Tyrants (60-62): ~Tyrant-A dictator who gained political dominance by force and was backed by his relatives and other

supporters. ~Usually tyranny was ruled by a leader of a single family ~Tyranny was very short-lived and not passed down to heirs ~Greeks evaluated the tyrants by their behaviors ~The most famous early tyranny in Corinth was when the family of Cypselus rebelled against the city's harsh oligarchic leadership

Cleisthenes: (63-64) ~Can be called "Father of Athenian Democracy" ~He ensured direct participation in government by as many male citizens as possible. ~He created demes, constituent units for the city-state's population. Council members were chosen by lottery. ~He helped his reforms succeed by grounding them in preexisting social conditions favorable to democracy. The creations of demes suggests that democracy stemmed from traditions of small community life, in which each man was entitled to his say in running local affairs and had to persuade others to agree. ~Remembered by the Athenians as the father of democracy that was to reach full development after another 50 years of political struggle Pericles: (75-77)

~A member of one of Athens' most distinguished families, he became Golden Age Athens' dominant politician by spearheading reforms to democratize its judicial system and provide pay for many public offices. ~The changes to Athenian democracy let the system to be labeled as radical because it gave direct participation in the court system to all adult male citizens. ~Pericles won reelection 15 years in a row ~Pericles became the most influential leader of his era by using his political vision and spellbinding skill in public speaking to convenience the assembly to pass reforms strengthening the equality that poor citizens prized. ~He boosted mass participation in democracy by introducing pay for service in the public offices filled by lottery. This reform used public funds to pay men for serving, so wealthy and poor citizens could serve. ~He was responsible for making Athens the political and cultural focus of Greece. ~One of his achievements included the construction of the Acropolis. ~Pericles also promoted naval campaigns when war with Sparta broke out over Athenian action against Peloponnesian League states. Eventually Pericles made a peace treaty with Sparta with the goal of stabilizing the balance of power in Greece for 30 years thus preserving Athenian control of the Delian League. Acropolis/Parthenon (78,79): ~Acropolis: the rocky hill at the city's center in Athens. The

summit of the acropolis usually housed sanctuaries for the city's protective deities and could serve as a fortress for the population during an enemy attack. ~Parthenon: The massive temple to Athena as a warrior goddess built atop the Athenian acropolis in the Golden Age of Greece. ~Pericles directed the building of the Parthenon, and Pericles' political rivals slammed him for spending billions of dollars to build it ~The Parthenon has become the foremost symbol of Athens' Golden Age and proclaimed the self-confidence of Golden Age Athens. It honored Athena, the city's patron deity, as the divine champion of Athenian military power and proclaimed that she had a real presence in the city. Inside there was a 40 foot statue depicting Athena. ~Parthenon was meant for its divinity and not for worshippers. ~It was massive, had a Doric style, sophisticated architecture demonstrating human skill, and included sculptures which portrayed messages that the gods ensure triumph over forces of chaos. ~Their success, the Athenians believed, proved the gods were on their side. Their fabulous buildings signaled their gratitude. Dionysus (93-95): ~Known as the god of wine, pleasure, disorder, intoxication, ecstasy, ecstatic experience ~At the major festival, held annually at the outdoor theatre

built in Athens' acropolis, plays called tragedies were presented to honor the god Dionysus. ~Tragedies presented shocking stories involving fierce conflict and characters representing powerful forces, which were often based on stories about violent possibilities when gods and humans interacted. The plays, such as Aeschylus' Oresteia suggest human beings only learn through suffering but that the gods provide justice in the long run. ~The actors acted out mythological stories which eventually evolved into theatre arts. ~These playwrights later shaped the development of Greek comedy. Oracle of Delphi (52): ~Oracles were poetic answers to the people's questions; the answers were ambiguous and were part of the mystical belief ~Delphi was the most important oracle, in central Greece, where a priestess in a trance provided Apollo's (an Olympian deity) answers to questions. An example would be "Know Thyself". ~Offenses could be acts such as performing a sacrifice improperly, violating the sanctity of the temple area, or breaking an oath or sworn agreement ~People believed that the deities were attentive to some wrongdoings, such as violating oaths, but generally uninterested in common crimes, which humans had to police themselves.

~During this time, the Delphic Oracle was the most prestigious and authoritative oracle in the Greek world. Aeschylus (94): ~During the development of Greek Tragedy, Aeschylus was one of the best known Athenian tragedians (525-456 B.C.), as well as Sophocles (496-406 B.C.) and Euripides (485-406 B.C.)-all served in the army ~Aeschylus is often recognized as the father of tragedy and is the earliest of the three Greek tragedians whose plays still survive ~As citizens, playwrights fulfilled the normal military and political obligations of Athenian men ~The moral issues his plays illuminated always pertained to the society and obligations of citizens in a city-state. For example, his trilogy Oresteia (458 B.C.) uses the story of how the gods stop the murderous violence in the family of Orestes, son of Agamemnon, the Greek leader against Troy, to explain the divine origins of democratic Athens' court system. Sophocles (94): ~He was one of the three best known Athenian tragedians (Aeschylus and Euripides were two others) whose playwrights have survived. All served in the army, and Sophocles was elected to Athens' highest public office. ~Sophocles' Antigone (441 B.C.) presents the story of the cursed family of Oedipus of Thebes as a drama of harsh conflict between a courageous woman, Antigone, and the

city-state's stern male leader, her uncle Creon. After her brother dies in a failed rebellion, Antigone insists on her family's moral obligation to bury its dead in obedience to divine command, while Creon takes harsh action to preserve order and protect community values by prohibiting the burial of his nephew the traitor. In a horrifying story of anger and suicide that features the most famous heroines of Western literature, Sophocles exposes the right and wrong on each side of the conflict. ~His playwright offers no easy resolution to competing interests of sanctioned moral tradition and the state's political rules. Herodotus (92): ~Herodotus of Halicarnassus (485-425 B.C.) was one of Greece's most famous historians (another was Thucydides) who established Western civilization's tradition of history writing. ~Herodotus collected his materials systematically. He wrote in ways similar to the way we think of history today. He provides much information concerning the nature of the world and the status of sciences during his lifetime. ~He is known almost exclusively for writing The Histories, (meaning "inquiries" in Greek) to explain Persian Wars as a clash between the cultures of the East and West. He pushed his inquiries deep into the past, looking for longstanding cultural differences that helped explain the Persian-Greek conflict. ~By Roman times, he had been dubbed the Father of

History

Thucydides (92): ~Thucydides (460-400 B.C.) was a famous Greek historian. His writings were more modern and concerned with analysis of power that today informs political science. ~Thucydides overtly competed with Herodotus by redirecting historical inquiry ~His History of the Peloponnesian War made power politics, not divine intervention, history's primary force ~Like Herodotus, he challenged tradition by revealing that Greek history was not just a story of glorious achievements but also had its share of shameful actions