CIA - The World Factbook -- Burma

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Background: Britain conquered Burma over a period of 62 years (1824-1886) and incorporated it into its Indian Empire. Burma was administered as a province of India until 1937 when it became a separate, self-governing colony; independence from the Commonwealth was attained in 1948. Gen. NE WIN dominated the government from 1962 to 1988, first as military ruler, then as self-appointed president, and later as political kingpin. In September 1988, the military deposed NE WIN and established a new ruling junta. Despite multiparty legislative elections in 1990 that resulted in the main opposition party - the National League for Democracy (NLD) - winning a landslide victory, the junta refused to hand over power. NLD leader and Nobel Peace Prize recipient AUNG SAN SUU KYI, who was under house arrest from 1989 to 1995 and 2000 to 2002, was imprisoned in May 2003 and subsequently transferred to house arrest. After the ruling junta in August 2007 unexpectedly increased fuel prices, tens of thousands of Burmese marched in protest, led by prodemocracy activists and Buddhist monks. In late September 2007, the government brutally suppressed the protests, killing at least 13 people and arresting thousands for participating in the demonstrations. Since then, the regime has continued to raid homes and monasteries and arrest persons suspected of participating in the pro-

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democracy protests. The junta appointed Labor Minister AUNG KYI in October 2007 as liaison to AUNG SAN SUU KYI, who remains under house arrest and virtually incommunicado with her party and supporters. Burma in early May 2008 was struck by Cyclone Nargis which official estimates claimed left over 80,000 dead and 50,000 injured. Despite this tragedy, the junta proceeded with its May constitutional referendum, the first vote in Burma since 1990, setting the stage for the 2010 parliamentary elections. AUNG SAN SUU KYI's house arrest was due to end in May 2009, but was extended for eighteen months after she was convicted for violating the terms of her house arrest. Geography :: BURMA Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Bangladesh and Thailand Geographic coordinates: 22 00 N, 98 00 E Map references: Southeast Asia Area: total: 676,578 sq km country comparison to the world: 40 land: 653,508 sq km water: 23,070 sq km Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Texas Land boundaries: total: 5,876 km border countries: Bangladesh 193 km, China 2,185 km, India 1,463 km, Laos 235 km, Thailand 1,800 km Coastline: 1,930 km Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin Climate: tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon, December to April) Terrain: central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands Elevation extremes:

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lowest point: Andaman Sea 0 m highest point: Hkakabo Razi 5,881 m Natural resources: petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten, lead, coal, marble, limestone, precious stones, natural gas, hydropower Land use: arable land: 14.92% permanent crops: 1.31% other: 83.77% (2005) Irrigated land: 18,700 sq km (2003) Total renewable water resources: 1,045.6 cu km (1999) Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural): total: 33.23 cu km/yr (1%/1%/98%) per capita: 658 cu m/yr (2000) Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and landslides common during rainy season (June to September); periodic droughts Environment - current issues: deforestation; industrial pollution of air, soil, and water; inadequate sanitation and water treatment contribute to disease Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94 signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements Geography - note: strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping lanes People :: BURMA Population: 48,137,741 country comparison to the world: 26 note: estimates for this country take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2009 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 25.3% (male 6,193,263/female 5,990,658) 15-64 years: 69.3% (male 16,510,648/female 16,828,462) 65 years and over: 5.4% (male 1,121,412/female 1,493,298) (2009 est.)

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Median age: total: 28.2 years male: 27.7 years female: 28.8 years (2009 est.) Population growth rate: 0.783% (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 141 Birth rate: 16.97 births/1,000 population (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 124 Death rate: 9.14 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 78 Net migration rate: NA Urbanization: urban population: 33% of total population (2008) rate of urbanization: 2.9% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.) Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2009 est.) Infant mortality rate: total: 47.61 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 54 male: 53.78 deaths/1,000 live births female: 41.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 63.39 years country comparison to the world: 172 male: 61.17 years female: 65.74 years (2009 est.) Total fertility rate: 1.89 children born/woman (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 148 HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.7% (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 64 HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 240,000 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 28 HIV/AIDS - deaths:

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25,000 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 18 Major infectious diseases: degree of risk: very high food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria water contact disease: leptospirosis animal contact disease: rabies note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009) Nationality: noun: Burmese (singular and plural) adjective: Burmese Ethnic groups: Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%, Indian 2%, Mon 2%, other 5% Religions: Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%), Muslim 4%, animist 1%, other 2% Languages: Burmese, minority ethnic groups have their own languages Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 89.9% male: 93.9% female: 86.4% (2006 est.) School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 8 years male: 8 years female: 8 years (2001) Education expenditures: 1.2% of GDP (2001) country comparison to the world: 178 Government :: BURMA

Country name: conventional long form: Union of Burma conventional short form: Burma local long form: Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw (translated by the US Government as Union of Myanma and by the Burmese as Union of Myanmar) local short form: Myanma Naingngandaw former: Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma note: since 1989 the military authorities in Burma have promoted the name

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Myanmar as a conventional name for their state; this decision was not approved by any sitting legislature in Burma, and the US Government did not adopt the name, which is a derivative of the Burmese short-form name Myanma Naingngandaw Government type: military junta Capital: name: Rangoon (Yangon) geographic coordinates: 16 48 N, 96 09 E time difference: UTC+6.5 (11.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time) note: Nay Pyi Taw is administrative capital Administrative divisions: 7 divisions (taing-myar, singular - taing) and 7 states* (pyi ne-myar, singular - pyi ne) divisions: Ayeyarwady, Bago, Magway, Mandalay, Sagaing, Tanintharyi, Yangon states: Chin, Kachin, Kayah, Kayin, Mon, Rakhine, Shan Independence: 4 January 1948 (from the UK) National holiday: Independence Day, 4 January (1948); Union Day, 12 February (1947) Constitution: 3 January 1974; suspended since 18 September 1988; a new constitution was approved on 10 May 2008; note - new constitution will take effect when a new parliament is convened following elections scheduled for 2010 Legal system: based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal Executive branch: chief of state: Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) Sr. Gen. THAN SHWE (since 23 April 1992) head of government: Prime Minister, Lt. Gen THEIN SEIN (since 24 October 2007) cabinet: Cabinet is overseen by SPDC; military junta assumed power 18 September 1988 under name State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: none Legislative branch: a unicameral People's Assembly or Pyithu Hluttaw consisting of 485 seats with members elected by popular vote was elected in 1990 but was never seated; according to the terms of the constitution approved on 10 May 2008, a bicameral Pyidaungsu Hluttaw consisting of an upper house with a maximum of 224 seats and a lower house with a maximum of 440 seats will

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be selected in elections in 2010 elections: last held 27 May 1990, but Assembly never allowed by junta to convene (junta has announced plans to hold elections in 2010) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NLD 392 (opposition), SNLD 23 (opposition), NUP 10 (pro-government), other 60 Judicial branch: remnants of the British-era legal system are in place, but there is no guarantee of a fair public trial; the judiciary is not independent of the executive Political parties and leaders: National League for Democracy or NLD [AUNG SHWE, AUNG SAN SUU KYI]; National Unity Party or NUP (pro-regime) [TUN YE]; Shan Nationalities League for Democracy or SNLD [HKUN HTUN OO]; and numerous other smaller parties Political pressure groups and leaders: Ethnic Nationalities Council or ENC (based in Thailand); Federation of Trade Unions-Burma or FTUB (exile trade union and labor advocates); National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma or NCGUB (self-proclaimed government in exile) ["Prime Minister" Dr. SEIN WIN] consists of individuals, some legitimately elected to the People's Assembly in 1990 (the group fled to a border area and joined insurgents in December 1990 to form parallel government in exile); Kachin Independence Organization or KIO; Karen National Union or KNU; Karenni National People's Party or KNPP; National Council-Union of Burma or NCUB (exile coalition of opposition groups); United Wa State Army or UWSA; Union Solidarity and Development Association or USDA (pro-regime, a social and political mass-member organization) [HTAY OO, general secretary]; 88 Generation Students (prodemocracy movement) [TOE KYAW HLAING] other: several Shan factions International organization participation: ADB, APT, ARF, ASEAN, BIMSTEC, CP, EAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OPCW (signatory), SAARC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires KYAW WIN chancery: 2300 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 332-3344 FAX: [1] (202) 332-4351 consulate(s) general: New York Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Charge d'Affaires Larry M. DINGER - note: The United States does not maintain an ambassador in Burma embassy: 110 University Avenue, Kamayut Township, Rangoon mailing address: Box B, APO AP 96546 telephone: [95] (1) 536-509, 535-756, 538-038 FAX: [95] (1) 650-306 Flag description: red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing 14, white, five-pointed stars encircling a cogwheel containing a stalk of rice; the 14

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stars represent the seven administrative divisions and seven states Economy :: BURMA Economy - overview: Burma, a resource-rich country, suffers from pervasive government controls, inefficient economic policies, and rural poverty. Despite Burma's emergence as a natural gas exporter, socio-economic conditions have deteriorated under the regime's mismanagement, leaving most of the public in poverty, while military leaders and their business cronies exploit the country's ample natural resources. The economy suffers from serious macroeconomic imbalances - including rising inflation, fiscal deficits, multiple official exchange rates that overvalue the Burmese kyat, a distorted interest rate regime, unreliable statistics, and an inability to reconcile national accounts to determine a realistic GDP figure. Burma's poor investment climate hampers the inflow of foreign investment; in recent years, foreign investors have shied away from nearly every sector except for natural gas, power generation, and mining. The business climate is widely perceived as opaque, corrupt, and highly inefficient. The most productive sectors will continue to be in extractive industries - especially oil and gas, mining, and timber - with the latter two causing significant environmental degradation. Other areas, such as manufacturing, tourism and services, struggle in the face of inadequate infrastructure, unpredictable trade policies, neglected health and education systems, and endemic corruption. A major banking crisis in 2003 caused 20 private banks to close; private banks still operate under tight restrictions, limiting the private sector's access to credit. The United States, the European Union, Canada, and Australia have imposed financial and economic sanctions on Burma, prohibiting most financial transactions with Burmese entities, imposing travel bans on Burmese officials and others connected to the ruling regime, and banning imports of certain Burmese products. These sanctions damaged the country's fledgling garment industry, isolated the struggling banking sector, and raised the costs of doing business with Burmese companies, particularly firms tied to Burmese junta leaders. The global crisis of 2008-09 has caused exports and domestic consumer demand to drop. Remittances from overseas Burmese workers who had provided significant financial support for their families - slowed or dried up as jobs were lost and migrant workers returned home. Though the Burmese government has good economic relations with its neighbors, better investment and business climates and an improved political situation are needed to promote serious foreign investment, exports, and tourism. GDP (purchasing power parity): $56.49 billion (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 86 $55.93 billion (2008 est.) $55.32 billion (2007 est.) note: data are in 2009 US dollars GDP (official exchange rate): $26.52 billion (2009 est.) GDP - real growth rate: 1% (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 94 1.1% (2008 est.) 3.4% (2007 est.) GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,200 (2009 est.)

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country comparison to the world: 205 $1,200 (2008 est.) $1,200 (2007 est.) note: data are in 2009 US dollars GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 42.9% industry: 19.8% services: 37.3% (2009 est.) Labor force: 30.85 million (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 19 Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 70% industry: 7% services: 23% (2001) Unemployment rate: 4.9% (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 46 5% (2008 est.) Population below poverty line: 32.7% (2007 est.) Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.8% highest 10%: 32.4% (1998) Investment (gross fixed): 14.6% of GDP (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 141 Budget: revenues: $1.142 billion expenditures: $2.354 billion (2009 est.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.7% (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 178 26.8% (2008 est.) Central bank discount rate: 12% (31 December 2008) country comparison to the world: 25 12% (31 December 2007) Commercial bank prime lending rate: 17% (31 December 2008) country comparison to the world: 30 17% (31 December 2007) Stock of money:

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$NA (31 December 2008) $598 billion (31 December 2007) note: this number reflects the vastly overvalued official exchange rate of 5.38 kyat per dollar; at the unofficial black market rate of 1,305 kyat per dollar, the stock of kyats would equal only US$2.465 billion and Burma's velocity of money (the number of times money turns over in the course of a year) would be six, in line with the velocity of money for other countries in the region Stock of quasi money: $NA (31 December 2008) $216.9 billion (31 December 2007) Stock of domestic credit: $NA (31 December 2008) $887.7 billion (31 December 2007) Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA Agriculture - products: rice, pulses, beans, sesame, groundnuts, sugarcane; hardwood; fish and fish products Industries: agricultural processing; wood and wood products; copper, tin, tungsten, iron; cement, construction materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer; oil and natural gas; garments, jade and gems Industrial production growth rate: 0.2% (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 72 Electricity - production: 6.286 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 105 Electricity - consumption: 4.403 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 112 Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2008 est.) Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2008 est.) Oil - production: 22,120 bbl/day (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 74 Oil - consumption: 41,000 bbl/day (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 100 Oil - exports:

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2,200 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 114 Oil - imports: 18,250 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 116 Oil - proved reserves: 50 million bbl (1 January 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 77 Natural gas - production: 12.4 billion cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 40 Natural gas - consumption: 3.85 billion cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 67 Natural gas - exports: 8.55 billion cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 23 Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 76 Natural gas - proved reserves: 283.2 billion cu m (1 January 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 40 Current account balance: $924 million (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 42 $1.281 billion (2008 est.) Exports: $6.504 billion (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 95

note: official export figures are grossly underestimated due to the value of
timber, gems, narcotics, rice, and other products smuggled to Thailand, China, and Bangladesh

$6.677 billion (2008 est.)

Exports - commodities: natural gas, wood products, pulses, beans, fish, rice, clothing, jade and gems Exports - partners: Thailand 52%, India 12.3%, China 8.8%, Japan 4.3% (2008) Imports: $3.555 billion (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 131 $3.388 billion (2008 est.)

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note: import figures are grossly underestimated due to the value of consumer goods, diesel fuel, and other products smuggled in from Thailand, China, Malaysia, and India
Imports - commodities: fabric, petroleum products, fertilizer, plastics, machinery, transport equipment; cement, construction materials, crude oil; food products, edible oil Imports - partners: China 31.3%, Thailand 20.8%, Singapore 20.4%, Malaysia 5% (2008) Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $3.561 billion (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 72 $3.412 billion (31 December 2008 est.) Debt - external: $7.373 billion (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 93 $7.946 billion (31 December 2008 est.) Exchange rates: kyats (MMK) per US dollar - 1,090 (2009), 1,205 (2008), 1,296 (2007), 1,280 (2006), 5.761 (2005) note: unofficial exchange rates ranged in 2004 from 815 kyat/US dollar to nearly 970 kyat/US dollar, and by yearend 2005, the unofficial exchange rate was 1,075 kyat/US dollar; data shown for 2003-05 are official exchange rates Communications :: BURMA Telephones - main lines in use: 829,000 (2008) country comparison to the world: 85 Telephones - mobile cellular: 375,800 (2008) country comparison to the world: 163 Telephone system: general assessment: meets minimum requirements for local and intercity service for business and government domestic: system barely capable of providing basic service; cellular phone system is grossly underdeveloped with a subscribership base of less than 1 per 100 persons international: country code - 95; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2, Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and ShinSat (2008) Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 3 (2007) Television broadcast stations: 4 (2008)

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Internet country code: .mm Internet hosts: 128 (2009) country comparison to the world: 196 Internet users: 108,900 (2008) country comparison to the world: 150 Transportation :: BURMA Airports: 77 (2009) country comparison to the world: 72 Airports - with paved runways: total: 37 over 3,047 m: 11 2,438 to 3,047 m: 9 1,524 to 2,437 m: 14 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 2 (2009) Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 40 over 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 914 to 1,523 m: 12 under 914 m: 23 (2009) Heliports: 5 (2009) Pipelines: gas 2,228 km; oil 558 km (2009) Railways: total: 3,955 km country comparison to the world: 44 narrow gauge: 3,955 km 1.000-m gauge (2008) Roadways: total: 27,000 km country comparison to the world: 101 paved: 3,200 km unpaved: 23,800 km (2006) Waterways: 12,800 km (2008) country comparison to the world: 10 Merchant marine:

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total: 24 country comparison to the world: 92 by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 17, passenger 2, passenger/cargo 3, specialized tanker 1 foreign-owned: 3 (Cyprus 1, Germany 1, Japan 1) registered in other countries: 1 (Panama 1) (2008) Ports and terminals: Moulmein, Rangoon, Sittwe Military :: BURMA Military branches: Myanmar Armed Forces (Tatmadaw): Army, Navy, Air Force (Tatmadaw Lay) (2008) Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service for both sexes; forced conscription of children, although officially prohibited, reportedly continues (2007) Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 13,402,788 females age 16-49: 13,437,042 (2008 est.) Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 9,146,312 females age 16-49: 9,520,852 (2009 est.) Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 426,110 female: 417,674 (2009 est.) Military expenditures: 2.1% of GDP (2005 est.) country comparison to the world: 77

Transnational Issues :: BURMA Disputes - international: over half of Burma's population consists of diverse ethnic groups who have substantial numbers of kin in neighboring countries; Thailand must deal with Karen and other ethnic refugees, asylum seekers, and rebels, as well as illegal cross-border activities from Burma; Thailand is studying the feasibility of jointly constructing the Hatgyi Dam on the Salween River near the border with Burma; citing environmental, cultural, and social concerns, China is reconsidering construction of 13 dams on the Salween River but energy-starved Burma with backing from Thailand remains intent on building five hydro-electric dams downstream, despite identical regional and international protests; India seeks cooperation from Burma to keep Indian Nagaland separatists, such as the United Liberation Front of Assam, from hiding in remote Burmese Uplands; after 21 years, Bangladesh resumes talks with Burma on delimiting a maritime boundary in January 2008 Refugees and internally displaced persons: IDPs: 503,000 (government offensives against ethnic insurgent groups near

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the eastern borders; most IDPs are ethnic Karen, Karenni, Shan, Tavoyan, and Mon) (2007) Trafficking in persons: current situation: Burma is a source country for women, children, and men trafficked for the purpose of forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation; Burmese women and children are trafficked to East and Southeast Asia for commercial sexual exploitation, domestic servitude, and forced labor; Burmese children are subjected to conditions of forced labor in Thailand as hawkers, beggars, and for work in shops, agriculture, fish processing, and small-scale industries; women are trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation to Malaysia and China; some trafficking victims transit Burma from Bangladesh to Malaysia and from China to Thailand; internal trafficking occurs primarily from villages to urban centers and economic hubs for labor in industrial zones, agricultural estates, and commercial sexual exploitation; military and civilian officials continue to use a significant amount of forced labor; ethnic insurgent groups also used compulsory labor of adults and unlawful recruitment of children; the military junta's gross economic mismanagement, human rights abuses, and its policy of using forced labor are the top causal factors for Burma's significant trafficking problem tier rating: Tier 3 - Burma does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; military and civilian officials remain directly involved in significant acts of forced labor and unlawful conscription of child soldiers (2008) Illicit drugs: remains world's second largest producer of illicit opium with an estimated production in 2008 of 340 metric tons, an increase of 26%, and poppy cultivation in 2008 totaled 22,500 hectares, a 4% increase from 2007; production in the United Wa State Army's areas of greatest control remains low; Shan state is the source of 94% of Burma's poppy cultivation; lack of government will to take on major narcotrafficking groups and lack of serious commitment against money laundering continues to hinder the overall antidrug effort; major source of methamphetamine and heroin for regional consumption (2008) EXPAND ALL | COLLAPSE ALL

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