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Maths;;

Statiistics
WorkkshopClaass

Fall 2011

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INTRODUCTION
This workshop contains 82 exercises designed to help you prepare for the following
topic areas of the Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Exam:
Mathematics
Average Percentage of a.m. and p.m. test content: 12.5%
A. Analytic geometry
B. Integral and partial differential calculus
C. Matrix operations
D. Roots of equations
E. Linear Algebra, Vector analysis
F. Differential equations
G. Differential calculus
Engineering Probability and Statistics
Average Percentage of a.m. and p.m. test content: 8%
A. Measures of central tendencies and dispersions (e.g., mean, mode, std deviation)
B. Probability distributions (e.g., discrete, continuous, normal, binomial)
C. Conditional probabilities
D. Estimation (e.g., point, confidence intervals) for a single mean
E. Regression and curve fitting
F. Expected value (weighted average) in decision-making
G. Hypothesis testing
The FE exam contains 180 multiple-choice questions and is split into a morning session (120 questions)
and an afternoon session (60 questions). The exam lasts eight hours. The above topic areas represent
approximately 20.5% of the total test content.
The organization of this workshop follows that of the NCEES FE Supplied-Reference Handbook
(FESRH), which is the official reference material used in the FE exam room. Review it prior to exam
day and familiarize yourself with the charts, formulas, tables, and other reference information provided.
Note that personal copies will not be allowed in the exam room. New copies will be supplied at the
exam site. The Fall 2011 FE Exam will use the FESHR, 8th edition, 2nd revision.
The FESRH can be downloaded from the NCEES web site at:
http://www.ncees.org/Exams/Study_materials/Download_FE_Supplied-Reference_Handbook.php

MATHEMATICS

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DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Exercise 1. The Derivative Find the slope of the graph g(x) =

a.)
b.)

x at x = 2
1
f(x) = 2 at x = 2
x

g(x) =

Solution:

x when

A.
-21.0

B.
-0.21

C.
0.21

D.
0.12

0.125

-0.25

+0.25

-0.125

See FESRH page 25

a.)

g(x) =

b.)

f(x) =

1
3

1 23
1
1
x = x ; differentiate: x 2 ;g(2) =
0.21
2
3
3
3
3x
3(2)
Therefore the correct answer is C.

1
= x 2 ; differentiate: (-2)x 3 ; f(2) = (-2)23 0.25
2
x
Therefore the correct answer is B.

Exercise 2. The Derivative Find the derivatives of the following function.


g(x) = (x5 3x4 7)1/3
A.
B.
1 5
1 5
(x 3x 4 7)2/3 (5 x 12) x 4
(x 3x 4 7) 2/3 (5 x 12) x3
3
3
C.
D.
1 5
1 5
(x 3x 4 7)2/3 (5 x 12) x3
(x 3x 4 7)2/3 (5 x 12) x3
3
3
Solution:

See FESRH page 25

g(x) = (x 5 3x 4 7)1/3 ; let k = x 5 3 x 4 7. Then


g'(x) =

dk
5 x 4 12 x3
dx

1 5
(x 3x 4 7) 2/3 (5 x 12) x3
3

The correct answer is D.

MATHEMATICS

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MATHEMATICS

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DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Exercise 3. Maximum and Minimum Values, and Radius of Curvature
Find the maximum and minimum values of the following function on the indicated
interval
f ( x) x3 10 x 8 (-2 < x < 2); find Radius of Curvature at x = 0.60 (in feet).
A.
252
Solutions:

B.
48

C.
201

D.
248

See FESRH pages 25 and 26


y=x^3-10x+8

f '( x) 3x 2 10 0;

f(x)
y'=3x^2-10

23

= 3x2-10

18
13

-b b 2 - 4ac
x=
;
2a

8
3

Where: a = 3; b = 0; c = -10

-6

-4

-2

-2 0

-7
-12

x=

0 0 - 4(3)(-10) 120 10.95445

=
= -1.8257 and 1.8257
2(3)
6
6

Therefore, local max point = (-1.8, 20.2); and local min point = (1.8, -4.2)
3
2

1 ( y ')
Radius of Curvature, R =
( y " 0);
2

y"

1 (3 x 2 10) 2 2
1 (3(.60) 2 10) 2 2
R(x)=

200.876'
6x
6(0.60)

Therefore the answer is C.

MATHEMATICS

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DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Exercise 4. The Partial Derivative What is the partial derivative a / c of the
following equation?

a 7b2 12bc
A.

14b 12b
2

B.
12b

1
ln(d )

c
cos(d 2 b)
ln(d )
C.

2d sin(d 2 b)

D.

14b 12c

c
ln(d )

Solution: See FESRH page 25

2
c
1
1
cos(d 2 b) 0 12b
0 12b
7b 12bc
c
ln(d )
ln(d )
ln(d )

The correct answer is B.

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INTEGRAL CALCULUS
Exercise 5. What is the approximate area bounded by the curves y1 = 30 - x2
and y2 = -40 + x2?
A.
B.
C.
D.
543
552
564
532
FIND THE AREA BETWEEN THE CURVES
40
30
20

Y AXIS

35
-10

-8

35

10

-6

-4

0
-10 0

-2

10

-20
-30
-40

y1=30-x^2

-50
X AXIS

y2 = -40+x^2

Solution: See FESRH page 26


Find the values of x where the two curves intersect
30 x2 40 x2 70 2 x2 they intersect at x 35.
Find the area between the curves with limits x 35 .
A

x2
x1

f1 ( x)

f 2 ( x) dx

35

35

(30 x )-(-40 x ) dx
2

35
35
1
1
2
30 x x3 40 x x3
70 x x3
3
3 35
3 35
3
3
2
2

70 35
35 70 35 35 414.125 138.04 414.125 138.04
3
3

[276.08] [276.08] 552.16


The correct answer is B.

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Exercise 6. What is the approximate area bounded by the curves:


y1 = 1/2x +2,
y2 = -1/3x + 3, y = 0, and x = 0?
A.
11.4

B.
13.5

C.
27

D.
12.9

Solution: See FESRH page 26


Draw a rough sketch to help visualize the boundaries that define the area.

y1=1/2(x)+2
y2=-1/3(x)+3

-10

-5

10

15

x3
9 1
Find the area under the dashed line: Adashed y2 ( x) dx x 3 dx
x1
0
3
1
81
9
Adashed x 2 3x 0 27 13.5
6
6
Determine x 2 , the x-coordinate of the point where the two curves intersect

1
1
1
1
5
6
x2 2 x2 3 simplify x2 x 2 3; x2 1; x2 1.20
2
3
2
3
6
5
x2
x2
1.2 1
1.2 1
A'dashed A' solid y2 ( x)dx y1 ( x)dx x 3 dx -
x 2 dx
x1
x1
0
0 2
3
1.2

1
1
1.2
A'dashed x 2 3x 0 ; Asolid x 2 2 x ;
6
4
0
1
1
1.44
1.44
1.2
A'dashed A' solid x 2 3x x 2 2 x 0
3(1.2)
2(1.2)
6
4
6
4
0.6 1.2 0.6
Total Area = Adashed A'dashed A'solid 13.5 0.6 12.9

The correct answer is D.

MATHEMATICS

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t 2 25
Exercise 7. Limits Simplify the following: lim
t 5 t 5
A.
B.
C.
10
0
5

D.
-5

Solution: See FESRH page 26


t 2 25
(t 5)(t 5)
lim
lim
lim(t 5) 5 5 10
t 5 t 5
t 5
t 5
t 5
The correct answer is A.
ln x
x x
C.

Exercise 8. Limits Evaluate the following: lim


A.

B.
1

D.
0

Solution: See FESRH page 26


Because direct substitution would result in the indeterminate form , apply
LHopitals Rule:
Let f and g be functions that are differentiable on an open interval (a,b) containing c,
except possibly at c itself. Assume that g(x) 0 for all x in (a,b), except possibly at c
itself. If the limit of f(x)/g(x) as x approaches c produces the indeterminate form 0/0,
then
f ( x)
f '( x)
provided the limit on the right exists (or is infinite). This result
lim
lim
x c g ( x)
x c g '( x)
also applies if the limit of f(x)/g(x) as x approaches c produces one of the indeterminate
forms ,() , (),( ).
d
ln x
ln x
1
dx
lim
lim
lim 0
x x
x
x x
d
x
dx
The correct answer is D.

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x2
Exercise 9. Limits Evaluate the following: lim x
x e
A.
B.
C.

D.
0

Solution: See FESRH page 26


Because direct substitution would result in the indeterminate form, ,
apply LHopitals Rule to obtain:
d 2
x
2
x
2x
dx
lim x lim
lim x ,
x e
x d
x e
e x
dx
which is indeterminate, so apply L'Hopital's Rule a second time to obtain:
d
2 x
2x
2
dx
lim x lim
lim x 0
Therefore the correct answer is D.
x e
x d
x e
x
e
dx

MATHEMATICS

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Exercise 10. Find d(sec t)/dx


A.
C.
Solution:

sec2t dt/dx
tan2t dt/dx

B.
D.

sec t tan t dt/dx


csc t cot t dt/dx

See FESRH page 27. The correct answer is B.

Exercise 11. Find d(tan z)/dx


A.
C.
Solution:

sec2z dz/dx
sec z tan z dz/dx

B.
D.

-cot2z dz/dx
csc z cot z dz/dx

See FESRH page 27. The correct answer is A.

Exercise 12. Which of the following expressions is equivalent to sin 2 xdx ?


A.
C.
Solution:

x sin 2 x

2
4
2cos x

B.

x sin 2 x

2
4

D.

sin x x sin x

See FESRH page 27. The correct answer is B.

Exercise 13. Which of the following expressions is equivalent to eax dx ?


A.
C.
Solution:

1a e
1a ln

ax

ax

See FESRH page 27.

B.
D.

eax

a2

1 xe

ax 1
a

The correct answer is A.

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DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
Exercise 14. Select the first-order differential equation from the following options:
dy 9 t

y2
dt
t
2
d y
C.
t y
dt

B. ( z ") 4 3 z ' 6

A.

Solution:

D.

A A

22
t s

See FESRH page 30

By definition, a first-order differential equation contains only first derivatives and


has no partial derivatives.
The correct answer is A.

Exercise 15. First-Order, Linear Homogeneous Differential Equation The


following DE has the initial condition y(0) = 14. What is the value of y(3)?
dy
6y 0
dk
A.
14 103

B.
5.44

C.
2.13 107

D.
0.0498

Solution: See FESRH page 30


The characteristic equation is r + 6 =0
y + 6y = 0
y = y0e-6k
y(0) = y0e-6(0) = 14
General Form: y(x) = Ce-ax
y0 = 14 = C
e0 = 1
y = 14e-6k
y(3)
= 14e-6(3) = 14e-18 = 14 = 2.13 x 10-7
Therefore, the correct answer is C.

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Differential Equations
Exercise 16. Continuously compounded interest. Lets say you invest one thousand
dollars in a fund that pays 4% interest, continuously compounded.
a) How much money will be in the account in 5 years?
A.
B.
C.
D.
$1,200
$1,220
$1,260
$5,200
b) How many years will it take your money to double?
A.
B.
C.
D.
17.1
17.3
17.5
17.9
c) To triple?
A.
27.2

B.
27.3

C.
27.5

D.
27.9

Solution: See FESRH page 30


Use DE for continuous growth at a rate proportional to amount in account.

a)

dA
rA; the amount in the account after t years:
dt
A(t ) A0 e rt ; A(5) A0 e 0.04(5) A0 e 0.04(5) 1.22 A0 ;

Since A 0 is $1,000, the amount after 5 years would be $1,220.


Therefore the correct answer is B.
b)

A0 e0.04( t ) 2.00 A0 e 0.04( t ) 2.00 0.04(t ) ln 2.00


t

c)

0.693
17.3 years to double. Therefore the correct answer is B.
0.04

A0 e 0.04( t ) 3.00 A0 e 0.04( t ) 3.00 0.04(t ) ln 3.00 1.0986


t

1.0986
27.5 years to triple. Therefore the correct answer is C.
0.04

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Exercise 17. Cooling Soup. Suppose a cup of soup cooled from 900C to 600C in a room
in 10 minutes in a room whose temperature was 200C. Use Newtons law of cooling to
answer the following questions
a) How much longer (in minutes) would it take the soup to cool to 350C?
A.
B.
C.
D.
14.3
15.3
17.5
19.9
b) Instead of being left to stand in the room, the cup of 900C is put in the freezer
whose temperature was -150C . How long (in minutes) will it take the soup to cool
from 900C to 350C?
A.
B.
C.
D.
13.3
13.9
14.2
14.9
Solution:

See FESRH page 30

a) Solution requires Newton's Law of Cooling


H H S ( H 0 H S )e - kt ; Use values given to solve for k
60 20 (90 20)e- k (10)

60 - 20 40
40

e- k (10) ln
10k
(90 - 20) 70
70

0.5596
k 0.05596; Now use k to solve for t to cool to 350 C
10
H H S ( H 0 H S )e - kt 35 20 (90 - 20)e -0.05596 t
35 - 20
15
1.540
e-0.05596 t ln
0.05596t
t 27.53 min
90 - 20
70
0.05596
Additional time to cool to cool to 350 C 27.5 min 10 min 17.5 min
Therefore, the correct answer is C.

b) Repeat using Newton's Law of Cooling, H s =-150 C


and k 0.05596; H H S ( H 0 H S )e kt
35 15
50

e 0.05596 t
(90 15) 105
50
0.74194
ln
0.05596t
t 13.26 min
105
0.05596
Therefore the correct answer is A.

35 15 (90 (15))e 0.05596 t

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MATHEMATICS

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Exercise 18. Separable DE. Determine the constant of integration for the separable
DE: xdx + 6y5dy = 0. It is known that x = 0 when y = 2.
A.
12

B.
16

C.
24

D.
64

Solution: See FESRH page 30. Since the DE is already separated, integrate to find
the solution.

xdx 6 y dy 0
5

1
2

x2 y6 C

Use the initials given to solve for C.

1
2

0 2
2

C;

C = 64

Therefore, the correct answer is D.


Exercise 19. General Solution of DE. What is the general solution of the following
DE:
2

A.
C.

d y
4 y 0.
dx 2
y sin 2 x cos 2 x C
y 2x2 x C

B.
D.

y e x 2e x C
y sin x 2tan x C

Solution: See FESRH page 30. Examination of the DE shows that a multiple of the
function and its second derivative must sum to zero. Note that sines and cosines have the
property that heir second derivatives are negatives of the original natural function.

If y sin 2 x cos 2 x, then


y ' 2cos 2 x 2sin 2 x

and

y " 4sin 2 x 4cos 2 x

y " 4 y 4sin 2 x 4cos 2 x 4(sin 2 x cos 2 x) 0


Therefore, the correct answer is A.

MATHEMATICS

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DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS
Exercise 21. Difference Equation
A business owner purchases a piece of equipment that costs $20,000. She makes a 10%
down payment and obtains a loan for the balance at an 8% interest rate (per month!!!).
Over the next few months she makes a series of four payments of $3,000 each. What was
the approximate balance owed after the fourth payment?
A.
B.
C.
D.
$7,235
$6,654
$10,970
$12,936
Solution: See FESRH page 31
The amount borrowed: $20,000 - $2,000 = $18,000 is the principal owed at beginning of
period 1. Uniform payments of D = $3000 are made at the end of each period. The
interest rate is 8% (i=0.08) per compounding period; (fortunately not a real-world
situation!).
Use the first-order difference equation to find the principal balance, Px, at end of each
period (after each payment, D, is made):
Px = Px-1(1+i) - D
P1 = P0(1+i) - D = $18,000(1+0.08) - $3000 = $16,440
P2 = $16,440(1+0.08) - $3000 = $14,755.20
P3 = $14,755.20(1+0.08) - $3000 = $12,935.62
P4 = $12,935.62(1+0.08) - $3000 = $10,970.47
The correct answer is C.
Exercise 22. Difference Equation
What is the solution of the first order difference equation, y(k+1)=y(k)+5?
A.
C.

5
y (k ) 4
k
y(k) = C k, where C is a constant

B.

1 5k
y (k ) 5
4

D.

y(k) = 20 +5k

Solution: See FESRH page 31


Assume the solution has the form: y(k)= 20 +5k
Substitute the assumed solution into the difference equation.

y(k 1) 20 5(k 1) 20 5k 5 = y(k ) 5


The correct answer is D.

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Exercise 23. Difference Equation


What is the solution of the linear difference equation, y(k+1)=15y(k)?
A.
C.

y (k )

15
1 15k

y(k) = C +15k, where C is a constant

15k
16

B.

y (k )

D.

y(k) = 15k

Solution: See FESRH page 31


Assume the solution has the form: y(k)= 15k
Substitute into the difference equation.

y(k 1) 15k 1 (15)(15k ) = 15y( k )


Note: If y k C 15k , then y k 1 C 15k 1 15 y(k )
The correct answer is D.
Exercise 24. Difference Equation
What is the solution of the linear difference equation, (k+1)y(k+1 ) - ky(k)=1?

1
k

A.

y (k ) 12

C.

y(k) = 12+3k

Solution: See FESRH page 31


Assume the solution has the form

12
k
1
y (k ) 3
k

y (k ) 1

B.
D.

y (k ) 1

12
k

Substitute the solution into the difference equation.

(k 1) y (k 1) k y (k ) 1

12

12
(k 1) 1

1 1
k 1
k

12

12
(k 1) 1
k 1 12 k 12 1 1 1
k 1 1
k

1
k

12
15
MATHEMATICS
Thus y (k ) 1
solves the difference equation.
Therefore the
correct answere
is B.
k

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ENGINEERING PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS

WORKSHOP

DISPERSION, MEAN, MEDIAN, AND MODE VALUES


Exercise 25.
Mean, Median, Variance, Standard Deviation, and Coefficient of Variation
Given the following data, 23, 45,76, 54, 23, 44, 67, 89, 32, 100, 22, 13, 19, determine
the
A.
B.
C.
D.
a.) arithmetic mean
51
47
45
43
b.) median
46
46.7
45
44
c.) mode
12
76
23
89
a.) variance
2180
755
5115
2935
b.) standard deviation
33.24 59.07 12.04 27.48
c.) coefficient of variation
0.594 0.544 0.109 0.674
Solutions:

See FESRH page 40

a.) Arithmetic mean


23+45+76+54+23+44+67+89+32+100+22+13+19 607
X

46.69
13
13
b.) Median
Sort the data in ascending order: 13, 19, 22, 23, 23, 32, 44 , 45, 54, 67, 76, 89, 100
There are a total of 13 values. Notice that the median is the 7th entry, which is 44.
Six of the entries are less than 44 and six are greater than 44.
c.) Mode
With the data arranged in ascending order, 13, 19, 22, 23, 23, 32, 44, 45, 54, 67, 76,
89, 100, it is easy to see that the only entry that occurs more than once is 23. This is
the most frequently occurring entry and the mode of the data set.
d.) Variance

ENGINEERING PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS

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ENGINEERING PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS

2
i

WORKSHOP

N
2
13 192 222 232 232 322 442 452 542 67 2 762 892 1002 607

13
13
38,159
2

46.69 2935.31 2180.17 755.14;


13
2

e.) Standard Deviation

2 755.14 27.48

f.) Coefficient of Variation. The CV is a measure of the dispersion of a collection


of data.
CV

27.24
0.594
46.69

Exercise 26. Weighted Arithmetic Mean What is the weighted arithmetic mean of
the following data?
A.
12.98
data

weighting factor

12

15

13

B.
13.25

C.
14.21
Solution:
XW

D.
13.58

See FESRH page 40

12(3)+15(5)+13(4) 163

13.58
3 45
12

The correct answer is D.

ENGINEERING PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS

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ENGINEERING PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS

WORKSHOP

DISPERSION, MEAN, MEDIAN, AND MODE VALUES


Exercise 27. Geometric Mean, Root-Mean Square Value, and Sample Range
Given the following data: 1,2,3,4,5,6,7, find:

a.)
b.)
c.)

the Geometric Mean


the Root-Mean Square
the Sample Range, R

A.
3.38
4.56
8

B.
2.54
4.47
5

C.
2.98
4.33
7

D.
3.45
4.29
6

Solution: See FESRH page 40


a.) Geometric Mean
n = the total number of values = 7.
The sample geometric mean n X 1 X 2 X 3 ... X n 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
7 7! (5040)1/7 3.38

The correct answer is A.


b.) Root-Mean Square

The RMS Value

X
n

2
i

12 22 32 42 52 62 7 2

140
20 4.472
7
The correct answer is B.

c.) Sample Range, R.


The Sample Range, R, is: (7-1) = 6
The correct answer is D.

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PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS


Exercise 28. Combinations An auto dealer offers a particular model with 6 possible
options. To qualify for a special promotion, every customer must select at least one
option. How many combinations of options are possible?
A.
56

B.
83

C.
63

D.
69

Solution: See FESRH page 40


n
n!

C
(
n
,
r
)

[ r n]
r
r !(n r )!

6

6!
6!
6!
6!
6!
6!

1!(6 1)! 2!(6 2)! 3!(6 3)! 4!(6 4)! 5!(6 5)! 6!(6 6)!
i 1
720
720
720
720
720
720

1!(5)! 2!(4)! 3!(3)! 4!(2)! 5!(1)! 6!(0)!


720
720
720
720
720
720

6 15 20 15 6 1 63
(1)120 (2)24 (6)6 (24)2 (120)1 (720)1

CTOTAL Ci

The correct answer is C.


Exercise 29. Permutations A card player has a total of six cards in her hand. How
many different ways can she put them in order?
A.
698

B.
720

C.
756

D.
774

Solution:

See FESRH page 40


n!
P(n,r) =
[ r n]
(n r )!
n permutations taken n at a time:
P(n, n)

n!
n!
n!; P(6,6) 6! 720
(n n)! 0!

The correct answer is B.


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PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS


Exercise 30. Permutations A To Do List has a total of 13 tasks on it. Assuming
each task is independent of the other tasks, and that because of time constraints, a total
of only 7 tasks can be performed, how many different ways can they ordered?
A.
5,659,754
Solution:

B.
6,934,234

C.
9,456,231

D.
8,648,640

See FESRH page 40

n 13, r 7; P(13,7)

13!
13! 6,227,020,800

8,648,640
(13 7)! 6!
720
The correct answer is D.

LAWS OF PROBABILITY
Exercise 31. Character, Laws and Total / Joint Probability
There are two bags of marbles. Bag 1 contains 7 black marbles and 3 blue marbles.
Bag 2 contains 8 white marbles and 4 green marbles.
a.) What is the probability of randomly picking 2 black marbles from Bag 1?
b.) What is the probability of randomly picking 3 white marbles from Bag 2?
c.) What is the joint probability of randomly picking 1 blue marble from Bag 1
and 1 white marbel from Bag 2?
A.
B.
C.
D.
a.) P(2 black from Bag 1)?
0.47
0.54
0.70
0.67
b.) P(1 green from Bag 2)?
0.45
0.60
0.33
0.26
c.) P(1 blue from Bag 1 and 1 white
0.26
0.666
0.30
0.20
from Bag 2)?
Solution:

and ~ multiply
or ~ add

See FESRH page 41

a.) Probability of 2 black marbles from bag 1: P(2 black) =


7 6 7 6
=

0.467
7 3 6 3 10 9

The correct answer is A.

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b.) Probability of 3 white marbles from bag 2: P(3 white) =


8 7 6 8 7 6
=

0.255
8

4
7

4
6

12 11 10
Therefore the correct answer is D.
3
3
c.) Probability of 1 blue marble from bag 1: P(blue) =
0.30;
7 3 10
8
8
Probability of 1 white marble from bag 2: P(white) =
0.666
8 4 12
Joint probability of 1 blue and 1 white, P(bw) = 0.30(.666) = 0.200

The correct answer is D.


PROBABILITY FUNCTIONS
Exercise 32. Binomial Distribution.
If a fair coin is tossed 40 times, what is the probability of the coing landing on tails
exactly 15 times?
Solution.
If X is the number of tails in 40 tosses, then X is binomial with
n 40 and p 0.5. Therefore, for any possible outcome a 15,
P( X a) C (n, a) p a (1 p) na
P(15) C (40,15)0.515 (1 0.5) 4015

40!
0.515 (0.5) 25 0.037
15!(40 15)!

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Exercise 33. Normal Distribution. A busy interstate highway has a posted speed of
65 mph. The following speed frequency distribution was obtained by observing actual
vehicle speeds during a short interval in the peak travel period. The distribution is
assumed to be normal.
Speed Group Frequency
(mph)
56 to 60
47
61 to 65
60
66 to 70
186
71 to 75
60
76 to 80
47

a) What is the approximate mean travel speed of the


vehicle population from which the observations
were made?
b) What is the approximate standard deviation of the
vehicle population from which the observations
were made?

c) What is the approximate probability that the speed would be less than 65 mph
for any given vehicle observed?

a.)
b.)
c.)

mean travel speed


standard deviation
P(speed < 65 mph)

A.
72
5.95
0.2230

B.
68
5.46
0.6915

C.
65
6.05
0.4532

D.
63
6.15
0.3085

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Solution:

WORKSHOP

See FESRH page 42


Speed Group
(mph)
56
to
60
61
to
65
66
to
70
71
to
75
76
to
80

Create the table at left by adding


columns A and B to the above table.
For each speed group, the Assumed
Speed is the average speed of the
speed group, and the Total Speed is
the product of the speed groups
Frequency and the Assumed Speed.

A
Assumed
Frequency Speed
(mph)
47
58
60
63
186
68
60
73
47
78
400

B
Total
Speed
(mph)
2726
3780
12648
4380
3666
27,200

The total number of vehicles observed is the sum of the Frequency column: n = 400
The sum of the Total Speed column is 27,200. Therefore sample mean is:
x

27,200
68.0 mph
n
400
i

The standard deviation is: s


2

Therefore the correct answer is B.

(x

x) 2

n 1

47(58-68) +60(63-68) +186(68-68) 2 +60(73-68) 2 +47(78-68)2


14,000
=

5.95 mph
400 1
399
Therefore the correct answer is A.

Find the standard normal variable corresponding to 65 mph.


x 65 68 3
z 0

0.5042 ~ 0.50

5.95
5.95
From the Unit Normal Table,
Speed Frequency Distribution
column F(x), the area to the left of
x= z = 0.5 is 0.6915.
200
The probability of the speed being
less than 65 mph,
x = z = 0.50 is P(x < 65)
= 1.0000 0.6915= 0.3085

180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

Note: 0.3085 matches the value of the


55
R(x) column for x = 0.5, and that the
sum of the values of the F(x) and R(x) is always 1.00

60

65

70

75

The correct answer is D.


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Ex. 78

Ex. 80

Ex. 79

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Exercise 34. Normal Distribution. Based on the speed data presented in Exercise
85, what is the probability that a vehicle will be observed traveling at a speed greater
than or equal to 78 mph?
A.
B.
C.
D.
P(speed > 78 mph)
0.0649
0.8768
0.0446
0.9554

Solution:

See FESRH page 42

Repeat the procedure used above. Find the standard normal variable corresponding to
78 mph. z x0 78 68 10 1.68 ~ 1.7

5.95
5.95
From the Unit Normal Table, column F(x), the area to the left of x = z = 1.7 is 0.9554
The probability of observing a vehicle traveling at a speed greater than or equal to 78
mph,
x = z = 1.7 is P(x > 78)
= 1.0 0.9554= 0.0446
The correct answer is C.
Note: 0.0446 matches the value of the R(x) column for x = 1.7.
Exercise 35. Normal Distribution.
The Navys a newest fighter jet can accommodate pilots with sitting heights (from seat
to top of head) of up to 37.5 inches. If we assume the sitting heights of pilots are
normally distributed with a mean of 36.0 inches and a standard deviation of 1.38
inches, what proportion of pilots cannot fit in the new jet?
A.
9.5

B.
10.4

C.
12.3

D.
13.6

Solution. Let X be the sitting height of a randomly selected pilot. Converting


to standard normal, mean zero, and standard deviation one, we find
X 36 37.5 36
P( X 37.5) P

P( Z 1.1) 0.1357
1.38
1.38
(See Unit Normal Distribution Table (page 45), Column R(x) for x=1.1)
The proportion of pilots that cannot fit in the jet is 13.6%. The correct answer: D.
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Exercise 36. Required sample size.


The life in hours of a light-bulb is known to be normally distributed with = 25 hrs.
Suppose the total width of the two-sided CI on mean life expectancy needs to be 6
hours at 95% confidence. What sample size should be use?
A.
196
Solution.

B.
245

C.
267

D.
302

25, 95% CL, confidence interval = 6 hrs.

Note that E = x- = 0.5 x 6 hrs.= 3 hrs.


2

2
z /2
(1.96)25
n

266.78; Therefore the required
x

sample size, n, is = 267. The Correct Answer is C.

Exercise 37. Confidence Level. Harrys Chocolate Factory has a daily production
rate that is normally distributed with a mean of 88 pounds per day and a standard
deviation of 2.1 pounds per day. The daily output is measured with random samplings
on 50 consecutive days, and the mean output is found to be 87.1 pounds per day. With
a 95% confidence level, determine if the factory is operating properly.
A. There is at least a 5% probability that the factory is operating properly.
B. There is at least a 95% probability that the factory is operating properly.
C. There is at least a 5% probability that the factory is not operating properly.
D. There is at least a 95% probability that the factory is not operating properly.
Solution. Use the 5 step procedure.
1. The sampling is random and from a normal population.
2. C=0.95 is given.
3. Since a specific direction in the variation is not given (i.e. the example does not
ask if the average has decreased), use a two-tail hypothesis test.
4. From page 45 Table of Fractiles , x = 1.96 for W(x) = 0.95.
x'

87.1 88.0
3.03
2.1
50

Since 3.03 > 1.96, the distributions are not the same. There is at least a 95%
probability that the factory is not operating correctly.
Therefore the correct answer is D.
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ENGINEERING PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS

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Supplemental Material
Problems 38 to 82 are
For Home Review Only

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y

STRAIGHT LINE

C (200,900)

Exercise 38. Straight Lines. Given the figure at right


and the coordinates of points A, B, C, and D, determine
the following:
a.) The slope of Line AB.
A.

-0.625

(500,750)

A (100,500) D (300,500)

B.

+0.625

C.

-1.60

D.

4.00

b.) The distance between points A and B?


A.

412.31

B.

471.07

C.

471.70

D.

421.31

+0.625

C.

-1.60

D.

-4.00

c.) The slope of Line CD.


A.

-0.625

B.

d.) The slope of a Line AB (not shown) which is perpendicular to Line AB.
A

-1.60

B.

+0.25

C.

+1.60

D.

-0.25

e.) The slope of a Line CD (not shown) which is perpendicular to Line CD.
A

-1.60

B.

+0.25

C.

+1.60

D.

-0.25

Solution:

See FESRH page 21


y 750 500 250
a.) Slope of Line AB= m AB
=
=
0.625; B
x 500 100 400
b.) Length AB =

500 100

c.) Slope of Line CD = mCD

750 500 = 222,500 = 471.70; B


2

y 500 900 400


=
=
4.00; D
x 300 200 100

d.) The slope of line A'B' is m A ' B '

1
1

1.60;
mAB 0.625

e.) The slope of line C'D' is mC ' D '

1
1

0.25;
B
mCD 4.00ENGINEERING PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS

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QUADRATIC EQUATION
Exercise 39. Determine the roots of the following equation by using the quadratic
equation to solve for x.
3x 2 - 1,400x - 160,000 = 0
A
516.63 & 94.96

B
C
561.63 & -163.22 -1,400 & -94.96

D
561.63 & -94.96

Solution: See FESRH page 21


-b b 2 - 4ac
x=
; Where: a = 3; b = -1,400; c = -160,000
2a
-(-1,400) (-1,400) 2 - 4(3)(-160,000)
x=
2(3)
1,400 1,960,000+1,920,000
x=
= 561.63 and -94.96
6
The correct answer is D.
Exercise 40. Determine the roots of the following equation by using the quadratic
equation to solve for z.
z2 - 17z - 60 = 0
A
-20 and 3
Solution:

B
-12 and 5

20

C
and

-3 12

D
and

See FESRH page 21

b 2 - 4ac
z=
; Where: a = 1; b = -17; c = -60
2a
-(-17) (-17) 2 - 4(1)(-60)
z=
2(1)
-b

z=

17

289+240 17 23
=
20 and -3
2
2

The correct answer is C.


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CONIC SECTIONS
Exercise 41. Equation of Circle. Find the equation of the circle passing through the
following three points: (0, -16), (0, 0), and (10, 4)?
A.

( x - 9)2 ( y - (-8))2 12.042

B.

( x - 9)2 ( y - (8))2 10.02

C.

( x 9)2 ( y 8)2 144

D.

( x 9)2 ( y 8)2 12

Solution: See FESRH page 22


The center-radius form of the equation of a circle
where the circles center point is at (h,k).
( x h)2 ( y k )2 r 2
Substitute the first two points, (0,-16), (0,0) into the equation.
(0 h)2 (0 k )2 r 2 ;

(0 h)2 (16 k )2 r 2

Since both equations are equal to the unknown r2, set the left sides equal to each other.
h 2 k 2 h2 256 32k k 2 Simplify. 0 256 32 k,
and solve for k k

256
8
32

Substitute the third point, (10, 4), into the center-radius form to create the third
equation. Set the third equation equal to the first equation. Simplify and solve for h.
(10 h)2 (4 (8)) 2 (0 h) 2 (0 (8)) 2
Simplify 100 20h h 2 144 h 2 64
Simplify 180 20h; and solve for h h = 9

Since h and k are known, substitute them into the first equation to solve for r.
h2 k 2 r 2 92 (8)2 81 64 145 r 2 ;

r 145 12.04
Substitute the known values of h, k, and r into the center-radius form:
( x 9)2 ( y (8)) 2 12.042 and the correct answer is A.
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Exercise 42. Ellipse Find the equation of an ellipse with foci at ( 25,0) and major
axis of length 70.
A.
2

B.

x y
=1
25 35

D.
x y
x y
x y

=1

=1
= -1

35 25
35
24.49
50
49.24

C.

Solution: See FESRH page 21


Draw a rough sketch of the ellipse. Given the coordinates of the two foci, we see that
the center of this ellipse, (h,k) is at (0,0), and that the major axis runs horizontally from
vertex to vertex, through the two foci. The length of the major axis is given as 70, and
is equal to 2a. Based on the coordinates of the foci, the distance between foci is 2c =
50. The dimension b is needed for the equation of the ellipse, and can be found using
the dimensions a and c, and the Pythagorean Theorem.

b 2 a 2 c 2 352 252 ; b 352 252 24.49

x h

( y k )2

1; when the center is at the origin (h k 0)


a2
b2
2
2
x y
Therefore the equation of the ellipse is:
1
35
24.49

See Refresher page 1-8a2, Equa. 4.14.


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The correct answer is B.


Exercise 43. Parabola Find the equation of a
parabola with vertex at (0, 0) and focus at (6, 0)

A.

y2 4x

VERTEX

B.

( y 4) (12)( x 6)
2

(h, k )

FOCUS
(6, 0)

- 0.4

0.1

0.6

1. 1

1. 6

-2

C.

( y 6)2 2(12)( x 4)

-4

D.

-6

y 2 24 x

-8

Solution: See FESRH page 21


The standard form of the equation of a parabola is (y-k)2 = 2p(x-h). But with the
vertex, (h,k) located at (0,0), and the focus at (h + p/2, k) = (6,0); p = 12, the standard
form of the equation reduces to:

y 2 2 px 2(12) x 24 x
The correct answer is D.

Exercise 44. Sphere (Quadric Surface) What is the radius of a sphere with center at
(10,10,10) that passes through the point (0,0,0)?
A.
10.00

B.
6.69

C.
17.32

D.
12.00

Solution: See FESRH page 22


r 2 ( x h) 2 ( y k ) 2 ( z l ) 2
r (0 10)2 (0 10)2 (0 10) 2 300 17.32

The correct answer is C.


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LOGARITHMS
Exercise 45. Solve for a: given that 2a = 1.587(a+4)
A.
3

B.
6.69

C.
1.28

D.
8

Solution: See FESRH page 22


ln 2a = ln (1.587 (a+4)); a(ln 2) = (a+4) ln 1.587; a(0.693) = (a+4)0.462;
solving for a, a = 8 and the correct answer is D.

Exercise 46. Given that log a = 12, log b = 10; log c = 13, k = 3, and x = 5, solve
the following:

a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)

log a/b
logcc
log ab
log 1
log ak
log 1/b
log cx

Solution:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)

A.
2
0
-4.79
0
5.73
-1
65

B.
0.08
-1
4.79
1
36
1
18

C.
-2
1
2.08
2
1728
-10
5.57

D.
0.182
2
22
3
4.79
10
12.82

See FESRH page 22

log a/b
logcc
log ab
log 1
log ak
log 1/b
log cx

log a log b = 12 10 = 2
1
log a + log b = 12 + 10 = 22
0
k(log a) = 3(12) = 36
log 1 log b = 0 10 = -10
x(log c) = 5(13) = 65

Correct Answers
A
C
D
A
B
C
A

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TRIGONOMETRY
Exercise 47. Triangles A 6 foot tall man is standing in the exact center of a
rectangular room that measures 400 ft long by 100 ft wide by 15 feet high. He is
facing one of the short sides of the room. Imagine the triangle created on the floor by
the man and the two corners of the wall he is facing.
a) What is the angle of the triangle at the vertex at which he is standing?
A.
14.0350 B. 28.070
C. 151.930 D. 75.960
b) What is the distance from the mans feet to the floor/wall corners of the room?
A.
205.38 B. 412.31 C. 211
D. 206.16
c) What is the distance from the top of the mans head to the ceiling/wall corners?
A.
206.36 B. 206.18 C. 206.50 D. 9
d) What is the greatest distance in the room between floor and ceiling /wall
corners?
A.
412.99 B. 412.58 C. 291.94 D. 411.34

Solution:

See FESRH page 22

50
0
a.) Angle of triangle at the man: = 2tan 1
=28.07 ;
200
Correct answer: B
b.) Distance, man's feet to floor corners:

2002 502 42,500 206.16 ft;

Correct answer: D
c.) Distance, man's head to ceiling corners: 206.162 (15 6) 2 42,582.9
206.36 ft; Correct answer: A
d.) Farthest distance ceiling corner to floor corner: (2 206.16) 2 152
42,582.9 412.58 ft ; Correct answer: B

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Exercise 48. Triangle The following is known about a triangle with vertices X, Y,
and Z: XY = 300 ft, Angle Y = 750; and YZ = 200 ft. (Hint: this is not a right
triangle)

d.)
e.)
f.)

Length XZ
Angle X
Area of Triangle
XYZ (in acres).

A.
310.12
39. 870
0.665

B.
314.55
87. 390
28,977

C.
19389.8
37. 890
23,977.5

D.
490.52
37. 890
5,000

Solution: See FESRH page 22


a.) Length ZX = b; by the Law of Cosines, b 2 = a 2 +c 2 2ac cos B
b = 2002 +3002 2(200)(300) cos750 = 40,000+90,000-120,000(0.2588)
= 98,941.71 314.55 f t;

Therefore the correct answer is B.

a
b
a sin B
200sin 750
b.) By the Law of Sines,

;
sin A
;
sin A sin B
b
314.55
Angle X Angle A = sin 1 0.614 37.890 ; Therefore the correct answer is C.
c.) Area of triangle: Divide the triangle into two right triangles by passing a vertical
line through Vertex Z.
Use the formula Area = base x height x 1/2, twice, once for each of the two right triangles.
The triangle on the left has a hypotanuse of 314.55' and Angle X = 37.890
Therefore it's base is: 314.55'(cos 37.890 ) 314.55'(0.789) 248.24',
and the triangle on the right has a base of 300' - 248.24' = 51.76'.

The vertical sides of the two triangles is common to both triangles, and is equal to:
314.55'(sin 37.890 ) 314.55'(0.614) 193.18'
Therefore the areas are:
Area (left) = 1/2(248.24')(193.18') = 23,977.50 sf
Area (right) = 1/2(51.76')(193.18') = 4,999.50 sf
Total area =

28,977.00 sf
28,977.00 sf
0.665 acres;
ENGINEERING
PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS
43,560 sf/ac

Don't forget to convert sf to acres: Area XYZ =


Therefore the correct answer is A.

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WORKSHOP

TRIGONOMETRY - Trigonometric Identities


Exercise 49. Which of the following expressions is equivalent to sin2?
A. sincos
B. 2cos2 - 2sin2
C. 2sincos
D. 1- 2sin2
Solution: See FESRH page 23, The Correct answer C.
Exercise 50. Which of the following expressions is equivalent to sin cos?
A. [cos( - ) - cos( + )]
B. [cos( - ) + cos( + )]
C. [sin( + ) + sin( - )]
D. [sin( + ) + cos( + )]
Solution: See FESRH page 23, The Correct answer C.
Exercise 51. Which of the following expressions is equivalent to sin ( )?
A. sin cos - cos sin
B. cos cos + sin sin
C. cos cos - sin sin
D. sin cos + cos sin
Solution: See FESRH page 23, The Correct answer A.
Exercise 52. Which of the following expressions is equivalent to cos ( )?
A. sin cos - cos sin
B. cos cos + sin sin
C. cos cos - sin sin
D. sin cos + cos sin
Solution: See FESRH page 23, The Correct answer B.

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ENGINEERING PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS

WORKSHOP

VECTORS
Exercise 53. Vector Addition and Subtraction Perform the indicated operations on
the following vectors:
X = 2 3 1 6, Y = 5 1 12 1, Z 1 0 4 3

a.)

X Y

b.)

YX

c.)

X Z

A.
8 4 13 7

B.
7 4 13 7

C.
7 4 11 7

D.
7 4 13 9

2 5 9

3 5 9

3 4 9

3 5 6

5
3

1 12 1

3
3

-2 13 -7

Solution: See FESRH page 24


a.)
X Y 2 5 3 1 1 12 6 1 7

3
3

-2 11 -5

13

3
3

2 11 -5

7 ; The correct answer is B.

b.)

Y X 5 2 1 3 12 1 1 6 3 2 11 5; The correct answer is C.

c.)

X Z 2 1 3 0 1 4 6 3 3

9 ; The correct answer is B.

Exercise 54. Resultant of Multiple Vectors


For vectors X 3i 0 j 16k , Y 2i 2 j 2k , Z 1i 8 j 6k

X Y +Z
Solution:

A.
4i 6 j 20k

B.
4i 6 j 20k

C.
4i 6 j 20k

D.
4i 6 j 20k

See FESRH page 24

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WORKSHOP

X Y +Z
X 3i 0 j 16k
Y 2i 2 j 2k
Z 1i 8 j 6k

X Y + Z 4i 6 j 20k
The correct answer is A.

MATRICES
Exercise 55. Transpose
1 2 3
Given X 4 5 6 ;

7 8 9

Solution: See FESRH page 23


1 4 7
T
X 2 5 8 The correct answer is B.

3 6 9
T

Find the second row of X ;

A.
4 5 6

B.
2 5 8

C.
1 5 9

D.
3 5 7

Exercise 56. Determinants Find the determinants of the following matrices:


3 1
a.) X =
;
2 2

1 1 2
c.) Z 0 6 3
4 7 5

4 3 0
b.) Y = 2 2 2 ;
1 1 3

a.) det X
b.) det Y
c.) det Z

A.
4
40
45

B.
8
8
-87

C.
-4
4
-45

D.
-8
56
-9

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ENGINEERING PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS

Solutions:

WORKSHOP

See FESRH page 24

a.) det X 3 2) - (2 1 6 - 2 4;

The correct answer is A.

b.) det Y (4 2 3) (3 2 1) (0 2 1) - [(1 2 0) (1 2 4) (3 2 3)]


(24 6 0) - [(0 8 18)] (30) - [(26)] 4;
The correct answer is C.
c.) det Z (-1 6 5) (1 3 4) (2 0 7) - [(4 6 2) (7 3 -1) (5 0 1)]
(-30 12 0) - [(48 - 21 0)] (-18) - [(27)] -45;
The correct answer is C.

VECTORS
Exercise 57. Vector Cross Product

Find A B using the following vectors, A (1i 2 j 1k );


A.

11i, 5 j, 1k
Solution:

B.

11i, 5 j, 1k

B (0i 1 j 5k );

C.

11i, 5 j, +1k

D.

11i, 5 j, +1k

See FESRH page 24


A B A B n sin (a2b3 a3b2 , a3b1 a1b3 , a1b2 a2b1 )
(2 5 (1) 1, 1 0 1 5, 1 1 2 0)
[(10 1)i, (5 0) j, (1 0) k ] (11i, 5 j,1k );
The correct answer is D.

Exercise 58. Area of Parallelogram What is the area of the parallelogram made by
the following vectors?
A (1i 2 j 1k ); B (0i 1 j 5k );

A.

B.

All lengths are in meters.

C.

D.

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147 m2
Solution:

3.60 m2

WORKSHOP

11 m2

12.12 m2

See FESRH page 24


A B (10 1)i (0 5) j (1 0)k 11i, 5 j , k
Area 112 (5)2 12 121 25 1 147 12.12 m2
The correct answer is D.

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ENGINEERING PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS

WORKSHOP

Exercise 59. Volume of Parallelepiped What is the volume of the parallelepiped


made by vectors.
A (2i 2 j 1k ); B (4i 2 j 2k ); C (i 5 j 4k ); All lengths are in meters.
A.
B.
C.
D.
62
52
42
24

Solution:

See FESRH page 24

V1x V1 y V1z 2 2 1

Volume A ( B C ) V V2 x V2 y V2 z 4 2 2 ;

V3 x V3 y V3 z 1 5 4

Expand this determinant by the first column.


(2)[(2)(4) (5)(2)] (4)[(2)(4) (5)(1)] (1)[( 2)(2) (2)(1)]
(2)(2) (4)(13) (1)( 6) 4 + 52 6 = 42m3 Therefore the correct answer is C.

Exercise 60. Cofactor Matrix


3 2 1
COFACTOR
Given X 1 6 3 ; Find the third row of X
;

2 4 0
A.
B.
C.
-12 10 -16
12 -10 16
12 6 -16

D.
12 10 16

Solution: See FESRH page 24


The entries in the cofactor matrix are the determinants of submatrices resulting from the
elimination of the row i and column j of the entry a ij . The entry is multiplied by +1 or -1
depending on its position. X is the coefficient matrix.
The cofactor matrix of X is X

COFACTOR

12 6 16
4
2
16

12 10 16

The correct answer is B.

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ENGINEERING PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS

WORKSHOP

Exercise 61. Cofactor Matrix

Solution:

10 3 10
Given K 8 2 9 ;

8 1 10

24
11 152
K
40 180 14

47 10 44
Therefore the correct answer is A.

Find the second row of K

A.
40 -180 14

See FESRH page 24

COFACTOR

COFACTOR

B.
40 180 14

C.
-40 -180 14

D.
-40 -180 -14

Exercise 62. Classical Adjoint Find the second row of the classical adjoint of Matrix
K and the third row of the classical adjoint of Matrix X.

a.)

a.)
b.)

10 3 10
K 8 2 9

8 1 10
A.
152 -180 -44
-16 -16 16

Solution:

b.)

B.
152 -180 10
16 -16 -16

3 2 1
X 1 6 3

2 4 0
C.
152 -180 -10
-16 16 16

D.
-152 180 10
-16 16 -16

See FESRH page 24

The classical adjoint is the transpose of the cofactor matrix.


24
40
47
11 152
11
ADJOINT
a.)
K
40 180 14 therefore K
152 180 10

47 10 44
24
14
44
Therefore the correct answer is C.
COFACTOR

12 6 16
12 4 12
ADJOINT

b.)
X
4
2
16 therefore X
6
2 10

12 10 16
16 16 16
ENGINEERING PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS
Therefore the correct answer is C.
COFACTOR

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WORKSHOP

Exercise 63. Inverse Matrices Find the first row of the inverse matrix of the given
matrix.
1
3 2
Given A
,
Find
A
.

7 10
A.
10/16

Solution:

B.
-2/16

10/16

C.
-7/16

-2/16

10/16

D.
10/16 3/16

See FESRH page 24

d b
c a
1
a b

For the 2x2 matrix


, Therefore, A

A
c d

10 2
2
10
7 3
16

16
;
7
3
16
16
16

Therefore the correct answer is A.

Exercise 64. Inverse Matrices Find the third row of the inverse matrix of the given
matrix.
1 3 1
1
Given G 1 0 1 , Find G .

0 1 1
A.
1 1 1

B.
3 -2 3

C.
-1 -1 -3

D.
-1 -1 3

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Solution:

WORKSHOP

See FESRH page 24

The classical adjoint is the transpose of the cofactor matrix. For the 3x3 matrix the inverse is
determined by dividing every entry in the classical adjoint by the determinant of the original matrix.
1 1 1
G
2 1 1 ; adj G

3 2 3
1 2 3
1 1 2

1
3
1
adj G
G
=
1

(1)
G
1
COFACTOR

Solution:
See FESRH page 24

1 2 3
1 1 2

1 1 3

3
1 2 ;

1 3

Exercise 65. Inverse Matrices Find the


second row of the inverse matrix of the
given matrix.
A.
-4/15 13/15 1/15

COFACTOR T

B.
-4/15 13/45 1/15

The correct answer is D.

1 1 2
1
Given H 0 6 3 , Find H .

4 7 5
C.
D.
-4/15 13/45 -1/15 -4/15 -13/15 -1/15

9
3 ; H 45;

6
9 9
13 3
1 / 5
1 / 5
1 / 5
11 6
4 / 15 13 / 45 1 / 15

45
8 / 15 11 / 45 2 / 15
The correct answer is C.
9
9
adj H 12 13

24 11
9
12

1
adj H 24
H
=
H

2 x3 6
x1

3x1 4 x2 6 x3 30
x 2 x 3x 8
1
2
3

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ENGINEERING PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS

WORKSHOP

Exercise 66. Simultaneous Equations by Cramers Rule Find the values of x1, x2,
and x3 in the following system of simultaneous equations.
A.
-12

11

18
38
11
11

Solution:
x1

B.
10
18
38
10
10
10

C.
18
11

38
10
11
11

D.
10

11

18
38
11
11

See FESRH page 24


A1

A2 det( A )
A3 det( A )
det( A1 )
3
2
; x2

; x3

;
det( A)
det( A)
det( A)
A
A

1 0 2
6 0 2
1 6 2
1 0 6

A 3 4 6 ; A1 30 4 6 ; A2 3 30 6 ; A3 3 4 30 ;

1 2 3
8 2 3
1 8 3
1 2 8
x1

A2 det( A ) 72 18
det( A1 ) 40 10
2

; x2

;
44
11
det( A)
det( A) 44 11
A

A3

det( A )

A1

152

38

3
x3

;
The correct answer is D.
Exer
44 11
det(
A
)
A
2
4 x1 x2
cise
11x x 2 x 3
67.
2
3
1

Simultaneous Equations by Cramers Rule. Find the


x1 5 x2 2 x3 1
values of x, y, and z in the following system of
simultaneous equations.

A.

20 24 34
,
,
52 52 52

B.

20 24 34
,
,
50
50 50

Solution: See FESRH page 24


20
24
34
x1
; x2
; x3
;
52
52
52

C.

20 24 34
,
,
52 52 52

D.

20 24 34
,
,
26 26 26

The correct answer is A.

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ENGINEERING PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS

WORKSHOP

PROGRESSIONS AND SERIES


Exercise 68, Geometric Series. What is the summation of the series 40 52n for 3
terms starting at n=1?
A.
B.
C.
D.
252
48
200
248
Solution:
3

40 5

See FESRH page 25


2 n

(40 521 ) (40 522 ) (40 523 ) 200 40 8 248

t 1

or S=
3

40 5

(a rl ) (200 0.20[8])
=
248
(1 r )
(1 0.20)

2 n

(40 521 ) (40 522 ) (40 523 ) 200 40 8 248

t 1

The correct answer is D.

Exercise 69. Arithmetic Progression


What are the next terms in the following progressions?
4, 2, 0, -2,

A.

B.

C.

D.

-4

-6

Solutions: See FESRH page 25


With a difference of -2 between terms, so the next term is 2 2 = 4.
The correct answer is B.

Exercise 70. An arithmetic progression has a 5th term of 10 and a 10th of 110. What is
the sum of the 6th and 11th terms?
A.
B.
C.
D.
120
160
30
130
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ENGINEERING PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS

Solutions:

WORKSHOP

See FESRH page 25

In an arithmetic progression the nth term is defined as: an = a1 + (n 1)d. In this case
the 5th and 10th terms are given. The 5th term is 10, and the 10th term is 110. Insert
these values into the above definition to set up the following equations:
a5 = a1 + (5 1)d
= a1 + 4d = 10 Subtract the 2nd equation from the 1st
a10 = a1 + (10 1)d
= a1 + 9d = 110
and solve for d.
a5
= a1 + (5 1)d = a1 - 5d = -100; therefore d = 20;
Inserting these values into the above, the definition of a10 becomes:
a10 = a1 + (10 1)20 =110. Solving for a1
a1 = 110 (9)20 = 110 180 = -70, the definition becomes: an = -70 + (n 1)20,
and the progression is: -70, -50, -30, -10, 10, 30, 50, 70, 90, 110, 130...
Sixth term: 30; Eleventh term: 130; Sum of terms: 30 + 130 = 160
The correct answer is: B.
PROGRESSIONS AND SERIES
Exercise 71. Geometric Progression What is the next term in the following
progressions?
a.)
b.)

4, 20, 100, 500,


39, 156, 624, 2496,

A.
1000
3120

B.
900
9984

C.
2500
2808

D.
2800
14,976

S: See FESRH page 25


The next terms
a.) Each term in the series is 5 times the previous term so the next term will be
2500.
The correct answer is C.
b.) Each term in the series is 4 times the previous term so the next term will be
9984.
The correct answer is B.

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WORKSHOP

Exercise 72. Geometric Progression A certain progression has a 1st term of 8 and a
7th of 50. What is the 11th term of the progression?
A.
36.85

B.
20.00

C.
312.75

D.
169.77

Solutions: See FESRH page 25


In a geometric progression, the nth term is defined as: an = a1r(n1)
In this case a1 = 8, a7 = 50, and n = 7.
First, determine the common ratio, r;
a7 = a1r(71) = 8r6 = 50, therefore r = (50/8)1/6 = 1.3573
Second, check the ratio, based on known 7th term: a7 = (8)1.3573(71) = 50.00 OK!!
Third, insert a1 = 8 and r = 1.3573 into the above definition to find the 4th and 11th
terms.
a11 = (8)1.3573(111) = (8)(21.22) = 169.77
The correct answer is D.
Exercise 73. Arithmetic Series What is the summation of the series 17 (n+2)2 for
4 terms starting at n=1?
A.
B.
C.
D.
22
27
32
37
Solutions:

See FESRH page 25

Basic expression: 17 (n 2)2


a 17 (1 2)2 17 (3)2 17 6 11
l 17 (4 2)2 17 (6)2 17 12 5
S n(a l ) / 2 4(11 5) / 2 4(16) / 2 32
4

By "brute force" method:

17 - (n 2)2
t 1

[17 (1 2)2] 17 (2 2)2 17 (3 2)2 17 (4 2)2


11 9 7 1 32

The correct answer is C.

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WORKSHOP

Exercise 74. Arithmetic Series What is the summation of the series 15+(4 - n)2 for 4
terms starting at n=11?
A.
B.
C.
D.
8
-9
-10
-8
Solutions:

See FESRH page 25

Basic Expression: 15+(4-n)2 for 4 times, starting with n=11.


a=15+(4-11)2=15+(-7)2=15-15=1
l 15+(4-14)2=15+(-10)2=15-20=-5
S n(a l ) / 2 4(1 (5)) / 2 4(4) / 2 8
By the "Brute Force" method.
4

15 (4 n)2
t 11

15 (4 11)2 15 (4 12)2 15 (4 13)2 15 (4 14)2 1 1 3 5 8

The correct answer is D.


Exercise 75. Geometric Series. What is the summation of the series 5 2n2 for 5 terms starting at
n=1?

A.
720
Solution:
5

5 2

n 2

B.
1240

C.
600

D.
2520

See FESRH page 25


(5 212 ) (5 222 ) (5 232 ) (5 242 ) (5 252 )

t 1

=40 80 160 320 640 1240; or S=

(a rl ) (40 2[640])
=
1240
(1 r )
(1 2)
The correct answer is B.

Exercise 76. Geometric Series


10

Find the summation of the series.

5(2)

i 1

for 10 terms starting at n=1?

i 1

A.
-1,705

B.
1708.33

Solution:

C.
1854.6

D.
-6,789

See FESRH page 25

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ENGINEERING PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS


10

5(2)

i 1

WORKSHOP

5 10 20 40 ... 2,560

i 1

This is a geometric series with common ratio r = -2,


and the first term a1 5. Therefore the summation of this series is
S10

a1 (1 r10 ) 5(1 (2)10 ) 5(1 (2)10 ) 5115

1,705
1 r
1 (2)
3
3
The correct answer is A.
2 n

Exercise 77. Geometric Series. What is the summation of the series 40 5


for 3 terms starting at n=1?
A.
B.
C.
D.
252
48
200
248
Solution:
3

40 5

2 n

See FESRH page 25


(40 521 ) (40 522 ) (40 523 ) 200 40 8 248

t 1

or S=

(a rl ) (200 0.20[8])
=
248
(1 r )
(1 0.20)

The correct answer is D.

Exercise 78.
Geometric Series. What is the summation of the series 23 3 for 5 terms starting at
n=5?
A.
B.
C.
D.
3.41
3.69
3.81
3.98
3 n

Solution:
3

23 3

3 n

See FESRH page 25


(23 335 ) (23 336 ) (23 337 ) (23 338 ) (23 339 )

t 1

(23 32 ) (23 33 ) (23 34 ) (23 35 ) (23 36 )

23 23 23 23
23

2.56 0.85 0.28 0.09 0.03 3.81


9 27 81 243 729

The correct answer is C.

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ENGINEERING PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS

WORKSHOP

Exercise 79. Convergent Geometric Series Determine the sum of the following
geometric series to n = 5 (starting at zero).

3
2n
A.
7.500
Solution:

B.
6.000

C.
5.812

D.
1.938

See FESRH page 25

5
4
1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4
3
1
3 3

5
2
n 0
n 0 2
2 2 2 2 2
4

31 0.50 0.25 0.125 0.0625 31.9375 5.8125

The correct answer is C.

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WORKSHOP

MENSURATION OF AREAS AND VOLUMES


Exercise 80. Sphere The spherical steel enclosure shown
here has an inside diameter of 10.0 feet. Determine :
a.) the volume of the inside of the enclosure in cubic
yards and
b.) the surface area in square yards.

a.) volume
b.) area
Solution:

A.
174.42
34.91

B.
19.38
6.98

C.
34.91
104.72

D.
3.88
11.64

a.)

See FESRH page 28


4 r 3
4(3.14)53
V

19.38 yd 3
3(27 cf/cy)
81
Therefore the correct answer is B.

b.)

A 4 r 2

4(3.14)52
34.91 yd 2
9 sf/sy
Therefore the correct answer is A.

Exercise 81. Circular Segment

Water is flowing in a pipe with an inside diameter of 24 inches. The


maximum depth of flow is 4 inches. Determine the flow area.
A.
54.35

B.
49.38

C.
34.91

D.
38.88

Solution: See FESRH page 28


Calculate the angle using the equation,

r d

12 4
0
=2 arccos
2 arccos
96.38
r
12

To convert from degrees to radians, multiply degrees by pi rad / 1800 .

3.1416
1
1
=96.380
1.68 radians; A= r 2 sin = 122 1.68 sin1.68 49.38 in 2 ;
0
2
2
180

Therefore the correct answer is B.

ENGINEERING PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS

This copy is given to the following student as part of School of PE course. Not allowed to distribute to others.
eric rhule (rhuleg@yahoo.com)

52

ENGINEERING PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS

WORKSHOP

Exercise 82. Right Circular Cone


A pile of sand, the shape of a right circular cone,
is 18 feet high and 30 feet in diamter at its base.
a.) What is the volume of the pile (to the closest cubic yard)?
b.) Determine the side area of the pile (to the closest square yard)?
A.
16,956
123

a.) volume
b.) area

Solution:

B.
157
1104

C.
4239
271

D.
471
11.64

See FESRH page 29

r 2h

a.)

b.)

A r

(3.14)152 (18)
4,239 ft 3 157 yd 3
3
Therefore the correct answer is B.

r 2 h 2 3.14(15)

152 182 47.1(23.43) 1103.59 ft 2

= 1103.59 ft 2 9 ft 2 /yd 2 122.62 yd 2


Therefore the correct answer is A.

ENGINEERING PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS

This copy is given to the following student as part of School of PE course. Not allowed to distribute to others.
eric rhule (rhuleg@yahoo.com)

53