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Saadat Ali
Phone: 0333-2386630

PHE CE 355

Course Introduction
Water demand, sources, quality, sampling, analysis,

treatment, distribution network design

Wastewater generation, quality, effects on

environment and health, treatment

Solid waste management
Air and noise pollution control
Environmental Impact Assessments & Environmental


PHE-CE 355

Course Objectives
To give students basic concepts about public

health engineering
To give you idea about mitigation of environmental

issues that affect the public health

To make you aware about health and

environmental issues related with civil engineering

To make you aware about present environmental

status of the country and the work going on

To make you aware about legislations

PHE CE 355

Recommended Books and Materials

Text Book: Water Supply and Sewerage. By

E.W. Steel, 6th edition.

Reference Book:
All lectures handouts will cover all the topics.
If out of books, reading material would be

provided to students as hard copy.

PHE CE 355

Marks Distribution
2 OHTs
1 final exam
4 assignments
4 quizzes

Term project

= 30 (2 x 15)
= 30
= 10
= 10
= 20 (10 write up + 10 presentation)
= 100


Viva voce= 20
10 Assignments = 50
2 quizzes = 10

Field visit = 20 (10 visits + 10 reports)

Total = 100

PHE CE 355

Introduction to Public Health


PHE CE 355

The Concept
Many diseases are preventable through
simple, non-medical methods

PHE CE 355

Public Health?
the science of preventing disease, prolonging life and
promoting health through the organized efforts of
society, communities and individuals

PHE CE 355

History of Public Health

From the beginnings of human civilization, it was

recognized that polluted water and lack of proper waste

disposal spread communicable diseases (Moin-ja-darro
and Harrapa civilizations)
Roman times, it was well understood that proper

diversion of human waste was necessary for public

health in urban areas.
During the 14th century Black Death in Europe, it was

believed that removing bodies of the dead would

further prevent the spread of the bacterial infection.

PHE CE 355


The Water

Water covers 70.9% of the Earth's surface, and is vital for all

known forms of life.

Oceans hold 96.5% of surface water, glaciers and polar ice caps

2.4%, and other land surface water such as rivers, lakes and
ponds 0.6%
Approximately 70% of the fresh water which is actively handled by

humans, is consumed by agriculture.

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The Water
Clean drinking water is essential to humans and

other life forms.

Scientists have estimated that by 2025

more than half of the world population will be

facing water-based vulnerability

PHE CE 355

Water Cycle


PHE CE 355


The water cycle dynamics does the trick

Instant snap shot:

Shortage of freshwater !


8 days

but, H2O is always on the move ...

A dynamic perspective
gives a better description:

Renewable rain gives in 2000 years as

much water as is in the oceans!!!


Lakes 280
0.007% days
4 600 years

3 000 years

16 000
Ice caps

PHE CE 355


Water Chemistry
Water appears in nature in all three common states of matter,
As vapor in clouds;
As solid in glaciers and

As liquid in aquifers in the ground.

Water has high specific heat capacity of 4200 J/(kgK) due to hydrogen

bonding between its molecules.

This property allows water to moderate Earth's

climate by buffering large fluctuations in temperature.
The maximum density of water occurs at 3.98 C (39.16 F).

It has the anomalous property of becoming less dense,

when it is cooled down to its solid form. Ice expands to
occupy 9% greater volume and floats over water.

PHE CE 355


Water is miscible with many liquids, such as ethanol, in all

proportions, forming a single homogeneous liquid. On the other

hand, water and most oils are immiscible usually forming layers
according to increasing density from the top.
Water is a universal solvent. Substances that dissolve in water,

e.g., salts, sugars, acids, alkalis, gases are known as hydrophilic

(water-loving) substances, while those that do not mix well with
water (e.g., fats and oils), are known as hydrophobic (waterfearing) substances.
The boiling point of water is dependent on the barometric

pressure. On the top of Mt. Everest water boils at 68 C (154 F),

compared to 100 C (212 F) at sea level. Conversely, water
deep in the ocean near geothermal vents can reach
temperatures of hundreds of degrees and remain liquid.

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Water and Human

Human body contains from
55% to 78% water. Most
scientists agree that
approximately 2 liters (6 to 7
glasses) of water daily is the
minimum to maintain proper


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Potable Water
Water fit for human consumption is called drinking water or

potable water.
Some five million deaths a year are caused by polluted drinking

water. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that

safe water could prevent 1.4 million child deaths from diarrhea
each year
It takes around 3,000 liters of water, converted from liquid to

vapour, to produce enough food to satisfy one person's daily

dietary need

PHE CE 355

Water Scarcity

Pakistan available water = 1200 m3/c/year



Sanitation is the hygienic means of promoting health

through prevention of human contact with the hazards of

wastes. Hazards can be either physical, microbiological,
biological or chemical agents of disease.
These includes human and animal feces, solid wastes,

domestic wastewater (sewage, sullage, greywater),

industrial wastes and agricultural wastes

PHE CE 355


Sanitation the silent crises

2.4 billion people (40% of the world's population) lack so

called adequate sanitation

18% of the world's population lack safe water supply

10% of all wastewater in developing countries is treated

Malnutrition is a major factor making us more vulnerable

to disease and death, thus food security is important

The combined effects of poor personal and domestic

hygiene and lack of safe water and good environmental

sanitation is considered the most important risk factor
for disease and death

PHE CE 355


What sanitation is about

Traditional interpretation:
Personal and household hygiene
Clean environment incl. water
Solid waste management

Greywater disposal and treatment

Safe excreta disposal
Stormwater handling

Additional perspectives:

Acceptance, affordable, convenience

and pride
Environmentally sustainable

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Strategies for sanitation improvements

Organic other solid waste

Stormwater sewage
Industrial household wastewater

Black toilet water greywater

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Why do we often act as if we were

only a few hundred million people on

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What is Wastewater Reuse?

Water reuse
The beneficial use of treated wastewater for
agriculture, industry, etc.
Water reclamation
Reclamation involves all processes used to treat
wastewater so that it can be beneficially reused
Water recycling
Recycling generally means reuse of wastewater back in
the same cycle where it is generated.
Hamid Iqbal


PHE CE 355

What is Wastewater Reuse?

Categories of Water Reuse
Indirect Reuse
Reuse of wastewater within the context of natural
water systems (rivers, aquifers, etc.). The ultimate
indirect reuse is through the global hydrologic cycle
Other terms: Indirect potable reuse
Direct Reuse
The direct beneficial reuse of treated wastewater for
agriculture, industry, etc.
Direct potable reuse: the reuse of reclaimed water for
potable uses
Hamid Iqbal


PHE CE 355

Driving Factors for Water Reuse

Water Availability
Water Consumption
Water Quality

Hamid Iqbal


PHE CE 355

Benefits of Water Reuse

Important element of integrated water

resources utilization and management

Treated effluent is used as a water resource
for many possible beneficial purposes
Pollution control e.g. for many Arab coastal
cities, wastewater would not be discharged
to the sea thus reducing pollution to the
marine environment and not creating
public health issues



PHE CE 355


Public Health and Water Quality

Physical water quality considerations
Turbidity, color, etc.
Chemical water quality considerations
Chemical constituents including solids, metals, nitrogen,

phosphorus, etc.

Biological water quality considerations

Pathogens including bacteria, helminths, virus, etc.
Emerging water quality considerations
Pharmaceuticals, hormonal products, personal care

PHE CE 355

Water Reuse Design Criteria

Water quality requirements
Monitoring requirements
Treatment process requirements

Treatment reliability requirements

Operational requirements
Cross-connection control provisions

Use area controls



Treatment Reliability
Standby power supply
Multiple or standby unit processes
Emergency storage/disposal provisions

Provisions for continuous disinfection

Non-design features

Qualified personnel
O & M program

PHE CE 355


Solid Waste
Waste: Anything which is not useful for a person is

called as waste.
However waste is a relative terminology and a
useless thing for a person-could be useful for others,
e.g. Scavengers collect the solid waste from streets
and sell it to waste buyers and earn money.
Solid Waste (SW): Solid waste is the waste arising
from all human and animal activities and is normally
solid, semi solid or liquid discarded as unwanted

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Problems in SWM
The problems associated with the management of

solid waste in Pakistan are due to the quantity and

diverse nature of waste.
The development of extensive urban areas
The engineering limitations of the impacts of

technology, energy and raw materials

So, to achieve a goal of proper solid waste

management in an efficient and orderly manner, the

fundamental aspects and relationships involved must
be identified and understood early.

PHE CE 355


Present status in Pakistan

It is estimated that presently, 56,000 tons per day of

solid waste is generated in Pakistan.

No weighing facilities are installed at any disposal sites
Open burning of waste or open disposal
Collection 51-69 %
No Disposal facilities
A lot of potential for recycling and involvement of
private sector which is overlooked
Hazardous hospital and industrial wastes are being
simply treated as ordinary waste

PHE CE 355

Air and Noise


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Danger in the air we breathe

At rest, human beings

breathe in and out at every 4

16 times in a minuteand
960 times an hour or
8.5 million times of air intake
in a year.
This adds up to I million
gallons a year (4 million
liters) of oxygen-related air in
a year
Hamid Iqbal


PHE CE 355


Natural sources of air pollution

Ash and smoke from lightning-triggered

forest fires
Ash and dust from volcanic eruptions
Salt spray from sea waves
Methane from decaying organic matter
Pollen from plants
Dust from windstorms

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Air Pollution: regional & global problems

Acid rain
Photochemical Smog
Industrial Smog
Greenhouse effect and global warming
Depletion of stratospheric ozone

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Common health effects of air

indoor pollution


PHE CE 355

We never know the worth of water till the well is

dry. ~Thomas Fuller,