Layman science
In 2 written works ALBERT EINSTEIN brought forth a number of scientific Theories. He titled his theories The Theory of Relativity and The Special Theory of Relativity. Although these works were not widely printed at the time Einstein’s ideas and theories did get some early media attention . Like most scientific papers they consisted of a bunch of confusing numbers and statements, mostly about time and space, A mathematical equation for measuring the amount of energy an atom has in it was given. The Theory of Relativity is actually several related theories, the Special

Theory of Relativity is likewise more related theories. Scientists, Physicists, Astrophysicists, and Cosmologists were the first to recognize the importance of Einstein’s theories. The occasional mentions reported to the public by the media were somewhat confusing to men, women, and children busy with everyday life, However, the public did show some interest “ mostly just curiosity about something seemingly bizarre”. One theory in particular “TIME IS NOT A CONSTANT” generated a great deal of public interest. According to this theory time is not the same under different conditions. The specific condition Einstein gave that could or would change time was SPEED. Einstein said that at great speeds through space, time, as we know and measure it here on earth, would slow down and that increasing speed through space would slow time more and more until at the speed of light time would stop

altogether. Einstein’s theory about time alteration predicted that time, or the flow of time, would be slowed down by great speeds through space. At some point the media stream suggested the possibility of TIME TRAVEL! Who of adult age has not wondered what it would be like to go back to the past or go forward to the future? The mere suggestion of the possibility of time travel ignited one of the biggest public interest stories of all time. People of all ages wanted to know more about Einstein’s theories and about Einstein himself. The concept of time travel created a frenzy of public interest and the Media, Writers and eventually even Hollywood, went to work to feed that frenzy. Soon Einstein and his theories were catapulted into world view. Einstein became the most sought after guest of the elite of the times. Einstein’s theories introduced new concepts into the scientific world and changed how space

and time were viewed. It has been more than 100 years since the first release of The Theory of Relativity and the debate about some of these theories still rages on. What kind of theories could excite the masses of the world, Scientists and Laymen alike, and cause a debate that has gone on for over a 100 years and still continues to this day with no end in sight? SPACE IS CURVED, THE SPEED OF LIGHT IS A CONSTANT, the speed of light is the fastest thing in the universe. THESE ARE ONLY A FEW OF Einstein’s theories and while this work will debate some of the theories of relativity and put forth a few theories of its own, keep in mind, this work is the way I THE AUTHOR SEE IT, UNDERSTAND IT, AND BELIEVE IT TO BE. The matters, circumstances, and conditions to be viewed are complex at times and confusing at other times however; every effort to convey the

general idea will be my priority. Time is not a constant We use time to schedule our activities, to go to work and to get off work. To go to school and to get out of school. We know by the measure of time the minutes and the hours, the days and the months. People all over the world use time, or the measure of time, practically every day of, and in practically every facet of, their lives. Life itself, our duration on earth, has a general time measurement called or known as life expectancy. The measures of time are the most used measurements in the world and the use of standardized time is one of the great accomplishments of civilization. The measure of time is so important that mankind has gone to great lengths to find ways of measuring it. In ancient times sun dials were used to measure the days but the length of day light changes with the seasons and sun

dials were useless at night. A number of time measuring means and devices were used or experimented with until eventually “and not really all that long ago” the clock was invented. Just as a ruler , yard stick, or tape measure measures specific lengths or distances such as yards, feet and inches a clock measures specific lengths or segments of time such as hours, minutes and seconds. Inventors and shop smiths of that era built elaborate mechanical clocks to measure time. Clocks were improved through the years and eventually stream lined and made in great numbers. These clocks were good time measuring devices but they too had limitations. While they were reasonably accurate they were not exact and they were not reliable for prolonged periods. Something more was needed, something that was highly accurate for very long periods and something scientists could use in special

experiments to accurately measure infinitesimally small segments of time. When the atomic clock was invented it easily accomplished all of these goals. The hydrogen maser clock runs 5 years on one liter of liquid hydrogen, and is “ for all practical purposes” exact in its measure of time and can accurately measure as little as one trillionth of a second. The atomic clock not only allows scientists to accurately measure their most sensitive experiments it also allows us to standardize time so that everyone around the world, after adjusting for their position on earth “ time zone” ,are in accordance with everyone else. It was inevitable that the atom, the rate the atom spins, would be found and used as the bearer of time. The definition of time “ the rate work is done, energy is expended, or change occurs: is the same as the definition of an atoms spinning speed “ the rate an atom does work, expends

energy, or incurs change”. Regardless of how it came about or whether it was understood at the time, Scientists didn’t just find the perfect time piece they found THE ROOT OF TIME. The atom the work it does, the energy it expends, and the change it incurs as it spins IS THE FLOW OF TIME. Everything, whether it is of a combination of atoms, a single atom, a small piece or pieces “ subatomic particle or particles” of the atom, a force or wave energy of or from the atom, everything is of the atom. TIME IS OF THE ATOM. ATOMS :are tiny little balls of super energy. They consist of many bound up energies that are locked together, one inside the other, in constant spinning motions. They are much like a bunch of different sized winding springs in a clock and like a wound up clock the atom releases its wound up, bound up, energy by spinning. There are many different

kinds of atoms although they all have a main body at their center called a nucleus. Atoms, depending on what kind they are, may have one or many electrons “ an infinitesimally small electrically charged particle” spinning “ being pushed or pulled” around the nucleus, which is also spinning within itself in many different individual spins all at the same time. The spins have a gearing ratio between them that is specific to that exact particle, atom or group of bonded atoms, and the particle, atom or group of bonded atoms unwinds in direct correlation to its gearing. The atom spins at an approximate atomic speed. It is approximate because there are circumstances and/or conditions that can alter both the atoms spinning speed and/or its gearing ratio’s. when it spins slower it releases energy slower. If the rate the atom spins “ dose work, expends energy, or incurs change” is the root of

time, and it is, then would slowing down the spin of the atom slow down the measure of time? That’s exactly what Einstein hit upon with his mathematical calculations and that’s what he was implying by his theory time is not a constant. Einstein’s Equations showed him that at tremendous speeds through space the atoms spinning speed would slow down and that time as we know and measure it here on earth, would slow down in direct correlation with it. [ I pause here to inform the reader that I have never read a full copy of the theory of relativity or the special theory of relativity myself only pieces here and there so I can not say with certainty that Einstein used the atoms rate of spin as part of his time alteration calculations, although I would think that he would have had to, the energy equation E=MC2 bares out that his perspective of atomic speed was a big part of his train of

thought ] Typical logic of day to day living here on earth would tell us that time is time regardless of where we go or how we get there. Einstein’s calculations kept telling him that, no, time is L at this speed but becomes Y at another much greater speed. As will be seen there is much more involved in the spin of the atom than just time although for now it is necessary to understand how and why speed CAN slow down the atom and there-by slow down time. Centrifugal force Centrifugal drag The basic definition of centrifugal force is the force repelling a body away from the axis around which it rotates or away from the center of curvature of a curved path. A merry-go round produces centrifugal force when it spins around. Anyone sitting on the seat of a merry go round when it is

spinning reasonably fast will feel an outward pull as if they are being pulled away from the center of the merry-go round. The force they feel pulling them is centrifugal force. The amount of centrifugal force that a spinning body generates depends on three factors :Radius, Mass and Revolutions per minute “R.P.M.s”. Each one of these factors has its own specific effect on both how, and, how much centrifugal force is produced. Different mixtures of these factors are used in different designs to achieve specific goals. Centrifugal force resists location change, that is, a spinning body that is producing centrifugal force acts to hold the position of its spinning path. A gyroscope is designed on this principle. Gyroscope type directional devices are used in aircraft and other types of craft because they act to hold their position regardless of the change in the direction or position of the craft.

When a spinning body that is producing centrifugal force is forced to change position or location of its spinning path a resisting force known as centrifugal drag occurs. Centrifugal force “spinning matter with momentum’’ resists linear motion by way of centrifugal drag. The spinning propeller of a propeller driven airplane creates a considerable amount of centrifugal force as it spins. Centrifugal drag, due to the fast spinning propeller, starts to occur as soon as the plane starts to move. There is considerable centrifugal drag when the plane speeds forward in flight. Centrifugal drag acts to hold the plane back like a brake, it also acts to slow the propellers spin down due to the continuous change in the spinning blades path of momentum. The air thrust of the spinning propeller over comes the propellers centrifugal drag and the engine works harder to over come the loss of propeller spinning speed that would

other wise occur, however, even though the plane will fly, the force of centrifugal drag that is occurring during flight still holds the plane back a considerable amount. Centrifugal drag increases with both increase in centrifugal force and/or with increase in the change of the spinning path of momentum. Simply put if the propeller spins faster it would create more centrifugal force and moving this force forward at a faster speed “ more or faster change in the spinning path of momentum ’’ would create more resistance in the form of more centrifugal drag. These circumstances create an impasse that limits the speed of propeller driven aircraft. It would be like trying to pull or tow a car faster and faster by pressing the gas more and more while the person in the car being towed is pressing the brakes harder and harder as you gained speed. A stronger engine, a lighter blade, or a different pitched blade may

raise the limit some but there would still be a limit at some point where centrifugal drag collided with and equaled the propulsion force. Airplanes also experience air drag, both centrifugal drag and air drag hold the plane back and both “ whether simultaneously or individually” will inevitably, At some point, cause a speed impasse. The fast spinning turbine of a jet engine creates a considerable amount of centrifugal drag during flight. Super sonic jets fly faster by eliminating most of this turbine generated drag. You can witness the struggle between these forces in a typical home fan. Turn the fan on high. Once the fan blade comes to full speed “ full momentum” turn the fan side to side in a fast manner. The centrifugal force generated by the spinning blade resists your turning movement. As you over power this resistance you feel the force of centrifugal drag. You can hear the blade slow down and you can hear the

fans motor pull harder as it tries to compensate for the loss of momentum. Centrifugal force is the out ward pull exerted by a rotating body with momentum. Centrifugal drag is the resisting brake like force that occurs when a spinning body with momentum “ centrifugal force” is forced to change its path of spin. The atom creates centrifugal force due to its many spinning parts therefore moving the atom through space “ changing the path of momentum of the atoms spins “ would cause centrifugal drag to occur. However: we do not witness the centrifugal forces of atoms in our daily lives “ not that we recognize as such” because atoms have a unique, and somewhat, bizarre mix of centrifugal force factors. The individual spins of an atom have an infinitesimally small radius and an infinitesimally small mass however their spinning rate is one of the fastest in the universe. Due to this mixture

of centrifugal force factors in the atom “particle, etc.” there is no measurable centrifugal drag under normal or typical earthly conditions due to movement “ linear motion”. however at a yet unspecified extreme speed through space centrifugal drag, due to atom generated centrifugal forces, would start to occur and would increase thereafter with any additional speed gain. Just as Einstein’s calculations bore out, at extreme speeds through space the atoms spins would be effected and slowed by the force of centrifugal drag that would occur. While the centrifugal force factors of the atom are unique the resistance that occurs at great speed due to centrifugal drag are not. There are many circumstances where resistance of some type occurs in conjunction with speed. It is common for most types of motion resistance to virtually disappear at low speeds. The holding back, brake like effect of

centrifugal drag is very similar to WIND RESISTANCE . At very low speeds there is no registrable wind resistance. For example: a garden variety snail moves across the ground so incredibly slow that wind resistance is not a factor. If you added up the wind resistance a crawling snail would encounter in a yard of travel, eliminated any wind resistance caused by influences other than the snails movement “ such as blowing wind etc.”. the resistance would be difficult if not impossible to accurately measure because it would be so incredibly small. A similar example, and one that is easier to relate to, is this: on a day when the wind is dead still put your arm out the window of a car that is traveling at one half a mile per hour. You will not feel any wind resistance. One mile per hour? Not yet; Above one mile per hour you may feel something. At 10 miles per hour you would feel a definite breeze. If cars were

never driven faster than 10 miles per hour wind resistance would not be an automotive design consideration. Wind resistance acts the some way as centrifugal drag, it acts like a brake and holds the car back. The faster a car travels the more wind resistance there is. Since cars do travel much faster that ten miles per hour, and at greater speeds wind resistance becomes an important consideration, new car designs are tested for drag efficiency “ wind drag efficiency” . at perhaps 20 miles per hour, wind resistance holds the car back just a little. At 50 to 60 miles per hour wind resistance holds the car back a considerable amount, the cars motor works a little harder and uses a little more fuel to overcome the drag “ brake like effect” of wind resistance. By designing and testing cars for wind drag efficiency automobile manufactures can build cars that over come as much wind resistance as possible

by giving them a good aerodynamic design. With less wind resistance to overcome a car can gain speed faster and get better gas mileage. At 100 miles per hour wind resistance is very strong. If you put you arm out the window at such a speed it would blow back violently, so violently that if you were not prepared you could be injured. Some drag racers can now reach more than 300 miles per hour in a quarter mile distance. That’s extremely fast. They must overcome many obstacles to achieve such speeds. One of these obstacles is wind resistance. Could you imagine sticking your arm out at 300 miles per hour? Not a good idea. At that speed wind resistance is incredibly strong . Airplanes are designed to be wind drag efficient, they can travel much faster because they travel way up high where there is less air and therefore less air resistance “ air drag”. Since boats and submarines travel through water, which is

much denser and much heavier than air, they must overcome great water drag resistance. A fast submarine may travel 25 miles per hour, a racing boat may travel as fast as 200 miles per hour. All of these methods of travel face some form of resistance and all have limitations or boundaries due to the growing or rising resistance that occurs with speed increase. Spacecraft that go out of our atmosphere and reenter have to deal with air resistance when they reenter, so they too have limits and boundaries as to how fast they can reenter. One percent of 25 M.P.H. “ fast submarine” is .25 M.P.H. / one percent of 200 M.P.H. “racing boat” is 2 M.P.H., one percent of 300 M.P.H. “drag racer” is 3 M.P.H., one percent of 1500 M.P.H. “fast public airline jet” is 15 M.P.H., one percent of 17000 M.P.H. “possible spacecraft reentry speed” is 170 M.P.H.. while these speeds are not the highest possible speeds for such craft they

do get near or border the speed where air or water drag starts to become a serious speed limiting consideration. It is easy to see that the drag resistance that would occur at one percent of these same speeds would be irrelevant and, in some instances, almost none existent. One percent of the speed of light is over 6,ooo,ooo M.P.H.! This extreme speed would cause centrifugal drag to occur in the atom due to the atoms many centrifugal force producing spins. This drag effect “ amongst other things ’’ would slow the spins of the atom and would there-by slow time in direct proportion to the degree of speed generated centrifugal drag. The question now is at what speed would centrifugal drag begin to occur or become significant enough to cause a noticeable or measurable effect? That speed is an important speed for several reasons. We don’t see comets of asteroids flying or

moving through space at the speed of light or even one percent the speed of light. Why!!! Because of the brake like effect of centrifugal drag that would occur in the atom at those speeds. The speed where centrifugal drag started to occur, to a noticeable or measurable degree, would not only be the point where time would start to become noticeably altered it would also be the point where the brake like effect would start to occur. Yes, it is like THE SPACE SPEED LIMIT. Any object in space, such as an Asteroid, Comet, Planet, etc., that traveled faster than this drag speed “ where centrifugal drag became a factor” would experience an atom generated “brake like” drag. Lets say for example an asteroid was traveling through space at a speed higher than this drag speed and it was gradually slowing down. We would know by this evidence that the asteroid has been thrown or pushed beyond the

drag speed by a powerful force “a fast spinning planet with a strong gravitational field can grab and sling an asteroid at great speeds much like a spinning car tire throws rocks and deep space explosions can blow or push asteroids at great speeds” and that centrifugal drag generated by the atoms that make up the asteroid are now slowing it down “ an asteroid moving a lot higher than drag speed would be slowing down at a faster rate than one moving only a little higher would be because the faster an object goes beyond drag speed the more drag it will generate”. If an asteroid was traveling faster than drag speed and was gradually gaining speed we would know that it was being influenced by gravitational pull and was either being pulled into an orbit around a Planet or Sun or was being pulled into a Planet, Sun, or Black Hole. If the asteroid was traveling faster than drag speed and

steadily continued without slowing down or speeding up we would know that it is most likely caught up in the orbit of a Planet or a Sun and is being swept around the spinning Planet or Sun by a gravitational field. This SPACE SPEED LIMIT would help us better understand and decipher some of the mysteries of deep space and it would tell us at what speed time would start to be altered by speed itself. What is the space speed limit??? We have volumes of information on the speed of bodies moving through space. If we don’t already have this speed, probably listed as some speed- space variable, It won’t be hard for the scientists to find or estimate and they are the ones that will have to tell us! Years ago there was an experiment done to test Einstein’s time theory “ time is not a constant”. An atomic clock was placed on a jet . The clock on the jet was synchronized with an atomic clock on the

ground before the jet took off. The jet took off and flew at top speed for several hours. When the jet landed the time on the two clocks was compared and a very small difference was seen and recorded. The difference in the two clocks was very small because the speed of the jet in comparison to the speed of light was very small [as will be seen other factors were also at work, how much of the effect of slowing the atom, and there-by time, down was due to other factors is not known however at least some degree of the slowing effect was due to speed]. The experiment showed that speed will slow the atom and there-by the measure of time as compared to the standard measure of time. Would slowing the atom down really slow down time as we know it? Everything is of the atom, slow the atom down and everything pertaining to the slowed atom slows down with it. Hollywood has shown us space craft

flying through space at the speed of light, or faster, while the ships crew walked around carrying out their daily routines. Einstein’s equations said that at the speed of light time would completely stop. Would the crew come to a complete halt, as if frozen in time if time was stopped? Lets examine this with an imaginary postulation: We are in the distant future, mankind has accomplished the ability to freeze people solid and then unthaw them at a later date and bring them back to life. Mankind has also gained the ability to fly through space at the speed of light. Now our experiment- two brothers Joe #1 and Joe #2 are identical twins. Joe #1 is frozen rock solid at the same instant Joe #2 reaches the speed of light in a space ship. Joe #1 remains frozen for 50 years, Joe #2 journeys through space at the speed of light for the same 50 years. After 50 years pass Joe #1 is unthawed and brought back to life at the same time the space

ship with Joe #2 in it lands. The two brothers meet and shake hands, neither man has aged a day. If you ask the 2 bothers did they time travel both would answer yes. If you ask the scientists who had grown old watching and monitoring the 2 brothers they would say no, that the brothers had only went through a procedure where all atomic processes had been halted and that they were both accounted for every minute of the entire 50 years. Did the Joe brothers time travel? That depends on who you ask but lets go on for a moment, both brothers experienced a circumstance where the processes of both aging and growth were halted. Joe #2 was traveling at the speed of light, that means “In Principle” that the spins of the atoms in his body were stopped. What about Joe #1? What stopped the atoms in his body? Are there other circumstances and/or conditions, other than speed, that can alter time? The

Joe brothers postulation was only a what if scenario, We can’t freeze people and bring them back to life, we can’t travel at the speed of light ,and it is highly unlikely that all the spins of the atom could be completely stopped, but it is true that both extreme cold and extreme speed through space will slow the atoms spinning rate down “although, in different ways and by different means” . YES ! There are other circumstances and conditions that can slow the atoms spinning rate down and there-by slow down time as we know it, there are also circumstances and conditions that can speed up the atoms spinning rate There-bye speeding up time as we know it! We’ve been looking at the speed of light and how speed might slow time down for 100 years and all that time we’ve been surrounded by other circumstances and conditions that can slow down or speed up time. Any

circumstance or condition that can slow down or speed up the rate that an atom releases energy “ spins” in effect slowing down or speeding up time in the atom, or atoms, that are effected. SPEED “ extreme traveling motion as in speed through space” can slow down the atoms spins, TEMPERATURE can both slow the atoms spins down “cold’’ or speed the atoms spins up “ hot”. PRESSURE can speed up “high pressure” or slow down “ low pressure or a vacuum” the atom. Friction speeds up the atom. CHEMICAL REACTIONS can both slow down and/or speed up the atoms spins . The absorption or partial absorption of out side sources of energy such as light particles, radiation, microwaves, sound waves , and other particle and wave energies can speed up and sometimes “in counter frequencies” slow down the atoms spins. Gravity effects the atoms spinning rate. Are there other circumstances and

conditions that effect the atoms spins and there-by alter the measure of time??? The atom releases a number of different forms of energy as it spins. The faster it spins the more energy it releases, the slower it spins the less energy it releases. One form of energy that is generated by the spinning atom “ mostly due to inner friction” is heat energy. The faster an atom spins the more heat “ and other energies” it will generate and put off, the slower it spins the less heat “ and other energies’’ it will generate and put off. Therefore temperature is at least one way to estimate or measure the spinning speed of the atom. GEARING All atoms have spinning parts, the size and number of its spinning parts dictates the gearing and the speed that each part spins and therefore the kind of atom it is. The different sized pieces of the atom spin at different speeds. Each piece or part is

held in place by the others and each piece or part spins in a gearing ratio with the others. It is similar to the gears of a straight shift automobile transmission. Inside the transmission there are several round gears, For example, while one gear turns one round another gear turns two rounds and another turns 3 while yet even another turns four rounds. These individual gears are locked in an exact gear ratio by metal and bearings. Another example would be a car traveling down the road with a small diameter tire on the front and a large diameter tire on the back. The small tire on front would be turning round and round faster or more times than the large tire on the back but both the small diameter tire and the large diameter tire would be spinning out the same amount of feet per second of highway. If there was a white spot on the outer edge of both tires it would be easy to see that the small tire turns more rounds

than the large tire even though the dots on both tires are traveling at the same speed. If you forced all or any two of the gears in the transmission to turn the same number of revolutions the transmission would break into one or more of its parts. If you forced the large diameter tire and the small diameter tire to turn the same number of revolutions there would be smoke from the burning rubber from the tires as the car went down the highway. The transmission has no margin for change in its gearing. The gearing ratio of the tires can be altered but with the consequence of rapid tire ware, damage or destruction. The gearing ration of the atom is not as strict, it is alterable but it too has limitations. The number of different moving parts of the atom dictates its gearing and there-by the specific order of the way its different parts unwind. The gearing of the atom is changed if the atom bonds with another

atom. Both the gearing and the speed at which the atom spins gives the atom its specific properties, if you change the atomic gearing “the circumstances and conditions afore mentioned can also change the atoms properties” you change the properties of the atom . when atoms bond together they share at least one spinning part or spinning sphere. A hydrogen atom is a gas, an oxygen atom is a gas but when two hydrogen atoms bond with one oxygen atom the three atoms become a water molecule which has very different properties than any of the single atoms had by themselves. Changing the gearing of the atom alters both the spinning speed and the variation of the atoms spins. This most often changes the properties of the atom a considerable degree. All the different elements “atoms” have there own gearing, when any atom combines or bonds with other atoms they create a different gearing depending on

which particular atoms they are. All the many different materials around you, the metal, plastic, glass whatever it is, is what it is because of its specific gearing and spin. Speeding up or slowing down the spinning speed of the atom can cause atoms to bond together or cause atomic bonds to break apart depending on the type of atoms that are involved and to the degree they are slowed down or speeded up. When we cook food the heat that we use both breaks some atomic bonds in the food apart and causes some atomic bonds to occur. When we cook food we are speeding up the atoms in the food, when we freeze food we are slowing down the atoms in the food. However: putting a steak on the table and leaving it there for days does not cook it, no matter how long we leave it there and allow the atoms to spin. Food taken fresh from the garden does not taste the same after it has been frozen. One reason is because of the

making and breaking of atomic bonds that occurs during the heating or freezing process, another reason is that the atom, its individual spinning parts, whether due to temperature, friction, gravity, or speed through space, can not be speeded up or slowed down uniformly. Some spins will always speed up “ spin faster” of slow down “spin slower” more than others. This causes at least some gearing change between the individual spins. The atom acts, reacts or behaves one way in a specific rate of spin but alters with change in any direction. Things as we know them on earth occur in one time dimension our own 24 hour day 60 second minute and 60 minute hour. To change the rate the atom spins is to change time and to alter time very much either way changes everything with it in accordance to the degree of change. We, as living beings here on earth, have a very small time dimension window “our body’s have a built in

heating and cooling system to keep us in our best time rate dimension” for life is very fragile to spin rate or time rate but around us there are many different dimensions. In the water we drink, the materials we make, and in the rocks we climb. They are dimensions of different atomic spin rates and different gearings, not unseen universes or unearthly worlds but different gear locked DIMENSIONS OF TIME. There are many different kinds of atoms and each one has a slightly different set of centrifugal force factors. These factors would dictate both how much and at what speed through space centrifugal drag would start to occur. These same factors would also dictate how much each specific kind of atom would be effected by other circumstances and or conditions that would slow down or speed up the atom. Each different method circumstance and/or condition that alters time “the atoms spin rate”

effects the different individual spins of the atom in a different way. Heat and friction both speed up the atom but heat alone effects the atom more evenly or uniformly while friction has a greater effect on the atoms outer most spins. Regardless of which method is used, whether to speed up or slow down the atom, each method will have a slightly different effect on how it slows down or speeds up the different individual spins of the atom. Beer brewed at a certain temperature for a certain length of time tastes one way, change the temperature or the length of brewing time and the beer will taste different. Things only happen one specific way in one specific dimension of time, change the spinning rate and thus the atoms formula of gearing ratio’s of spins and you change everything else accordingly with it. All atoms have many spinning parts. It is the spinning motion that generates centrifugal forces with in

the atom and the bigger the atom “larger mass” and the larger the diameter “ bigger radius” the more centrifugal drag it will encounter and the sooner or the lower the speed where centrifugal drag will begin to occur. All atoms would experience this drag effect at some point of acceleration through space. The difference in the speeds between where a small atom and a large atom are effected by centrifugal drag is not very wide and atoms, the bonds between the atoms parts, are very strong. The chance of an atom being propelled through space fast enough to be pulled apart by the uneven brake like affect of centrifugal drag is unlikely, however: the bonds between atoms where one or more atoms bonds with other atoms is not as strong so at extreme speeds through space molecules, a group of bonded atoms, could on occasions be pushed, pulled, or blasted fast enough through space to break

atomic bonds between them. All atoms and, to a smaller degree or amount, all particles “ individual building blocks of the atom’’ will experience centrifugal drag albeit at different speeds through space. Sub-atomic particles with a much smaller mass and radius would have a higher speed limit or point to where the brake like effect would begin to occur”. a small group of particles in the light spectrum avoid most centrifugal drag because of the particular way they spin, ironically the way they spin gives them a propulsion force that speeds them through space at sometimes more than 186,000 miles per second. They are literally self powered propulsion engines because of the unique way they spin, these particles experience only a very tiny amount of centrifugal drag. However: they are subjected to the slowing down or speeding up circumstances and or conditions just as other particles or atoms

are albeit to a much smaller degree. As they travel through space they travel through a wide variety of changing circumstances and/or conditions therefore their speed thru space slightly varies accordingly, sometimes faster sometimes slower . The spinning speed of the atom and time are the same thing. Water in a very slightly slowed time dimension becomes a solid, steel in a slightly speeded up dimension of time becomes a liquid. Different time altering circumstances and/or conditions effect particles, atoms, and molecules in a different way because they effect the individual spins differently therefore things only happen one way under any one set of circumstances and/or conditions “time dimension” and happen another different way under different circumstances and/or conditions “time dimensions” . The more or bigger the change in the time variance the more noticeable the change in the properties of

the atom. Another important point that pertains to the spinning speed of the atom is atomic bonding. Atoms, all atoms and for that matter, to a much lesser degree, all particles, have energy bands around them that are like an unseen magnetic electrical circle. They may have only a few or many different circles of energy. These energy circles will be at different distances from the atom, much like a bulls eye or dart board, each circle gets a little larger. Usually the inside circle, the one nearest the atoms nucleus, is the strongest each additional circle most often gets a little weaker with the outer most circles being the weakest. These energy circles, if they are strong enough, hold an electron in orbit around the atom. When atoms bond together they come close enough together to share their outer most energy circle and may share an electron or electrons along with it. Atomic bonding of many types occurs naturally many others

are man made or induced by mans technology. The science of chemistry is the science of atomic bonds. While many atomic bonds occur naturally, mostly by way of heat, cold, pressure or friction ,the circumstances that cause atoms to bond are complex. One of these circumstances is the spinning speed of the atoms involved in the bonding process, another is creating the right gearing between the atoms that are bonding. Smaller atoms “with a shorter circumference spin’’ spin around more times than larger atoms and would appear to be spinning much faster than larger atoms even though there spinning speeds are very near the same “think small diameter, large diameter car tires; same feet of highway per second while the small tire turns more turns”. Whether one is slowed down enough or the other speeded up enough or both occur at the same time, when the right speed and other circumstances come

together to create the correct gearing between the atoms involved atomic bounding can occur. A chart telling the approximate speed of the elemental atoms would be very helpful in the field of chemistry. Such a chart would help us to dial in the desired properties of a material to be made. Clear glass as strong as steel, a super strong metal only slightly heavier than air, the possibilities are staggering however it would be a great task. The atom spins far to fast for us to accurately measure. The hydrogen maser clock can measure one trillionth of a second and in that length of time the atom may spin billions of times. We can only estimate the atoms speed but that would be a start and since so many things are relevant to the spin of the atom it would be a great start. GRAVITY

Dear reader: I have not put much time into the study of gravity, however one thing stands out. The circling bands afore mentioned. All matter has these energy bands, they are present in all matter, be it particles, atoms, molecules etc.. Some bands are detectable while others are not. These bands are always there. In order for an atom to hold an electron in its orbit it must have MORE than enough energy in that band, that is to say with only just the exact amount of energy needed to grab an electron any slight bump or pull would tare the electron loose from its orbit . Some atoms may have 2 electrons in one of their orbits if they do they have a little more than enough to hold both electrons in orbit. These bands, whether from a particle , atom, etc., will pull at electrons, and other particles and the nucleus of other particles or atoms. This pull is incredibly weak however it is accumulative and far reaching, and too

there are off sets such as electron to electron for they push each other away . With or without electrons all matter, will have at least some amount of pull to other matter due mostly to these energy bands. With the same mind set of energy bands, Planets, Solar Systems and the Universe itself has these energy bands. It is believed that matter, an asteroid, moon, or planet, caught in the gravity of a turning planet, Sun etc. orbits because it is caught at an equilibrium distance, the place where gravitational pull equals the opposing pull of centrifugal force that is caused by the motion of the matter being twirled around the planet in an orbit. This is false for the same reason that an atom must have more than enough energy in a band to hold an electron in its orbit. The equilibrium between the pull of gravity and the opposing pull of centrifugal force is not sustainable, inevitably one or the other will over come.

If these were the only factors moons and planets would either be pulled into the planet or sun they orbit or be thrown out into space. Just like an atom all matter has energy bands, the larger the accumulation of matter the larger the band. Moons, planets, and stars all have energy bands and these bands are the hidden forces that sustain orbits. They keep or help to keep moons, planets and stars in an orbiting path. Our earth has a reasonably narrow band so our moon does not come to far in or go to far out as it orbits. Saturn has a fairly wide energy band that is easily evidenced by its wide ring of orbiting dust and other matter. Our sun has at least one very wide ring as is witnessed by the egg shaped orbit of mars and our galaxy appears to have one constant far reaching seemingly endless band this is not to say that centrifugal force coupled with gravity and the distance of equilibrium would not

cause an orbit that’s exactly what causes an orbit however this type orbit could not be sustained without a strong enough energy band, the matter being orbited would inevitably either be pulled in or be thrown out of orbit. It is striking how repetitive matter is, how the spinning subatomic particles combine to make an atom often complete with an orbiting electron “moon”, how our sun is yet another bigger copy of a large atom with many bands of electrons “ planets”. there are many differences however most differences seem to be Mathematical. It is believed by some that atoms are forever but like a wound up clock spring particles and atoms do eventually wind down by way of energy exchanges of various kinds. Do gamma rays “ high energy particles that travel through space at light speed” eventually unwind to a lower energy level and become photons “light particles” ? could it be that the radio wave static that

we detect from the farthest reaches of space is not the edge of the big bang as is widely believed but is instead the farthest reaches that the speedsters of space can travel before running down and degrading into radio waves? It is at least a good possibility and seems to be the most logical explanation. Where does matter come from? Again the most widely excepted theory is that long ago there was nothing then a tremendous explosion occurred and all matter was created, this explanation is called the big bang theory. Thanks to the Hubble space telescope and to others like it we can view vast distances into space. Numerous explosions, tremendous explosions, have already been seen and recorded. We can see distance stars and galaxies. Like the many pieces of a puzzle the pieces paint a picture. Matter, all matter, has a particular set of rules . This rule book is called physics. Matter eventually comes together, defuses

or degrades into other kinds of energy. A theory is an explanation of the way something appears to be according to the information available at the time. Advancing technology and new information often gives rise to new theories and new ideas, old theories that no longer fit the new information are sometimes replaced with new theories that do. Our space eyes have given us many pictures of deep space, images of our galaxy and of others far away. There is space debris of both solids and gas’s that seem to litter the vastness of the universe, star systems and asteroid belts sprinkle the sky. Radiation of numerous types are everywhere and great tremendous explosions are more common place than we thought or knew. There is one thing in space that we know is there because we can not see it, that is a black hole. A black hole is an area in space that is completely blacked out, even the

strongest telescopes can not see or detect any light, or anything else coming through this area or hole. The theory of black holes is that a tremendous, dense mass in the center has such a strong gravitational force that it pulls in anything and everything in its vicinity. Not even a light particle can escape its super strong gravitational pull. From all the images that we can see through our powerful space eyes the universe appears to be made up mostly of an endless sea of galaxies which are themselves countless stars, planets, and asteroids that twirl around each other in a circle or simply drift in space. Particles, those tiny building blocks of atoms are themselves made of even smaller little swirling balls of magnetic electrical energy. Like a food chain cycle that goes full circle , swirling particles to swirling atoms to swirling molecules to swirling planets to swirling stars to swirling galaxies. Could it be that

space is a repeating cycle that goes from producing particles of matter to atoms, planets, stars, solar systems, to black holes? All galaxies eventually pull in due to accumulating mass from space and collapse together creating an explosion or a black hole. Where do the particles that make the atoms come from? Do explosions in space simply spray particles and atoms back out into space to start the cycle all over again? No ! Both atoms and particles eventually unwind or by other means degrade into other forms of energy such as magnetic, electrical and heat energy. So how are these forms of energies recalled or remade? Space seems to be made mostly of black holes albeit black holes in different stages of development. Our own galaxy is in a stage of black hole development. Certain kinds or types of black holes do not have mass at there center but are instead a very large swirling motion in space that consist

of electrical and magnetic energy fields with tremendous gravitational pull. They are shaped like a twisting tornado with a big mouth “ trillions and trillions of miles wide ’’ that is funnel shaped getting smaller and smaller until it ends with a small tail. It pulls in all forms of energy and matter within its vicinity and like a tethered ball turning faster and faster as the circle leading toward the tail twists smaller and smaller until all the different energies are twisted together in tiny pieces at slightly more than the speed of light and are cast or sprayed from the tail into space! In this theory this kind of black hole does not need to swallow planets or galaxies but sometimes does so incidentally. Would both particles and whole atoms come out? Would the atoms of planets or galaxies that are swallowed be torn completely apart or would a smaller atom be built into a larger atom of lead or gold. Could there be two kinds

of black holes, one with mass that “very gradually” gains more and more mass until it explodes and another with out a center of mass that manufactures matter? Is space curved as Einstein suggested in his relativity theory? This implies that the light particles we see from space may actually be coming to us from a different direction than they appear to be coming from. There is no question that space matter can be moved about through space like a ball in a pin ball machine however: a light particle “and other similar self propelled particles” are effected very little by gravity, this along with the fact that there are as many yings as yangs, as many left pulls as right, as many ups as downs. No doubt a small “likely the small percentage that travels near or through a tremendously strong gravitational field” comes to us from a very twisted direction but, for the most part, space is at least pretty close to the way we view it from

earth and although photons can be slowed down and speeded up by the circumstances and conditions they are traveling through along there path, again, except for a very small percentage that travels through the great extremes of space, photons give us at least a reasonable estimate as to our distance from planets and stars. With today’s technology in cameras and computers it would be easy to set up an experiment to see any light type particles that arrive out of place “from a different direction than the majority” or out of time “arrive before or after the majority”. From my own perspective I’ll leave worm holes for little green apples. Life is exceptionally fragile to atomic spinning speed “time dimension” and there-by to the effect of speed through space “ atomic centrifugal drag”. the best material we can make could not withstand 1 percent of the speed of light. This coupled with the fact that

the radiation of space is one hundred times stronger than a microwave oven makes travel to any other star system by manned “ or alien being” craft an impossibility. Its not a matter of technology it’s a matter of physics! I WAS BORN THE YEAR AFTER EINSTEIN DIED. IT IS WRITTEN THAT EINSTEIN SAID HIS GREATEST MISTAKE WAS WHEN HE SAID GOD DOES NOT PLAY DICE. THIS IS EINSTEIN’S TRAGEDY, TO USE HIS TERMINOLOGY, GOD KNOWS THE MEASURE OF ALL THINGS. THE LENGTH AND THE WIDTH, FROM THE VERY SMALLEST TO THE GREATEST SIZE. WE KNOW SO LITTLE AND EVEN THAT WE ARE NOT SURE OF BECAUSE WE ARE SO LIMITED IN