Maths Problem Solution for the FE 2011

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Maths Problem Solution for the FE 2011

Maths Problem Solution for the FE 2011

© All Rights Reserved

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Statiistics

WorkkshopClaass

Fall 2011

This copy is given to the following student as part of School of PE course. Not allowed to distribute to others.

eric rhule (rhuleg@yahoo.com)

MATHEMATICS

WORKSHOP

INTRODUCTION

This workshop contains 82 exercises designed to help you prepare for the following

topic areas of the Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Exam:

Mathematics

Average Percentage of a.m. and p.m. test content: 12.5%

A. Analytic geometry

B. Integral and partial differential calculus

C. Matrix operations

D. Roots of equations

E. Linear Algebra, Vector analysis

F. Differential equations

G. Differential calculus

Engineering Probability and Statistics

Average Percentage of a.m. and p.m. test content: 8%

A. Measures of central tendencies and dispersions (e.g., mean, mode, std deviation)

B. Probability distributions (e.g., discrete, continuous, normal, binomial)

C. Conditional probabilities

D. Estimation (e.g., point, confidence intervals) for a single mean

E. Regression and curve fitting

F. Expected value (weighted average) in decision-making

G. Hypothesis testing

The FE exam contains 180 multiple-choice questions and is split into a morning session (120 questions)

and an afternoon session (60 questions). The exam lasts eight hours. The above topic areas represent

approximately 20.5% of the total test content.

The organization of this workshop follows that of the NCEES FE Supplied-Reference Handbook

(FESRH), which is the official reference material used in the FE exam room. Review it prior to exam

day and familiarize yourself with the charts, formulas, tables, and other reference information provided.

Note that personal copies will not be allowed in the exam room. New copies will be supplied at the

exam site. The Fall 2011 FE Exam will use the FESHR, 8th edition, 2nd revision.

The FESRH can be downloaded from the NCEES web site at:

http://www.ncees.org/Exams/Study_materials/Download_FE_Supplied-Reference_Handbook.php

MATHEMATICS

This copy is given to the following student as part of School of PE course. Not allowed to distribute to others.

eric rhule (rhuleg@yahoo.com)

MATHEMATICS

WORKSHOP

DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS

Exercise 1. The Derivative Find the slope of the graph g(x) =

a.)

b.)

x at x = 2

1

f(x) = 2 at x = 2

x

g(x) =

Solution:

x when

A.

-21.0

B.

-0.21

C.

0.21

D.

0.12

0.125

-0.25

+0.25

-0.125

a.)

g(x) =

b.)

f(x) =

1

3

1 23

1

1

x = x ; differentiate: x 2 ;g(2) =

0.21

2

3

3

3

3x

3(2)

Therefore the correct answer is C.

1

= x 2 ; differentiate: (-2)x 3 ; f(2) = (-2)23 0.25

2

x

Therefore the correct answer is B.

g(x) = (x5 3x4 7)1/3

A.

B.

1 5

1 5

(x 3x 4 7)2/3 (5 x 12) x 4

(x 3x 4 7) 2/3 (5 x 12) x3

3

3

C.

D.

1 5

1 5

(x 3x 4 7)2/3 (5 x 12) x3

(x 3x 4 7)2/3 (5 x 12) x3

3

3

Solution:

g'(x) =

dk

5 x 4 12 x3

dx

1 5

(x 3x 4 7) 2/3 (5 x 12) x3

3

MATHEMATICS

This copy is given to the following student as part of School of PE course. Not allowed to distribute to others.

eric rhule (rhuleg@yahoo.com)

MATHEMATICS

WORKSHOP

DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS

Exercise 3. Maximum and Minimum Values, and Radius of Curvature

Find the maximum and minimum values of the following function on the indicated

interval

f ( x) x3 10 x 8 (-2 < x < 2); find Radius of Curvature at x = 0.60 (in feet).

A.

252

Solutions:

B.

48

C.

201

D.

248

y=x^3-10x+8

f '( x) 3x 2 10 0;

f(x)

y'=3x^2-10

23

= 3x2-10

18

13

-b b 2 - 4ac

x=

;

2a

8

3

Where: a = 3; b = 0; c = -10

-6

-4

-2

-2 0

-7

-12

x=

=

= -1.8257 and 1.8257

2(3)

6

6

Therefore, local max point = (-1.8, 20.2); and local min point = (1.8, -4.2)

3

2

1 ( y ')

Radius of Curvature, R =

( y " 0);

2

y"

1 (3 x 2 10) 2 2

1 (3(.60) 2 10) 2 2

R(x)=

200.876'

6x

6(0.60)

MATHEMATICS

eric rhule (rhuleg@yahoo.com)

MATHEMATICS

WORKSHOP

DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS

Exercise 4. The Partial Derivative What is the partial derivative a / c of the

following equation?

a 7b2 12bc

A.

14b 12b

2

B.

12b

1

ln(d )

c

cos(d 2 b)

ln(d )

C.

2d sin(d 2 b)

D.

14b 12c

c

ln(d )

2

c

1

1

cos(d 2 b) 0 12b

0 12b

7b 12bc

c

ln(d )

ln(d )

ln(d )

MATHEMATICS

eric rhule (rhuleg@yahoo.com)

MATHEMATICS

WORKSHOP

INTEGRAL CALCULUS

Exercise 5. What is the approximate area bounded by the curves y1 = 30 - x2

and y2 = -40 + x2?

A.

B.

C.

D.

543

552

564

532

FIND THE AREA BETWEEN THE CURVES

40

30

20

Y AXIS

35

-10

-8

35

10

-6

-4

0

-10 0

-2

10

-20

-30

-40

y1=30-x^2

-50

X AXIS

y2 = -40+x^2

Find the values of x where the two curves intersect

30 x2 40 x2 70 2 x2 they intersect at x 35.

Find the area between the curves with limits x 35 .

A

x2

x1

f1 ( x)

f 2 ( x) dx

35

35

(30 x )-(-40 x ) dx

2

35

35

1

1

2

30 x x3 40 x x3

70 x x3

3

3 35

3 35

3

3

2

2

70 35

35 70 35 35 414.125 138.04 414.125 138.04

3

3

The correct answer is B.

MATHEMATICS

eric rhule (rhuleg@yahoo.com)

MATHEMATICS

WORKSHOP

y1 = 1/2x +2,

y2 = -1/3x + 3, y = 0, and x = 0?

A.

11.4

B.

13.5

C.

27

D.

12.9

Draw a rough sketch to help visualize the boundaries that define the area.

y1=1/2(x)+2

y2=-1/3(x)+3

-10

-5

10

15

x3

9 1

Find the area under the dashed line: Adashed y2 ( x) dx x 3 dx

x1

0

3

1

81

9

Adashed x 2 3x 0 27 13.5

6

6

Determine x 2 , the x-coordinate of the point where the two curves intersect

1

1

1

1

5

6

x2 2 x2 3 simplify x2 x 2 3; x2 1; x2 1.20

2

3

2

3

6

5

x2

x2

1.2 1

1.2 1

A'dashed A' solid y2 ( x)dx y1 ( x)dx x 3 dx -

x 2 dx

x1

x1

0

0 2

3

1.2

1

1

1.2

A'dashed x 2 3x 0 ; Asolid x 2 2 x ;

6

4

0

1

1

1.44

1.44

1.2

A'dashed A' solid x 2 3x x 2 2 x 0

3(1.2)

2(1.2)

6

4

6

4

0.6 1.2 0.6

Total Area = Adashed A'dashed A'solid 13.5 0.6 12.9

MATHEMATICS

eric rhule (rhuleg@yahoo.com)

MATHEMATICS

WORKSHOP

t 2 25

Exercise 7. Limits Simplify the following: lim

t 5 t 5

A.

B.

C.

10

0

5

D.

-5

t 2 25

(t 5)(t 5)

lim

lim

lim(t 5) 5 5 10

t 5 t 5

t 5

t 5

t 5

The correct answer is A.

ln x

x x

C.

A.

B.

1

D.

0

Because direct substitution would result in the indeterminate form , apply

LHopitals Rule:

Let f and g be functions that are differentiable on an open interval (a,b) containing c,

except possibly at c itself. Assume that g(x) 0 for all x in (a,b), except possibly at c

itself. If the limit of f(x)/g(x) as x approaches c produces the indeterminate form 0/0,

then

f ( x)

f '( x)

provided the limit on the right exists (or is infinite). This result

lim

lim

x c g ( x)

x c g '( x)

also applies if the limit of f(x)/g(x) as x approaches c produces one of the indeterminate

forms ,() , (),( ).

d

ln x

ln x

1

dx

lim

lim

lim 0

x x

x

x x

d

x

dx

The correct answer is D.

MATHEMATICS

eric rhule (rhuleg@yahoo.com)

MATHEMATICS

WORKSHOP

x2

Exercise 9. Limits Evaluate the following: lim x

x e

A.

B.

C.

D.

0

Because direct substitution would result in the indeterminate form, ,

apply LHopitals Rule to obtain:

d 2

x

2

x

2x

dx

lim x lim

lim x ,

x e

x d

x e

e x

dx

which is indeterminate, so apply L'Hopital's Rule a second time to obtain:

d

2 x

2x

2

dx

lim x lim

lim x 0

Therefore the correct answer is D.

x e

x d

x e

x

e

dx

MATHEMATICS

eric rhule (rhuleg@yahoo.com)

MATHEMATICS

WORKSHOP

A.

C.

Solution:

sec2t dt/dx

tan2t dt/dx

B.

D.

csc t cot t dt/dx

A.

C.

Solution:

sec2z dz/dx

sec z tan z dz/dx

B.

D.

-cot2z dz/dx

csc z cot z dz/dx

A.

C.

Solution:

x sin 2 x

2

4

2cos x

B.

x sin 2 x

2

4

D.

sin x x sin x

A.

C.

Solution:

1a e

1a ln

ax

ax

B.

D.

eax

a2

1 xe

ax 1

a

MATHEMATICS

eric rhule (rhuleg@yahoo.com)

MATHEMATICS

WORKSHOP

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

Exercise 14. Select the first-order differential equation from the following options:

dy 9 t

y2

dt

t

2

d y

C.

t y

dt

B. ( z ") 4 3 z ' 6

A.

Solution:

D.

A A

22

t s

has no partial derivatives.

The correct answer is A.

following DE has the initial condition y(0) = 14. What is the value of y(3)?

dy

6y 0

dk

A.

14 103

B.

5.44

C.

2.13 107

D.

0.0498

The characteristic equation is r + 6 =0

y + 6y = 0

y = y0e-6k

y(0) = y0e-6(0) = 14

General Form: y(x) = Ce-ax

y0 = 14 = C

e0 = 1

y = 14e-6k

y(3)

= 14e-6(3) = 14e-18 = 14 = 2.13 x 10-7

Therefore, the correct answer is C.

MATHEMATICS

eric rhule (rhuleg@yahoo.com)

10

MATHEMATICS

WORKSHOP

Differential Equations

Exercise 16. Continuously compounded interest. Lets say you invest one thousand

dollars in a fund that pays 4% interest, continuously compounded.

a) How much money will be in the account in 5 years?

A.

B.

C.

D.

$1,200

$1,220

$1,260

$5,200

b) How many years will it take your money to double?

A.

B.

C.

D.

17.1

17.3

17.5

17.9

c) To triple?

A.

27.2

B.

27.3

C.

27.5

D.

27.9

Use DE for continuous growth at a rate proportional to amount in account.

a)

dA

rA; the amount in the account after t years:

dt

A(t ) A0 e rt ; A(5) A0 e 0.04(5) A0 e 0.04(5) 1.22 A0 ;

Therefore the correct answer is B.

b)

t

c)

0.693

17.3 years to double. Therefore the correct answer is B.

0.04

t

1.0986

27.5 years to triple. Therefore the correct answer is C.

0.04

MATHEMATICS

eric rhule (rhuleg@yahoo.com)

11

MATHEMATICS

WORKSHOP

Exercise 17. Cooling Soup. Suppose a cup of soup cooled from 900C to 600C in a room

in 10 minutes in a room whose temperature was 200C. Use Newtons law of cooling to

answer the following questions

a) How much longer (in minutes) would it take the soup to cool to 350C?

A.

B.

C.

D.

14.3

15.3

17.5

19.9

b) Instead of being left to stand in the room, the cup of 900C is put in the freezer

whose temperature was -150C . How long (in minutes) will it take the soup to cool

from 900C to 350C?

A.

B.

C.

D.

13.3

13.9

14.2

14.9

Solution:

H H S ( H 0 H S )e - kt ; Use values given to solve for k

60 20 (90 20)e- k (10)

60 - 20 40

40

e- k (10) ln

10k

(90 - 20) 70

70

0.5596

k 0.05596; Now use k to solve for t to cool to 350 C

10

H H S ( H 0 H S )e - kt 35 20 (90 - 20)e -0.05596 t

35 - 20

15

1.540

e-0.05596 t ln

0.05596t

t 27.53 min

90 - 20

70

0.05596

Additional time to cool to cool to 350 C 27.5 min 10 min 17.5 min

Therefore, the correct answer is C.

and k 0.05596; H H S ( H 0 H S )e kt

35 15

50

e 0.05596 t

(90 15) 105

50

0.74194

ln

0.05596t

t 13.26 min

105

0.05596

Therefore the correct answer is A.

MATHEMATICS

eric rhule (rhuleg@yahoo.com)

12

MATHEMATICS

WORKSHOP

Exercise 18. Separable DE. Determine the constant of integration for the separable

DE: xdx + 6y5dy = 0. It is known that x = 0 when y = 2.

A.

12

B.

16

C.

24

D.

64

Solution: See FESRH page 30. Since the DE is already separated, integrate to find

the solution.

xdx 6 y dy 0

5

1

2

x2 y6 C

1

2

0 2

2

C;

C = 64

Exercise 19. General Solution of DE. What is the general solution of the following

DE:

2

A.

C.

d y

4 y 0.

dx 2

y sin 2 x cos 2 x C

y 2x2 x C

B.

D.

y e x 2e x C

y sin x 2tan x C

Solution: See FESRH page 30. Examination of the DE shows that a multiple of the

function and its second derivative must sum to zero. Note that sines and cosines have the

property that heir second derivatives are negatives of the original natural function.

y ' 2cos 2 x 2sin 2 x

and

Therefore, the correct answer is A.

MATHEMATICS

eric rhule (rhuleg@yahoo.com)

13

MATHEMATICS

WORKSHOP

DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS

Exercise 21. Difference Equation

A business owner purchases a piece of equipment that costs $20,000. She makes a 10%

down payment and obtains a loan for the balance at an 8% interest rate (per month!!!).

Over the next few months she makes a series of four payments of $3,000 each. What was

the approximate balance owed after the fourth payment?

A.

B.

C.

D.

$7,235

$6,654

$10,970

$12,936

Solution: See FESRH page 31

The amount borrowed: $20,000 - $2,000 = $18,000 is the principal owed at beginning of

period 1. Uniform payments of D = $3000 are made at the end of each period. The

interest rate is 8% (i=0.08) per compounding period; (fortunately not a real-world

situation!).

Use the first-order difference equation to find the principal balance, Px, at end of each

period (after each payment, D, is made):

Px = Px-1(1+i) - D

P1 = P0(1+i) - D = $18,000(1+0.08) - $3000 = $16,440

P2 = $16,440(1+0.08) - $3000 = $14,755.20

P3 = $14,755.20(1+0.08) - $3000 = $12,935.62

P4 = $12,935.62(1+0.08) - $3000 = $10,970.47

The correct answer is C.

Exercise 22. Difference Equation

What is the solution of the first order difference equation, y(k+1)=y(k)+5?

A.

C.

5

y (k ) 4

k

y(k) = C k, where C is a constant

B.

1 5k

y (k ) 5

4

D.

y(k) = 20 +5k

Assume the solution has the form: y(k)= 20 +5k

Substitute the assumed solution into the difference equation.

The correct answer is D.

MATHEMATICS

eric rhule (rhuleg@yahoo.com)

14

MATHEMATICS

WORKSHOP

What is the solution of the linear difference equation, y(k+1)=15y(k)?

A.

C.

y (k )

15

1 15k

15k

16

B.

y (k )

D.

y(k) = 15k

Assume the solution has the form: y(k)= 15k

Substitute into the difference equation.

Note: If y k C 15k , then y k 1 C 15k 1 15 y(k )

The correct answer is D.

Exercise 24. Difference Equation

What is the solution of the linear difference equation, (k+1)y(k+1 ) - ky(k)=1?

1

k

A.

y (k ) 12

C.

y(k) = 12+3k

Assume the solution has the form

12

k

1

y (k ) 3

k

y (k ) 1

B.

D.

y (k ) 1

12

k

(k 1) y (k 1) k y (k ) 1

12

12

(k 1) 1

1 1

k 1

k

12

12

(k 1) 1

k 1 12 k 12 1 1 1

k 1 1

k

1

k

12

15

MATHEMATICS

Thus y (k ) 1

solves the difference equation.

Therefore the

correct answere

is B.

k

eric rhule (rhuleg@yahoo.com)

WORKSHOP

Exercise 25.

Mean, Median, Variance, Standard Deviation, and Coefficient of Variation

Given the following data, 23, 45,76, 54, 23, 44, 67, 89, 32, 100, 22, 13, 19, determine

the

A.

B.

C.

D.

a.) arithmetic mean

51

47

45

43

b.) median

46

46.7

45

44

c.) mode

12

76

23

89

a.) variance

2180

755

5115

2935

b.) standard deviation

33.24 59.07 12.04 27.48

c.) coefficient of variation

0.594 0.544 0.109 0.674

Solutions:

23+45+76+54+23+44+67+89+32+100+22+13+19 607

X

46.69

13

13

b.) Median

Sort the data in ascending order: 13, 19, 22, 23, 23, 32, 44 , 45, 54, 67, 76, 89, 100

There are a total of 13 values. Notice that the median is the 7th entry, which is 44.

Six of the entries are less than 44 and six are greater than 44.

c.) Mode

With the data arranged in ascending order, 13, 19, 22, 23, 23, 32, 44, 45, 54, 67, 76,

89, 100, it is easy to see that the only entry that occurs more than once is 23. This is

the most frequently occurring entry and the mode of the data set.

d.) Variance

eric rhule (rhuleg@yahoo.com)

16

2

i

WORKSHOP

N

2

13 192 222 232 232 322 442 452 542 67 2 762 892 1002 607

13

13

38,159

2

13

2

2 755.14 27.48

of data.

CV

27.24

0.594

46.69

Exercise 26. Weighted Arithmetic Mean What is the weighted arithmetic mean of

the following data?

A.

12.98

data

weighting factor

12

15

13

B.

13.25

C.

14.21

Solution:

XW

D.

13.58

12(3)+15(5)+13(4) 163

13.58

3 45

12

eric rhule (rhuleg@yahoo.com)

17

WORKSHOP

Exercise 27. Geometric Mean, Root-Mean Square Value, and Sample Range

Given the following data: 1,2,3,4,5,6,7, find:

a.)

b.)

c.)

the Root-Mean Square

the Sample Range, R

A.

3.38

4.56

8

B.

2.54

4.47

5

C.

2.98

4.33

7

D.

3.45

4.29

6

a.) Geometric Mean

n = the total number of values = 7.

The sample geometric mean n X 1 X 2 X 3 ... X n 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

7 7! (5040)1/7 3.38

b.) Root-Mean Square

X

n

2

i

12 22 32 42 52 62 7 2

140

20 4.472

7

The correct answer is B.

The Sample Range, R, is: (7-1) = 6

The correct answer is D.

eric rhule (rhuleg@yahoo.com)

18

WORKSHOP

Exercise 28. Combinations An auto dealer offers a particular model with 6 possible

options. To qualify for a special promotion, every customer must select at least one

option. How many combinations of options are possible?

A.

56

B.

83

C.

63

D.

69

n

n!

C

(

n

,

r

)

[ r n]

r

r !(n r )!

6

6!

6!

6!

6!

6!

6!

1!(6 1)! 2!(6 2)! 3!(6 3)! 4!(6 4)! 5!(6 5)! 6!(6 6)!

i 1

720

720

720

720

720

720

720

720

720

720

720

720

6 15 20 15 6 1 63

(1)120 (2)24 (6)6 (24)2 (120)1 (720)1

CTOTAL Ci

Exercise 29. Permutations A card player has a total of six cards in her hand. How

many different ways can she put them in order?

A.

698

B.

720

C.

756

D.

774

Solution:

n!

P(n,r) =

[ r n]

(n r )!

n permutations taken n at a time:

P(n, n)

n!

n!

n!; P(6,6) 6! 720

(n n)! 0!

ENGINEERING PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS

eric rhule (rhuleg@yahoo.com)

19

WORKSHOP

Exercise 30. Permutations A To Do List has a total of 13 tasks on it. Assuming

each task is independent of the other tasks, and that because of time constraints, a total

of only 7 tasks can be performed, how many different ways can they ordered?

A.

5,659,754

Solution:

B.

6,934,234

C.

9,456,231

D.

8,648,640

n 13, r 7; P(13,7)

13!

13! 6,227,020,800

8,648,640

(13 7)! 6!

720

The correct answer is D.

LAWS OF PROBABILITY

Exercise 31. Character, Laws and Total / Joint Probability

There are two bags of marbles. Bag 1 contains 7 black marbles and 3 blue marbles.

Bag 2 contains 8 white marbles and 4 green marbles.

a.) What is the probability of randomly picking 2 black marbles from Bag 1?

b.) What is the probability of randomly picking 3 white marbles from Bag 2?

c.) What is the joint probability of randomly picking 1 blue marble from Bag 1

and 1 white marbel from Bag 2?

A.

B.

C.

D.

a.) P(2 black from Bag 1)?

0.47

0.54

0.70

0.67

b.) P(1 green from Bag 2)?

0.45

0.60

0.33

0.26

c.) P(1 blue from Bag 1 and 1 white

0.26

0.666

0.30

0.20

from Bag 2)?

Solution:

and ~ multiply

or ~ add

7 6 7 6

=

0.467

7 3 6 3 10 9

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20

WORKSHOP

8 7 6 8 7 6

=

0.255

8

4

7

4

6

12 11 10

Therefore the correct answer is D.

3

3

c.) Probability of 1 blue marble from bag 1: P(blue) =

0.30;

7 3 10

8

8

Probability of 1 white marble from bag 2: P(white) =

0.666

8 4 12

Joint probability of 1 blue and 1 white, P(bw) = 0.30(.666) = 0.200

PROBABILITY FUNCTIONS

Exercise 32. Binomial Distribution.

If a fair coin is tossed 40 times, what is the probability of the coing landing on tails

exactly 15 times?

Solution.

If X is the number of tails in 40 tosses, then X is binomial with

n 40 and p 0.5. Therefore, for any possible outcome a 15,

P( X a) C (n, a) p a (1 p) na

P(15) C (40,15)0.515 (1 0.5) 4015

40!

0.515 (0.5) 25 0.037

15!(40 15)!

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WORKSHOP

Exercise 33. Normal Distribution. A busy interstate highway has a posted speed of

65 mph. The following speed frequency distribution was obtained by observing actual

vehicle speeds during a short interval in the peak travel period. The distribution is

assumed to be normal.

Speed Group Frequency

(mph)

56 to 60

47

61 to 65

60

66 to 70

186

71 to 75

60

76 to 80

47

vehicle population from which the observations

were made?

b) What is the approximate standard deviation of the

vehicle population from which the observations

were made?

c) What is the approximate probability that the speed would be less than 65 mph

for any given vehicle observed?

a.)

b.)

c.)

standard deviation

P(speed < 65 mph)

A.

72

5.95

0.2230

B.

68

5.46

0.6915

C.

65

6.05

0.4532

D.

63

6.15

0.3085

eric rhule (rhuleg@yahoo.com)

22

Solution:

WORKSHOP

Speed Group

(mph)

56

to

60

61

to

65

66

to

70

71

to

75

76

to

80

columns A and B to the above table.

For each speed group, the Assumed

Speed is the average speed of the

speed group, and the Total Speed is

the product of the speed groups

Frequency and the Assumed Speed.

A

Assumed

Frequency Speed

(mph)

47

58

60

63

186

68

60

73

47

78

400

B

Total

Speed

(mph)

2726

3780

12648

4380

3666

27,200

The total number of vehicles observed is the sum of the Frequency column: n = 400

The sum of the Total Speed column is 27,200. Therefore sample mean is:

x

27,200

68.0 mph

n

400

i

2

(x

x) 2

n 1

14,000

=

5.95 mph

400 1

399

Therefore the correct answer is A.

x 65 68 3

z 0

0.5042 ~ 0.50

5.95

5.95

From the Unit Normal Table,

Speed Frequency Distribution

column F(x), the area to the left of

x= z = 0.5 is 0.6915.

200

The probability of the speed being

less than 65 mph,

x = z = 0.50 is P(x < 65)

= 1.0000 0.6915= 0.3085

180

160

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

55

R(x) column for x = 0.5, and that the

sum of the values of the F(x) and R(x) is always 1.00

60

65

70

75

ENGINEERING PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS

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23

WORKSHOP

Ex. 78

Ex. 80

Ex. 79

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WORKSHOP

Exercise 34. Normal Distribution. Based on the speed data presented in Exercise

85, what is the probability that a vehicle will be observed traveling at a speed greater

than or equal to 78 mph?

A.

B.

C.

D.

P(speed > 78 mph)

0.0649

0.8768

0.0446

0.9554

Solution:

Repeat the procedure used above. Find the standard normal variable corresponding to

78 mph. z x0 78 68 10 1.68 ~ 1.7

5.95

5.95

From the Unit Normal Table, column F(x), the area to the left of x = z = 1.7 is 0.9554

The probability of observing a vehicle traveling at a speed greater than or equal to 78

mph,

x = z = 1.7 is P(x > 78)

= 1.0 0.9554= 0.0446

The correct answer is C.

Note: 0.0446 matches the value of the R(x) column for x = 1.7.

Exercise 35. Normal Distribution.

The Navys a newest fighter jet can accommodate pilots with sitting heights (from seat

to top of head) of up to 37.5 inches. If we assume the sitting heights of pilots are

normally distributed with a mean of 36.0 inches and a standard deviation of 1.38

inches, what proportion of pilots cannot fit in the new jet?

A.

9.5

B.

10.4

C.

12.3

D.

13.6

to standard normal, mean zero, and standard deviation one, we find

X 36 37.5 36

P( X 37.5) P

P( Z 1.1) 0.1357

1.38

1.38

(See Unit Normal Distribution Table (page 45), Column R(x) for x=1.1)

The proportion of pilots that cannot fit in the jet is 13.6%. The correct answer: D.

ENGINEERING PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS

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25

WORKSHOP

The life in hours of a light-bulb is known to be normally distributed with = 25 hrs.

Suppose the total width of the two-sided CI on mean life expectancy needs to be 6

hours at 95% confidence. What sample size should be use?

A.

196

Solution.

B.

245

C.

267

D.

302

2

2

z /2

(1.96)25

n

266.78; Therefore the required

x

Exercise 37. Confidence Level. Harrys Chocolate Factory has a daily production

rate that is normally distributed with a mean of 88 pounds per day and a standard

deviation of 2.1 pounds per day. The daily output is measured with random samplings

on 50 consecutive days, and the mean output is found to be 87.1 pounds per day. With

a 95% confidence level, determine if the factory is operating properly.

A. There is at least a 5% probability that the factory is operating properly.

B. There is at least a 95% probability that the factory is operating properly.

C. There is at least a 5% probability that the factory is not operating properly.

D. There is at least a 95% probability that the factory is not operating properly.

Solution. Use the 5 step procedure.

1. The sampling is random and from a normal population.

2. C=0.95 is given.

3. Since a specific direction in the variation is not given (i.e. the example does not

ask if the average has decreased), use a two-tail hypothesis test.

4. From page 45 Table of Fractiles , x = 1.96 for W(x) = 0.95.

x'

87.1 88.0

3.03

2.1

50

Since 3.03 > 1.96, the distributions are not the same. There is at least a 95%

probability that the factory is not operating correctly.

Therefore the correct answer is D.

ENGINEERING PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS

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WORKSHOP

Supplemental Material

Problems 38 to 82 are

For Home Review Only

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27

WORKSHOP

y

STRAIGHT LINE

C (200,900)

and the coordinates of points A, B, C, and D, determine

the following:

a.) The slope of Line AB.

A.

-0.625

(500,750)

A (100,500) D (300,500)

B.

+0.625

C.

-1.60

D.

4.00

A.

412.31

B.

471.07

C.

471.70

D.

421.31

+0.625

C.

-1.60

D.

-4.00

A.

-0.625

B.

d.) The slope of a Line AB (not shown) which is perpendicular to Line AB.

A

-1.60

B.

+0.25

C.

+1.60

D.

-0.25

e.) The slope of a Line CD (not shown) which is perpendicular to Line CD.

A

-1.60

B.

+0.25

C.

+1.60

D.

-0.25

Solution:

y 750 500 250

a.) Slope of Line AB= m AB

=

=

0.625; B

x 500 100 400

b.) Length AB =

500 100

2

=

=

4.00; D

x 300 200 100

1

1

1.60;

mAB 0.625

1

1

0.25;

B

mCD 4.00ENGINEERING PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS

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WORKSHOP

QUADRATIC EQUATION

Exercise 39. Determine the roots of the following equation by using the quadratic

equation to solve for x.

3x 2 - 1,400x - 160,000 = 0

A

516.63 & 94.96

B

C

561.63 & -163.22 -1,400 & -94.96

D

561.63 & -94.96

-b b 2 - 4ac

x=

; Where: a = 3; b = -1,400; c = -160,000

2a

-(-1,400) (-1,400) 2 - 4(3)(-160,000)

x=

2(3)

1,400 1,960,000+1,920,000

x=

= 561.63 and -94.96

6

The correct answer is D.

Exercise 40. Determine the roots of the following equation by using the quadratic

equation to solve for z.

z2 - 17z - 60 = 0

A

-20 and 3

Solution:

B

-12 and 5

20

C

and

-3 12

D

and

b 2 - 4ac

z=

; Where: a = 1; b = -17; c = -60

2a

-(-17) (-17) 2 - 4(1)(-60)

z=

2(1)

-b

z=

17

289+240 17 23

=

20 and -3

2

2

ENGINEERING PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS

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WORKSHOP

CONIC SECTIONS

Exercise 41. Equation of Circle. Find the equation of the circle passing through the

following three points: (0, -16), (0, 0), and (10, 4)?

A.

B.

C.

D.

( x 9)2 ( y 8)2 12

The center-radius form of the equation of a circle

where the circles center point is at (h,k).

( x h)2 ( y k )2 r 2

Substitute the first two points, (0,-16), (0,0) into the equation.

(0 h)2 (0 k )2 r 2 ;

(0 h)2 (16 k )2 r 2

Since both equations are equal to the unknown r2, set the left sides equal to each other.

h 2 k 2 h2 256 32k k 2 Simplify. 0 256 32 k,

and solve for k k

256

8

32

Substitute the third point, (10, 4), into the center-radius form to create the third

equation. Set the third equation equal to the first equation. Simplify and solve for h.

(10 h)2 (4 (8)) 2 (0 h) 2 (0 (8)) 2

Simplify 100 20h h 2 144 h 2 64

Simplify 180 20h; and solve for h h = 9

Since h and k are known, substitute them into the first equation to solve for r.

h2 k 2 r 2 92 (8)2 81 64 145 r 2 ;

r 145 12.04

Substitute the known values of h, k, and r into the center-radius form:

( x 9)2 ( y (8)) 2 12.042 and the correct answer is A.

ENGINEERING PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS

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WORKSHOP

Exercise 42. Ellipse Find the equation of an ellipse with foci at ( 25,0) and major

axis of length 70.

A.

2

B.

x y

=1

25 35

D.

x y

x y

x y

=1

=1

= -1

35 25

35

24.49

50

49.24

C.

Draw a rough sketch of the ellipse. Given the coordinates of the two foci, we see that

the center of this ellipse, (h,k) is at (0,0), and that the major axis runs horizontally from

vertex to vertex, through the two foci. The length of the major axis is given as 70, and

is equal to 2a. Based on the coordinates of the foci, the distance between foci is 2c =

50. The dimension b is needed for the equation of the ellipse, and can be found using

the dimensions a and c, and the Pythagorean Theorem.

x h

( y k )2

a2

b2

2

2

x y

Therefore the equation of the ellipse is:

1

35

24.49

ENGINEERING PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS

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WORKSHOP

Exercise 43. Parabola Find the equation of a

parabola with vertex at (0, 0) and focus at (6, 0)

A.

y2 4x

VERTEX

B.

( y 4) (12)( x 6)

2

(h, k )

FOCUS

(6, 0)

- 0.4

0.1

0.6

1. 1

1. 6

-2

C.

( y 6)2 2(12)( x 4)

-4

D.

-6

y 2 24 x

-8

The standard form of the equation of a parabola is (y-k)2 = 2p(x-h). But with the

vertex, (h,k) located at (0,0), and the focus at (h + p/2, k) = (6,0); p = 12, the standard

form of the equation reduces to:

y 2 2 px 2(12) x 24 x

The correct answer is D.

Exercise 44. Sphere (Quadric Surface) What is the radius of a sphere with center at

(10,10,10) that passes through the point (0,0,0)?

A.

10.00

B.

6.69

C.

17.32

D.

12.00

r 2 ( x h) 2 ( y k ) 2 ( z l ) 2

r (0 10)2 (0 10)2 (0 10) 2 300 17.32

ENGINEERING PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS

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32

WORKSHOP

LOGARITHMS

Exercise 45. Solve for a: given that 2a = 1.587(a+4)

A.

3

B.

6.69

C.

1.28

D.

8

ln 2a = ln (1.587 (a+4)); a(ln 2) = (a+4) ln 1.587; a(0.693) = (a+4)0.462;

solving for a, a = 8 and the correct answer is D.

Exercise 46. Given that log a = 12, log b = 10; log c = 13, k = 3, and x = 5, solve

the following:

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

g)

log a/b

logcc

log ab

log 1

log ak

log 1/b

log cx

Solution:

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

g)

A.

2

0

-4.79

0

5.73

-1

65

B.

0.08

-1

4.79

1

36

1

18

C.

-2

1

2.08

2

1728

-10

5.57

D.

0.182

2

22

3

4.79

10

12.82

log a/b

logcc

log ab

log 1

log ak

log 1/b

log cx

log a log b = 12 10 = 2

1

log a + log b = 12 + 10 = 22

0

k(log a) = 3(12) = 36

log 1 log b = 0 10 = -10

x(log c) = 5(13) = 65

Correct Answers

A

C

D

A

B

C

A

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WORKSHOP

TRIGONOMETRY

Exercise 47. Triangles A 6 foot tall man is standing in the exact center of a

rectangular room that measures 400 ft long by 100 ft wide by 15 feet high. He is

facing one of the short sides of the room. Imagine the triangle created on the floor by

the man and the two corners of the wall he is facing.

a) What is the angle of the triangle at the vertex at which he is standing?

A.

14.0350 B. 28.070

C. 151.930 D. 75.960

b) What is the distance from the mans feet to the floor/wall corners of the room?

A.

205.38 B. 412.31 C. 211

D. 206.16

c) What is the distance from the top of the mans head to the ceiling/wall corners?

A.

206.36 B. 206.18 C. 206.50 D. 9

d) What is the greatest distance in the room between floor and ceiling /wall

corners?

A.

412.99 B. 412.58 C. 291.94 D. 411.34

Solution:

50

0

a.) Angle of triangle at the man: = 2tan 1

=28.07 ;

200

Correct answer: B

b.) Distance, man's feet to floor corners:

Correct answer: D

c.) Distance, man's head to ceiling corners: 206.162 (15 6) 2 42,582.9

206.36 ft; Correct answer: A

d.) Farthest distance ceiling corner to floor corner: (2 206.16) 2 152

42,582.9 412.58 ft ; Correct answer: B

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34

WORKSHOP

Exercise 48. Triangle The following is known about a triangle with vertices X, Y,

and Z: XY = 300 ft, Angle Y = 750; and YZ = 200 ft. (Hint: this is not a right

triangle)

d.)

e.)

f.)

Length XZ

Angle X

Area of Triangle

XYZ (in acres).

A.

310.12

39. 870

0.665

B.

314.55

87. 390

28,977

C.

19389.8

37. 890

23,977.5

D.

490.52

37. 890

5,000

a.) Length ZX = b; by the Law of Cosines, b 2 = a 2 +c 2 2ac cos B

b = 2002 +3002 2(200)(300) cos750 = 40,000+90,000-120,000(0.2588)

= 98,941.71 314.55 f t;

a

b

a sin B

200sin 750

b.) By the Law of Sines,

;

sin A

;

sin A sin B

b

314.55

Angle X Angle A = sin 1 0.614 37.890 ; Therefore the correct answer is C.

c.) Area of triangle: Divide the triangle into two right triangles by passing a vertical

line through Vertex Z.

Use the formula Area = base x height x 1/2, twice, once for each of the two right triangles.

The triangle on the left has a hypotanuse of 314.55' and Angle X = 37.890

Therefore it's base is: 314.55'(cos 37.890 ) 314.55'(0.789) 248.24',

and the triangle on the right has a base of 300' - 248.24' = 51.76'.

The vertical sides of the two triangles is common to both triangles, and is equal to:

314.55'(sin 37.890 ) 314.55'(0.614) 193.18'

Therefore the areas are:

Area (left) = 1/2(248.24')(193.18') = 23,977.50 sf

Area (right) = 1/2(51.76')(193.18') = 4,999.50 sf

Total area =

28,977.00 sf

28,977.00 sf

0.665 acres;

ENGINEERING

PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS

43,560 sf/ac

Therefore the correct answer is A.

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35

WORKSHOP

Exercise 49. Which of the following expressions is equivalent to sin2?

A. sincos

B. 2cos2 - 2sin2

C. 2sincos

D. 1- 2sin2

Solution: See FESRH page 23, The Correct answer C.

Exercise 50. Which of the following expressions is equivalent to sin cos?

A. [cos( - ) - cos( + )]

B. [cos( - ) + cos( + )]

C. [sin( + ) + sin( - )]

D. [sin( + ) + cos( + )]

Solution: See FESRH page 23, The Correct answer C.

Exercise 51. Which of the following expressions is equivalent to sin ( )?

A. sin cos - cos sin

B. cos cos + sin sin

C. cos cos - sin sin

D. sin cos + cos sin

Solution: See FESRH page 23, The Correct answer A.

Exercise 52. Which of the following expressions is equivalent to cos ( )?

A. sin cos - cos sin

B. cos cos + sin sin

C. cos cos - sin sin

D. sin cos + cos sin

Solution: See FESRH page 23, The Correct answer B.

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WORKSHOP

VECTORS

Exercise 53. Vector Addition and Subtraction Perform the indicated operations on

the following vectors:

X = 2 3 1 6, Y = 5 1 12 1, Z 1 0 4 3

a.)

X Y

b.)

YX

c.)

X Z

A.

8 4 13 7

B.

7 4 13 7

C.

7 4 11 7

D.

7 4 13 9

2 5 9

3 5 9

3 4 9

3 5 6

5

3

1 12 1

3

3

-2 13 -7

a.)

X Y 2 5 3 1 1 12 6 1 7

3

3

-2 11 -5

13

3

3

2 11 -5

b.)

c.)

X Z 2 1 3 0 1 4 6 3 3

For vectors X 3i 0 j 16k , Y 2i 2 j 2k , Z 1i 8 j 6k

X Y +Z

Solution:

A.

4i 6 j 20k

B.

4i 6 j 20k

C.

4i 6 j 20k

D.

4i 6 j 20k

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37

WORKSHOP

X Y +Z

X 3i 0 j 16k

Y 2i 2 j 2k

Z 1i 8 j 6k

X Y + Z 4i 6 j 20k

The correct answer is A.

MATRICES

Exercise 55. Transpose

1 2 3

Given X 4 5 6 ;

7 8 9

1 4 7

T

X 2 5 8 The correct answer is B.

3 6 9

T

A.

4 5 6

B.

2 5 8

C.

1 5 9

D.

3 5 7

3 1

a.) X =

;

2 2

1 1 2

c.) Z 0 6 3

4 7 5

4 3 0

b.) Y = 2 2 2 ;

1 1 3

a.) det X

b.) det Y

c.) det Z

A.

4

40

45

B.

8

8

-87

C.

-4

4

-45

D.

-8

56

-9

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38

Solutions:

WORKSHOP

a.) det X 3 2) - (2 1 6 - 2 4;

(24 6 0) - [(0 8 18)] (30) - [(26)] 4;

The correct answer is C.

c.) det Z (-1 6 5) (1 3 4) (2 0 7) - [(4 6 2) (7 3 -1) (5 0 1)]

(-30 12 0) - [(48 - 21 0)] (-18) - [(27)] -45;

The correct answer is C.

VECTORS

Exercise 57. Vector Cross Product

A.

11i, 5 j, 1k

Solution:

B.

11i, 5 j, 1k

B (0i 1 j 5k );

C.

11i, 5 j, +1k

D.

11i, 5 j, +1k

A B A B n sin (a2b3 a3b2 , a3b1 a1b3 , a1b2 a2b1 )

(2 5 (1) 1, 1 0 1 5, 1 1 2 0)

[(10 1)i, (5 0) j, (1 0) k ] (11i, 5 j,1k );

The correct answer is D.

Exercise 58. Area of Parallelogram What is the area of the parallelogram made by

the following vectors?

A (1i 2 j 1k ); B (0i 1 j 5k );

A.

B.

C.

D.

eric rhule (rhuleg@yahoo.com)

39

147 m2

Solution:

3.60 m2

WORKSHOP

11 m2

12.12 m2

A B (10 1)i (0 5) j (1 0)k 11i, 5 j , k

Area 112 (5)2 12 121 25 1 147 12.12 m2

The correct answer is D.

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40

WORKSHOP

made by vectors.

A (2i 2 j 1k ); B (4i 2 j 2k ); C (i 5 j 4k ); All lengths are in meters.

A.

B.

C.

D.

62

52

42

24

Solution:

V1x V1 y V1z 2 2 1

Volume A ( B C ) V V2 x V2 y V2 z 4 2 2 ;

V3 x V3 y V3 z 1 5 4

(2)[(2)(4) (5)(2)] (4)[(2)(4) (5)(1)] (1)[( 2)(2) (2)(1)]

(2)(2) (4)(13) (1)( 6) 4 + 52 6 = 42m3 Therefore the correct answer is C.

3 2 1

COFACTOR

Given X 1 6 3 ; Find the third row of X

;

2 4 0

A.

B.

C.

-12 10 -16

12 -10 16

12 6 -16

D.

12 10 16

The entries in the cofactor matrix are the determinants of submatrices resulting from the

elimination of the row i and column j of the entry a ij . The entry is multiplied by +1 or -1

depending on its position. X is the coefficient matrix.

The cofactor matrix of X is X

COFACTOR

12 6 16

4

2

16

12 10 16

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41

WORKSHOP

Solution:

10 3 10

Given K 8 2 9 ;

8 1 10

24

11 152

K

40 180 14

47 10 44

Therefore the correct answer is A.

A.

40 -180 14

COFACTOR

COFACTOR

B.

40 180 14

C.

-40 -180 14

D.

-40 -180 -14

Exercise 62. Classical Adjoint Find the second row of the classical adjoint of Matrix

K and the third row of the classical adjoint of Matrix X.

a.)

a.)

b.)

10 3 10

K 8 2 9

8 1 10

A.

152 -180 -44

-16 -16 16

Solution:

b.)

B.

152 -180 10

16 -16 -16

3 2 1

X 1 6 3

2 4 0

C.

152 -180 -10

-16 16 16

D.

-152 180 10

-16 16 -16

24

40

47

11 152

11

ADJOINT

a.)

K

40 180 14 therefore K

152 180 10

47 10 44

24

14

44

Therefore the correct answer is C.

COFACTOR

12 6 16

12 4 12

ADJOINT

b.)

X

4

2

16 therefore X

6

2 10

12 10 16

16 16 16

ENGINEERING PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS

Therefore the correct answer is C.

COFACTOR

eric rhule (rhuleg@yahoo.com)

42

WORKSHOP

Exercise 63. Inverse Matrices Find the first row of the inverse matrix of the given

matrix.

1

3 2

Given A

,

Find

A

.

7 10

A.

10/16

Solution:

B.

-2/16

10/16

C.

-7/16

-2/16

10/16

D.

10/16 3/16

d b

c a

1

a b

, Therefore, A

A

c d

10 2

2

10

7 3

16

16

;

7

3

16

16

16

Exercise 64. Inverse Matrices Find the third row of the inverse matrix of the given

matrix.

1 3 1

1

Given G 1 0 1 , Find G .

0 1 1

A.

1 1 1

B.

3 -2 3

C.

-1 -1 -3

D.

-1 -1 3

eric rhule (rhuleg@yahoo.com)

43

Solution:

WORKSHOP

The classical adjoint is the transpose of the cofactor matrix. For the 3x3 matrix the inverse is

determined by dividing every entry in the classical adjoint by the determinant of the original matrix.

1 1 1

G

2 1 1 ; adj G

3 2 3

1 2 3

1 1 2

1

3

1

adj G

G

=

1

(1)

G

1

COFACTOR

Solution:

See FESRH page 24

1 2 3

1 1 2

1 1 3

3

1 2 ;

1 3

second row of the inverse matrix of the

given matrix.

A.

-4/15 13/15 1/15

COFACTOR T

B.

-4/15 13/45 1/15

1 1 2

1

Given H 0 6 3 , Find H .

4 7 5

C.

D.

-4/15 13/45 -1/15 -4/15 -13/15 -1/15

9

3 ; H 45;

6

9 9

13 3

1 / 5

1 / 5

1 / 5

11 6

4 / 15 13 / 45 1 / 15

45

8 / 15 11 / 45 2 / 15

The correct answer is C.

9

9

adj H 12 13

24 11

9

12

1

adj H 24

H

=

H

2 x3 6

x1

3x1 4 x2 6 x3 30

x 2 x 3x 8

1

2

3

eric rhule (rhuleg@yahoo.com)

44

WORKSHOP

Exercise 66. Simultaneous Equations by Cramers Rule Find the values of x1, x2,

and x3 in the following system of simultaneous equations.

A.

-12

11

18

38

11

11

Solution:

x1

B.

10

18

38

10

10

10

C.

18

11

38

10

11

11

D.

10

11

18

38

11

11

A1

A2 det( A )

A3 det( A )

det( A1 )

3

2

; x2

; x3

;

det( A)

det( A)

det( A)

A

A

1 0 2

6 0 2

1 6 2

1 0 6

A 3 4 6 ; A1 30 4 6 ; A2 3 30 6 ; A3 3 4 30 ;

1 2 3

8 2 3

1 8 3

1 2 8

x1

A2 det( A ) 72 18

det( A1 ) 40 10

2

; x2

;

44

11

det( A)

det( A) 44 11

A

A3

det( A )

A1

152

38

3

x3

;

The correct answer is D.

Exer

44 11

det(

A

)

A

2

4 x1 x2

cise

11x x 2 x 3

67.

2

3

1

x1 5 x2 2 x3 1

values of x, y, and z in the following system of

simultaneous equations.

A.

20 24 34

,

,

52 52 52

B.

20 24 34

,

,

50

50 50

20

24

34

x1

; x2

; x3

;

52

52

52

C.

20 24 34

,

,

52 52 52

D.

20 24 34

,

,

26 26 26

eric rhule (rhuleg@yahoo.com)

45

WORKSHOP

Exercise 68, Geometric Series. What is the summation of the series 40 52n for 3

terms starting at n=1?

A.

B.

C.

D.

252

48

200

248

Solution:

3

40 5

2 n

t 1

or S=

3

40 5

(a rl ) (200 0.20[8])

=

248

(1 r )

(1 0.20)

2 n

t 1

What are the next terms in the following progressions?

4, 2, 0, -2,

A.

B.

C.

D.

-4

-6

With a difference of -2 between terms, so the next term is 2 2 = 4.

The correct answer is B.

Exercise 70. An arithmetic progression has a 5th term of 10 and a 10th of 110. What is

the sum of the 6th and 11th terms?

A.

B.

C.

D.

120

160

30

130

ENGINEERING PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS

eric rhule (rhuleg@yahoo.com)

46

Solutions:

WORKSHOP

In an arithmetic progression the nth term is defined as: an = a1 + (n 1)d. In this case

the 5th and 10th terms are given. The 5th term is 10, and the 10th term is 110. Insert

these values into the above definition to set up the following equations:

a5 = a1 + (5 1)d

= a1 + 4d = 10 Subtract the 2nd equation from the 1st

a10 = a1 + (10 1)d

= a1 + 9d = 110

and solve for d.

a5

= a1 + (5 1)d = a1 - 5d = -100; therefore d = 20;

Inserting these values into the above, the definition of a10 becomes:

a10 = a1 + (10 1)20 =110. Solving for a1

a1 = 110 (9)20 = 110 180 = -70, the definition becomes: an = -70 + (n 1)20,

and the progression is: -70, -50, -30, -10, 10, 30, 50, 70, 90, 110, 130...

Sixth term: 30; Eleventh term: 130; Sum of terms: 30 + 130 = 160

The correct answer is: B.

PROGRESSIONS AND SERIES

Exercise 71. Geometric Progression What is the next term in the following

progressions?

a.)

b.)

39, 156, 624, 2496,

A.

1000

3120

B.

900

9984

C.

2500

2808

D.

2800

14,976

The next terms

a.) Each term in the series is 5 times the previous term so the next term will be

2500.

The correct answer is C.

b.) Each term in the series is 4 times the previous term so the next term will be

9984.

The correct answer is B.

eric rhule (rhuleg@yahoo.com)

47

WORKSHOP

Exercise 72. Geometric Progression A certain progression has a 1st term of 8 and a

7th of 50. What is the 11th term of the progression?

A.

36.85

B.

20.00

C.

312.75

D.

169.77

In a geometric progression, the nth term is defined as: an = a1r(n1)

In this case a1 = 8, a7 = 50, and n = 7.

First, determine the common ratio, r;

a7 = a1r(71) = 8r6 = 50, therefore r = (50/8)1/6 = 1.3573

Second, check the ratio, based on known 7th term: a7 = (8)1.3573(71) = 50.00 OK!!

Third, insert a1 = 8 and r = 1.3573 into the above definition to find the 4th and 11th

terms.

a11 = (8)1.3573(111) = (8)(21.22) = 169.77

The correct answer is D.

Exercise 73. Arithmetic Series What is the summation of the series 17 (n+2)2 for

4 terms starting at n=1?

A.

B.

C.

D.

22

27

32

37

Solutions:

a 17 (1 2)2 17 (3)2 17 6 11

l 17 (4 2)2 17 (6)2 17 12 5

S n(a l ) / 2 4(11 5) / 2 4(16) / 2 32

4

17 - (n 2)2

t 1

11 9 7 1 32

eric rhule (rhuleg@yahoo.com)

48

WORKSHOP

Exercise 74. Arithmetic Series What is the summation of the series 15+(4 - n)2 for 4

terms starting at n=11?

A.

B.

C.

D.

8

-9

-10

-8

Solutions:

a=15+(4-11)2=15+(-7)2=15-15=1

l 15+(4-14)2=15+(-10)2=15-20=-5

S n(a l ) / 2 4(1 (5)) / 2 4(4) / 2 8

By the "Brute Force" method.

4

15 (4 n)2

t 11

Exercise 75. Geometric Series. What is the summation of the series 5 2n2 for 5 terms starting at

n=1?

A.

720

Solution:

5

5 2

n 2

B.

1240

C.

600

D.

2520

(5 212 ) (5 222 ) (5 232 ) (5 242 ) (5 252 )

t 1

(a rl ) (40 2[640])

=

1240

(1 r )

(1 2)

The correct answer is B.

10

5(2)

i 1

i 1

A.

-1,705

B.

1708.33

Solution:

C.

1854.6

D.

-6,789

eric rhule (rhuleg@yahoo.com)

49

10

5(2)

i 1

WORKSHOP

5 10 20 40 ... 2,560

i 1

and the first term a1 5. Therefore the summation of this series is

S10

1,705

1 r

1 (2)

3

3

The correct answer is A.

2 n

for 3 terms starting at n=1?

A.

B.

C.

D.

252

48

200

248

Solution:

3

40 5

2 n

(40 521 ) (40 522 ) (40 523 ) 200 40 8 248

t 1

or S=

(a rl ) (200 0.20[8])

=

248

(1 r )

(1 0.20)

Exercise 78.

Geometric Series. What is the summation of the series 23 3 for 5 terms starting at

n=5?

A.

B.

C.

D.

3.41

3.69

3.81

3.98

3 n

Solution:

3

23 3

3 n

(23 335 ) (23 336 ) (23 337 ) (23 338 ) (23 339 )

t 1

23 23 23 23

23

9 27 81 243 729

eric rhule (rhuleg@yahoo.com)

50

WORKSHOP

Exercise 79. Convergent Geometric Series Determine the sum of the following

geometric series to n = 5 (starting at zero).

3

2n

A.

7.500

Solution:

B.

6.000

C.

5.812

D.

1.938

5

4

1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4

3

1

3 3

5

2

n 0

n 0 2

2 2 2 2 2

4

eric rhule (rhuleg@yahoo.com)

51

WORKSHOP

Exercise 80. Sphere The spherical steel enclosure shown

here has an inside diameter of 10.0 feet. Determine :

a.) the volume of the inside of the enclosure in cubic

yards and

b.) the surface area in square yards.

a.) volume

b.) area

Solution:

A.

174.42

34.91

B.

19.38

6.98

C.

34.91

104.72

D.

3.88

11.64

a.)

4 r 3

4(3.14)53

V

19.38 yd 3

3(27 cf/cy)

81

Therefore the correct answer is B.

b.)

A 4 r 2

4(3.14)52

34.91 yd 2

9 sf/sy

Therefore the correct answer is A.

maximum depth of flow is 4 inches. Determine the flow area.

A.

54.35

B.

49.38

C.

34.91

D.

38.88

Calculate the angle using the equation,

r d

12 4

0

=2 arccos

2 arccos

96.38

r

12

3.1416

1

1

=96.380

1.68 radians; A= r 2 sin = 122 1.68 sin1.68 49.38 in 2 ;

0

2

2

180

eric rhule (rhuleg@yahoo.com)

52

WORKSHOP

A pile of sand, the shape of a right circular cone,

is 18 feet high and 30 feet in diamter at its base.

a.) What is the volume of the pile (to the closest cubic yard)?

b.) Determine the side area of the pile (to the closest square yard)?

A.

16,956

123

a.) volume

b.) area

Solution:

B.

157

1104

C.

4239

271

D.

471

11.64

r 2h

a.)

b.)

A r

(3.14)152 (18)

4,239 ft 3 157 yd 3

3

Therefore the correct answer is B.

r 2 h 2 3.14(15)

Therefore the correct answer is A.

eric rhule (rhuleg@yahoo.com)

53

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