) = 2

standard

deviation

standard deviation

value of random

variable X

X = 2

median

variable x

cov(X,Y)

covariance

covariance of random

variables X and Y

cov(X,Y) = 4

corr(X,Y)

correlation

correlation of random

variables X and Y

corr(X,Y) = 0.6

P(A)

P(A | B)

E(X | Y)

Page 7 of 17

X,Y

correlation

correlation of random

variables X and Y

summation

values in range of

series

double

summation

double summation

Mo

mode

frequently in population

MR

mid-range

MR = (xmax+xmin)/2

Md

sample median

below this value

Q1

lower / first

quartile

below this value

Q2

median / second

quartile

below this value =

median of samples

Q3

upper / third

quartile

below this value

sample mean

average / arithmetic

mean

x = (2+5+9) / 3 = 5.333

s2

sample variance

population samples

variance estimator

s2 = 4

sample standard

deviation

population samples

standard deviation

estimator

s=2

zx

standard score

zx = (x-x) / sx

X~

distribution of X

distribution of random

variable X

X ~ N(0,3)

N(,2)

normal

distribution

gaussian distribution

X ~ N(0,3)

U(a,b)

uniform

distribution

equal probability in

range a,b

X ~ U(0,3)

exp()

exponential

distribution

f (x) = e-x , x0

gamma

f (x) = c xc-1e-x /

(c), x0

gamma(c, ) distribution

X,Y = 0.6

Page 8 of 17

f (x) = xk/2-1e-x/2 /

chi-square

distribution

(k)

2

( 2k/2 (k/2) )

F (k1, k2)

F distribution

Bin(n,p)

binomial

distribution

Poisson()

Poisson

distribution

f (k) = ke- / k!

Geom(p)

geometric

distribution

f (k) = p (1-p) k

HG(N,K,n)

hyper-geometric

distribution

Bernoulli

distribution

Bern(p)

Combinatorics Symbols

Symbol

Name

Symbol

n!

nPk

Meaning / definition

n! = 123...n

factorial

Example

5! = 12345 = 120

permutation

5P3

= 5! / (5-3)! = 60

combination

5C3

= 5!/[3!(5-3)!]=10

nCk

Symbol

Symbol Name

Meaning / definition

Example

set

a collection of elements

A = {3,7,9,14},

B = {9,14,28}

AB

intersection

A and set B

A B = {9,14}

AB

union

A or set B

A B = {3,7,9,14,28}

AB

subset

{9,14,28} {9,14,28}

or equal to the set

AB

proper subset /

strict subset

{9,14} {9,14,28}

than the set

{}

Page 9 of 17

AB

not subset

right set

{9,66} {9,14,28}

AB

superset

or equal to the set B

{9,14,28} {9,14,28}

AB

proper superset /

strict superset

than set B

{9,14,28} {9,14}

AB

not superset

set B

{9,14,28} {9,66}

power set

all subsets of A

power set

all subsets of A

equality

members

Ac

complement

belong to set A

A\B

relative

complement

and not to B

A = {3,9,14},

B = {1,2,3},

A-B = {9,14}

A-B

relative

complement

and not to B

A = {3,9,14},

B = {1,2,3},

A-B = {9,14}

AB

symmetric

difference

B but not to their

intersection

A = {3,9,14},

B = {1,2,3},

A B = {1,2,9,14}

AB

symmetric

difference

B but not to their

intersection

A = {3,9,14},

B = {1,2,3},

A B = {1,2,9,14}

aA

element of

set membership

A={3,9,14}, 3 A

xA

not element of

no set membership

A={3,9,14}, 1 A

(a,b)

ordered pair

collection of 2 elements

AB

cartesian product

from A and B

|A|

cardinality

set A

A={3,9,14}, |A|=3

#A

cardinality

set A

A={3,9,14}, #A=3

2A

A=B

A={3,9,14},

B={3,9,14},

A=B

Page 10 of 17

aleph-null

infinite cardinality of

natural numbers set

aleph-one

cardinality of countable

ordinal numbers set

empty set

={}

universal set

C = {}

natural numbers /

whole numbers

set (with zero)

= {0,1,2,3,4,...}

natural numbers /

whole numbers

set (without zero)

= {1,2,3,4,5,...}

integer numbers

set

= {...-3,-2,1,0,1,2,3,...}

-6

rational numbers

set

= {x | x=a/b, a,b

}

= {x | - < x <}

complex

numbers set

2/6

6.343434

6+2i

Logic symbols

Symbol

Symbol Name

Meaning / definition

Example

and

and

xy

caret / circumflex

and

x^y

&

ampersand

and

x&y

plus

or

x+y

reversed caret

or

xy

vertical line

or

x|y

x'

single quote

not - negation

x'

bar

not - negation

not

not - negation

Page 11 of 17

exclamation mark

not - negation

!x

exclusive or - xor

xy

tilde

negation

~x

implies

equivalent

for all

there exists

therefore

because / since

if and only if

Symbol

Symbol Name

Meaning / definition

Example

limit

epsilon

0

near zero

e constant / Euler's

number

e = 2.718281828...

e = lim (1+1/x)x ,

x

y'

derivative

(3x3)' = 9x2

y ''

second derivative

derivative of derivative

(3x3)'' = 18x

y(n)

nth derivative

n times derivation

(3x3)(3) = 18

derivative

d(3x3)/dx = 9x2

second derivative

derivative of derivative

d2(3x3)/dx2 = 18x

nth derivative

n times derivation

Page 12 of 17

time derivative

notation

time second

derivative

derivative of derivative

(x2+y2)/x = 2x

partial derivative

integral

opposite to derivation

double integral

integration of function of 2

variables

triple integral

integration of function of 3

variables

integral

closed surface

integral

closed volume

integral

[a,b]

closed interval

[a,b] = {x | a x b}

(a,b)

open interval

imaginary unit

i -1

z = 3 + 2i

z*

complex conjugate

z = a+bi z*=a-bi

z* = 3 + 2i

complex conjugate

z = a+bi z = a-bi

z = 3 + 2i

nabla / del

f (x,y,z)

vector

unit vector

x*y

convolution

Laplace transform

F(s) =

Fourier transform

X() =

delta function

lemniscate

{f (t)}

{f (t)}

infinity symbol

Page 13 of 17

Numeral symbols

Name

European

Roman

Hindu Arabic

Hebrew

zero

one

two

II

three

III

four

IV

five

six

VI

seven

VII

eight

VIII

nine

IX

ten

10

eleven

11

XI

twelve

12

XII

thirteen

13

XIII

fourteen

14

XIV

fifteen

15

XV

sixteen

16

XVI

seventeen

17

XVII

eighteen

18

XVIII

nineteen

19

XIX

twenty

20

XX

thirty

30

XXX

fourty

40

XL

fifty

50

sixty

60

LX

seventy

70

LXX

eighty

80

LXXX

Page 14 of 17

ninety

90

XC

one hundred

100

Greek Symbol

English Equivalent

Pronunciation

Upper Case

Lower Case

Alpha

al-fa

Beta

be-ta

Gamma

ga-ma

Delta

del-ta

Epsilon

ep-si-lon

Zeta

ze-ta

Eta

eh-ta

Theta

th

te-ta

Iota

io-ta

Kappa

ka-pa

Lambda

lam-da

Mu

m-yoo

Nu

noo

Xi

x-ee

Omicron

o-mee-c-ron

Pi

pa-yee

Rho

row

Sigma

sig-ma

Tau

ta-oo

Page 15 of 17

Upsilon

oo-psi-lon

Phi

ph

f-ee

Chi

ch

kh-ee

Psi

ps

p-see

Omega

o-me-ga

Roman numerals

Number

Roman numeral

not defined

II

III

IV

VI

VII

VIII

IX

10

11

XI

12

XII

13

XIII

14

XIV

15

XV

16

XVI

17

XVII

18

XVIII

19

XIX

20

XX

Page 16 of 17

30

XXX

40

XL

50

60

LX

70

LXX

80

LXXX

90

XC

100

200

CC

300

CCC

400

CD

500

600

DC

700

DCC

800

DCCC

900

CM

1000

5000

10000

50000

100000

500000

1000000

See also

Algebra symbols

Geometry symbols

Statistical symbols

Logic symbols

Set theory symbols

Calculus & analysis symbols

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