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# 1.

## G. Design Equations and Procedure for Beam-Columns (Braced Frame)

There is no standard set of design steps but the following procedure may be suggested.

Moments should be computed at both the top and bottom of the column. Mntx and
Mnty are the maximum design moments in the x- and y-axis of the member.

Pu = 1:2PD + 1:6PL
Mntx = 1:2MDx + 1:6MLx
Mnty = 1:2MDy + 1:6MLy
Step 2: Initial Member Selection. (Equivalent Axial Load Method)
Beam-column design is a trial and error process in which a trial section is checked
for compliance with the AISC interaction equations (H1-1a) and (H1-1b). Initial
guess of the member is made by using AISC Table 3-2 and the Column Tables.
AISC/LRFD Specification (H1-a) can be rewritten, by multiplying each term by
Pn , as
8Pn
n
Pu + 98P
M
Muy  Pn
ux +
M
9 M

b nx

b ny

8Pn
n
Pu + 98P
M
Muy = Pn
ux +
M
9 M

b nx

b ny

n
m = 98P
M

b nx

and

nx
u= M
M
ny

## Pu + mMux + muMuy = Pn = Pueq

where the values m (bending factor) are found in the AISC Table 3-2 and u are
obtained by guessing from the Column Tables.

## Step 3: Check member.

(a) Column Effect: Calculate the axial strength = c Pn . It is useful to compute
the slenderness parameter c for both the x- and y -axis for steps (d) and (e):

r
K
Fy
x Lx
cx = r
x r 2E
y
cy = Kry Ly F2E
y
(b) Beam Effect (x-direction): Calculate the bending design strength = b Mnx for
the x-axis. Check both LB and LTB.

(c) Beam Effect (y -direction): Calculate the bending design strength = b Mny for
the y -axis. This analysis is similar to step (b) except that y -axis properties (Sy
and Zy ) are used. Consider only LB in the flange since there will be no LTB in
the y -axis.

(d) Moment Magnification (x-axis direction): Calculate Cmx for the x-axis
moments using:

M 
Cmx = 0:6 , 0:4 M1
2 x

(H1-4)

Here, M1 and M2 are the end moments with the condition jM1 j  jM2 j and
the sign of the value M1 =M2 is:

M1=M2)x > 0
(M1 =M2 )x  0
(

## for reverse curvature

for single curvature

## Calculate B1x for the x-axis using the formula:

B1x = 1 , CPmx=P
u

e1x

1

The Euler buckling load, Pe1x , is calculated using the x-axis properties
regardless of which axis is weaker:

g
Pe1x = KEA
L
2

x x

Fy Ag
2cx

(H1-3)

## Spring Semester, 1999

(e) Moment Magnification (y -axis direction): Repeat step (d) for the y -axis using
the formulas:

M 
Cmy = 0:6 , 0:4 M1
2 y
B1y = 1 , CPmy=P
u

e1y

1

(H1-4)

(H1-3)

The Euler buckling load, Pe1y , is calculated using the y -axis properties
regardless of which axis is weaker:
2
g
Pe1y = KEA
L

y y

Fy Ag
2cy

(f) Interaction:
If Pu =c Pn  0:2 then



Pu + 8 Mux + Muy = interaction ratio  1
c Pn 9 b Mnx b Mny
If Pu =c Pn

(H1-1a)

## < 0:2 then



Pu + Mux + Muy = interaction ratio  1
2c Pn
b Mnx b Mny

(H1-1a)

(g) Redesign: If the interaction ratio falls in the range between 0.95 and 1.0, then
no redesign may be necessary. Otherwise, it is necessary to check a new
section using the general formula:
New Weight = Old Weight 