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Cell membrane - forms the outer covering of the cell, and is semi-permeable.

Cytoplasm - is a gel-like matrix where all the other cell organelles are
suspended inside the cell.

Nucleus - contains the hereditary material DNA and directs the activities of the
Centrioles - organize the microtubules assembly during cell division.
Endoplasmic Reticulum - are a network of membranes composed of rough and
smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
Golgi complex - is responsible for storing, packaging of cellular products.
Lysosomes - are enzyme sacs, that digest cellular wastes.
Microtubules - are hollow rods, function primarily as support and shape to the cell.

Mitochondria - is the site for cellular respiration and producers of energy.

Ribosomes - are made of RNA and proteins, and are sites for protein synthesis.
Nucleolus - is the structure within the nucleus and helps in synthesis of ribosomes.

food vacuoles, a granular nucleus, and a clear

contractile vacuole. The amoeba has no mouth or anus;
food is taken in and material excreted at any point on the
cell surface

vacuoleThese cells tend to be larger than the cells of bacteria, and

have developed specialized packaging and transport mechanisms that

may be necessary to support their larger size. Use the following

interactive animation of plant and animal cells to learn about their
respective organelles.
The nucleus controls many of the functions of the
cell (by controlling protein synthesis) and contains DNA
(in chromosomes). The nucleus is surrounded by the
nuclear membrane. ribosome - small organelles
composed of RNA-rich cytoplasmic granules that are sites
of protein synthesis.

Cytoplasm is responsible for giving a cell its shape. It

helps to fill out the cell and keeps organelles in their
place. Without cytoplasm, the cell would be deflated and
materials would not be able to pass easily from one
organelle to another.

cell membrane (also known as the plasma

membrane or cytoplasmic membrane) is a biological
membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the
outside environment. The cell membrane is selective
permeable to ions and organic molecules and controls the
movement of substances in and out of cells. The basic
function of the cell membrane is to protect the cell from
its surroundings. It consists of the phospholipid bilayer
with embedded proteins. Cell membranes are involved in
a variety of cellular processes such as cell adhesion, ion
conductivity and cell signalling and serve as the
attachment surface for several extracellular structures,
including the cell wall, glycocalyx, and intracellular
cytoskeleton. Cell membranes can be artificially

Adenine is a purine. Purines are six-membered rings

attached to five membered rings. When Adenine is

attached to DNA, it forms a bond with another molecule

called Thymine, a pyrimidine, on the other side of the
DNA strand. It is these bonds which give DNA its doublehelix structure. The sequence of DNA, or the order in
which nucleotides are placed, allows for the diversity
among all living organisms. The importance of Adenine to
RNA is similar to that of DNA.


The protein encoded by this gene belongs to

the TDG/mug DNA glycosylase family. Thymine-DNA
glycosylase (TDG) removes thymine moieties from G/T
mismatches by hydrolyzing the carbon-nitrogen bond
between the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA and the
mispaired thymine. With lower activity, this enzyme also
removes thymine from C/T and T/T mispairings.

Guanine bonds to cytosine because they both share

three hydrogen bonds. When a nucleotide in one chain of
DNA or RNA has guanine as its base, the opposite chain
will have cytosine in the same spot
Cytosine is an important part of DNA and RNA, where it is one
of the nitrogenous bases coding the genetic information these
molecules carry. Cytosine can even be modified into different
bases to carry epigenetic information. Cytosine has other roles
in the cell, too, as the energy carrier and cofactor

Tulang Bryan Jhonsep B.