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Biologicalanthropology
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Biologicalanthropology,alsoknownasphysicalanthropology,isascientificdisciplineconcernedwith
thebiologicalandbehavioralaspectsofhumanbeings,theirrelatednonhumanprimatesandtheirextinct
homininancestors.[1]Itisasubfieldofanthropologythatprovidesabiologicalperspectivetothesystematic
studyofhumanbeings.

Contents
1Branches
2History
3Humanbiology
4Biomedicalanthropology
5Seealso
6Notablebiologicalanthropologists
7References
8Furtherreading
9Externallinks

Branches
Asasubfieldofanthropology,biologicalanthropologyitselfisfurtherdividedintoseveralbranches.All
branchesareunitedintheircommonapplicationofevolutionarytheorytounderstandinghuman
morphologyandbehavior.
Paleoanthropology,thestudyoffossilevidenceforhumanevolution,studyingextincthominidand
otherprimatespeciestodeterminetheenvironmentintowhichmodernhumansevolved,andhowour
speciesdispersedtoeventuallycovermuchoftheearth'slandmass.
Primatology,thestudyofnonhumanprimatebehavior,morphology,andgenetics.Reasonsvia
homologyandanalogytoinferhowandwhysimilarhumantraitsevolved.
Humanbehavioralecology,thestudyofbehavioraladaptations(foraging,reproduction,ontogeny)
fromtheevolutionaryandecologicperspectives,(seebehavioralecology).Humanadaptation,the
studyofhumanadaptiveresponses(physiologic,developmental,genetic)toenvironmentalstresses
andvariation.
Humanbiology,aninterdisciplinaryfieldofbiology,biologicalanthropology,nutritionand
medicine,concentratesuponinternational,populationlevelperspectivesonhealth,evolution,
adaptationandpopulationgenetics.
Bioarchaeology,thestudyofpasthumanculturesthroughexaminationofhumanremainsrecovered
inanarchaeologicalcontext.Theexaminedhumanremainsusuallycomprisesbones,butmayinclude
preservedsofttissue.Researchersinbioarchaeologycombinetheskillsetsofhumanosteology,
paleopathology,andarchaeology,andoftenconsiderthemortuarycontextoftheremainsinthefinal
analysis.
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Paleopathologyisthestudyofdiseaseinantiquity.Thisstudyfocusesnotonlyonpathogenic
conditionsobservableinbonesormummifiedsofttissue,butalsoonnutritionaldisorders,variation
instatureorthemorphologyofbonesovertime,evidenceofphysicaltrauma,orevidenceof
occupationallyderivedbiomechanicstress.
Forensicanthropology,theapplicationofosteology,paleopathology,archaeology,andother
anthropologicaltechniquesfortheidentificationofmodernhumanremainsorthereconstructionof
eventssurroundingaperson'sdeath.

History

FranzBoas

Scientificphysicalanthropologybeganinthe18thcentury
withthestudyofracialclassification.[2]Inthe1830sand
1840s,physicalanthropologywasprominentinthedebate
aboutslavery,withthescientific,monogenistworksofthe
BritishabolitionistJamesCowlesPrichard(17861848)
opposingthoseoftheAmericanpolygenistSamuelGeorge
Morton(17991851).Thefirstprominentphysical
anthropologist,theGermanphysicianJohannFriedrich
Blumenbach(17521840)ofGttingen,amassedalarge
collectionofhumanskulls.

JohannFriedrich
Blumenbach

Inthelatter19thcenturyFrenchphysicalanthropologists,ledbyPaulBroca
(18241880),focusedoncraniometrywhiletheGermantradition,ledbyRudolfVirchow(18211902),
emphasizedtheinfluenceofenvironmentanddiseaseuponthehumanbody.Americanthoughthasevolved
duringthefourfieldapproach,skeletons,artifacts,languageandcultureandmany(waysoflife),based
uponstudy'sontheremainsoftheNorthAmericanhomininclade.
In1897ColumbiaUniversityappointedFranzBoas(18581942)asaphysicalanthropologistforhis
expertiseinmeasuringschoolchildrenandcollectingInuitskeletons.FromhisGermaneducationand
training,Boasemphasizedthemutabilityofthehumanformandminimizedrace(thenabiologysynonym)
infavorofculture.AlesHrdlicka(18691943),aphysician,studiedphysicalanthropologyinFranceunder
LeonceManouvrierbeforeworkingattheSmithsonianInstitutionfrom1902.
EarnestHooton(18871954),aClassicsPhDfromtheUniversityofWisconsin,
enteredanthropologyasanOxfordRhodesScholarunderR.R.Marettandthe
anatomistArthurKeith.HarvardUniversityhiredHootonin1913hetrainedmost
Americanphysicalanthropologistsofthecomingdecades,beginningwithHarryL.
ShapiroandCarletonS.Coon,andstruggledtodifferentiatephysicalanthropology
fromracism.[3]TherewasmuchintellectualcontinuitywithGermanssuchas
EugenFischer,FritzLenzandErwinBaur.[4]
In1951SherwoodWashburn,aHootonalumnus,introduceda"newphysical
AleHrdlika
anthropology."[5]Hechangedthefocusfromracialtypologytoconcentrateupon
thestudyofhumanevolution,movingawayfromclassificationtowards
evolutionaryprocess.Anthropologyexpandedtocomprehendpaleoanthropologyandprimatology.[6]

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Humanbiology
Humanbiologyisaninterdisciplinaryacademicfieldconsistingofcontributionsfrombiology,
anthropology,andmedicinewhichfocusesonhumansitiscloselyrelatedtoprimatebiology,anda
numberofotherfields.

Biomedicalanthropology
Biomedicalanthropologyisasubfieldofanthropology,predominantlyfoundinUSacademicandpublic
healthsettings,thatincorporatesperspectivesfromthebiologicalandmedicalanthropologysubfields.In
contrasttomuchofmedicalanthropology,itdoesnotgenerallytakeacriticalapproachtobiomedicineand
Westernmedicine.Instead,itseekstoimprovemedicalpracticeandbiomedicalsciencethroughtheholistic
integrationofcrossculturalorbiocultural,behavioral,andepidemiologicalperspectivesonhealth.Asan
academicdiscipline,biomedicalanthropologyiscloselyrelatedtohumanbiology.
Currently,theonlyaccrediteddegreeprograminbiomedicalanthropologyisatBinghamtonUniversity[1]
(http://biomedical.binghamton.edu).Otheranthropologydepartments,suchasthatoftheUniversityof
Washington,[7]offerbiomedicaltrackswithinmoretraditionalbiologicalorbioculturalanthropology
programs.

Seealso
Ethology
Evolutionarybiology
Paleontology
Evolutionarypsychology
Primatology
Physiognomy
Sociobiology
Craniometry

Notablebiologicalanthropologists
JohnLawrenceAngel
GeorgeJ.Armelagos(born1936)
WilliamM.Bass
JaneE.Buikstra(born1945)
RobertCorruccini
RaymondDart
EgonFreiherrvonEickstedt
LindaFedigan
A.RobertoFrisancho(born1939)
JaneGoodall
ColinGroves
YohannesHaileSelassie
RalphHolloway(born1935)
DonaldJohanson
RobertJurmain
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RobertJurmain
LouisLeakey
MaryLeakey
RichardLeakey(born1944)
FrankB.Livingstone(19282005)
OwenLovejoy
RussellMittermeier
DouglasW.Owsley(born1951)
DavidPilbeam
KathyReichs(KathleenJoanToelleReichs)
PardisSabeti(born1975)
EugenieC.Scott(born1945)
MeredithSmall
PhillipV.Tobias(born1925)
DouglasH.Ubelaker(born1946)
SherwoodWashburn(19112000)
DavidWatts
TimWhite(born1950)
MilfordH.Wolpoff(born1942)
RichardWrangham

References
1.
2.
3.
4.

Jurmain,R,etal(2013),IntroductiontoPhysicalAnthropology,Belmont,CA:CengageLearning.
Marks,J.(1995)HumanBiodiversity:Genes,Race,andHistory.NewYork:AldinedeGruyter.
Hooton,E.A.(1936)PlainStatementsAboutRace,Science,83:511513.
Baur,E.,Fischer,E.,andLenz,F.(1931)HumanHeredity,EdenPaulandCedarPaul,translators.NewYork:
Macmillan,
5. Washburn,S.L.(1951)TheNewPhysicalAnthropology,TransactionsoftheNewYorkAcademyofSciences,
SeriesII,13:298304.
6. Haraway,D.(1988)RemodellingtheHumanWayofLife:SherwoodWashburnandtheNewPhysical
Anthropology,19501980,inBones,Bodies,Behavior:EssaysonBiologicalAnthropology,oftheHistoryof
Anthropology,v.5,G.Stocking,ed.,Madison,Wisc.,UniversityofWisconsinPress,pp.206259.
7. "Anthropology:AcademicPrograms:AdditionalSpecialtyAreas:MedicalAnthropologyandGlobalHealth"
(http://depts.washington.edu/anthweb/programs/medical.php).Depts.washington.edu.Retrieved20120813.

Furtherreading
MichaelA.LittleandKennethA.R.Kennedy,eds.HistoriesofAmericanPhysicalAnthropologyin
theTwentiethCentury,(LexingtonBooks2010)259pagesessaysonthefieldfromthelate19thto
thelate20thcenturytopicsincludeSherwoodL.Washburn(19112000)andthe"newphysical
anthropology"
Brown,RyanAandArmelagos,George,"ApportionmentofRacialDiversity:AReview",
EvolutionaryAnthropology10:34402001
(http://www.stanford.edu/class/ihum62/pdf/brown_armelagos2001.pdf)
ModernHumanVariation:ModelsofClassification(http://anthro.palomar.edu/vary/vary_2.htm)

Externallinks
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_anthropology

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AmericanAssociationofPhysicalAnthropologists
Lookupsomatotypesin
(http://www.physanth.org/)
Wiktionary,thefree
BritishAssociationofBiologicalAnthropologistsand
dictionary.
Osteoarchaeologists(http://www.babao.org.uk/)
HumanBiologyAssociation(http://www.humbio.org/)
CanadianAssociationforPhysicalAnthropology(http://www.utsc.utoronto.ca/~chan/capa/)
HomoerectusandHomoneanderthalensisreconstructions
(http://anthro.amnh.org/anthropology/research/recon_wiki.htm)Electronicarticlespublishedbythe
DivisionofAnthropology,AmericanMuseumofNaturalHistory.
IstitutoItalianodiAntropologia(http://www.isitaorg.com/isita/index.htm)
JournalofAnthropologicalSciences(http://www.isitaorg.com/jass/)freefulltextreviewarticles
available
MappingTransdisciplinarityinAnthropology
(http://homepage.uibk.ac.at/~c720126/humanethologie/ws/medicus/block1/MappingISBN159454
2120.pdf)pdf
FundamentalTheoryofHumanSciences
(http://homepage.uibk.ac.at/~c720126/humanethologie/ws/medicus/block1/TheoryHumanSci.ppt)ppt
HumanBiologyAssociation(http://www.humbio.org/)
AmericanJournalofHumanBiology
(http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/%28ISSN%2915206300)
HumanBiology,TheInternationalJournalofPopulationGeneticsandAnthropology
(http://www.humbiol.com/)
EconomicsandHumanBiology
(http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaleditorialboard.cws_home/622964/editorialboard)
LaboratoryforHumanBiologyResearchatNorthwesternUniversity
(http://groups.anthropology.northwestern.edu/lhbr/)
ThePrograminHumanBiologyatStanford(http://humbio.stanford.edu)
SocietyfortheStudyofHumanBiologySymposiumSeries
(http://www.cambridge.org/uk/series/sSeries.asp?code=SSHB)
ScottishQualificationsAuthority(http://www.sqa.org.uk)
SocietyforNordishPhysicalAnthropology(http://www.theapricity.com/snpa/index2.htm)
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